Adam-Philippe, comte de Custine, 1740-1793

Adam-Philippe, comte de Custine, 1740-1793


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Adam-Philippe, comte de Custine, 1740-1793

Adam Philippe, comte de Custine (1704-1793) was one of a number of early French commanders during the War of the First Coalition to be executed for treason as a result of military failures. Like many generals in the early revolutionary armies Custine was an aristocrat, the son of Philippe François Joseph, comte de Custine.

Custine joined the army as a lieutenant on 16 September 1747. He fought as a captain during the Seven Years War. In 1762 the influence of the Duke of Choiseul got him command of a regiment of Dragoons. In 1780 he exchanged this for the regiment of Saintonge, which he then commanded in American during the War of American Independence. On 5 December 1781 he was promoted to brigadier, and in April 1782, after his returned from the United States, he was appointed commander of Toulon.

Custine was one of many noblemen whose experience in American made them sympathetic to the Revolution. On 16 March 1789 he was elected to the Estates General as the representative of the nobility of Metz, and he soon came out in favour of reform.

On 6 October, after the end of his term in the Estates General, Custine was promoted to lieutenant general, and in the following year he became the field commander of the Army of the Rhine, under the overall command of General Biron. At the start of the War of the First Coalition Custine commanded 15,000 men at Landau. While France was threatened by invasion, Custine used his small army to occupy the left bank of the Rhine. He entered Spires (Speyer) on 30 September, only nine days after the Allied invasion had been turned back at Valmy, and before the Duke of Brunswick had actually begun his retreat back towards the French border. He then went on to take Worms (5 October), and most impressively Mainz (19-21 October).

Custine's ambitions now got the better of him, and he decided to plunge east into Germany. On 27 October 1792 he captured Frankfort, but this unfortified neutral commercial city was impossible to defend without support from larger French armies, and that support was not forthcoming. Over the next month Custine levied a financial contribution from the city, and generally turned the population against the French, before on 2 December the Duke of Brunswick forced him to retreat west to Mainz.

In the aftermath of this retreat Custine offered his resignation to the Convention, but it was refused, and he was left to defend the Rhine. During this period on the Rhine Custine was partly responsible for beginning the careers of the further marshals St. Cyr and Soult. St. Cyr was promoted to his staff after Custine noticed him sketching enemy positions, while Soult was used on a number of dangerous scouting missions.

In March 1793 the Prussians crossed the Rhine. Custine was at Worms when the attack began. He advanced to the front, but was then discouraged by some early setbacks, and pulled back to Landau, claiming to be massively outnumbered. The Allies were left to besiege Mainz (14 April-23 July 1793) almost without interference, although in mid-May Custine did make one attempt to attack the covering force.

Custine was now beginning to fall foul of the radicals in the Convention, amongst them Marat who began to attack him as a second Dumouriez, using his position in the army to help the enemies of France. Unlike Dumouriez, Custine was not involved in any such activities, but his failures and his aristocratic birth made his suspect. His fall from power was probably only a matter of time, but he would gain one further promotion before then.

On 8 May General Dampierre, the commander of the Army of the North, was fatally wounded. The Committee and Executive Council of the Convention promoted General Kilmaine to the post, but this was overruled by the Convention, and on 13 May Custine was given the task instead. He arrived at Cambrai on 27 May, and then began the difficult job of restoring the morale and organisation of the army. That reorganisation played a part in Custine's fall. Politically radical but militarily useless officers agitated in Paris, where Custine's failure to raise the sieges of Condé or Valenciennes took the shine off his already tarnished military reputation.

On 22 July the Convention decided to arrest Custine. Condé had already fallen. On the next day Mainz fell, and Valenciennes soon followed. Even though Custine was no longer in command on the Rhine the fall of Mainz was seen as proof of his treachery. He was found guilty of treason, and on 28 August 1793 was executed.

Napoleonic Home Page | Books on the Napoleonic Wars | Subject Index: Napoleonic Wars


Adam Philippe de Custine

Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine (4 February 1740 – 28 August 1793) was a Lieutenant-General of the French Revolutionary Army during the French Revolutionary Wars. As a nobleman, he was later accused of treason after failing to relieve a besieged fellow French army and was executed by guillotine in August 1793 during the Reign of Terror.


ExecutedToday.com

The best defense would have been a good offense for French General Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine — guillotined in Paris this date in 1793 for inadequacy in command of the French revolutionary armies fighting continental monarchist armies.

You must be this tall to go on the General Moustache* ride, and poor results in the field at this time could leave you shorter. Losing to the enemy looked an awful lot like conspiring with the enemy, especially when there was a “Comte” in your name.

Custine spent the winter of 1792-1793 coughing up French conquests across the Rhine. (In his defense, several of them were things that he’d previously conquered himself.)

Recalled once to Paris to justify himself, the bewhiskered general was defended by no less than Robespierre, and thereafter returned to the field. Given this background, it was not wise of him to resume the losing streak — but he did.*

The resultant second recall saw the moustache — and its associated head — permanently shaved for treacherously throwing battles like the 1919 White Sox. This met with the great approval** of Hebert‘s Pere Duchesne :

“Epitaph on General Custine”

Here lies an headless General—(I’ll say dead)
As many living Generals want an head.

You have just done something worthy of me by denouncing Custine. You have brought into broad daylight his plots and his treason. If we had waited a few more days to recall him freedom would have been fucked. This infamous rascal, after having had the French in Frankfurt massacred, after having abandoned Mainz, after having allowed Valenciennes to be encircled, after having delivered Condé, only awaited the right moment to lead his army into a slaughter and to deliver the coup de grace to the republic by sacrificing its last resources. Fortunately, the bugger has been put to the side. His crimes have been proved, let his head promptly fall under the national razor, but let his not be the only one! Let all the scoundrels who compose his headquarters also be shortened. Pursue, denounce without rest the infamous Tourville, who was the right arm of Lameth, and who will deliver Maubeuge if we leave him in command. Make known the swindler Lapallière, and especially the ci-devant marquis de Verigni, known in all the gaming houses under the name of Debrulis. Tell the Sans Culottes in the army that this rat has emigrated twice. Don’t forget Leveneur, the intimate friend of Lafayette, and the henchman of Custine. Don’t allow these bandits a moments rest until they’ve been chased and punished as traitors.

Custine’s son also got the chop for defending his old man.

Surviving the purge: Adam Philippe’s then-three-year-old grandson, Astolphe Custine. Custine would become famous as “the de Tocqueville of Russia,” and for his aphoristic and still-current travelogue La Russie en 1839.

** And characteristically profane. Pere Duchesne would not have had a lot of patience for coy little cunnilingus references where a salty sans-culotte f-bomb would do instead.


Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine

Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine (4 February 1740 – 28 August 1793) was a French general. As a young officer in the Bourbon Royal army, he served in the Seven Years' War. In the American Revolutionary War he joined Rochambeau's Expédition Particulière (Special Expedition) supporting the American colonists. Following the successful Virginia campaign and the Battle of Yorktown, he returned to France and rejoined his unit in the Royal Army.

When the French Revolution began he was elected to the Estates-General and served in the subsequent National Constituent Assembly as a representative from Metz. He supported some of the August Decrees, but also supported, generally, royal prerogative and the rights of the French émigrés. At the dissolution of the Assembly in 1791, he rejoined the army as a lieutenant general and the following year replaced Nicolas Luckner as commander-in-chief of the Army of the Vosges. In 1792, he successfully led campaigns in the middle and upper Rhine regions, taking Speyer and Mainz and breaching the Wissembourg lines. Following Charles François Dumouriez's apparent treason, the Committee of Public Safety investigated Custine, but a vigorous defense mounted by the Revolutionary lawyer Robespierre resulted in his acquittal.

Upon return to active command, he found the army had lost most of its officer corps and experienced troops, and in 1793, following a series of reversals in the spring, the French lost control of much of the territory they had acquired the year before. Ordered to take command of the Army of the North, Custine sought first to solidify French control of the important crossings of the Rhine by Mainz. However, when he failed to relieve the besieged fortress of Condé the following year, he was recalled to Paris. After Condé, Mainz and Speyer had all been lost, he was arrested. He was prosecuted in a lengthy trial before the Committee on Public Safety's Revolutionary Tribunal by Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville, and Jacques Hébert continued to attack Custine through his publication Le Père Duchesne. Custine was found guilty of treason by a majority vote of the Tribunal on 27 August, and guillotined the following day.

His son was also executed a few months later, and his daughter-in-law Delphine de Custine suffered for several months in prison before she was released in the summer of 1794. She managed to recover some of the family property and emigrated to Germany, and later Switzerland, with her son, Astolphe-Louis-Léonor, who became a well-known travel writer. The fate of the family is representative of the fates of many of the minor aristocracy in France, especially those in the military and diplomatic corps, whose reputations the Montagnards tarnished in the Reign of Terror.


The Washington Collection: Tea Bowl and Saucer

The Niderviller porcelain factory's proprietor, Adam Philippe (or Philibert), Comte de Custine-Sarreck (1740-1793), presented a French porcelain tea and coffee service to Martha Washington at Mount Vernon on July 20, 1782. Custine's diplomatic gift to the Washingtons was the single known instance of an 18th Century porcelain personalized for an American recipient by its French manufacturer. Martha Peter later chose a selection from this service for her home. They are part of the collection at Tudor Place. Tudor Place was the Washington, D.C., home of Thomas and Martha Custis Peter. Martha Custis Peter was First Lady Martha Washington's granddaughter.


Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine

Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine (4 February 1740 – 28 August 1793) was a French general. Born in Metz, he began his military career as a captain in the Seven Years' War, where he learned to admire the modern military organisation of Prussia.

He next served with distinction against the British as a colonel in expeditionary force of the comte de Rochambeau in the War of American Independence. On his return to France he was named maréchal de camp (brigadier general) and appointed governor of Toulon. In 1789 he was elected to the states-general by the bailliage of Metz. In October 1791 he again joined the army, with the rank of lieutenant-general and became popular with the soldiers, amongst whom he was known as général moustache. General-in-chief of the army of the Vosges, he took Speyer, Worms, Mainz and Frankfurt in September and October 1792.

He carried on the revolutionary propaganda by proclamations, and levied heavy taxes on the nobility and clergy. During the winter a Prussian army forced him to evacuate Frankfurt, re-cross the Rhine and fall back upon Landau. He was accused of treason, defended by Robespierre, and sent to command the Army of the North. But he dared not take the offensive, and did nothing to save Condé-sur-l'Escaut, which the Austrians were besieging. Sent to Paris to justify himself, he was found guilty by the Revolutionary Tribunal of having intrigued with the enemies of the Republic, and guillotined on 28 August 1793.

His son was guillotined for attempting to defend him, and his daughter-in-law nearly shared the same fate, but survived, as did his grandson, Astolphe-Louis-Léonor, marquis de Custine.

Custine's invasion of the German Palatinate forms the background for Goethe's "Hermann and Dorothea", whose plot takes place in a small town near Mainz, flooded by refugees who fled their villages on the western side of the Rhine in order to seek refuge from the French troops on the eastern side.


Adam-Philippe, comte de Custine, 1740-1793 - History

1. Custine Adam Philippe, (comte de) Général français né à Metz le 4 février 1740 &mdash guillotiné le 28 août 1793. Il combattit en Amérique, occupa Mayence en 1792 et commanda l'armée du Nord en 1793 il mourut sur l'échafaud pour avoir perdu Condé et Mayence. &mdash © Petit Larousse 1969

2. Nommé maréchal de camp après sa participation à la guerre d'Indépendance américaine, il fut élu député de la Noblesse aux Etats généraux en 1789 et se rallia à la Révolution, tout en votant avec la droite sur certaines questions, notamment sur le droits de la Paix et de la guerre accordé au roi, commandant de l'armée du Rhin, il s'empara successivement de Spire le 25 septembre 1792, de Worms le 6 Octobre, de Mayenne le 21 octobre et de Francfort le 23 octobre. Après la défaite et la trahison de Dumouriez en mars 1793, l'armée de Custine fut repoussée au sud par celle du duc de Brunswick qui reprit Worms et Spire et assiégea Mayenne. De retour à Paris, Custine fut nommé général en chef de l'armée du Nord le 13 mai 1793. Mais après la reddition de Condé et la perte de Mayenne, il fut accusé de trahison et condamné à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire. &mdash © Le Robert des noms propres


Custine, Adam Philippe, comte de

Adam Philippe Custine, comte de (ädäN´ fēlēp´ kôNt də küstēn´) , 1740󈟉, French general. He served in the Seven Years War and in the American Revolution. Elected to the States-General (1789), he served in the French Revolutionary Wars and in 1792 took Frankfurt and Mainz. His failure in the campaign of 1793 led to accusations of treason, and he was guillotined.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.


Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine

Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine, was one of nine French officers encamped at Alexandria, Virginia who received an invitation from Martha Washington to dine at Mount Vernon on July 20, 1782. Custine was commander of the Saintonge regiment of Rochambeau&rsquos army and an acquaintance of George Washington. His dinner visit was the perfect opportunity to present Mrs. Washington with the gift of a tea and coffee service created at his porcelain factory at Niderviller. These dishes, monogrammed with Washington&rsquos initials in gold and decorated with a rose motif, were probably made in France just before Custine left with his regiment to fight in the American Revolution. Claude Blanchard, a member of the French forces under Custine&rsquos command, later wrote about the dinner at Mount Vernon in his campaign journal. He describes a pleasant visit with Mrs. Washington saying, &ldquowe left her respectable company after having spent a very agreeable and truly interesting day.&rdquo

Image Credit: General Adam Philippe, Count of Custine, Joseph Desire Court, 19thcentury. Louvre, Paris, France / Bridgeman Images

Contact Us

3200 Mount Vernon Memorial Highway
Mount Vernon, Virginia 22121

Mount Vernon is owned and maintained in trust for the people of the United States by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, a private, non-profit organization.

We don't accept government funding and rely upon private contributions to help preserve George Washington's home and legacy.

Discover

About

Mount Vernon is owned and maintained in trust for the people of the United States by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, a private, non-profit organization.

We don't accept government funding and rely upon private contributions to help preserve George Washington's home and legacy.


The Washington Collection at Tudor Place

This letter written by future president George Washington is part of the Tudor Place collection. In it, he addresses being given command of the Continental Army.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

Page two of a letter written by future president George Washington is part of the Tudor Place collection. In it, he addresses being given command of the Continental Army.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

This rare invitation to dine with President George Washington and First Lady Martha Washington is part of the collection at Tudor Place.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

George Washington wrote this letter to Thomas Peter regarding a tobacco sale. Peter acted as Washington's agent of sale for the crop grown at Mount Vernon.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

In this December 27, 1799, letter to Martha Washington, President John Adams expressed the respect and condolences of Congress upon the death of her husband and asked her to assent to the interment of his remains under a marble statue erected in the Capitol. (page 1)

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

In this December 27, 1799, letter to Martha Washington, President John Adams expressed the respect and condolences of Congress upon the death of her husband and asked her to assent to the interment of his remains under a marble statue erected in the Capitol. (page 2)

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

First Lady Martha Washington, in the hand of Tobias Lear, Washington's secretary, wrote this letter in response to one from John Adams dated December 27, 1799. In it, she accepts his and Congress' condolences for the death of President George Washington, and she gives her permission to have his remains buried in the new Capitol. Only the first page was photographed.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

This act, conveyed to Martha Washington by President John Adams on April 3, 1800, granted her the privilege of franking letters and packages. This allowed her to send mail free of postage.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

These walnut side chairs are part of the collection at Tudor Place and purportedly belonged to George Washington while he lived in Philadelphia.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

This tabouret stool is believed to be the sole survivor of a pair that President George Washington commissioned in Philadelphia in 1793 to complete a suite of Parisian furniture he purchased in New York from French minister Elénor-François-Elie, Comte de Moustier.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

This camp stool is one of two surviving stools of the 18 purchased by George Washington in May 1776 from Philadelphia upholsterer Plunket Fleeson. Thomas and Martha Peter purchased six of these stools at an 1802 estate sale.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

George Washington purchased these wall brackets from English immigrant carver and gilder James B. Reynolds on May 16, 1791. The underside of each shelf is carved to mimic a scalloped shell supported by a spine of rococo curves and rosettes. Thomas and Martha Peter purchased them from an 1802 estate sale.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

Martha Washington cross-stitched twelve worsted wool needlepoint cushions for a set of Windsor chairs at Mount Vernon. This cushion was a gift to Martha Peter, probably one of four she received prior to her grandmother's death.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

This miniature portrait of President George Washington was done from life by Irish immigrant Walter Robertson, and was given as a wedding gift to Martha Parke Custis prior to her marriage to Thomas Peter.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

The back of the miniature portrait of President George Washington done by Robertson is decorated with a braided lock of hair, 44 prong-set pearls, and blue enamel.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

Samuel Fraunces created this tableau, depicting Hector departing for the Trojan War flanked by his wife, Andromache, and a nursemaid holding their son, for Martha Washington. It was made to commemorate the sacrifices Mrs. Washington made for the new republic.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

English artist Thomas Cheesman engraved this portrait of General George Washington from American artist John Trumbull's oil on canvas painting General George Washington at Trenton, which was painted in 1792. First Lady Martha Washington bequeathed it to Martha Peter.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

Martha Washington's banyan, a gown worn over finer clothes to protect them from soiling, dates from the 1780s to early 1790s. Mrs. Washington gave the banyan to her granddaughter Martha Peter.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

Originally owned by Martha Washington, this redingote (riding jacket or riding habit) was acquired by Martha Peter, possibly as a gift or as part of a larger lot from the 1802 estate sale.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

Martha Peter gifted this circular gold locket to her friend Eliza Quincy, wife of Congressman and leading Federalist Josiah Quincy, upon the anniversary of George Washington's birthday, February 22, 1810. The locket contains locks of George and Martha Washington's hair. Pictured above is the side that contains a lock of George Washington's brown hair.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

Martha Peter gifted this circular gold locket to her friend Eliza Quincy, wife of Congressman and leading Federalist Josiah Quincy, upon the anniversary of George Washington's birthday, February 22, 1810. The locket contains locks of George and Martha Washington's hair. Pictured above is the side that contains a lock of Martha Washington's blond hair.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

George and Martha Washington owned this silver-plated cruet set and it was used to serve and display various condiments.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

The Niderviller porcelain factory's proprietor, Adam Philippe (or Philibert), Comte de Custine-Sarreck (1740-1793), presented this French porcelain tea and coffee service to Martha Washington at Mount Vernon on July 20, 1782.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

George and Martha Washington owned this decanter, delicately cut with sunbursts, swags and floral bouquets.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

This wine glass and rummer belonged to a much larger glassware set owned by George and Martha Washington. These glasses are replete with a constellation of tiny cut stars and supported by faceted stems.

Tudor Place Foundation Inc.

The Washington Collection is comprised of manuscripts and more than two hundred objects, making Tudor Place one of the largest public repositories of items owned by Martha and George Washington. Of particular note is a letter written from Philadelphia on June 18, 1775, by George Washington to Martha Washington at Mount Vernon upon his assuming command of the Continental Army. This significant letter is one of three existing letters sent by George Washington to his wife all other personal correspondence was burned by Martha Washington.

Among the Washington Collection manuscripts held in the Tudor Place Archive are four condolence letters written to Martha Washington after the death of George Washington, including those from John Adams replies to condolence letters from Martha Washington in the hand of Tobias Lear, Washington’s secretary twenty-seven documents relating to the settlement of Martha Washington’s estate, including bills and receipts and correspondence between George Washington and Thomas Peter.

The objects in the Washington Collection were used by George and Martha Washington throughout the eighteenth century at their various residences, including the president’s residences in New York, Philadelphia, and the couple’s beloved Mount Vernon. Martha Parke Custis Peter, the second oldest granddaughter of Martha Washington, acquired personal accessories, furnishings, and memorabilia directly from her grandmother and step-grandfather. The majority of objects in the collection were purchased by Martha and Thomas Peter at the July 20, 1802, estate sale following Martha Washington’s death on May 22. The Peters spent more than $750 at the sale—a significant sum considering the average daily wage was $1 a day in early Washington, D.C. The large collection remained intact at Tudor Place until their daughter Britannia Wellington Peter Kennon’s death in 1911, when it was divided among her five grandchildren. Today the Washington Collection includes objects from this division that became the property of the third owner of Tudor Place, Armistead Peter, Jr. objects inherited and later donated by his siblings and their heirs and objects that came into the collection through marriage.

All manuscripts and objects are from the bequest of Armistead Peter, 3rd, unless otherwise noted.

This article was originally published in Tudor Place: America's Story Lives Here Fall 2016


Watch the video: The Kings Brother - Philippe De France - Duc DOrléans