Port Fire ScTug - History

Port Fire ScTug - History


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Port Fire

(ScTug: t. 103)

Port Fire, a screw tug, built at the Portsmouth Navy Yard, Portsmouth, N.H., in 1863, was launched 8 March 1864. She served through the Civil War as a powder tug, and was sold in January 1878. She was later broken up at Portsmouth, N.H.


How to Remotely Access Files on Your Network Storage Device: Step 1 of 3

Manipulating files on your ShareCenter network storage device is easy: Fire up your device in the network section of Windows Explorer to add, delete, move, and copy files to your heart’s content.

But what if you want to access these files from a computer that’s outside of your network? Lucky for you, I’ll cover that in this and the next few blog posts.

First, if your network storage device is behind a router — and I hope it is, for maximum data security (among other reasons) — you’re going to need to forward a port to your ShareCenter device. Why? Your router needs to know not to block requests for your network storage device’s Web server. By forwarding a specific port, you’re essentially creating a digital tunnel, which you then use to forge a connection between an external system and your network storage device.

To forward a port on a D-Link router, follow these steps:

Fire up your router’s web configuration screen, log in, and click on the top navigation button to get to the “Advanced” menu.

Click on Port Forwarding in the sidebar.

Enter a name for the Port Forwarding. I use, simply, “NAS.”

Enter your NAS box’s IP address in the “IP Address” field

Enter “80” for both the TCP and UDP ports.

Those should be all the options you need to set. Although the specific fields could vary depending on your router, the options should be clearly labeled and similar to the above steps.

Port forwarding is a super-useful concept in networking, one whose greater applicability I’ll explore further in the future. However, for your network storage-to-external system file-sharing, the next concept you need to master is dynamic DNS — conveniently, the subject of my next post!

This story, "How to Remotely Access Files on Your Network Storage Device: Step 1 of 3" was originally published by BrandPost .


The Burning of the Library of Alexandria

The loss of the ancient world's single greatest archive of knowledge, the Library of Alexandria, has been lamented for ages. But how and why it was lost is still a mystery. The mystery exists not for lack of suspects but from an excess of them.

Alexandria was founded in Egypt by Alexander the Great. His successor as Pharaoh, Ptolemy I Soter, founded the Museum (also called Museum of Alexandria, Greek Mouseion, “Seat of the Muses”) or Royal Library of Alexandria in 283 BC. The Museum was a shrine of the Muses modeled after the Lyceum of Aristotle in Athens. The Museum was a place of study which included lecture areas, gardens, a zoo, and shrines for each of the nine muses as well as the Library itself. It has been estimated that at one time the Library of Alexandria held over half a million documents from Assyria, Greece, Persia, Egypt, India and many other nations. Over 100 scholars lived at the Museum full time to perform research, write, lecture or translate and copy documents. The library was so large it actually had another branch or "daughter" library at the Temple of Serapis.

The first person blamed for the destruction of the Library is none other than Julius Caesar himself. In 48 BC, Caesar was pursuing Pompey into Egypt when he was suddenly cut off by an Egyptian fleet at Alexandria. Greatly outnumbered and in enemy territory, Caesar ordered the ships in the harbor to be set on fire. The fire spread and destroyed the Egyptian fleet. Unfortunately, it also burned down part of the city - the area where the great Library stood. Caesar wrote of starting the fire in the harbor but neglected to mention the burning of the Library. Such an omission proves little since he was not in the habit of including unflattering facts while writing his own history. But Caesar was not without public detractors. If he was solely to blame for the disappearance of the Library it is very likely significant documentation on the affair would exist today.

The second story of the Library's destruction is more popular, thanks primarily to Edward Gibbon's "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire". But the story is also a tad more complex. Theophilus was Patriarch of Alexandria from 385 to 412 AD. During his reign the Temple of Serapis was converted into a Christian Church (probably around 391 AD) and it is likely that many documents were destroyed then. The Temple of Serapis was estimated to hold about ten percent of the overall Library of Alexandria's holdings. After his death, his nephew Cyril became Patriarch. Shortly after that, riots broke out when Hierax, a Christian monk, was publicly killed by order of Orestes the city Prefect. Orestes was said to be under the influence of Hypatia, a female philosopher and daughter of the "last member of the Library of Alexandria". Although it should be noted that some count Hypatia herself as the last Head Librarian.

Alexandria had long been known for its violent and volatile politics. Christians, Jews and Pagans all lived together in the city. One ancient writer claimed that there was no people who loved a fight more than those of Alexandria. Immediately after the death of Hierax a group of Jews who had helped instigate his killing lured more Christians into the street at night by proclaiming that the Church was on fire. When the Christians rushed out the largely Jewish mob slew many of them. After this there was mass havoc as Christians retaliated against both the Jews and the Pagans - one of which was Hypatia. The story varies slightly depending upon who tells it but she was taken by the Christians, dragged through the streets and murdered.

Some regard the death of Hypatia as the final destruction of the Library. Others blame Theophilus for destroying the last of the scrolls when he razed the Temple of Serapis prior to making it a Christian church. Still others have confused both incidents and blamed Theophilus for simultaneously murdering Hypatia and destroying the Library though it is obvious Theophilus died sometime prior to Hypatia.

The final individual to get blamed for the destruction is the Moslem Caliph Omar. In 640 AD the Moslems took the city of Alexandria. Upon learning of "a great library containing all the knowledge of the world" the conquering general supposedly asked Caliph Omar for instructions. The Caliph has been quoted as saying of the Library's holdings, "they will either contradict the Koran, in which case they are heresy, or they will agree with it, so they are superfluous." So, allegedly, all the texts were destroyed by using them as tinder for the bathhouses of the city. Even then it was said to have taken six months to burn all the documents. But these details, from the Caliph's quote to the incredulous six months it supposedly took to burn all the books, weren't written down until 300 years after the fact. These facts condemning Omar were written by Bishop Gregory Bar Hebræus, a Christian who spent a great deal of time writing about Moslem atrocities without much historical documentation.

So who did burn the Library of Alexandria? Unfortunately most of the writers from Plutarch (who apparently blamed Caesar) to Edward Gibbons (a staunch atheist or deist who liked very much to blame Christians and blamed Theophilus) to Bishop Gregory (who was particularly anti-Moslem, blamed Omar) all had an axe to grind and consequently must be seen as biased. Probably everyone mentioned above had some hand in destroying some part of the Library's holdings. The collection may have ebbed and flowed as some documents were destroyed and others were added. For instance, Mark Antony was supposed to have given Cleopatra over 200,000 scrolls for the Library long after Julius Caesar is accused of burning it.

It is also quite likely that even if the Museum was destroyed with the main library the outlying "daughter" library at the Temple of Serapis continued on. Many writers seem to equate the Library of Alexandria with the Library of Serapis although technically they were in two different parts of the city.

The real tragedy of course is not the uncertainty of knowing who to blame for the Library's destruction but that so much of ancient history, literature and learning was lost forever.

Selected sources:
"The Vanished Library" by Luciano Canfora
"Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" by Edward Gibbons


500hp 4.3L Chevy V-6

Question: I have a 4.3L V-6 Chevy engine. Will 350 Chevy rods and pistons fit in it? How strong is the stock block? Is there a four-bolt main block, or can I use splayed 350 caps? I would like an updated set of heads. Did GM make aluminum heads for this engine?

I saw a 3.75-inch stroker kit for the V-6. Is that a good idea? I also need a single-plane intake. I want to use aluminum rods in this engine to keep rotating weight down. I am going to run 12.5-13:1 compression. I'm not sure of a cam choice yet. I guess I could just cam it like a V-8, but I don't know. I want to turn it 7,000-7,500 rpm and make 500 hp. It is going in an S-10 truck.

Nitrous is a possibility. When nitrous is rated at 200 hp for a V-8, how much is it for a V-6? I am shooting for mid-10s. Think it's possible?Michael QuesenberryLeonardtown, MD

Answer: Whew-lots of questions here, but let's take it from the top. Chevy's production 4.3L 90-degree V-6 (V6-90) block is physically similar to a same-vintage 350 small-block V-8 with one important exception: the oiling system. Chevy small-block V-8s have three oil galleries above the camshaft. The central gallery feeds the camshaft and crankshaft bearings, while the two side galleries lubricate the lifters and valvetrain. Production V6-90 engines (including the 4.3) have only two oil galleries. The passenger-side gallery feeds the right bank of lifters, just like the small-block V-8. A large-diameter driver-side gallery feeds both the left lifter bank and the camshaft and crankshaft bearings it is offset from the lifter bore centerline to allow oil to flow around the lifter bodies. The production V6-90 two-gallery oiling system has proven satisfactory through 7,000 rpm. In 1992, GM introduced a balance shaft on 4.3 engines.

All stock-production V6-90 blocks have two-bolt main caps. However, V-8 and V6-90 main caps interchange, permitting V-8-style four-bolt main caps to be installed on the center journals, just like they can be fitted to a two-bolt-main 350 block. New cap installation requires line-boring the block.

GM Performance Parts (GMPP) in the past has offered cast-iron, four-bolt-main, Bow Tie blocks through GM dealer parts departments. Some of these blocks also had full V-8 three-gallery oiling provisions, and depending on the specific part number, could be bored as large as 4.155 inches. Unfortunately, the blocks are no longer available new. Very pricey four-bolt-main, aluminum V6-90 blocks are still available from GMPP. They come set up for dry-sump oiling only and have no mechanical fuel-pump boss. PN 10134371 has standard 350 V-8-sized main journals PN 10134351 has 400 V-8-sized main journals. They accept a 4.125-inch bore.

All production V6-90 heads are cast iron. Many V6-90s are called Vortec engines by GM, but not all have the good Vortec cylinder heads. The '96-and-up V6-90 head should have the true Vortec-style kidney-bean chamber and vertical intake-manifold bolt pattern. It is essentially the 350 V-8 Vortec head minus one set of ports. According to the Cylinder Head Exchange, look for casting Nos. 772, 140, or 113. There's about a 50/50 chance the 113 heads will be machined for fully adjustable rocker arms the other casting numbers as well as the remaining 113s come with nonadjustable positive-stop rocker-arm studs. Crane Cams offers an adjustable conversion stud (PN 99148-2, six required), but for serious work, all these should be drilled and tapped for V-8-type screw-in rocker studs and roller rockers.

Brodix sells conventional, 23-degree valve-angle, aluminum V6-90 heads. PN V6-8 is for low-rpm, street-style engines. PN V6-10 is for large-cubic-inch, high-rpm engines. The heads use 2.08/1.60 valves, have 67cc chambers, and accept standard Chevy stud-mounted adjustable rocker arms.

Moving up the food chain, GMPP has offered various incarnations of Bow Tie aluminum heads for these engines, including high-port heads with conventional 23-degree valve angles, Rat motor-like splay-valve heads, and NASCAR-style 18-degree rollover heads. They really work best on 4.125-inch or larger cylinder bores (don't bore a production block more than 0.030-over, to 4.030). At present, only the 18-degree heads are still available new. PN 10143359 is the older part PN 12480009 features a new design of intake port for the Daytona Dash Racing series. These are serious heads that require Jesel shaft-mount valvetrains (or equivalent) and special pistons that match their competition-style, 43cc combustion chambers.

A production 4.3L V6-90 is a true even-fire engine. Achieving even firing pulses in a V-6 engine with a 90-degree cylinder-bank angle required GM to offset the connecting-rod throws 30 degrees to produce 120 degrees of crankshaft rotation between cylinder firings. Due to the journal offset, V6-90 rods as viewed from the side are narrower than V-8 rods, as are the rod-bearing inserts. V-8 rods and bearings won't work on a production V6-90 even-fire crank. However, most aftermarket forged or billet race cranks use odd-fire cranks with common-pin (nonoffset) crankshaft rod journals. These will accept V-8 rods, although vibrations induced by the odd-fire cranks' uneven firing impulses create considerable vibration on street-driven vehicles (that's not a concern on a race car). Production V6-90 rods are satisfactory for high-perf and limited-production applications if they pass magnetic particle inspection, are properly rebuilt and polished, and are fitted with good ARP bolts. Custom even-fire V6-90 aluminum or steel rods are available from leading aftermarket suppliers. Although original even-fire V6-90 and small-block V-8 pistons have slightly different distances between the inner pin bosses, in practice, aftermarket forged-aluminum V-8 racing pistons can usually be used. Be sure to verify skirt clearance with the offset rod journals during trial assembly.

The distributor and camshaft firing sequence must match the crankshaft (even-fire with offset rod journals or aftermarket common-pin odd-fire). The '92-and-later balance-shaft engines require yet another cam core and unique timing set. MSD offers billet distributors. Some '85 4.3L even-fire V-6 engines with federal emissions had a large-cap HEI distributor that still retained conventional mechanical and vacuum-advance provisions (NAPA remanufactured PN NRD481685, Hollander Salvage Yard Interchange No. 2221).

When it comes to race-type intake manifolds, the two-piece GM cross-ram intake that fit its now-discontinued 23-degree raised-runner aluminum heads is the only one currently available. It won't fit Vortec heads, 18-degree rollover heads, or splay-valve heads. Edelbrock offers V6-90 Performer low-rise dual-planes (PN 2111 for heads with traditional angled bolts or PN 2114 for true Vortec heads with vertical intake-manifold attaching bolts). There is no Performer RPM or Victor Jr.-style intake available. Most V6-90 racers use fabricated sheetmetal intakes.

A 200hp V-8 plate nitrous kit should still make 200 hp on a V-6 because it retains the same jets calibrated with the proper oxygen/fuel/nitrous ratio to maintain 200 hp. In other words, a plate system is a constant mass-flow system. On the other hand, a direct-port nitrous system (each manifold port has its own dedicated nitrous and fuel nozzles) would be down 25 percent on a V-6 compared with a similar V-8 system because it has 25 percent fewer nozzles.

Can a V6-90 be built to run mid-10s? Let's look at the parameters. Figure on your S-10 weighing about 3,000 pounds in race trim (including fuel and driver). With a fairly decent chassis and drivetrain, 500 hp should be sufficient to run 10s. Assuming a 4.030-inch bore x 3.75-inch stroke, you're looking at a 287ci engine (three-quarters of the popular 383 small-block). You'd have to develop 1.74 hp/ci to make 500 hp on 287 ci, mandating a pretty high-level buildup to do it all motor with no power-adders. That also means expensive (and often hard-to-obtain) Bow Tie parts. But with a 150hp nitrous shot, you'd only need to make 350 hp on the motor, about 1.22 hp/ci. That's more reasonable and should be possible using massaged, production-based parts.

So . . . start with a production block. Install V-8 four-bolt main caps and stud the bottom end. The crank would be the stroker you saw, but I'd go with aftermarket steel rods. Aluminum rods have a finite fatigue life and aren't really needed because you won't be revving the snot out of the motor. Use good, aftermarket, forged, custom-made pistons. Install a hydraulic roller camshaft with 235-240 degrees duration at 0.050. You'll already have roller lifters from your good core engine. Comp Cams' Nitrous HP NX288R grind (236/248 degrees at 0.050, 0.520/0.540 valve lift, 113-degree lobe separation) is optimized for nitrous oxide. It would be a custom grind for a V6-90. The exact specs vary slightly, depending on whether the engine is odd- or even-fire, has or doesn't have a balance shaft, and/or if a reduced base circle is needed to clear the stroker crank's rods (another reason for more compact steel rods). The '96-and-later Vortec heads-when mildly pocket-ported and using fully adjustable roller rocker arms-are affordable and up to the task. If you want to splurge, move up to the Brodix aluminum heads, but I'd save my dough for a good sheetmetal Wilson intake manifold and custom headers with 1-7/8-inch primaries x 3-inch collectors (or even stepped primaries). In any event, feed the engine with a 750 double-pumper carb. That'll get you to around 340-350 hp. Then bolt on a 200hp plate nitrous system and you're there, with a slight cushion.


C4 TPI Upgrades

The main key to increased performance is increased airflow—more air and fuel into the combustion chamber means more power out. The Lingenfelter/ACCEL SuperRam plenum, Hi-Flo base manifold, 58mm throttle body, adjustable fuel-pressure regulator, and 22 lb/hr injectors do the trick, along with…

. Trick Flow 23-degree aluminum heads. They boast larger valves (2.02-inch intake and 1.60 exhaust) and intake runners than even Corvette aluminum heads. And they cost about as much as fully ported stock heads.

Here’s a closer look at the ACCEL throttle body. Notice the larger butterflies (10 mm larger than stock).

Increasing engine displacement is the other key ingredient to higher performance. This 383ci reciprocating assembly from Speed-O-Motive is all set to bolt right into a bored and notched 350 block.

Another critical piece is the camshaft assembly. Comp Cams’ hydraulic roller cam allows for more aggressive cam timing while reducing friction. I opted for the extra-cost full roller rocker arms.

Your cylinders will need to be bored out 30 thousandths.

The bottom of each cylinder needs to be notched to provide clearance for the longer-stroke crankshaft and rod bolts.

Not mandatory, but worth the money, is having the decks trued. This machine barely skims the deck surfaces so they’re perpendicular to the crank.

Your engine is tired…consider replacing vital bolts, such as head bolts, with units from ARP. They’re much stronger than stock.

For reassembly, you’ll want to consider some extra-cost options that will make life easier: FlowKooler water pump, Performance Distributors distributor, Melling oil pump and timing chain.

You’ll need plenty of gaskets and fasteners. Mr. Gasket offers a full selection of both, plus a number of chrome-plated items to brighten up your engine bay.

Here’s an old go-fast trick from the Corvette Challenge days: Peel off the front and rear screens and remove the heat sinks in the mass airflow (MAF) sensor. You’ll increase airflow more than 150 cfm your new motor will need every bit of it.

Your stock oil pan will need to be enlarged about a quarter inch at the second-to-last bolt hole on the driver-side rail. A ball-peen hammer works nicely.

The air filter for the A-I-R diverter valve must be bent back to avoid touching the new 8-inch harmonic balancer.

Trial-fit everything. This will ensure that all components go together properly. Then apply silicone sealant to all mating surfaces. Check for vacuum leaks.

Make sure all plenum bolts are tight (but don’t over-tighten them you’re screwing into aluminum). Use a quality thread sealant, such as Loctite.

Don’t forget to install the new fuel pump. The stock unit won’t put out enough fuel for the larger engine.

Some old components, such as the cold-start valve, may be worn out and not available new. Contemporary Corvette has a full selection of used parts to keep you going.

Because the distributor is located back at the firewall, space is extremely limited. This Crossfire distributor cap allows you to route spark-plug wires in sequence, making installation and maintenance a breeze.

If you go the header route, you’ll need a new dipstick. Lokar makes this excellent billet replacement that drops right in. You may also want to wrap your headers with “header wrap” to reduce underhood temperatures.

The moment of truth. Dennis Wells of Wells Racing Engines sets up the car on the Superflow chassis dynamometer.

Here’s proof of performance.

This is for C4 owners--you second, third, and even fourth owners who need to rebuild your beasts and, at the same time, bring your car's performance into the new millennium to challenge all those upstart Mustang GTs, BMWs, and assorted rice burners.

You probably read stories long ago about building a Ferrari-beating C4, only to find out it cost nearly a third to half the price of a new C4. Well, this is different. The technology to boost C4 performance has been around for a while, and though many of the parts aren't any cheaper, it is possible to select only those components that truly work together to build horsepower, and leave the expensive, race-only hardware behind.

As a member of the elite "third-owner" C4 club myself, I too want my Corvette to punch the living daylights out of a Porsche. And, true to form, I don't have a big budget. Hence, I've researched a number of angles to come up with a "kit" that can be both affordable and powerful. And I think I found the formula.

Go To The Limit, But Not Beyond

The key to TPI performance is understanding the limitations inherent in the system, and working with them to produce the desired effect. That's what we've done.

When the '84 C4 was released as the "new Corvette," it came to us with the Cross-Fire injection system first introduced in the last shark, the '82. This system not only represented Corvette's return to FI, but also its foray into electronic fuel injection. It was one thing for Ferrari or Porsche to install the expensive Bosch Jetronic FI systems on their cars, and quite another for the General to find a way to give EFI to the masses. The Cross-Fire was an excellent way to utilize a new and inexpensive technology--throttle-body injection--while giving the '82 Corvette a decent power increase over the anemic carbureted '81. And it provided greater fuel economy and reduced emissions to boot. The Cross-Fire worked because it provided gobs of midrange torque that could launch the car to respectable (for the era) 0-60 and quarter-mile times. The extremely long intake runners were the key.

When Chevy graduated to a true port-injected system, it kept the best part of the Cross-Fire system: the long intake runners. Measuring a lengthy 11.25 inches, the runners of the new Tuned Port Injection system offered incredible midrange torque that kept the Corvette competitive (even faster in some cases) with Europe's best. But as anyone knows, above 4,500 rpm the show's over. That's why our early C4s now have a hard time keeping up with modern machinery. In the past, wealthy owners resorted to all-out racing engines fueled by exotic intakes and custom-programmed chips (EPROMS). Today, the cost may not be worth it.

Our goal was to find the right combination of aftermarket components--and there are many of them--that would work together to harness an extra 100 horses, boost torque, and raise the usable rpm range another 500-1,000 rpm all without relying on a custom-programmed chip or any exotic engine treatments, and for around $4,500. Still a chunk of money, but not the 8-10 grand that people were spending 15 years ago.

The challenge was to assemble the right "kit" that would not upset the C4's Electronic Control Module (ECM computer), yet provide a major power increase. This meant we had to find the limits of the TPI system without exceeding them. The concept for this project originated with a former Chevrolet regional service manager, Steve Stuart, who, while installing a Richmond 6 gearbox in my Corvette, gave me a ride in his 383 V-8-powered S-10 pickup, complete with a stock TPI system. This thing would burn rubber in every gear, and actually made my tired Corvette seem wimpy. According to Steve, while the original TPI was programmed to produce loads of low-down torque and power, it can accommodate some pretty wild modifications while maintaining driveability. This, of course, is only true for the mass airflow (MAF) sensor motors of '85-'89 Corvettes those with the later speed-density systems require reprogrammed chips to handle any changes.

The Right Components Are The Key

To achieve our objective, we had to drastically increase airflow, so we needed some trick heads with big valves, an intake system that could really let some air in, and a camshaft with extra lift but not too much extra duration. We also wanted some extra cubes to keep us moving. And we needed to do this on a fairly strict (as performance enhancement goes) budget. Here's the kit we came up with:

Intake: Lingenfelter SuperRam Plenum. This redesigned box shortens intake runners nearly 4 inches. This helps boost peak horsepower and torque to a higher rpm level without sacrificing the fabulous low-rpm torque that makes the TPI famous. Cost: $695.95 from Eckler's (PN 74196).

Intake: Lingenfelter/ACCEL Hi-Flo base manifold. This unit has very large runners to the ports as well as larger ports--a perfect match to the plenum. Cost: $459.95 from Eckler's (PN 74197).

Intake: Lingenfelter/ACCEL 58mm throttle body. In this case we chose to go with a more expensive unit because of the quality (CNC-machined billet), and because it comes with a brand new throttle-position sensor and idle-air control valve. It flows a full 1,000 cfm (Holley double-pumper territory). Cost: $419 from Summit Racing (PN 74190).

Intake: ACCEL adjustable fuel-pressure regulator. More fuel output for a bigger motor. Cost: $62.95 from Summit Racing (PN 74750).

Heads: Trick Flow 23-degree aluminum. While famous for their patented "twisted wedge" chamber design, the folks at Trick Flow have come up with a "standard" head that mimics Chevy's 23-degree valve angle. Actually, they cost about as much as porting your own heads, and they beat them on flow. The heads are CNC-machined, fully assembled, and feature 64cc combustion chambers fed by 195cc intake runners. Cost: $850 from Summit Racing (PN 300400002).

Cam: Comp Cams. This cam, number CSXM 12-417-8-270HR-12, is a special hydraulic roller grind the folks at Comp Cams produced for us. Coupled with their retro-fit hydraulic roller lifters (PN 885-16-CS "R" Series), it produces the right lift and duration to complement the intake assembly. With new shorter, hardened pushrods (PN 7949-16), these really do the trick. Cost: $239.55 for the cam, $299.95 for the lifers, $73.50 for the pushrods, and $139.95 for the roller-tipped rocker arms (PN 1412-16). Available from Summit Racing.

Reciprocating Assembly: Porsches and Ferraris can have their high-strung, multi-cam engines. We can beat them with our easy-to-work-on small-block with a few more cubic inches. The folks at Speed-O-Motive have an excellent 383ci reciprocating assembly that includes a ready-to-install 400 Chevy crank and brand new Keith Black hypereutectic aluminum pistons at an unbeatable price. It's complete with crank main and rod bearings--all you need to do is a 30-thou cylinder overbore and notch the block to clear the longer throw crank. Cost: $395 from Speed-O-Motive (PN CAT-CK383).

Harmonic balancer: Because you're using a 400-style crank assembly, which is externally balanced, you'll need a 400-type 8-inch harmonic balancer and a flywheel weight plate. Cost: $110 from Speed-O-Motive.

Injectors and pump: As this is a larger motor than stock, you'll need higher-output injectors and fuel pump. ACCEL offers 22 lb/hr injectors. Cost: $519.95 from Summit Racing (PN 74605) Eckler's has a very high quality pump for large-displacement engines. Cost: $119.95 (PN 33142).

Machine shop work: You'll need to have the cylinders bored out 30 thousandths (standard overbore) and notch the oil pan rails for crank clearance. Wayne Calvert Precision Engines in Denton, Texas, did this for only $150.

At this point, the project is essentially a bolt-together affair. You could go the route of careful balancing and blueprinting. It's your money. But we wanted to see just what our money would buy.

Some Important Optional Extras.

We're dealing with some pretty old equipment (going on 16 years), and many mechanical components, such as the distributor, are coming to the end of their natural life. Further, there are many items that will enhance the performance capabilities of the above equipment: headers and a free-flow exhaust, high-flow water pump, and full roller rocker arms.

* Speed-O-Motive 383 assembly balancing. This is a long-stroke motor you'll be happy you did.

* 5.7-inch connecting rods (PN ABS-350A). Reduces piston/rod-to-cylinder angles.

* Comp Cams Pro Magnum roller rockers (PN 1301-16). Full needle bearings in the pivot reduces friction.

* Crossfire Industries distributor cap (PN 7148-B). It locates plug wires in sequence (1-3-5-7 on one side, 2-4-6-8 on the other) to save space and make routing easier. Why Chevy never thought of this is a mystery.

* Performance Distributors '85-'89 HEI distributor (PN 32069). Your distributor is old this one's new and HOT.

* FlowKooler aluminum water pump (PN 1688). Flows 100 percent more at 900 rpm. * Hedman headers (PN 68440). Helps the engine breathe by moving out those spent gases.

* Flowmaster mufflers (PN 424501-L, 424501-R). For less than the cost of OEM, you can have a power increase, plus the sound is terrific.

* Random Technology catalytic converter (PN 30312). Practically no back pressure.

* Mr. Gasket gaskets, fasteners, and chrome items.

* ARP head bolts (PN 134-3601), oil pump stud (PN 230-7001), and cam bolts (PN 134-1001). Your old bolts may have been stretched to the limit use what NASCAR uses.

* Melling oil pump (PN M55). You've just spent a chunk, so protect your investment.

* Melling roller timing chain (PN 40400. Ditto.

Actually, with the exception of notching the block, this is just like a stock rebuild. There's nothing exotic or out of the ordinary that needs to be done--everything is designed to replace original equipment, and does. However, the Lingenfelter plenum is wider than the stock unit, and this makes for a tight fit for the distributor, spark plug wires, and other components. Get a Haynes Repair Manual and follow the engine removal and rebuild procedures exactly, and your motor will go together quickly and (somewhat) easily. You'll want to trial-fit every component several times to ensure a proper fit and to practice the assembly sequence. This is especially critical when putting together the Lingenfelter TPI manifold, as there are seven mating surfaces that must be perfectly sealed to prevent vacuum leaks.

Finally, unless you have the tools and experience to check out all of your sensors, (see our Nov. 2000 issue for an excellent primer on diagnostics), you'll also want to go to a Corvette shop to fine-tune your setup. Russ Garber at Russ' Rods in Forney, Texas, went through the entire diagnostic process to adjust the idle, set timing, and set the fuel pressure. It's important to ensure the engine is working properly. It's also a good idea to conduct an emissions test to ensure your car meets local standards.

Even though Steve Stuart presented a very convincing argument about increasing TPI power, I still worried about driveability and whether the motor would attain the power increase we forecast.

Well, Steve was right! We've just built a very powerful motor, and went to Wells Racing in Duncanville, Texas, to verify the performance. And did we! The Superflow dyno revealed a healthy increase in both horsepower (327 at 4,650 rpm) and torque (394 lb-ft at 4,200 rpm). Certainly, we've hit our 100hp increase.

What's more, this is confirmed when I punch the accelerator: It's so easy to light up the rear tires in First or Second gear, even when puttering around. A manual 0-60 timing of 5.8 seconds confirms the dyno's revelation. Plus, the car has tremendous reserves of power at any rpm level, and is very tractable except at low (500-600) rpm.

The only negative--if it can be considered as such--is the lumpy idle (shades of a '60s musclecar!), and this makes takeoffs at low rpm tricky. On my car, we increased the idle speed a little to prevent stalling. Obviously, a custom chip will preclude this. Once going, everything is as smooth as silk.

This combination is by no means perfect. There's a lot more air flowing through the motor, and the ECM is challenged to keep pace (the high idle, for example). A custom chip would be able to optimize the entire package for better driveability and even greater performance. But as a base, it's great. So, it's official: There's no need to put the C4 out to pasture. This engine "kit" gives it a new lease on life, and brings the C4 into the new millennium--fast!


Map of the Vietnam War

Great link for in-country Vietnam vets, or those curious about the Vietnam War… Thanks to Ed Creamer, Col Wayne Morris USMC (Ret) and LT Don Tyson USN (Ret) for sharing.

Locations included in map:

Phu My
Rach Gia
Tan An
Cao Lanh
Cai Lay
Dai Loc
Quang Ngai
An Khe
Phu Cat
My Lai
An Loc
Loc Ninh
Phuoc Vinh
Trang Bang
Cu Chi
Dat Do
Phuoc Le
Cam My
Gia Ray
Tri Tam
Lai Khe
Ben Cat
Duc Pho
Bong Son
MRB
YRBM 20
Seafloat
YRBM 20
DAO
CMAC (Le Van Duyet)
PTF Base
Camp Tien Sha
Camp Fey
Phu Lam (USASTRATCOM)
Monkey Mountain
Blackhorse Base Camp
LZ Katum
90th Replacement Battalion
Camp Alpha
7th Airforce HQ
Air America Terminal
AFRTS
USO
US Embassy Annex
US Embassy
FSB A-5
FSB A-6
Cam Lo
LZ Russell
LZ Brillo Pad
OP Hill
LZ Alamo
LZ Blackfoot (Hill 1018)
LZ Swinger
LZ Cider
LZ Mile High
LZ Roberts
LZ Chu Pa
FSB Ban Me Thout
FSB Gray
LZ Lima Zulu
8 Inch Hill
Duster Hill
Pump Station 6
Golf Course
Hon Cong Mountain
LZ Goat
LZ Flexer
Pump Station 8
Pump Station 10
FSB McNerney
Pump Station 9
French Fort
LZ Hardcore
LZ Charlie Brown
Mai Loc
Song Mao
FSB Tuy Hoa
Riverboat South
III Marine Amphibious Force HQ (Camp Horn)
LZ Young
Hill 14
Hill 110
LZ Bols
Tam Ky Airfield
LZ Sheryl
FSB Arsenal
Sin City
FSB Bradley
LZ Erskine
LZ Cunningham
LZ Razor
LZ Shiloh
LCU Ramp
Frank Doezema Compound (MACV)
Tun Tavern
LZ Smith
FSB Barbara
Firebase Airborne
Qui Nhon Port Facility
Coastal Division 16 Pier
DeLong Piers
Coastal Division 14 HQ
Naval Support Facility
NAVSUPPACT Det. Qui Nhon
LZ Colt
LZ Sparrow Knob
Hill 10
Hill 69
Camp Hockmuth
Chu Lai Harbor
Americal (23rd Inf) Div HQ
Gia Ray
Xuan Loc
Cam Ranh Port
China Beach
Hill 327
Hill 34
Hill 55
Con Thien
MACV HQ
Ha Tien
Hill 861
Hill 1015
Hill 950
Hill 881N
Hill 881S
Khe Sanh
Fire Support Base Alpine
Newport Terminal
FSB Tango
Chau Doc MACV
Nui Sam
ATSB Tinh Bien
Hill 664
Solid Anchor (Nam Cam Base)
Rach Soi
Binh Thuy
Crum Compound
FSB Rach Kien
FSB Tan Tru (Scott)
Tigers Lair
LZ Phoenix
LZ Cindy
LZ Manchester
LZ Pleasantville
LZ Mildred
Hill 497
FSB Carolyn
LZ Pineapple
FSB Bludgeon
Hill 707
Hill 410
Hill 270
Hill 76
LZ Hurricane
LZ Artillery Hill
LZ Bayonet West
LZ Chippewa
LZ Ann
LZ Paradise
LZ Clifford
LZ Bowman
LZ Fat City
Cau Ha
LZ Nancy
LZ Crook
LZ Columbus
LZ Victor
LZ Xray
LZ Albany
LZ Golf
LZ Mary
LZ Two Bits
LZ English
LZ Orange
LZ Easton
LZ Uplift
Camp Addison
Camp Radcliff
LZ Pluto
LZ BanMeThout East (LZ Gray)
LZ Lonely
LZ Athena
LZ Weigt-Davis
LZ Jean
LZ Jackson Hole
LZ Joan
LZ Vera
LZ Oasis
LZ Blackhawk
LZ Action
LZ Schueller
LZDiamondhead
LZ Jenny
Camp Fidel
LZ Linda
LZ Crystal
LZ Hammond
LZ Jupiter
FSB 16
LZ Hardtimes
LZ Pony
Fire Support Base 15
Fire Support Base 12
Fire Support Base 13
Camp Enari
Fire Support Base 5
Fire Support Base 6
LZ Rawhide
FSB Sledge
Firebase Rakkassan
Firebase Bastogne
Firebase Henderson
Firebase O’Reilly
Firebase Ripcord
Firebase Barnett
Firebase Maureen
Firebase Jerome
Firebase Langley
Firebase Rifle
Vandergrift (LZ Stud)
Firebase Sarge
Firebase Tomahawk
Firebase Birmingham
Firebase Veghel
Firebase Thor
Firebase Lash
Firebase Spear
Firebase Blitz
Firebase Brick
Firbase Normandy
Firebase Checkmate
Firebase Satan II
Firebase Fist
Firebase Tennessee
Firebase Falcon
Firebase Strike
Firebase Nuts
Firebase Gladiator
Firebase Kathryn
Firebase Jack
Camp Carroll
Firebase Blaze
Firebase EaglesNest
LZ Sally
Camp Eagle
Camp Evans
LZ Betty (Currahee)
FSB Currahee
FSB Rendezvous
LZ Ross
LZ West
Hill 37
LZ Ryder
LZ Professional
The Rockpile
Marble Mountain
LZ Dove
LZ Bluejay
LZ Crow
LZ Sheppard
LZ Snapper
LZ Temnora
LZ Victory
LZ Mellon (Location. )
LZ Fox
LZ Geronimo
LZ Thunder Mountain
LZ Tempest
LZ Bingo
LZ Bass
LZ Thunder
LZ Bunker Hill
LZ Irma Jay
LZ Mary Lou
LZ Lane
FSB Miller (Phu Nhon Airfield)
LZ Lowboy
LZ Bird
OP1
FSB 4-11
LZ Stinson (Buff)
LZ Uptight
LZ Dottie
LZ Gator
LZ Bayonet
LZ Baldy
LZ Center
LZ Siberia
LZ East
Hill 54
LZ Maryann
LZ No Slack
LZ Bronco
FSB Moore
Dong Tam
FSB Camp Panther
Long Binh
FSB Danger
FSB Dirk/Schroeder
Phu Loi
Cu Chi Base
LZ Phan Thiet
Lai Khe
Black Virgin Mountain (Nui Ba Den)
Camp Holloway
Quang Loi (LZ Andy)
Bear Cat
LZ Austin
LZ Kelly
Thunder III
LZ Thunder I
LZ Thunder II
LZ Jo
LZ Dolly
LZ Grant
LZ Jamie
LZ Jake
LZ Diana
LZ Rita
LZ Tina
LZ Vicki
LZ Becky
LZ Christine
LZ Ike
Tay Ninh West
LZ Ann
LZ Barbara
LZ Ann
LZ Crook
National Assembly
Soldiers Monument
Presidential Palace
Saigon
Notre Dame Catholic Church
Magestic
Rex
Hotel de Ville
Grand
Caravelle
Continental Palace
SOG CCC (FOB2)
B-24
SOG CCN
MACV SOG CCS
SOG FOB Phu Bai
Phuoc Vinh
Plei Mrong
Sledgehammer
Ban Me Thuot
Buon Ho
Cheo Reo
DODO Camp (Paradise Island)
Polei Krong
Polie Kleng
Binh Khe
5th Special Forces Group HQ
A Shau
Trung Dung
Bien Hoa
Song Be
Dong Xoai
Bu Prang
Bu Dop
Bu Ghia Map
Duc Phong
Nhon Co
Ban Don
Tra Bong
Mang Buk
Duc Co
Tieu Atar
Duc Lap
Plei Me
Plei Djereng
Ben Het
Leghorn
Dak Pek
Dak Seang
Chi Lang
Ba Xoai
Ba To
Minh Long
Gia Vuc
Chuong Nghia
Lang Vei
Moc Hoa
Ban Me Thuot East
Djamap
Long Thanh North
Nakhon Phanom
Bac Lieu
Quang Long Airfield
Tuy Hoa North
Tuy Hoa
Qui Nhon Airfield
Phu Bai Airfield
Ky Ha Marine Air Facility
Sandford
Marble Mountain Airbase
Cam Ranh Bay Air Force Base
Phan Thiet Airfield
Tan Son Nhut
Bien Hoa
Tan Tich
Tan An
Vinh Long
Can Tho
Vung Tau
Dau Tieng
Chu Lai Airfield
Da Nang
Nha Trang
Pleiku Airbase
Dak To
Dalat Cam Ly
Quang Tri
Dong Ha
An Hoa
Bu Krak
Phu Cat Airbase
Lane Army Helipad
Phan Rang
Gia Nghia
Camp Coryell
Bao Loc
An Khe Arifield
Kontum Air Field
8th Field Hospital
36th Evacuation Hospital
85th Evacuation Hospital
27th Surgical Hospital
USS Sanctuary
93rd Evacuation Hospital
24th Evacuation Hospital
AFV HQ (Free World Building)
1st Australian Field Hospital
1st Australian Logistics Support Group
FSPB Coral
FSB Spear
FSB Andrea
FSB Carmen
FSB Isa
FSB Serle
FSB Horseshoe
FSB Bridge
FSB Cherring
FSB Thrust
FSB Arrow
Nui Dat
Ba Long Valley
An Lao
An Lao Valley
Plain of Reeds
A Shau Valley
Charlie Ridge
Happy Valley
Phu Nhon
Worth Ridge
Elephant Valley
Ban Me Thuot
Que Son Valley
An Khe Pass
Plei Trap Valley
Bong Son Plain
Hill 441
Hill 947
Hip Duc Valley
Operation Desoto Jan 27-30 󈨇
Antenna Valley Operation Essex Nov 7-16 󈨇
Operation Swift Sep 10-15 󈨇
Operation Swift Sep 4-10 󈨇
Operation Hastings Jul 18-30 󈨆
Hill 937
Hill 724
Hill 823
Hill 1338
Ngok Kom Leat
Hill 830
Hill 882
Hill 889
Hill 875
Happy Valley
Ia Drang Valley
South Ambush
Crow’s Foot
Arizona Territory
Operation Shenandoah II
Iron Traingle
Dodge City
Battle of Phu Dong 05/16/68
Go Noi Island
Ruong Ruong
Kham Duc
173rd Drop Zone – Operation Junction


History & Happenings

1852 June 15, Sacramento Weekly Union - News from Shasta Courier - The quartz vein of the Shasta Hydraulic Co. is proving very rich. Messrs. Wright and Kelly of San Francisco, have purchased one half of the vein (2000 shares) for $10,000.

Mr. Thomas, on Whiskey Creek, recently took from his claim a lump of pure gold weighing $600.

Mad Ox, Mad Mule, and other canons putting into Whiskey Creek, have proven to be exceedingly rich the past year. The diggings are deep, and frequently weeks are spent without discovering the color of gold. The gold is usually found in deep deposits.

Messrs. Clapp and Albert, two miners from Iowa, have taken from Stud-Horse Canon four thousand dollars during the past two weeks.

The miners on Salt Creek at the Lower Springs, are realizing five dollars per day.

Several mining camps on Clear Creek have recently been robbed by the Indians.

1853, Notes on principal mining districts: Lower Springs, yielding well Jackass Flat, mines average splendid wages Olney Creek, first rate wages in many claims Sacramento River, plenty of unmined gold Pit River, very rich mines One Horsetown, placers unsurpassed Middletown, good wages but needs water French Gulch, rich diggings, 3-6 oz. per day. Miners prepare to pull down houses to follow rich leads under them.

1854 February 1, San Francisco - Many of us know where the gold came from throughout California, but did you ever think about where it went?

According to an article from a San Francisco news release on 1 Feb 1854, 1853 was the biggest year in California's gold history and according to Adams & Co., bankers and forwarders, shipping out of the Port of San Francisco alone was the following chart. In addition, there was an incalculable amount taken out by individuals.

"By destination, the gold was distributed as follows: New York, $47,914,447 New Orleans, $390,781 London, $4,795,662 Panama, $793 Valparaiso, $445,778 Sandwich Islands, $194,000 China, $926,124 Manila, $17,430 Calcutta, $1,240 New South Wales, $38,670."

1856 February 5, San Francisco Bulletin, from Shasta Courier - The Whisky Creek diggings are paying unusually large wages, so also are all the diggings along the line of the Shasta Ditch.

1856 February 5, San Francisco Bulletin, from Shasta Courier - In some localities, very large lumps are taken out, and this is particularly true in reference to all that region of country from Middletown, through Centreville, Jackass Flat, Horsetown, and along the line of Clear Creek, and around Texas Springs.

1856 February 5, San Francisco Bulletin, from Shasta Courier -Even near our town, on Flat Creek, miners are doing very well, and in fact the same can be said of every mining locality in our county.

1863 January 8, San Francisco Bulletin - In Shasta County about Roaring River, Janesville and Union Flat, the miners were said to be very successful earning from $5 up to $17 per day. A number of hydraulic claims were also opened.

The Bunker Hill Co., at the mouth of Middle Creek, 3 miles from Shasta, in April last were reported to have taken out daily for 2 weeks from 6-10 pounds of gold worth $19 per ounce, only four men being employed.

1864, By John S. Hittell, 1864:

John S. Hittell was a miner on Clear Creek in 1849, and in the group of twelve in February 1850, who ventured out to make peace with the Native Americans and find the richness of Arbuckle Gulch. He was also a writer.

"South of Siskiyou and east of Trinity lies Shasta county, which is on the average forty miles wide from north to south and one hundred miles long, reaching to the eastern border of the state. There is a rich auriferous district about twenty miles square, in the vicinity of the town of Shasta, in the south-western part of the county. The diggings are mostly in the basins of Clear Creek, Cottonwood Creek, Rock Creek, and Salt Creek, all of which enter the Sacramento. There are four quartz-mills in the county, one at French Gulch, one at Middle Creek, one at Muletown and one at Old Diggings. The county has twenty-seven mining ditches with a joint length of one hundred and forty-one miles, an average of five miles each. The chief mining towns are Shasta, Horsetown, French Gulch, Muletown, Briggsville, Whiskey and Middletown."

1864 May 7, Shasta Courier - Bon Ton - This company, of Clear Creek district, some two weeks ago sent some rock from their claim to Goldsmith & Co., San Francisco, to be tested. Returns were received a few days since which show an assay of 16 per cent of copper. The company have recommended work on their claim, and we are informed that the quality of the ore improves in appearance as they go down their shaft.

1876 April 15, San Francisco Bulletin - A man named Rochford was drowned in the Sacramento River, between Portuguese Flat and the mouth of Slate Creek, last Sunday whiule prospecting for placer mines. His body at last accounts had not been recovered. He leaves a family in Benicia.

1880 November 27, San Francisco Bulletin - The Slate Creek Mining Company, Shasta county, are enlarging theiur flumes at the head of their ditch and cutting a bed-rock race to their claim, and making other improvements.

1881 April 19, San Francisco Bulletin -

Slate Creek - hydraulics have begun.

Copper City - has shipped $6,326. aince April 1st.

Women can hold a mining claim, under the General Land Office Law, and so can a minor.

French Gulch - excitement over new quartz discoveries. The Washington Company have cleaned up a run of 132 tons that yielded $18. per ton.


Park Fees

Fort Churchill:

Day use entrance fee: $5.00 per vehicle (Non-NV Vehicles $10.00 per vehicle)
Camping: $15.00 per vehicle, per night (Non-NV Vehicles: $20.00 per vehicle, per night)
Bike in: $2.00 per bike

Carson River Ranches:

Day use entrance fee: $5.00 per vehicle (Non-NV Vehicles $10.00 per vehicle)
Camping: $15.00 per vehicle, per night (Non-NV Vehicles: $20.00 per vehicle, per night)
Bike in: $2.00 per bike


Port Crescent State Park

Port Crescent State Park is located at the tip of Michigan's "thumb" along three miles of sandy shoreline on Lake Huron's Saginaw Bay near Port Austin. A wooden boardwalk parallels the pet-friendly shoreline. It is home to a dark sky preserve, a modern campground with waterfront views and a camper cabin. It also offers visitors ample opportunities for fishing, canoeing, hiking, cross-country skiing, birding and hunting.

When the sun sets and the stars come out, this dark sky preserve – one of only seven in Michigan – has exceptional stargazing. As a dark sky preserve, the park is protected against light pollution. The best location in the park for viewing stars is near the day use parking lot, where a viewing platform is also available

Although the MEDC uses reasonable efforts to maintain the accuracy of the website content, it is not represented to be error free. Read legal information.


Fire Stopping: What Every Contractor Needs to Know

For approximately 40 years, unprotected or improperly protected penetrations have presented a subject of much concern to the fire-protection community. In 1996, an electrical fire occurred at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City. The arriving firefighters discovered several fires had broken out in five remote locations, filling many different areas of the building with smoke.

According to the National Fire Protection Association's report on the fire, unprotected vertical and horizontal penetrations provided one of the major contributing causes of the rapid, erratic spread of smoke and fire. These openings allowed the smoke to spread beyond the electrical rooms and into occupied floors.

Numerous fires similar to this one have emphasized the need for fire stopping the penetrations made by electrical installations. As a result of these fires, the respective committees developed requirements for both the building code and National Electrical Code (NEC). These requirements insist on the installation of through-penetration fire stopping.

The 2005 edition of the NEC (Article 300.21 Spread of Fire or Products of Combustion) states: “Openings around electrical penetrations through fire-resistant rated walls, partitions, floors or ceilings shall be fire stopped using approved methods to maintain the fire-resistance rating.”

To ensure you understand these fire-stopping requirements, you must understand the basics of fire stopping.

Fire stopping has three elements: the fire-rated walls, partitions, floors or ceilings being penetrated the cables, cable trays or conduits that make up the object creating the penetration and the materials and methods used to seal the penetrations to prevent the spread of fire and smoke.

In addition to these elements, an installation designer or contractor making an installation must consider whether or not the penetrations will remain permanent the penetrations may change during the renovations of new tenants' accommodations, which may require new electrical-system installations.

Permanent penetrations include those made for building power, while telephone and data-cable penetrations may be changed or reused by a contractor during the building's history.

Knowing the language of fire stopping

A number of manufacturers produce fire-stop materials. Most of them publish the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) information relating to the product use and installation requirements. UL has developed a Code Numbering System for fire-stopping products. UL tests these products and then publishes a listing based on the application. The UL Listing Numbers format, as it appears in the UL Directory, includes two-letter designations followed by a numeric grouping.

The first letter designation identifies the type of penetrated fire-rated structure:

C for both floor and wall penetrations

F for floor penetrations only

W for wall penetrations only

The second letter designation identifies the construction type of:

A for concrete floors less than or equal to 5 inches thick

B for concrete floors greater than 5 inches thick

J for concrete or masonry walls less than or equal to 8 inches thick

K for concrete or masonry walls greater than 8 inches thick

A number grouping follows the two letters to indicate the penetrating items. For example, these numbers might include 1000-1999 for metal pipe, conduit or tubing and 3000-3999 for cables.

UL 1479 (ASTM E814) typically categorizes fire-stopping systems by one or more of the ratings stated in the following paragraphs. ASTM E814 serves as the test standard applicable to through-penetration fire stopping used in openings in fire-resistive walls and floors.

Flame: The “F” rating is expressed in hours. This number indicates the specific length of time a barrier can withstand fire before being consumed or before permitting the passage of flame through an opening.

Temperature: The “T” rating is expressed in hours and indicates the length of time the temperature on the side of the penetration without fire does not exceed 325 F above the ambient temperature. This ensures the temperature on the side of the wall away from the flame does not reach the flash point of any materials on that side of the wall.

Smoke: The “L” rating is the amount of air (smoke) that can leak through a penetration, measured in cubic feet per minute. The test is administered at ambient temperature and at 400 F to determine the actual performance of fire-stopping materials at different temperatures.

Water: The “W” rating, established in 2004, indicates the fire-stopping material has passed the UL test for water tightness. The Class One requirements for water tightness include subjecting the material to a 3-foot water column for 72 hours, followed by a fire and hose stream test, conducted in accordance with ANSI/UL 1479. A Class Two listing requires the material to be resistant to a 20-foot water pressure head. Finally, a Class Three listing requires the material to be resistant to 57.54-foot water pressure head. According to one of its spokesmen, UL developed the new “W” rating to prevent water damage and mold-friendly moisture associated with through penetrations.

Installation methods

When installing cable trays, a contractor may choose one of two possible methods of installing fire-stop materials. When a cable tray terminates at the wall and a conduit sleeve penetrates the wall to provide a path for cables, a contractor must fire stop the conduit penetration and fill the conduit body with fire-stopping material.

A contractor might use the second method when the entire cable tray passes through a wall opening. The contractor then fills the opening with fire-stopping material. Many fire-stopping products employ intumescent materials that, when exposed to heat, expand to fill any voids in the penetration. Typically these products include fire-stop mortar, caulk, putty sticks, blocks and pillows.

Fire-stop mortar and caulk are semipermanent products. A contractor generally applies the caulk to the penetration with hand-held caulk gun. The mortar can be applied with a trowel.

Putty sticks can be molded around the cables, conduit and pipes that penetrate the fire-resistive barrier. Also, a contractor may typically install fire-stop blocks and pillows that contain intumescent material by stacking and forming the materials to fit into large penetrations.

Although the through-penetration fire-stop products mentioned above serve as effective fire-stop materials, their effectiveness could be compromised when contractors or maintenance personnel move, add or change cables when contractors fail to follow the UL Fire Resistance Directory and when initial installations are difficult to inspect. Certain materials, including caulks and putties, are especially difficult to inspect following installation. Inspectors must understand that an outer surface that appears Code-compliant may mask hidden gaps or voids resulting in an improper or incomplete installation.

As stated previously, while some wall penetrations remain permanent, data and communication cables will more likely experience additions or removal during the life of a building due to changes in cabling technology or changing the number of workstations in a given space.

Each time a contractor adds or removes a cable, the contractor must remove and replace semipermanent materials such as caulk and mortar. While putty does not harden or crack and can be reused, a contractor must take care following the cable change to ensure that he or she properly places the material. Manufacturers specifically design pillows so contractors can remove them. But a contractor must also install the pillows properly. Also, when installed in exposed locations, people may tamper with the pillows.

Planning serves as the key to any good electrical installation. This philosophy also applies to the installation of fire-stop materials. A well-designed cabling system must recognize the unique problems associated with through penetrations. The contractor must also provides a large-enough penetration for the expected cable loading, fire-stop materials and future growth requirements.

As a contractor, you have the responsibility for fire stopping through penetrations. Thus, you should ensure you understand the intent of the Code requirements: know the hourly rating of the fire barrier, know the UL listing of the products used and ensure they match the hourly rating of the fire barrier.


Watch the video: Pre Arrival Working Structure Fire Point Pleasant Beach, NJ 41821


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