Violet Douglas-Pennant

Violet Douglas-Pennant


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Violet Blanche Douglas-Pennant was the sixth daughter of Lord Penrhyn. Although a Conservative Party member of the London County Council, she developed a reputation as someone with liberal views on social reform. For example, Douglas-Pennant was an active supporter of the Workers' Educational Association and in 1911 the Liberal Government appointed her as National Health Insurance Commissioner for Wales. Douglas-Pennant's salary of £1,000 a year made her the most highly paid woman in Britain.

Douglas-Pennant became an important political figure during the First World War. An organiser of the Scottish Women's Hospital Unit she helped form the Women's Army Auxiliary Corp (WAAC) and was involved in the recruiting campaign for the Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS).

In April 1918 it was decided to form the Royal Air Force (RAF) by amalgamating the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) with the Royal Flying Corps (RFC). Also formed at this time was Women's Royal Air Force (WRAF) and Geoffrey Paine, the Air Ministry Master General of Personnel, appointed Gertrude Crawford as its first commandant. However, Lady Crawford soon discovered she was expected to be little more than a figurehead and that Lieutenant-Colonel Bersey, was actually running the service. Unhappy with this situation, Lady Crawford decided to resign from the post.

Sir Geoffrey Paine now asked Douglas-Pennant to become commander of the Women's Royal Air Force. It was not long before Douglas-Pennant got the impression that the Royal Air Force was not fully committed to the WRAF . She was given no secretarial help and had difficulty getting the use of a staff car for official journeys. Douglas-Pennant resigned but agreed to go back after being promised that her complaints would be dealt with.

Sir William Weir, Secretary of State for Air, asked Lady Margaret Rhondda, Director of of Women's Department of the Ministry of National Service, to report on the state of the WRAF. Rhondda's report was highly critical of Douglas-Pennant, and Weir decided to dismiss her as Commandant of the WRAF and replace her with Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, Overseas Commander of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC). Politicians and trade union leaders were appalled by the treatment of Douglas-Pennant. Lord Ampthill, Mary Macarthur and Jimmy Thomas sent a letter of complaint to the Daily Telegraph about Weir's behaviour.

After the matter was raised in the House of Commons it was decided to set up a House of Lords Committee Inquiry. Douglas-Pennant's case was not helped by making false accusations against several of the witnesses. Douglas-Pennant lost her case and was also successfully sued by two of the libelled witnesses and had to pay substantial damages.

You will remember that I accepted provisionally on the clear understanding that I should be responsible to you for the general administration of the WRAF's. This was apparently not made clear to others concerned - I found myself in the difficult position of seeming to assume responsibilities to which I was not entitled, so I was blocked at every turn. The work that General Livingston requires from the Commandant could well be fulfilled by a subordinate clerk or a well-trained Matron. Please do not think that I care twopence for my own position. I only care about getting the work done smoothly, and I hope you will forgive me for saying that you will never get this force onto a sound footing unless the Commandant is treated with confidence and given due authority.

As soon as I reached his room, he told me very abruptly that he had sent for me to tell me that I was to go. He seemed very angry and told me that though he understood I was very efficient, I was grossly unpopular with everyone who had ever seen me. He spoke in a bullying, blustering and contemptible manner.

Miss Douglas-Pennant enters upon the scene in the character, in her own opinion, of the saviour, eager to find evils which do not exist. She was a woman full of zeal, much impressed with her own importance; very reckless in her imputations upon others, and a person not at all likely to get the best out of those with whom she had to work.

She came up to me at a public meeting and said the RAF had dismissed her and it would do the same to me. She spoke in a loud voice and lots of people heard her. Fortunately Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan had warned me.


Jewel History: The Peeresses at the Coronation (1911)

London, June 23 — The purely social point of view of the Coronation [1] was almost extraordinarily interesting, and almost everyone of note in London at present was to be seen in various parts of the great Abbey. The assemblage began to gather at half-past six, and from then until nine o’clock the Gold Staff officers had a very difficult task to deal with the thousands of people who arrived and who had to be conducted to their seats.

Quite a number of peers and peeresses arrived in state coaches. These vehicles presented a very magnificent appearance, the more noteworthy being those owned by Lord Bute [2], which was of powder blue and apricot yellow Lord Lonsdale [3], whose bright canary-colored coach was easily recognized Lord Beauchamp [4] Lord Cadogan [5], who was accompanied by Lady Cadogan and whose carriage of Cadogan blue and brown was superbly turned out Lord and Lady Londonderry [6] Lord and Lady Salisbury [7] Lord and Lady Galway [8] the Duke and Duchess of Somerset [9] and others far too numerous to mention.

Consuelo Spencer-Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, at the 1911 coronation with her sons, John and Ivor

The peeresses’ seats very soon began to fill up, and a more magnificent tout ensemble could not be imagined. Splendid tiaras and jewels of all kinds were to be seen and the fact that all were wearing the orthodox robes of crimson trimmed with ermine over white satin skirts contributed in no small degree to the beauty and uniformity of the spectacle.

In the front row of duchess sat, first of all, the Duchess of Norfolk [10] then came the Duchess of Somerset, the Duchess of Beaufort [11], and then the Duchesses of Hamilton [12], Montrose [13], Portland [14], and Sutherland [15]. Further along on the side of the gangway in the same line were several duchesses, including the Dowager Duchess of Roxburghe [16], the Duchess of Leeds [17], the Duchess of Rutland [18], the Duchess of Buccleuch [19], and several others according to precedence. In the second row, immediately behind the Duchess of Norfolk, sat the Duchess of Roxburghe [20] then came the Duchess of Manchester [21], the Duchess of Newcastle [22], the Duchess of Northumberland [23], the Duchess of Wellington [24], Katherine, Duchess of Westminster [25], and the Duchess of Westminster [26].

The Duchess of Manchester wearing the immense family tiara at the 1911 coronation

Some of the most magnificent diamonds were those worn by the Duchess of Northumberland, which are of immense size. The Duchess of Roxburghe wore a gorgeous diamond tiara, with true lovers’ knots in diamonds, which formerly belonged to Marie Antoinette, on her shoulders [27]. Down the centre of her corsage were enormous emeralds surrounded with diamonds, and a drop of seven pearls, terminating in one enormous diamond, was worn on one side. The Duchess of Manchester wore a big, upstanding tiara of diamonds [28], a necklace to match, and other gorgeous jewels. The Duchess of Beaufort wore an all-round crown of diamonds rather far back on her head.

The Duchess of Marlborough wore a small diamond crown and rows of pearls around her neck, while her whole corsage was blazing with jewels. The Duchess of Portland wore the famous high tiara [29] with the Portland Diamond swinging in the centre, and instead of the ordinary veil, she wore lace lappets, as did the Duchess of Hamilton. The Duchess of Sutherland, who has recently had her tiara reset, had her lace lappets swathed round the head and hanging down on either side of the head in the most becoming fashion. The Duchess of Westminster wore a lace veil on her head with a diamond crown round it. One or two others adopted this fashion, among them Lady Chesterfield [30] and Lady Lytton [31]. Lady Mar and Kellie [32] looked very beautiful in her robes with a diamond tiara and a diamond necklace and the front of her dress covered with diamonds and pearls.

Lady Bute [33] wore magnificent jewels, including several large emeralds, and by her side sat Lady Waterford [34], and then came Lady Downshire [35], who wore no tiara on her head at all. Naturally it would be quite impossible to mention all the peeresses who were present, for very few absentees were noticed, but those particularly noted for their jewels were Lady Londonderry, who wore her enormous diamond crown tipped with pearls, certainly the highest in the Abbey [36] Lady Derby [37], Lady Winchester [38], and Lady Granard [39], who positively blazed with diamonds Lady Yarborough [40], Lady Tweeddale [41], Lady Powis [42], Lady Galway, Lady Garvagh [43], Katherine, Duchess of Westminster, Lady Craven [44], Lady Newborough [45], Florence, Lady Nurburnholme [46], Lady Carnarvon [47], Lady Mayo [48], Lady Lansdowne [49], and Lady Ripon [50], who sat to the extreme left of the marchionesses’ row of seats, and who wore a great crowd of diamonds tipped with pearls.

Ladies-in-waiting: members of Queen Mary’s household at the time of the coronation

It was very remarkable how all the headdresses of the peeresses varied. Some wore big all-round crowns of diamonds, others ordinary tiaras, while a few wore no jewels at all, contenting themselves with veils and their coronets, which were assumed when the Queen was crowned.

No two tiaras were alike in form. The Duchess of Newcastle, for instance, wore a crown of diamonds with an ostrich feather standing up in the centre. Lady Aberdeen [51] wore her famous oriental tiara of gold studded with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires, and she wore a gauze veil over her head and hanging down the shoulders. She was one of the very few peeresses who wore a bouquet of flowers in the front of her gown.

Some magnificently embroidered kirtles were to be seen among the peeresses, probably one of the finest being that worn by Lady Suffolk [52]. This kirtle was embroidered with the family coat of arms worked in colored stones and gold thread. Lady Ormonde [53] wore very old but beautiful robes embroidered in bay leaves, which were at one time worn by her ancestress, the beautiful Duchess of Sutherland, who was Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria.

Princess Alexander of Teck (Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone) at the 1911 coronation (Photo: Grand Ladies Site)

As a rule, the greater number of peeresses’ robes were simply bordered with ermine, but a few had heraldic devices embroidered in gold in the corners. Nearly all of them wore crimson velvet embroidered bags, in which were carried handkerchiefs, fans, and, in many cases, little boxes of chocolate or lozenges. These bags were very beautifully embroidered in gold and silver, and suspended from the waist by cords.

In the boxes set apart for personal friends of the Queen and Queen Alexandra [54] were to be seen Lady Beatrice Pole-Carew and Lady Constance Butler, Lady Mary Ward, Lady Theo Acheson, Lady Marjorie Manners and Lady Diana Manners, Lord Algernon Gordon-Lennox and Miss Ivy Lennox, Lady Irene Denison, Miss Sybil Codrington [55], and a few others whom, owing to the position of the box, it was difficult to see. Lady Paget was a resplendent figure in the King’s box, where also were to be seen Mrs. William James, Mr. and Mrs. Leopold de Rothschild, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Sassoon, and Mme. Melba [56].

The Prince of Wales and Princess Mary at the coronation of their parents, King George V and Queen Mary

The various royal guests began to arrive shortly after ten o’clock, and they were conducted with much pomp and ceremony to their places. The German Crown Prince and Princess [57] were easily recognized, the latter wearing a dress of gold with a cloth of gold train. Prince Henry of Prussia [58] was a striking figure, wearing the cloak of the Order of the Garter. Cheers in the streets, which were distinctly heard in the Abbey, denoted the arrival of the Prince of Wales [59], who was habited in full Garter robes with the high beplumed hat which the recent photographs of his investiture have made familiar. The Prince’s train was born by Lord Ashley [60], the little son of Lord and Lady Shaftesbury, and his coronet by Lord Revelstoke [61].

Then, according to precedence, came Prince Albert, in naval uniform, and Prince Henry and Prince George, in the Highland dress [62]. They were followed by Princess Mary, who wore a lace dress over satin with a blue velvet train, which was borne by Lady Bertha Dawkins [63]. Princess Mary wore round her neck two beautiful rows of pearls. The next to arrive in the royal box was the Princess Royal, with her two daughters, Princess Alexandra and Princess Maud of Fife [64]. The Princess Royal wore a dress of white brocaded satin, with the conventional train of purple velvet worn by all princesses of the blood royal.

The Connaughts at the 1911 coronation: The Duke of Connaught, Princess Patricia of Connaught, the Duchess of Connaught, Prince Arthur of Connaught, Crown Princess Margareta of Sweden, and Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, in white and silver brocade, with magnificent jewels, followed her elder sister, her train being carried by Miss Violet Douglas-Pennant [65]. The next to appear was Princess Henry of Battenberg, who, like the other members of the royal family, wore a brocaded silver dress with purple train [66]. She was followed by the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who was resplendant with diamonds and sapphires. Next came the Duchess of Connaught, with Princess Victoria Patricia, their trains being borne by Miss Pelly and Miss Clementine Adam. The Duchess of Albany came next, with Lady Evelyn Moreton bearing her train. Princess Alexander of Teck, who looked perfectly charming in white and gold, her train of purple velvet being borne by Miss Edith Heron-Maxwell [67].

The Queen wore nothing on her head when she entered the Abbey, and her train was borne by Lady Eileen Butler, Lady Eileen Knox, Lady Victoria Carrington, Lady Mabell Ogilvy, Lady Dorothy Browne, and Lady Mary Dawson [68] — Lady Eileen Butler and Lady Mary Dawson, the tallest of the young ladies, being placed at the end of the train. They wore very charming dresses of white satin trimmed with pearls, and in their hair they wore what appeared to be a large butterfly in pearls, with the regulation feathers and veils.

The Duchess of Devonshire, Mistress of the Robes (Photo: Grand Ladies Site)

Immediately after these train-bearers came the Duchess of Devonshire [69], wearing a very high all-round crown of diamonds, and her duchess’s robes were heavily embroidered in gold. Following the Duchess were Lady Minto, Lady Shaftesbury, Lady Desborough, and Lady Ampthill [70]. Lady Minto’s dress was of soft pink and gold brocade. Lady Shaftesbury wore a peculiar shade of what may be termed lemon-tinted gold, while Lady Desborough was in water-green brocade and Lady Ampthill in white and gold.

Lady Mary Trefusis, Lady Eva Dugdale, and Lady Katherine Coke [71] followed the Ladies of the Bedchamber, and then came the four Maids of Honour, Miss Venetia Baring, Miss Sybil Brodrick, Miss Mabel Gye, and Miss Katherine Villiers [72]. All these ladies just enumerated wore the Queen’s cypher in diamonds on a red ribbon. Lord Herschell, as Vice-Chamberlain to the Queen, followed the Ladies-in-Waiting.

1. The coronation of King George V and Queen Mary of the United Kingdom was held at Westminster Abbey in London on June 22, 1911.

2. John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute (1881-1947), son of the 3rd Marquess of Bute and great-grandson of the 13th Duke of Norfolk.

3. Hugh Lowther, 5th Earl of Lonsdale (1857-1944), known for exploring the Artic regions of Canada and for the line of sportswear named after him.

4. William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp (1872-1938), who served as Governor of New South Wales, was the leader of the Liberal Party in the House of Lords, and inspired the character of Lord Marchmain in Evelyn Waugh’s Brideshead Revisited. He was also a brother-in-law of the 2nd Duke of Westminster.

5. George Cadogan, 5th Earl Cadogan (1840-1915), was a soldier and politician. His late first wife was Lady Beatrix Craven, the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Craven. In January 1911, he had remarried in Italy to a cousin, Adele, daughter of the Conte Palagi del Palagio. Adele outlived George by 45 years.

6. Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry (1852-1915) was a Conservative politician, a former Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and a staunch opponent of Home Rule for Ireland. His wife, who was born Lady Theresa Chetwynd-Talbot, was a daughter of the 19th Earl of Shrewsbury.

7. James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (1861-1947) was the son of the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, who was Britain’s Prime Minister at three different times in the late 19th century. James was a politician in his own right as well, serving as Leader of the House of Lords in the 1920s. His wife, Lady Cicely Gore (1867-1955), was a daughter of the 5th Earl of Arran. James and Cicely’s daughter Mary later married the 10th Duke of Devonshire.

8. George Monckton-Arundell, 7th Viscount Galway [and 1st Baron Monckton of Selby] (1844-1931), a Conservative politician who served as an aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, and King George V. His wife was born Vere Gosling.

9. Algernon Seymour, 15th Duke of Somerset (1846-1923) who served in the military and later ran a ranch in America. His wife, Susan, published a detailed account of the couple’s journey through Canada.

10. Gwendolen Fitzalan-Howard, Duchess of Norfolk (1877-1945) was the wife (and cousin) of the 15th Duke of Norfolk. She was the daughter of Marmaduke Constable-Maxwell, 11th Lord Herries of Terregles on his death in 1908, she inherited his titles, becoming the 12th Lady Herries of Terregles in her own right.

11. Louise Somerset, Duchess of Beaufort (1864-1945) was the wife of the 9th Duke of Beaufort. She was born Louise Harford. Her daughter Blanche married the 6th Earl of St. Germans her son, the 10th Duke of Beaufort, married Princess Mary of Teck (a niece of Queen Mary).

12. Nina Douglas-Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton and Duchess of Brandon (1878-1951) was the wife of the 13th Duke of Hamilton and 10th Duke of Brandon. Her father was Major Robert Poole. Nina was a major advocate for animals and founder of charities focused on animal rights.

13. Violet Graham, Duchess of Montrose (1854-1940) was the wife of the 5th Duke of Montrose. She was the daughter of Sir Frederick Graham, 3rd Bt. and the granddaughter of the 12th Duke of Somerset.

14. Winifred Cavendish-Bentinck, Duchess of Portland (1863-1954) was the wife of the 6th Duke of Portland. She was born Winifred Dallas-Yorke. Like the Duchess of Hamilton, she was a major advocate for animal rights. She later served as Mistress of the Robes to Queen Alexandra.

15. Millicent Leveson-Gower, Duchess of Sutherland (1867-1955) was the wife of the 4th Duke of Sutherland. She was born Lady Millicent St. Clair-Erskine, daughter of the 4th Earl of Rosslyn. Her sister Sybil was Countess of Westmoreland her half-sister Daisy was Countess of Warwick her daughter Rosemary became Countess of Dudley. Millicent was known for her commitment to social reform and for her novels and non-fiction writing. She also earned the French Croix de guerre and a British Red Cross medal for her service in World War I.

16. Anne Innes-Ker, Dowager Duchess of Roxburghe (1854-1923) was the widow of the 7th Duke of Roxburghe and mother of the 8th Duke. Born Lady Anne Spencer-Churchill, she was a daughter of the 7th Duke of Marlborough (and an aunt of Winston Churchill). She was also Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria.

17. Katherine Osborne, Duchess of Leeds (1862-1952) was the wife of the 10th Duke of Leeds. She was born Lady Katherine Lambton, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Durham. Her daughter, Dorothy, married 15th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (an elder brother of the Queen Mother).

18. Violet Manners, Duchess of Rutland (1856-1937) was the wife of the 8th Duke of Rutland. Born Violet Lindsay, she was a granddaughter of the 24th Earl of Crawford. She was an accomplished sculptor for much more about her very interesting life, see The Secret Rooms by Catherine Bailey.

19. Louisa Montagu Douglas Scott, Duchess of Buccleuch and Duchess of Queensberry (1836-1912) was the wife of the 6th Duke of Buccleuch and 8th Duke of Queensberry. Born Lady Louisa Hamilton, she was the daughter of the 1st Duke of Abercorn and a granddaughter of the 6th Duke of Bedford. Her sisters included the Countess of Lichfield, the Countess of Durham, the Marchioness of Lansdowne (see note #49), the Countess of Mount Edgcumbe, the Countess Winterton, the Duchess of Marlborough. Louisa was the grandmother of Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester and the great-great-grandmother of Sarah, Duchess of York. She was Mistress of the Robes to both Queen Victoria and Queen Alexandra.

20. Mary Innes-Ker, Duchess of Roxburghe (1878-1937) was the wife of the 8th Duke of Roxburghe. Born in America, she was the daughter of Ogden Goelet May was one of the “dollar princesses” who married British aristocrats at the turn of the 20th century.

21. Helena Montagu, Duchess of Manchester (1877-1947) was the first wife of the 9th Duke of Manchester. Born Helena Zimmerman, she was an American heiress her father was president of a railroad. The Manchesters divorced in 1931.

22. Kathleen Pelham-Clinton, Duchess of Newcastle (1872-1955) was the wife of the 7th Duke of Newcastle. Born Kathleen Candy, she was a granddaughter of the 3rd Baron Rossmore. Both the Duke and Duchess were animal lovers, and Kathleen was an important dog show judge and dog breeder.

23. Edith Percy, Duchess of Northumberland (1849-1913) was the wife of the 7th Duke of Northumberland. She was born Lady Edith Campbell, daughter of the 8th Duke of Argyll.

24. Kathleen Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington (d. 1927) was the wife of the 4th Duke of Wellington. Her father was Captain Robert Griffith Williams. Two of her sons were also Dukes of Wellington.

25. Katherine Grosvenor, Dowager Duchess of Westminster (1857-1941) was the (much younger) second wife of the 1st Duke of Westminster. She was the daughter of the 2nd Baron Chesham. The current Duke of Westminster is her great-grandson.

26. Constance (Shelagh) Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster (1877-1970) was the first wife of the 2nd Duke of Westminster. Her sister Daisy was Princess of Pless. The Westminsters divorced in 1919, and she subsequently married her private secretary, Captain John Fitzpatrick Lewes.

27. I’ve not been able to find any link between the jewels of the Duchess of Roxburghe and Marie Antoinette. However, Mary did eventually have a small collection of French imperial pieces in her jewelry box. Her father, Ogden Goelet, bought several pieces at the auction of the French crown jewels in 1887, including a large diamond and pearl brooch that had belonged to Empress Eugenie, a pearl and diamond tiara, and a pair of pearl and diamond bracelets.

28. This enormous diamond tiara, which was made in 1903 by Cartier, is now in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum.

29. This enormous diamond tiara, which was made in 1902 by Cartier, is now in the Portland Collection, which is housed at the Harley Gallery in Nottinghamshire.

30. Enid Scudamore-Stanhope, Countess of Chesterfield (1878-1957) was the wife of the 10th Earl of Chesterfield. Her father was the 1st Baron Nunburnholme. The Chesterfields were involved in the world of racing, and one of their horses won the 1941 St Leger Stakes.

31. Pamela Bulwer-Lytton, Countess of Lytton (1873/4-1971) was the wife of the 2nd Earl of Lytton. Before she married him, she was romantically involved with Winston Churchill. Lord Lytton was born in India, and the couple were stationed there for several years while he served as Governor of Bengal and acting Viceroy.

32. Violet Erskine, Countess of Mar and Kellie (1868-1938) was the wife of the 12th Earl of Mar and 14th Earl of Kellie. She was born Lady Violet Ashley-Cooper her father was the 8th Earl of Shaftesbury and her grandfather was the 3rd Marquess of Donegall.

33. Augusta Crichton-Stuart, Marchioness of Bute (1880-1947) was the wife of the 4th Marquess of Bute (see note #2). Augusta was a daughter of Sir Alan Bellingham, 4th Bt. and a granddaughter of the 2nd Earl of Gainsborough.

34. Beatrix Beresford, Marchioness of Waterford (1877-1953) was the wife of the 6th Marquess of Waterford. She was a daughter of the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne and a granddaughter of the 1st Duke of Abercorn. Lord Waterford died in December 1911, and seven years later, Beatrix married Osborne Beauclerk, 12th Duke of St Albans.

35. Evelyn Hill, Marchioness of Downshire (d. 1942) was the second wife of the 6th Marquess of Downshire.

36. Apparently Lady Londonderry didn’t learn her lesson following the 1902 coronation, when this tiara famously fell off in the toilet and had to be retrieved by forceps.

37. Alice Stanley, Countess of Derby (1862-1957) was the wife of the 17th Earl of Derby. Her father was the 7th Duke of Manchester. She was Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra from 1901 to 1910.

38. Charlotte Paulet, Marchioness of Winchester (d. 1924) was the first wife of the 16th Marquess of Winchester.

39. Beatrice Forbes, Countess of Granard (1883-1972) was the wife of the 8th Earl of Granard. She was another of the American “dollar princesses” her father was Ogden Mills, a wealthy financier who was involved in thoroughbred racing. Beatrice and her husband were also major figures in the racing world — Lord Granard was King George V’s Master of the Horse. Beatrice’s daughter, Lady Eileen, later married the 5th Marquess of Bute (son of the Lord and Lady Bute mentioned here).

40. Marcia Pelham, Countess of Yarborough (1863-1926) was the wife of the 4th Earl of Yarborough. She inherited the titles of 13th Baroness Conyers and 7th Baroness Fauconberg in her own right.

41. Candida Hay, Marchioness of Tweeddale (1858-1925) was the wife of the 10th Marquess of Tweeddale (who died in December 1911). Candida was Italian — her father’s name was Vincenzo Bartolucci — but she was raised in England.

42. Violet Herbert, Countess of Powis (1865-1929) was the wife of the 4th Earl of Powis. Her sister, Marcia, was Countess of Yarborough (see note #40). Violet was also a peeress in her own right, inheriting the barony of Darcy de Knayth from her father.

43. Florence Canning, Baroness Garvagh (d. 1926) was the wife of the 3rd Baron Garvagh.

44. Cornelia Craven, Countess of Craven (1877-1961) was the wife of the 4th Earl of Craven. Cornelia was yet another American “dollar princess,” daughter of Bradley Martin, a wealthy banker.

45. Grace Wynn, Baroness Newborough (d.1939) was the wife of the 4th Baron Newborough. She was yet another American peeress, born Grace Carr of Kentucky.

46. Florence Wilson, Lady Nunburnholme (1853-1932) was the widow of the 1st Baron Nunburnholme. She was born Florence Wellesley her father was a nephew of the 1st Duke of Wellington.

47. Almina Herbert, Countess of Carnarvon (1876-1969) was the wife of the 5th Earl of Carnarvon. She was the illegitimate daughter of Alfred de Rothschild, the famous banker, who provided a half-million pound dowry for her on her wedding. The Carnarvon home, Highclere Castle, is recognizable to us today as the setting of Downton Abbey. The current Lady Carnarvon has written a book about her: Lady Almina and the Real Downton Abbey.

48. Geraldine Bourke, Countess of Mayo (d. 1944) was the wife of the 7th Earl Mayo. She was a granddaughter of the 4th Earl of Bessborough and a great-granddaughter of the 8th Earl of Coventry.

49. Maud Petty-Fitzmaurice, Marchioness of Lansdowne (1850-1932) was the wife of the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne. She was born Lady Maud Hamilton, a daughter of the 1st Duke of Abercorn. Her sisters included the Countess of Lichfield, the Countess of Durham, the Duchess of Buccleuch (see note #19), the Countess of Mount Edgcumbe, the Countess Winterton, the Duchess of Marlborough. Maud was a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra. Her husband served as Governor-General of Canada and Viceroy of India.

50. Gwladys Robinson, Marchioness of Ripon (1859-1917) was the wife of the 2nd Marquess of Ripon. Her father was the 1st Baron Herbert of Lea her mother was the writer Elizabeth Herbert. Gwladys’s first husband was the 4th Earl of Lonsdale (brother of the Lord Lonsdale mentioned here — see note #3). Two of her brothers became Earls of Pembroke another brother served as the British ambassador to the United States a sister, Maud, married the theologian Friedrich von Hügel and her youngest sister, Elizabeth, was the wife of the composer Sir Charles Hubert Parry, whose coronation anthem, “I Was Glad,” was played in Westminster Abbey for King George V and Queen Mary.

51. Ishbel Hamilton-Gordon, Countess of Aberdeen [later Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair] (1857-1939) was the wife of the 7th Earl of Aberdeen, who was created 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair in 1916. Ishbel was a daughter of the 1st Baron Tweedmouth. Her husband served as Governor-General of Canada and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland she became very involved in social and philanthropic activities in both places. She was also the first woman to receive an honorary university degree in Canada.

52. Margaret “Daisy” Howard, Countess of Suffolk and Countess of Berkshire (1879-1968) was the wife of the 19th Earl of Suffolk and 12th Earl of Berkshire. She was another American “dollar princess” her father was the Chicago businessman Levi Leiter. Daisy’s sister, Mary, was the wife of the 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, who famously served as Viceroy of India. Lord Suffolk was Lord Curzon’s aide-de-camp he met Daisy when she visited India for the 1903 Delhi Durbar. Suffolk later died in World War I.

53. Elizabeth Harriet Butler, Marchioness of Ormonde (1856-1928) was the wife of the 3rd Marquess of Ormonde. She was the eldest daughter of the 1st Duke of Westminster and his first wife, Lady Constance Sutherland-Leveson-Gower. The “beautiful Duchess of Sutherland” mentioned here was her grandmother, Harriet, Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria. The Queen’s affection for Harriet and her fellow ladies led to the Bedchamber Crisis of 1839.

54. Following custom, Queen Alexandra did not attend the 1911 coronation. In 1937, Queen Mary broke with this tradition and attended the coronation of her son and daughter-in-law.

55. Lady Beatrice Pole-Carew and Lady Constance Butler were the daughters of the 3rd Marquess of Ormonde Lady Mary Ward and Lady Theodosia Acheson were daughters of the 4th Earl of Gosford Lady Marjorie Manners and Lady Diana Manners were daughters of the 8th Duke of Rutland Lord Algernon Gordon-Lennox was a younger son of the 6th Duke of Richmond and the father of Miss Ivy Lennox, who later became Duchess of Portland Lady Irene Denison was the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Londesborough and the future Marchioness of Carisbrooke Cecilia Grace Sybil Codrington was the granddaughter of the 1st Earl of Londesborough.

56. In the King’s box: the society hostess Lady Paget, nee Minnie Stevens of Massachusetts the society hostess Evelyn James, wife of the American merchant William Dodge James banker and racing enthusiast Leopold de Rothschild and his wife, Marie banker Arthur Sassoon and his wife, Louise (sister of Marie de Rothschild) and the Australian soprano Nellie Melba.

57. Wilhelm (1882-1951) and Cecilie (1886-1954) of Prussia, German Crown Prince and Princess. Wilhelm was the grandson of Princess Victoria, the eldest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

58. Prince Henry of Prussia (1862-1929) was the third child of Princess Victoria, daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, and Emperor Frederick III of Germany. His wife, Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, was a daughter of Princess Alice, another daughter of Victoria and Albert.

59. Read all about the Garter investiture of the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII, later the Duke of Windsor) over here!

60. Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Lord Ashley (1900-1947) was the eldest son of the 9th Earl of Shaftesbury. He died young of heart disease, and the earldom passed directly from his father to his son, Anthony (1938-2004).

61. John Baring, 2nd Baron Revelstoke (1863-1929).

62. Three of King George V and Queen Mary’s younger sons: Prince Albert (1895-1952) later Duke of York, later King George VI Prince Henry (1900-1974), later Duke of Gloucester and Prince George (1902-1942), later Duke of Kent. Prince John did not attend.

63. King George V and Queen Mary’s only daughter, Princess Mary (1897-1965), later Countess of Harewood and Princess Royal. Her train-bearer, Lady Bertha Dawkins, was one of Queen Mary’s ladies-in-waiting.

64. Princess Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife (1867-1931) was a younger sister of King George V. Her elder daughter, Princess Alexandra, became 2nd Duchess of Fife in 1912 she married her cousin, Prince Arthur of Connaught, in 1913. Louise’s younger daughter, Princess Maud, later married the 11th Earl of Southesk.

65. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (1848-1939) was the sixth child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The sentence is strangely written, because she must have followed her elder sister — Princess Helena (1846-1923), another daughter of Victoria and Albert — but Helena gets no mention in the article. Both Louise and Helena were aunts of King George V.

66. Princess Beatrice (1857-1944), the youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. She was the widow of Prince Henry of Battenberg, and by 1911, her daughter Ena was the Queen of Spain. She was another aunt of King George V.

67. Here’s a rundown of the rest of the royal ladies listed. The Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1853-1920) was born Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia she married Victoria and Albert’s second son, Alfred. The Duchess of Connaught (1860-1917), born Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia, was the wife of Victoria and Albert’s third son, Arthur. Princess Victoria Patricia of Connaught (1886-1974), later Lady Patricia Ramsay, was the Duchess of Connaught’s younger daughter. The Duchess of Albany (1861-1922), born Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont, was the widow of Victoria and Albert’s youngest son, Leopold. Princess Alexander of Teck (1883-1981) was the Duchess of Albany’s daughter, Alice she married her cousin, Prince Alexander of Teck, in 1904 and was later titled Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone.

68. Queen Mary’s train-bearers were all daughters of earls. Lady Eileen Butler (later Duchess of Sutherland) was the daughter of the 7th Earl of Lanesborough Lady Eileen Knox was the daughter of the 5th Earl of Ranfurly Lady Victoria Wynn-Carrington was the daughter of Earl Carrington (later the 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire) Lady Mabell Ogilvy, daughter of the 11th Earl of Airlie Lady Dorothy Browne, daughter of the 5th Earl of Kenmare and Lady Mary Dawson, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Dartrey.

69. Evelyn Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire (1870-1960), wife of the 9th Duke of Devonshire. She was the daughter of the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne (see note #49). She served as Queen Mary’s Mistress of the Robes from 1910 to 1916, and then again from 1921 until 1953.

70. These were Queen Mary’s Ladies of the Bedchamber: Mary Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, Countess of Minto Constance Ashley-Cooper, Countess of Shaftesbury Ethel Grenfall, Baroness Desborough and Margaret Russell, Baroness Ampthill.

71. These were Queen Mary’s Women of the Bedchamber: Lady Mary Hepburn-Stuart-Forbes-Trefusis, daughter of the 6th Earl of Beauchamp Lady Eva Dugdale, daughter of the 4th Earl of Warwick and Lady Katherine Coke, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Wilton.

72. In 1931, Katherine Villers wrote a book, Memoirs of a Maid of Honour, about the experience of serving in the role.


Jewel History: The Peeresses at the Coronation (1911)

King George V and Queen Mary at their coronation, June 1911 (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)

London, June 23 — The purely social point of view of the Coronation [1] was almost extraordinarily interesting, and almost everyone of note in London at present was to be seen in various parts of the great Abbey. The assemblage began to gather at half-past six, and from then until nine o’clock the Gold Staff officers had a very difficult task to deal with the thousands of people who arrived and who had to be conducted to their seats.

Quite a number of peers and peeresses arrived in state coaches. These vehicles presented a very magnificent appearance, the more noteworthy being those owned by Lord Bute [2], which was of powder blue and apricot yellow Lord Lonsdale [3], whose bright canary-colored coach was easily recognized Lord Beauchamp [4] Lord Cadogan [5], who was accompanied by Lady Cadogan and whose carriage of Cadogan blue and brown was superbly turned out Lord and Lady Londonderry [6] Lord and Lady Salisbury [7] Lord and Lady Galway [8] the Duke and Duchess of Somerset [9] and others far too numerous to mention.

Consuelo Spencer-Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, at the 1911 coronation with her sons, John and Ivor

The peeresses’ seats very soon began to fill up, and a more magnificent tout ensemble could not be imagined. Splendid tiaras and jewels of all kinds were to be seen and the fact that all were wearing the orthodox robes of crimson trimmed with ermine over white satin skirts contributed in no small degree to the beauty and uniformity of the spectacle.

In the front row of duchess sat, first of all, the Duchess of Norfolk [10] then came the Duchess of Somerset, the Duchess of Beaufort [11], and then the Duchesses of Hamilton [12], Montrose [13], Portland [14], and Sutherland [15]. Further along on the side of the gangway in the same line were several duchesses, including the Dowager Duchess of Roxburghe [16], the Duchess of Leeds [17], the Duchess of Rutland [18], the Duchess of Buccleuch [19], and several others according to precedence. In the second row, immediately behind the Duchess of Norfolk, sat the Duchess of Roxburghe [20] then came the Duchess of Manchester [21], the Duchess of Newcastle [22], the Duchess of Northumberland [23], the Duchess of Wellington [24], Katherine, Duchess of Westminster [25], and the Duchess of Westminster [26].

The Duchess of Manchester wearing the immense family tiara at the 1911 coronation

Some of the most magnificent diamonds were those worn by the Duchess of Northumberland, which are of immense size. The Duchess of Roxburghe wore a gorgeous diamond tiara, with true lovers’ knots in diamonds, which formerly belonged to Marie Antoinette, on her shoulders [27]. Down the centre of her corsage were enormous emeralds surrounded with diamonds, and a drop of seven pearls, terminating in one enormous diamond, was worn on one side. The Duchess of Manchester wore a big, upstanding tiara of diamonds [28], a necklace to match, and other gorgeous jewels. The Duchess of Beaufort wore an all-round crown of diamonds rather far back on her head.

The Duchess of Marlborough wore a small diamond crown and rows of pearls around her neck, while her whole corsage was blazing with jewels. The Duchess of Portland wore the famous high tiara [29] with the Portland Diamond swinging in the centre, and instead of the ordinary veil, she wore lace lappets, as did the Duchess of Hamilton. The Duchess of Sutherland, who has recently had her tiara reset, had her lace lappets swathed round the head and hanging down on either side of the head in the most becoming fashion. The Duchess of Westminster wore a lace veil on her head with a diamond crown round it. One or two others adopted this fashion, among them Lady Chesterfield [30] and Lady Lytton [31]. Lady Mar and Kellie [32] looked very beautiful in her robes with a diamond tiara and a diamond necklace and the front of her dress covered with diamonds and pearls.

Lady Bute [33] wore magnificent jewels, including several large emeralds, and by her side sat Lady Waterford [34], and then came Lady Downshire [35], who wore no tiara on her head at all. Naturally it would be quite impossible to mention all the peeresses who were present, for very few absentees were noticed, but those particularly noted for their jewels were Lady Londonderry, who wore her enormous diamond crown tipped with pearls, certainly the highest in the Abbey [36] Lady Derby [37], Lady Winchester [38], and Lady Granard [39], who positively blazed with diamonds Lady Yarborough [40], Lady Tweeddale [41], Lady Powis [42], Lady Galway, Lady Garvagh [43], Katherine, Duchess of Westminster, Lady Craven [44], Lady Newborough [45], Florence, Lady Nurburnholme [46], Lady Carnarvon [47], Lady Mayo [48], Lady Lansdowne [49], and Lady Ripon [50], who sat to the extreme left of the marchionesses’ row of seats, and who wore a great crowd of diamonds tipped with pearls.

Ladies-in-waiting: members of Queen Mary’s household at the time of the coronation

It was very remarkable how all the headdresses of the peeresses varied. Some wore big all-round crowns of diamonds, others ordinary tiaras, while a few wore no jewels at all, contenting themselves with veils and their coronets, which were assumed when the Queen was crowned.

No two tiaras were alike in form. The Duchess of Newcastle, for instance, wore a crown of diamonds with an ostrich feather standing up in the centre. Lady Aberdeen [51] wore her famous oriental tiara of gold studded with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires, and she wore a gauze veil over her head and hanging down the shoulders. She was one of the very few peeresses who wore a bouquet of flowers in the front of her gown.

Some magnificently embroidered kirtles were to be seen among the peeresses, probably one of the finest being that worn by Lady Suffolk [52]. This kirtle was embroidered with the family coat of arms worked in colored stones and gold thread. Lady Ormonde [53] wore very old but beautiful robes embroidered in bay leaves, which were at one time worn by her ancestress, the beautiful Duchess of Sutherland, who was Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria.

Princess Alexander of Teck (Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone) at the 1911 coronation (Photo: Grand Ladies Site)

As a rule, the greater number of peeresses’ robes were simply bordered with ermine, but a few had heraldic devices embroidered in gold in the corners. Nearly all of them wore crimson velvet embroidered bags, in which were carried handkerchiefs, fans, and, in many cases, little boxes of chocolate or lozenges. These bags were very beautifully embroidered in gold and silver, and suspended from the waist by cords.

In the boxes set apart for personal friends of the Queen and Queen Alexandra [54] were to be seen Lady Beatrice Pole-Carew and Lady Constance Butler, Lady Mary Ward, Lady Theo Acheson, Lady Marjorie Manners and Lady Diana Manners, Lord Algernon Gordon-Lennox and Miss Ivy Lennox, Lady Irene Denison, Miss Sybil Codrington [55], and a few others whom, owing to the position of the box, it was difficult to see. Lady Paget was a resplendent figure in the King’s box, where also were to be seen Mrs. William James, Mr. and Mrs. Leopold de Rothschild, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Sassoon, and Mme. Melba [56].

The Prince of Wales and Princess Mary at the coronation of their parents, King George V and Queen Mary

The various royal guests began to arrive shortly after ten o’clock, and they were conducted with much pomp and ceremony to their places. The German Crown Prince and Princess [57] were easily recognized, the latter wearing a dress of gold with a cloth of gold train. Prince Henry of Prussia [58] was a striking figure, wearing the cloak of the Order of the Garter. Cheers in the streets, which were distinctly heard in the Abbey, denoted the arrival of the Prince of Wales [59], who was habited in full Garter robes with the high beplumed hat which the recent photographs of his investiture have made familiar. The Prince’s train was born by Lord Ashley [60], the little son of Lord and Lady Shaftesbury, and his coronet by Lord Revelstoke [61].

Then, according to precedence, came Prince Albert, in naval uniform, and Prince Henry and Prince George, in the Highland dress [62]. They were followed by Princess Mary, who wore a lace dress over satin with a blue velvet train, which was borne by Lady Bertha Dawkins [63]. Princess Mary wore round her neck two beautiful rows of pearls. The next to arrive in the royal box was the Princess Royal, with her two daughters, Princess Alexandra and Princess Maud of Fife [64]. The Princess Royal wore a dress of white brocaded satin, with the conventional train of purple velvet worn by all princesses of the blood royal.

The Connaughts at the 1911 coronation: The Duke of Connaught, Princess Patricia of Connaught, the Duchess of Connaught, Prince Arthur of Connaught, Crown Princess Margareta of Sweden, and Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, in white and silver brocade, with magnificent jewels, followed her elder sister, her train being carried by Miss Violet Douglas-Pennant [65]. The next to appear was Princess Henry of Battenberg, who, like the other members of the royal family, wore a brocaded silver dress with purple train [66]. She was followed by the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who was resplendant with diamonds and sapphires. Next came the Duchess of Connaught, with Princess Victoria Patricia, their trains being borne by Miss Pelly and Miss Clementine Adam. The Duchess of Albany came next, with Lady Evelyn Moreton bearing her train. Princess Alexander of Teck, who looked perfectly charming in white and gold, her train of purple velvet being borne by Miss Edith Heron-Maxwell [67].

The Queen wore nothing on her head when she entered the Abbey, and her train was borne by Lady Eileen Butler, Lady Eileen Knox, Lady Victoria Carrington, Lady Mabell Ogilvy, Lady Dorothy Browne, and Lady Mary Dawson [68] — Lady Eileen Butler and Lady Mary Dawson, the tallest of the young ladies, being placed at the end of the train. They wore very charming dresses of white satin trimmed with pearls, and in their hair they wore what appeared to be a large butterfly in pearls, with the regulation feathers and veils.

The Duchess of Devonshire, Mistress of the Robes (Photo: Grand Ladies Site)

Immediately after these train-bearers came the Duchess of Devonshire [69], wearing a very high all-round crown of diamonds, and her duchess’s robes were heavily embroidered in gold. Following the Duchess were Lady Minto, Lady Shaftesbury, Lady Desborough, and Lady Ampthill [70]. Lady Minto’s dress was of soft pink and gold brocade. Lady Shaftesbury wore a peculiar shade of what may be termed lemon-tinted gold, while Lady Desborough was in water-green brocade and Lady Ampthill in white and gold.

Lady Mary Trefusis, Lady Eva Dugdale, and Lady Katherine Coke [71] followed the Ladies of the Bedchamber, and then came the four Maids of Honour, Miss Venetia Baring, Miss Sybil Brodrick, Miss Mabel Gye, and Miss Katherine Villiers [72]. All these ladies just enumerated wore the Queen’s cypher in diamonds on a red ribbon. Lord Herschell, as Vice-Chamberlain to the Queen, followed the Ladies-in-Waiting.

1. The coronation of King George V and Queen Mary of the United Kingdom was held at Westminster Abbey in London on June 22, 1911.

2. John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute (1881-1947), son of the 3rd Marquess of Bute and great-grandson of the 13th Duke of Norfolk.

3. Hugh Lowther, 5th Earl of Lonsdale (1857-1944), known for exploring the Artic regions of Canada and for the line of sportswear named after him.

4. William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp (1872-1938), who served as Governor of New South Wales, was the leader of the Liberal Party in the House of Lords, and inspired the character of Lord Marchmain in Evelyn Waugh’s Brideshead Revisited. He was also a brother-in-law of the 2nd Duke of Westminster.

5. George Cadogan, 5th Earl Cadogan (1840-1915), was a soldier and politician. His late first wife was Lady Beatrix Craven, the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Craven. In January 1911, he had remarried in Italy to a cousin, Adele, daughter of the Conte Palagi del Palagio. Adele outlived George by 45 years.

6. Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry (1852-1915) was a Conservative politician, a former Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and a staunch opponent of Home Rule for Ireland. His wife, who was born Lady Theresa Chetwynd-Talbot, was a daughter of the 19th Earl of Shrewsbury.

7. James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (1861-1947) was the son of the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, who was Britain’s Prime Minister at three different times in the late 19th century. James was a politician in his own right as well, serving as Leader of the House of Lords in the 1920s. His wife, Lady Cicely Gore (1867-1955), was a daughter of the 5th Earl of Arran. James and Cicely’s daughter Mary later married the 10th Duke of Devonshire.

8. George Monckton-Arundell, 7th Viscount Galway [and 1st Baron Monckton of Selby] (1844-1931), a Conservative politician who served as an aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, and King George V. His wife was born Vere Gosling.

9. Algernon Seymour, 15th Duke of Somerset (1846-1923) who served in the military and later ran a ranch in America. His wife, Susan, published a detailed account of the couple’s journey through Canada.

10. Gwendolen Fitzalan-Howard, Duchess of Norfolk (1877-1945) was the wife (and cousin) of the 15th Duke of Norfolk. She was the daughter of Marmaduke Constable-Maxwell, 11th Lord Herries of Terregles on his death in 1908, she inherited his titles, becoming the 12th Lady Herries of Terregles in her own right.

11. Louise Somerset, Duchess of Beaufort (1864-1945) was the wife of the 9th Duke of Beaufort. She was born Louise Harford. Her daughter Blanche married the 6th Earl of St. Germans her son, the 10th Duke of Beaufort, married Princess Mary of Teck (a niece of Queen Mary).

12. Nina Douglas-Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton and Duchess of Brandon (1878-1951) was the wife of the 13th Duke of Hamilton and 10th Duke of Brandon. Her father was Major Robert Poole. Nina was a major advocate for animals and founder of charities focused on animal rights.

13. Violet Graham, Duchess of Montrose (1854-1940) was the wife of the 5th Duke of Montrose. She was the daughter of Sir Frederick Graham, 3rd Bt. and the granddaughter of the 12th Duke of Somerset.

14. Winifred Cavendish-Bentinck, Duchess of Portland (1863-1954) was the wife of the 6th Duke of Portland. She was born Winifred Dallas-Yorke. Like the Duchess of Hamilton, she was a major advocate for animal rights. She later served as Mistress of the Robes to Queen Alexandra.

15. Millicent Leveson-Gower, Duchess of Sutherland (1867-1955) was the wife of the 4th Duke of Sutherland. She was born Lady Millicent St. Clair-Erskine, daughter of the 4th Earl of Rosslyn. Her sister Sybil was Countess of Westmoreland her half-sister Daisy was Countess of Warwick her daughter Rosemary became Countess of Dudley. Millicent was known for her commitment to social reform and for her novels and non-fiction writing. She also earned the French Croix de guerre and a British Red Cross medal for her service in World War I.

16. Anne Innes-Ker, Dowager Duchess of Roxburghe (1854-1923) was the widow of the 7th Duke of Roxburghe and mother of the 8th Duke. Born Lady Anne Spencer-Churchill, she was a daughter of the 7th Duke of Marlborough (and an aunt of Winston Churchill). She was also Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria.

17. Katherine Osborne, Duchess of Leeds (1862-1952) was the wife of the 10th Duke of Leeds. She was born Lady Katherine Lambton, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Durham. Her daughter, Dorothy, married 15th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (an elder brother of the Queen Mother).

18. Violet Manners, Duchess of Rutland (1856-1937) was the wife of the 8th Duke of Rutland. Born Violet Lindsay, she was a granddaughter of the 24th Earl of Crawford. She was an accomplished sculptor for much more about her very interesting life, see The Secret Rooms by Catherine Bailey.

19. Louisa Montagu Douglas Scott, Duchess of Buccleuch and Duchess of Queensberry (1836-1912) was the wife of the 6th Duke of Buccleuch and 8th Duke of Queensberry. Born Lady Louisa Hamilton, she was the daughter of the 1st Duke of Abercorn and a granddaughter of the 6th Duke of Bedford. Her sisters included the Countess of Lichfield, the Countess of Durham, the Marchioness of Lansdowne (see note #49), the Countess of Mount Edgcumbe, the Countess Winterton, the Duchess of Marlborough. Louisa was the grandmother of Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester and the great-great-grandmother of Sarah, Duchess of York. She was Mistress of the Robes to both Queen Victoria and Queen Alexandra.

20. Mary Innes-Ker, Duchess of Roxburghe (1878-1937) was the wife of the 8th Duke of Roxburghe. Born in America, she was the daughter of Ogden Goelet May was one of the “dollar princesses” who married British aristocrats at the turn of the 20th century.

21. Helena Montagu, Duchess of Manchester (1877-1947) was the first wife of the 9th Duke of Manchester. Born Helena Zimmerman, she was an American heiress her father was president of a railroad. The Manchesters divorced in 1931.

22. Kathleen Pelham-Clinton, Duchess of Newcastle (1872-1955) was the wife of the 7th Duke of Newcastle. Born Kathleen Candy, she was a granddaughter of the 3rd Baron Rossmore. Both the Duke and Duchess were animal lovers, and Kathleen was an important dog show judge and dog breeder.

23. Edith Percy, Duchess of Northumberland (1849-1913) was the wife of the 7th Duke of Northumberland. She was born Lady Edith Campbell, daughter of the 8th Duke of Argyll.

24. Kathleen Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington (d. 1927) was the wife of the 4th Duke of Wellington. Her father was Captain Robert Griffith Williams. Two of her sons were also Dukes of Wellington.

25. Katherine Grosvenor, Dowager Duchess of Westminster (1857-1941) was the (much younger) second wife of the 1st Duke of Westminster. She was the daughter of the 2nd Baron Chesham. The current Duke of Westminster is her great-grandson.

26. Constance (Shelagh) Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster (1877-1970) was the first wife of the 2nd Duke of Westminster. Her sister Daisy was Princess of Pless. The Westminsters divorced in 1919, and she subsequently married her private secretary, Captain John Fitzpatrick Lewes.

27. I’ve not been able to find any link between the jewels of the Duchess of Roxburghe and Marie Antoinette. However, Mary did eventually have a small collection of French imperial pieces in her jewelry box. Her father, Ogden Goelet, bought several pieces at the auction of the French crown jewels in 1887, including a large diamond and pearl brooch that had belonged to Empress Eugenie, a pearl and diamond tiara, and a pair of pearl and diamond bracelets.

28. This enormous diamond tiara, which was made in 1903 by Cartier, is now in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum.

29. This enormous diamond tiara, which was made in 1902 by Cartier, is now in the Portland Collection, which is housed at the Harley Gallery in Nottinghamshire.

30. Enid Scudamore-Stanhope, Countess of Chesterfield (1878-1957) was the wife of the 10th Earl of Chesterfield. Her father was the 1st Baron Nunburnholme. The Chesterfields were involved in the world of racing, and one of their horses won the 1941 St Leger Stakes.

31. Pamela Bulwer-Lytton, Countess of Lytton (1873/4-1971) was the wife of the 2nd Earl of Lytton. Before she married him, she was romantically involved with Winston Churchill. Lord Lytton was born in India, and the couple were stationed there for several years while he served as Governor of Bengal and acting Viceroy.

32. Violet Erskine, Countess of Mar and Kellie (1868-1938) was the wife of the 12th Earl of Mar and 14th Earl of Kellie. She was born Lady Violet Ashley-Cooper her father was the 8th Earl of Shaftesbury and her grandfather was the 3rd Marquess of Donegall.

33. Augusta Crichton-Stuart, Marchioness of Bute (1880-1947) was the wife of the 4th Marquess of Bute (see note #2). Augusta was a daughter of Sir Alan Bellingham, 4th Bt. and a granddaughter of the 2nd Earl of Gainsborough.

34. Beatrix Beresford, Marchioness of Waterford (1877-1953) was the wife of the 6th Marquess of Waterford. She was a daughter of the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne and a granddaughter of the 1st Duke of Abercorn. Lord Waterford died in December 1911, and seven years later, Beatrix married Osborne Beauclerk, 12th Duke of St Albans.

35. Evelyn Hill, Marchioness of Downshire (d. 1942) was the second wife of the 6th Marquess of Downshire.

36. Apparently Lady Londonderry didn’t learn her lesson following the 1902 coronation, when this tiara famously fell off in the toilet and had to be retrieved by forceps.

37. Alice Stanley, Countess of Derby (1862-1957) was the wife of the 17th Earl of Derby. Her father was the 7th Duke of Manchester. She was Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra from 1901 to 1910.

38. Charlotte Paulet, Marchioness of Winchester (d. 1924) was the first wife of the 16th Marquess of Winchester.

39. Beatrice Forbes, Countess of Granard (1883-1972) was the wife of the 8th Earl of Granard. She was another of the American “dollar princesses” her father was Ogden Mills, a wealthy financier who was involved in thoroughbred racing. Beatrice and her husband were also major figures in the racing world — Lord Granard was King George V’s Master of the Horse. Beatrice’s daughter, Lady Eileen, later married the 5th Marquess of Bute (son of the Lord and Lady Bute mentioned here).

40. Marcia Pelham, Countess of Yarborough (1863-1926) was the wife of the 4th Earl of Yarborough. She inherited the titles of 13th Baroness Conyers and 7th Baroness Fauconberg in her own right.

41. Candida Hay, Marchioness of Tweeddale (1858-1925) was the wife of the 10th Marquess of Tweeddale (who died in December 1911). Candida was Italian — her father’s name was Vincenzo Bartolucci — but she was raised in England.

42. Violet Herbert, Countess of Powis (1865-1929) was the wife of the 4th Earl of Powis. Her sister, Marcia, was Countess of Yarborough (see note #40). Violet was also a peeress in her own right, inheriting the barony of Darcy de Knayth from her father.

43. Florence Canning, Baroness Garvagh (d. 1926) was the wife of the 3rd Baron Garvagh.

44. Cornelia Craven, Countess of Craven (1877-1961) was the wife of the 4th Earl of Craven. Cornelia was yet another American “dollar princess,” daughter of Bradley Martin, a wealthy banker.

45. Grace Wynn, Baroness Newborough (d.1939) was the wife of the 4th Baron Newborough. She was yet another American peeress, born Grace Carr of Kentucky.

46. Florence Wilson, Lady Nunburnholme (1853-1932) was the widow of the 1st Baron Nunburnholme. She was born Florence Wellesley her father was a nephew of the 1st Duke of Wellington.

47. Almina Herbert, Countess of Carnarvon (1876-1969) was the wife of the 5th Earl of Carnarvon. She was the illegitimate daughter of Alfred de Rothschild, the famous banker, who provided a half-million pound dowry for her on her wedding. The Carnarvon home, Highclere Castle, is recognizable to us today as the setting of Downton Abbey. The current Lady Carnarvon has written a book about her: Lady Almina and the Real Downton Abbey.

48. Geraldine Bourke, Countess of Mayo (d. 1944) was the wife of the 7th Earl Mayo. She was a granddaughter of the 4th Earl of Bessborough and a great-granddaughter of the 8th Earl of Coventry.

49. Maud Petty-Fitzmaurice, Marchioness of Lansdowne (1850-1932) was the wife of the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne. She was born Lady Maud Hamilton, a daughter of the 1st Duke of Abercorn. Her sisters included the Countess of Lichfield, the Countess of Durham, the Duchess of Buccleuch (see note #19), the Countess of Mount Edgcumbe, the Countess Winterton, the Duchess of Marlborough. Maud was a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra. Her husband served as Governor-General of Canada and Viceroy of India.

50. Gwladys Robinson, Marchioness of Ripon (1859-1917) was the wife of the 2nd Marquess of Ripon. Her father was the 1st Baron Herbert of Lea her mother was the writer Elizabeth Herbert. Gwladys’s first husband was the 4th Earl of Lonsdale (brother of the Lord Lonsdale mentioned here — see note #3). Two of her brothers became Earls of Pembroke another brother served as the British ambassador to the United States a sister, Maud, married the theologian Friedrich von Hügel and her youngest sister, Elizabeth, was the wife of the composer Sir Charles Hubert Parry, whose coronation anthem, “I Was Glad,” was played in Westminster Abbey for King George V and Queen Mary.

51. Ishbel Hamilton-Gordon, Countess of Aberdeen [later Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair] (1857-1939) was the wife of the 7th Earl of Aberdeen, who was created 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair in 1916. Ishbel was a daughter of the 1st Baron Tweedmouth. Her husband served as Governor-General of Canada and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland she became very involved in social and philanthropic activities in both places. She was also the first woman to receive an honorary university degree in Canada.

52. Margaret “Daisy” Howard, Countess of Suffolk and Countess of Berkshire (1879-1968) was the wife of the 19th Earl of Suffolk and 12th Earl of Berkshire. She was another American “dollar princess” her father was the Chicago businessman Levi Leiter. Daisy’s sister, Mary, was the wife of the 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, who famously served as Viceroy of India. Lord Suffolk was Lord Curzon’s aide-de-camp he met Daisy when she visited India for the 1903 Delhi Durbar. Suffolk later died in World War I.

53. Elizabeth Harriet Butler, Marchioness of Ormonde (1856-1928) was the wife of the 3rd Marquess of Ormonde. She was the eldest daughter of the 1st Duke of Westminster and his first wife, Lady Constance Sutherland-Leveson-Gower. The “beautiful Duchess of Sutherland” mentioned here was her grandmother, Harriet, Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria. The Queen’s affection for Harriet and her fellow ladies led to the Bedchamber Crisis of 1839.

54. Following custom, Queen Alexandra did not attend the 1911 coronation. In 1937, Queen Mary broke with this tradition and attended the coronation of her son and daughter-in-law.

55. Lady Beatrice Pole-Carew and Lady Constance Butler were the daughters of the 3rd Marquess of Ormonde Lady Mary Ward and Lady Theodosia Acheson were daughters of the 4th Earl of Gosford Lady Marjorie Manners and Lady Diana Manners were daughters of the 8th Duke of Rutland Lord Algernon Gordon-Lennox was a younger son of the 6th Duke of Richmond and the father of Miss Ivy Lennox, who later became Duchess of Portland Lady Irene Denison was the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Londesborough and the future Marchioness of Carisbrooke Cecilia Grace Sybil Codrington was the granddaughter of the 1st Earl of Londesborough.

56. In the King’s box: the society hostess Lady Paget, nee Minnie Stevens of Massachusetts the society hostess Evelyn James, wife of the American merchant William Dodge James banker and racing enthusiast Leopold de Rothschild and his wife, Marie banker Arthur Sassoon and his wife, Louise (sister of Marie de Rothschild) and the Australian soprano Nellie Melba.

57. Wilhelm (1882-1951) and Cecilie (1886-1954) of Prussia, German Crown Prince and Princess. Wilhelm was the grandson of Princess Victoria, the eldest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

58. Prince Henry of Prussia (1862-1929) was the third child of Princess Victoria, daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, and Emperor Frederick III of Germany. His wife, Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, was a daughter of Princess Alice, another daughter of Victoria and Albert.

59. Read all about the Garter investiture of the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII, later the Duke of Windsor) over here!

60. Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Lord Ashley (1900-1947) was the eldest son of the 9th Earl of Shaftesbury. He died young of heart disease, and the earldom passed directly from his father to his son, Anthony (1938-2004).

61. John Baring, 2nd Baron Revelstoke (1863-1929).

62. Three of King George V and Queen Mary’s younger sons: Prince Albert (1895-1952) later Duke of York, later King George VI Prince Henry (1900-1974), later Duke of Gloucester and Prince George (1902-1942), later Duke of Kent. Prince John did not attend.

63. King George V and Queen Mary’s only daughter, Princess Mary (1897-1965), later Countess of Harewood and Princess Royal. Her train-bearer, Lady Bertha Dawkins, was one of Queen Mary’s ladies-in-waiting.

64. Princess Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife (1867-1931) was a younger sister of King George V. Her elder daughter, Princess Alexandra, became 2nd Duchess of Fife in 1912 she married her cousin, Prince Arthur of Connaught, in 1913. Louise’s younger daughter, Princess Maud, later married the 11th Earl of Southesk.

65. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (1848-1939) was the sixth child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The sentence is strangely written, because she must have followed her elder sister — Princess Helena (1846-1923), another daughter of Victoria and Albert — but Helena gets no mention in the article. Both Louise and Helena were aunts of King George V.

66. Princess Beatrice (1857-1944), the youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. She was the widow of Prince Henry of Battenberg, and by 1911, her daughter Ena was the Queen of Spain. She was another aunt of King George V.

67. Here’s a rundown of the rest of the royal ladies listed. The Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1853-1920) was born Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia she married Victoria and Albert’s second son, Alfred. The Duchess of Connaught (1860-1917), born Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia, was the wife of Victoria and Albert’s third son, Arthur. Princess Victoria Patricia of Connaught (1886-1974), later Lady Patricia Ramsay, was the Duchess of Connaught’s younger daughter. The Duchess of Albany (1861-1922), born Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont, was the widow of Victoria and Albert’s youngest son, Leopold. Princess Alexander of Teck (1883-1981) was the Duchess of Albany’s daughter, Alice she married her cousin, Prince Alexander of Teck, in 1904 and was later titled Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone.

68. Queen Mary’s train-bearers were all daughters of earls. Lady Eileen Butler (later Duchess of Sutherland) was the daughter of the 7th Earl of Lanesborough Lady Eileen Knox was the daughter of the 5th Earl of Ranfurly Lady Victoria Wynn-Carrington was the daughter of Earl Carrington (later the 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire) Lady Mabell Ogilvy, daughter of the 11th Earl of Airlie Lady Dorothy Browne, daughter of the 5th Earl of Kenmare and Lady Mary Dawson, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Dartrey.

69. Evelyn Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire (1870-1960), wife of the 9th Duke of Devonshire. She was the daughter of the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne (see note #49). She served as Queen Mary’s Mistress of the Robes from 1910 to 1916, and then again from 1921 until 1953.

70. These were Queen Mary’s Ladies of the Bedchamber: Mary Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, Countess of Minto Constance Ashley-Cooper, Countess of Shaftesbury Ethel Grenfall, Baroness Desborough and Margaret Russell, Baroness Ampthill.

71. These were Queen Mary’s Women of the Bedchamber: Lady Mary Hepburn-Stuart-Forbes-Trefusis, daughter of the 6th Earl of Beauchamp Lady Eva Dugdale, daughter of the 4th Earl of Warwick and Lady Katherine Coke, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Wilton.

72. In 1931, Katherine Villers wrote a book, Memoirs of a Maid of Honour, about the experience of serving in the role.


“We Cannot Use That Word”

This chapter turns to the problem of sexual identity, which has facilitated the retrieval of a lesbian and gay past even as it elides the variations, deviations, and complications of actual lives of individuals who resist that fixity or who were unaccustomed to sexual self-reflexivity. Situating the “great scandal” surrounding the dismissal of the Hon. Violet Douglas-Pennant as commandant of the Women’s Royal Air Force in a recuperative mode of lesbian history satisfies the need for a knowable sexual subject, yet yielding to the explanatory force of a queer identity also makes it difficult to decipher how a woman like Douglas-Pennant saw herself or how others saw her in 1918.

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Disturbing Practices: History, Sexuality, and Women’s Experience of Modern War. By Laura Doan

Emma Vickers, Disturbing Practices: History, Sexuality, and Women’s Experience of Modern War. By Laura Doan, Twentieth Century British History, Volume 25, Issue 3, September 2014, Pages 503–505, https://doi.org/10.1093/tcbh/hwt035

In 2008, I visited the Institute of Historical Research (IHR) in London to listen to a paper given by Laura Doan. Doan was then in the middle of a new project on queer identities and the First World War, work which was something of a departure from her earlier, formative work, Fashioning Sapphism: The Origins of a Modern English Lesbian Culture (2001). Entitled ‘On the Limits and Possibilities of Lesbian History’, what Doan delivered was less a paper and more an outpouring of ideas on the thorny issue of how (or not) to categorize sexual identities. In hindsight, I now understand why Doan was uncharacteristically lacking in conviction and clarity that day. Her paper at the IHR represented the very start of her musings on ‘queer critical history' and the ‘conceptual impasse'.


IMETHODS OF THE AIR MINISTRY.

METHODS OF THE AIR MINISTRY. NEW DEVELOPMENT. The Douglae Pennant mystery threat- ens to take its place in history in the long roll of undiscovered "crimes." So far as the Air Ministry is concerned as presumptive prosccutor it would like to enter on the chaigo sheet: Adjourned fiiiie die" and leave it at that. But there arc others betide Air chiefs an j subordinates who arc concerned in the matter, to say nothing of the Hon. Violet ] Douglas Pennant herself. The public at large, which loves fair play, is interested in seeing that justice is done to ofin of its valued servants, who for no reason that anybody has yet showit was dis- missed from a high and responsible posi- tion at a moment's notice. The case now assumes a more serious aspect by reason of direct allegations, in which Miss Douglas Pennant declares there is not one word of truth, contained in the fol- lowing corresjxjndence which the Na- tional Political League has forwarded us for publication. In sending the letters the League wish to nialto it clear that Mi Tyson Wilson, whose name appears in these letters, has acted thioughoui in a disinterested manner and in good faith. Having received the information officially be collil d iiot do from the Air Ministry, he could not do otherwise than accept the fact that a full investigation of serious charges was made before the summary dismissal of the Hon. Violet Douglas Pennant, and having accepted in good faith the formal state- ments of the Air Ministry on this point, he could not withhold the facts made known in explaining the basis of hid own actions, especially his references in the House of Commons to questions i-clatipg to the letters he hr.rl received from certain individuals, and which he considered should be published in tho House. The public will be grateful to him for his fear- less attitude. May 1st, 1919. Dear Miss Douglas Pennant,&mdashIn our. efforts to further the cause of your enquiry, I think I have always made it clear to you that our organisation is entirely disinterested. The Executive, having gone into the case, considered that, on the evidence before them, a grave injustice had been done to a re- sponsible official whose position and in- fluence affected the welfare of many thousands of women subordinates of different ranks. You will, therefore, understand what n shock both Miss Farquharson and I received when on Wednesday last, April 3Cth, Mr Tyson Wilson, the Whip of the Labour Party, iniiii interview at the House of Commons, informed us that he knew, on the authority of the Secretary of the Ministry eonccrned, that com-, plaints mado against your admmistra tion and character, previous to your dismissal, had been drastically investi- gated. Also, that you yourself had been given the fullest opportunity of hearing and answering such complaints, and had been unable to do so. Further, that the charges so dealt with were such that no responsible official of any Department could do otherwise than. after investiga- tion of their truth, decide on a sum- mary dismissal. Your previous record to which you have always led us to understand was thoroughly satisfactory, we were informed was not 1"0, and that it would be wise for us in your interests, as well as our own, to cease activity on your behalf. I feel it right to inform you of this at once, and to ask you for an explana- tion. Yovi will understand that it is necessary for a responsible organisation of our standing to be absolutely clear as to the facts on which its actions are based. I must aek, therefore, for an immediate reply. I should inform you that I am writing on these points to Major-General Seely, Under-Secretary of the Air Ministry, with whom I have corresponded on your case. &mdashYours faith- fully, (Signed) MARY ADELAIDE BROADHURST. Jules' Hotel, Jermvn-strcet, 5th May, 1919. Dear Miss Broadhurst,&mdashI am obliged to you for your letter. I fully realise thaa as president of your organisation you feel the responsibility of having taken up the cause of one who is now reported to you to be unworthy of your support. # 1 am astonished to Ji-arn that at a re- cent interview with Mr Tyson Wilson, M.P., you were informed by him that he had been officially advised by the Secretary of the Air Ministry that I know of the charges made against me before I was summarily dismissed from, the Air Force and that before my dis- missal an inquir nto these charges was made, and that I was given a full opportunity of hearing and answering tho charges, and showed myself unablo to make an* adequate defence. I can only tell you that there is not ono word of truth in any of these state- ments.&mdashI am, yours faithfully, (Signed) VIOLET DOUGLAS PENNANT. The National Political League, after in- vestigation, is now able to accept unreserv- edly this denial by Miss Douglas Pennant. Bank nnilding, 16, St. Janics-street, May 5th, 1919. Dear General Seely,&mdashI am writing to you on an important point which has arisen during the last few days in re- ference to the enquiry as regards the nummary dismissal of Miss Douglas Pennant. As I think you are aware, our League took up the cause of Miss. Douglas Pennant from the entirely dis- interested motive of peeing justice done. The Executive, after careful delibera-, t-loll, colist(ic)-cd that t grave injustice had been done to a responsible officer whose position and influence effected the welfare of many thousands of women. I was, therefore, greatly surprised when I was told by Mr Tyson Wilson, the Whip of the Labour Party, in an interview with him at the House of COllllllonfl on Wednesday, April -SL)th, that. he had been officially informed, -by the Secretary of the Department con- cerned, after he had sent to that De- partment letters of "Complaint" which he had himself received from ladies working under Miss Douglas Pennant, that a drastic enquiry was made into the alleged Complaints." Also that Miss Douglas Pennant was in that en- quiry given the fullest opportunity of hearing and answering such charges and failed to clear herself. The Secretary of the Department concerned then ill- formed Mr Tyson Wilson that after this thorough investigation no responsible official of any Department could decide otherwise than on immediate summary dismissal of the officer concerned. I iitid on referring to your communi- cation to me dated January 28th that you use the Aords-The -po--iticii is that this case was carefully examined personally by the late Secretary of State for the Royal Air Force, who came to the conclusion that in best interests of the W.R.A.F. it was necessary that Miss Douglas Pennant's connection with that Force should cease. The case sub- sequently came before the Prime Mini- ater with the result that the action of the late Secretary of State was upheld." You will realise that Mr Tyson Wil- eon's statements to me completely con- firm your own communication as quoted above, although at the time Miss Douglas Pennant succeeded in convin- cing me that no 6uch enquiry was held an f that, on the contrary, she was even then unaware of the cause of her dis- missal. You will understand that the National Political League ag a responsible body must be absolutely clear on the matter. Otherwise, it might find itself acting against those very principles of justice which it exists to maintain. Under the circumstances, therefore, I should be much obliged if you would kindly let me have at once the exact position as to the enquiry which it is alleged pre- ceded the summary dismissal of Miss Douglas Pennant. I enclose the communication I thoujjiit it just to send immediately to Miss Douglas Pennant, and which I consider it only right that you should see.- Yours sincerely, (Signed)) :MAY ADELAIDE BROADHURST. When questioned in the Hoikse of Com- mons on the 8th inst. by Brigadier- General Sir Owen Thomas as to whether an inquiry had been held before Miss Doug 1 a.s-Pennajit's dismissal, Mr Winston Churchill would eay nothing beyond offer- ing to publish correspondence if pressed to do so by Mies Douglas Pennant's friend. Then Lieutenant-Colonel Malone asked Is the right hon. jfentleman aware that Sir William Robinson, secretary of the Air Ministry, has endeavoured to influence the opinion of members of fcnig House with regard to this case, and doee he consider that isproper work for this official'/ Mr Churchill replied: I am not aw aire of anything of the sort, and I do not know what "influencing opin- ion" means. It is certainly not proper to briixg up sudh a matter in relation to a question to which it. hau no reference. It needs a Ministerial mind, and of the OaurchiHian type, to discern impropriety in Coionel Malone's question. To the plaiin man it seems peculiarly apposite. Sir Owen Thomas made one more effort by asking: "Will my right hon. friend inquire whether sndl an inquiry has been i?i"d??' To which hi6 right hon. friend replied bluntly: Xo, sir. With the new development which Miss Broadhurst'e letters disclose the Air Minu-fry may begin to Uke a different- view of the tua-ttor and rnaje an effort to (iiseover both "crime" and "criminal." ti-i d "crlml ija l

.SOCIAL.

SOCIAL. Lord Sheffield celebrated his eightieth birthday on Saturday. The Hon Mr5 nCQrgc BIezatd-win give a small dance on Friday, the l5thofJune, a1 40, Grosvenor-place. Mr Lloyd George is expected to spend a Whitsuntide holiday with his eon at Beaver Grove, Bettwsyeoed. Among the awards distributed by the King at the investiture at Buckingham Pal- ace, on Saturday, was the o Lieut.. Colonel Hugh liowell Evans, Denbighshire Yeomanry. Lord Penrhyn s Perion ran seccnd in the Burwell Plate at Newmarket on Tuesday. <I'he Marquis of Anglesey and Lady Pen- rhyn were also represented at the 'samo meeting. Colonel Sir Arthur Boscawen, M.P., and Mr llonorutius Lloyd, K.C., were amongst those who attended the jubilee dinner of the Survey" ors' Institution, which took jlace at the Conn aught Rooms, London, on Tuesday evening. Amongst the co-opted members to the Grand Council of the Primrose League, elected on Tuesday, were the Earl of Povvis and the Countess of Duudonald. Sir Samuel Waring, of Llanrhaiadr Hall, Denbighshire, was the guest of the directors and staff of Messrs Waring and Gillo.v at a complimentary dinner at the Connnugiit Rooms, London, last week. The Duke of Westminster, as Lord Lieu- tenant of Cheshire, presented medals of the Order of the British Empire at Chester Castle on Saturday to a number of Cheshire munition workers, to whom they had been awarded for courage and devotion to duty. 1 fsir Ilenrv Mainwaring is leaving Over Peovcr Park, says a Manchester newspa- per, having disposed of tho estate which has been 111 the family for centuries. The hall and church are among the oldest iu theshire. The Duke of Westminster is having a 1000 ton merchant ship, Belem, converted into an auxiliary motor yacht for long voyages, says a Liverpool contemporary. The Belem is a steel twin-screw steamer owned by a Brazilian linn. Major-General A. E. Sandbach was amongst the nineteen old Etonian generals who have been on active service overseas, and who had a great reception on Tueday when they paid their promised visit to their old School. Over 1000 students gave the generals all enthusiastic greeting. The Bishop of Bangor was present at the banquet (suspended during the war) held at Merchant Tay lors, Hall, on Tuesday flight, in connection with the 265th annual festival of the Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy. Lord ,ClwH1 was on Wednesday intro- duced as a' new peer to the House of Lords by Lord Abercw.way and Lord Pontypridd. Lord Chvyd was formerly Sir J. Herbert Roberts, and, as M.P. for West Denbighshire, was chairman of the We-ieth Liberal Party. A marriage is arranged, and will (shortly take place, between Lieut.-Col. the Hon. Oliver Stanley, D.S.O., Royal Field Ar- tillery, second surviving son of Lord and Lady Sheffield, and the Ladv Kathleen Thynne, eldc-t daughter of the Marquis end Marchioness of Bath. Colonel the Earl of Denbigh addressed a cadre of the 1st Battalion of the Hon. Ar- tillery Conipany, which returned to London from Cologne on Tuesday. The men inarched through the city and had a mag- nificent reception. Lord Denbigh said the record of the II. A.C. throughout the war had been 0110 of which they might ail be proud. A marriage is arranged, and will s hort- ly take place, between the Rev. 1. Lloyd. vohes, of St.. Stephen's, South Kensington, only son of the late Rev. D. Lloyd-Jones, viear of Amlwch, Anglesey, and Margaret Campbell Broadfoot, only daughter of the !ate Ramsay Douglas Broadfoot, barrister- at-law. of the Indian Civil Service, and JTraud daughter of the late Mr Charles Ains- lie, of The Gart, Perthshire.

.LORD C A MISJUDGES .Y/i'lf*…

LORD C A MISJUDGES .Y/i'lf* HOJIE. I Lord Cambridge has bought a place galled Shotter, near Shrewsbury, where he is going to make his future home. Lord Cambridge is, of course, a brother of the Queen and Governor of Windsor Castle, and it is expressive of the times that he is settling down in the Midlands as an English squire.

M XLsh ISDl STBIES ASSOCIATIONI

M XLsh ISDl STBIES ASSOCIATION I Great interest centres round a concert to be held at 10, Downing-street, on June 25th, in aid of the Welsh Industries Asso- ciation. Mi's Lloyd George is one of its ardent supporters, and she is giving the guests tea when the concert is. over. Of course, many well known Welsh ladies oe. setas the Prime Minister's wife are doing their utmost to make this entertainment a success. Their names include those of Lady Eva Wvndham-Quin, Lady Treoweii, Lady Brynmor Jones, and La4.r Prichard Jones. The Marchioness of Bute, Jady Tredegar, and Lady Harlcch are among member" of the committee. Tickets may b-e obtained from Mrs Mashiter, 22, 1. rince s Gate, S.W.7-

MILITARY NEWS.I

MILITARY NEWS. I The following announcements appeared I in-lbe. CORPS OF ROYAL ENGINEERS I To be acting c.pt.: Licut. A. K. Robert- Bon, Royal Anglesey R E., Special Rc- serve, whilst second in command of .1 1 Railway Company (Sept. 22, 1918). INFANTRY SERVICE BATTALIONS. I Royal Welsh Fusilier^.&mdashTemp. Lieut. H. H Jones rclinquihes his commission Oil account of ill-health caused by wounds I (May 17), and retains the rank of lieut.

Li DO WXINGSTIth'ET I

Li DO WXINGSTIth'ET I 'n-. le Ivory Cross Fund was fortunate in itrilistiiig the help of Mrs Lloyd George, «n(] the meeting over which the presided I)ot-h as chairman and hostess, on" Wednes- day, filled the great drawing-room fIt No. 10, Downing-street, and overflowed into 'Juothier room. The "great little lady," as one of the speakers named her, sa.t with burning ears and an expression of discomfort, while en- thusiastic tribute was paid to her untiring- efforts on behalf of various good works and "Welfare movements. She made an elo- quent. epeech on behalf of the Ivory Croes Fund which ic, gin-iiig, relief and comfort to thousands of discharged soldier*, as well liS to many others, who need dental treat- ment. Lady Coopet- tpoke in place of the Dudljeos of Portland, and explained tho national need for the work of the Ivory Cross, as discharged soldiers and sailors do not receive any treatment for bad teeth excepting when they have been wounded in the mouth, and, beeid«?, tie fund is ud for poor mothers in fact, is is hoped at. money will be forthcoming, so that 51) future no deserving case will need to >niit for treatment. Mr. Lloyd George, who wore a black fcatin and niuon frock with gold and black brocade forming, part of the bodice, flitted baA and .forth between the meeting pro- per and the overflow. Among others on the p?tTcrm were I?ady Greville, «it? Hon. ?41-6 alia Craven, Lady (Charles) Henry, Miss Lilian Braithwaite, and Mies Fletcher.

[ WELSH LITEKARY NOTES.

[ WELSH LITEKARY NOTES. I A CLERICAL PROPHET. I iW alcti has paid too little attention to her most enlightened writers. Among these fihould be reckoned the cultured Rector of Redhill, the Rev. G. Hartwell Jones. In the current G cninen" he has an inspired and inspiring, but all too short an article on "The Future Out- look. Learning from the past history of the world he sees dawning a new era, the commencement of a new dispensa- tion when autocrac y will be superseded by democracy, oppression by liberty, selfish- noes by brotherly love. The late great war was, to him, a great crusade, a great duel to the death between materialism and idealism, the one born of paganism, the other of Christianity. The whç' Ger- man nation had become drunk on the idea of national supremacy, military, com- mercial, cultural, everything. Incident- ally he reminds us that the now historical motto "Deutschland Uber Alleys" origin- nllv meant "Let each one lose himself in the interests of his native land" but had become transformed by the war into meaning Germany above all the world." He perceives that the era of world peace now presumed to be inaugurated must embrace peace between Capital and Labour no less than between rival nations. Is this connection he foretells (writing as he did in January the article now noticed) the beneficent fruit to be borne by the great Commission on Labour questions instituted by the Government. Ho declares Mazzini's dream of :fifty years ago, about to be realised in such a mutual understanding between Britain and America as "will enable every nation to live its own life and erect a temple for humanity." More pessimistic is the Chaired Bard Eivet writing on the same subject. He reminds us that the four dread years of war through which the world has passed has left human nature where and what it was before the war that what met humanity's deepest need in 1914 can alone satisfy it in 1919 that the League of Nations must depend upon mutual good- will between every two individual nations and the Kingdom of Heaven and its prin- ciples must prove the acid tejst of all that is now being proposed. The Rev. Tecwyn Evans contributes the third article to tho Geninen" trilogy. His argument may be tummed up in his own 'quotation from Canon Burroughes, that the world must now make its choice between Christ and Chaos. THE MISSION OF THE CELT. I The Rev. Dyfnallt Owen, who years ago held a pastorate in Carnarvonshire, has an instructive and highly interesting article on the place and mission of the Celtic races in the reconstructed world. He reminds us that each email nation- ality in the boiling cauldron of Europe is trying to impress its own image upon the civilisation of the new world. He sums up the Teuton conception of Culture w& (1) the nationalisation of industry and (2) the socialisation of intellect He con- trasts Kipling and G. W. E. Russell, the foimer representing the German or Teu- ton element in English civilisation, the latter representing the more exalted and idealistic, but more permanent Celtic spirit. Said Russell to Kipling"You had the power of song, and you have always used it on behaif of the strong against the weak. You have smitten with all your might at creatures who are frail on earth, but mighty in the heavens." Dyfnallt then proceeds to argue that the New World to be moulded 011 the Celtic ideal must abolish all tracers of the Teu ton ideal (force) in our civilisation, and there must be a re-union of the Celtic races. Ho quoted George Meredith's view that the British Constitution is the outcome of the combined cflortrf of the Celt and the Norman the Norman was the architect, the Celt the inspiration. Tho Celt, say# DyfiaaUt, existed before Roman, or Norman or Teuton,&mdashand will oiitlii-e th,i,,i al!, bteauec his inspiration r-nd ideals arc immortal. He sums up an article of engrossing interest I)y showing that (1) Celtic civilisation envisages a new chivalry. Peredur of the Mabinog- ion was the recognised highest pattern of chivalry, whose triad was: love God ar.d defend religion. Love maidens and defend the maiden. Love your native Iird and defend so- ciety. (2) Celtic civilisation emphasises liberty and common brotherhood. The Celt never invaded for the sake of conquest. Henan said that the Celtic nation burnt i tee if out in fighting against time and ill defending the oppressed. The Round Table of King Arthui was symbolical ot tho Celtic conception of the common brotherhood of mankind. (3) The Celtic civilisation possesses a great soul-tbeon,3 crying nel!ù of the New World. BIBLICAL DIFFICULTIES. I It is somewhat significant that the more "oithodox" among the Noncpnforniiste are, with ever increasing interest, devot- ing themsetves to the study of uninspired records to correct the general conception of the inspired Bible story. Wo have A striking instance in the "Dry-orfa." tho monthly magazine of the Calvinistic Methodista, where the Rev. H. Roberto, B.A., Ph.D., has a series of instructive articles on Biblical Difficulties. In the current issue he deals with the familiar story of "Jacl and Sisera, "-and his version of the story will doubtless shook many who have always pinned their be- lief to the verbal inspiration of the Scrip- ture's as we know them. Mr Robeits is an iconoclast and s hatters in his articles many a favourite and cherished idol. PASTORAL STIPENDS. I Tho "Dnsorfa" throws some interest- ing light on the effort of the Calvinistic Methodists to make the supervision of the churches n ore effective by c)-pat.-jig a great central sustentation fund for mini- sters. The picture drawn of the internal economy of the "Coi-if" will be new vo many. F.-)r I the Drysorfa" ■t.aj s&mdash"We have four hundred individual churches in our Connexion without pas- toral care. The churches endeavour to exist without a pastor to enable them to pay their chapel debts. These churches are all conducted 011 the tame pattern, each is an eight-day clock, wound up by the chief d(oBCOn, and then allowed to go on of itself. The flock becomes scattered and lost. GOD TN RELATION TO THE WAR. I The Rev. Pulerton Zoii" is a bold man. Orthodox of the orthodox biswrit- ings are at times so heterodox as to al- most make him the object of a heresy hunt. He continues in the current "nysg- cdjdtV' his artides on "God in Relation to the War," and in endeavouring to answer the question "Why did not God intervene moje obviously in the war" says some things which will shock the orthodox believer in divine control of human affaire. He likens this modem belief that God champion* the right to the medieval superstition which relied absolutely on trial by ordeal as a Pure test of liht and innocence. The defendant who could blindfolded walk barefoot with- out in jt#y over rows of hot ploughshares proved thereby his innocence because God directly intervened to protect him. It is a mere survival of that belief, says Mr Puleston Joses, to expect God to-day to give victory on the *trieken field to the nation whose cause 18 right. The right, admits Mr Puleston Jones, must triumph in the end&mdashbut the end is sometimes so distant that it is impossible to determine which is the final engagement that de- clares the divine verdict. He instances the attack on the Dardanelles as a case in point, where we were within an ace of winning a victory which would have been decisive and have ended the war. Allenby's capture of Jerusalem without firing a shot might be instanced in sup- port of the theory which is shattered by the Dardanelles instance. It is a thought- ful article demanding careful study. I MERRY MUSICIANS I The "Cord(ior" enlivens its pages by the musical reminiscenses of Dr. Dan. Protheroe, the American musician. It is unfortunately impossible to reproduce in English without losing the charm of the original the racy stories of Eisteddfodio incidents which Dan. Protheroe relates in his own inimitable style. Almost on a par are Dewi Carno's recollections of old South Walian musicians of a past genera- tion WELSH QUAKERS. I The part once played is Welsh public affairs by members of the Quaker brother- hood is almost forgotten. Mr Shankland does well to recall in the current "Cyniru" a portion, though a ciiiall otie, of that deeply interesting BtûlY. When Welsh history finds its rightful place in our national system of education and in the curriculum of our national colleges, stories which now require the delving of enthusiasts like Mr Shankland will be- come familiar to the more cultured gene- ration of Welsh students the future now promises us. CYMRU FYDD. I The resurgence of the "Cymru Fydd" Society in London affords Mr Llewelyn Williams, K.C., the occasion for giving us in the "Welsh Outlook" an interesting chapter in the past history of the Welsh nationalist movement. CHILDREN'S MAGAZINES. I "Cymru'r Plant" worthily maintains its reputation by its Nature study of the primrose and its excellent children's stories. The chief feature of "Dysged- ydd y Plant" ia an interesting biography of Mr Isaac Edwards, late chief of the Land Survey Office in North Wales. Trysorfa'r Plant" falls into a quite common error of "Welsh magazines by overburdening it-s pages with memories of dead children. "Perl y Plant" has an in- teresting- but very brief record of the pre- sent Dean of Bangor, and we are re- minded that both the Dean and the Bishop of Bangor are now in their 74th year.

VISIT TO THE WELSHI DIVISION.

VISIT TO THE WELSH I DIVISION. MEMORABLE DAY FOR Mil LLOYD I GEORGE. Writing to the Western Mail from rarj, on Tuesday, Madame Raoul Nicole says- Mr Lloyd George's visit to the battle- field of the Sommc was the result of a very pleasant evening spent in Paris by the band formed by Colonel Brock Wil- liams, of the Welsh Division. The men were brought up on a visit to Paris at the beginning of the week, and a delightful concert at the ijotel Majestic. Unfortunately, the Prime Min- ister's engagements made it impossible for him to be present, but a subsequent eon- cert was held the following evening at the Palace de Glace, when Mr Lloyd ueorge was so enchanted with the music that he thereupon decided to pay a visit to tho Welsh. Division to congratulate the men on tho taJcnt of their comrades. Mr Lloyd George, accompanied by Lord Reading and Mr Philip Kerr, lett Paris on a (ftorious summer morning, and driving in an open car reached Amiens, where lio was met by Colonel Brock William15 and his staff. The Prime Minister was taken over the battlefield by the men who had known its dangers and fought hard throughout the great attacks of 1916 and: 1918. l'År Lloyd George was keenly interested in all he saw, and listened with intent admiration to the tales of these men who had lived through the days when the battlefield was a raging hell. Later in the day a visit was paid to Bullecourt, and he saw here the remains of what had onco been a prosperous village. The Prime Minister paid a visit to the gun-pit of his soldier sons. Major Gwilym Lloyd George's dug-out was then setn, ajid members of the party took several photo- graphs of it as souvenirs for the family. Lunch was taken in the offi&oeligrs' mCi<-oj. room, and in the afternoon the) party con- tinued their journey to the headquarters of the Welsh Division. The men had gathered in the sports field, and when Mr Lloyd GeOYge arrived in the officers' tent ho was greeted with such rousing cheers and enthusiasm that it was come moments before he cotfld make him- self heard. For about ten minutes the Prime Minis- ter addressed the men, and told them of all the pride that filled his heart when think- ing of the gallant deeds performed by the Welsh Division, with which it was his great- est glory to be connected as one of the original founders. From the day of its formation the Prime Minister traced briefly its short and glor- ious history, and then in a few touching words referred to those of them who had made the great sacrifice. The evening was drawing to a close as Mr Lloyd George proceeded to his car, and, stepping into it he turned to the men and promised them that the tale of their bravery should never be forgotten in WTales. He added that to their parents and those who loved them he sent a message of congratu- lation that they had done so much for the honour of their country. The men surged round the car as it left the field, heartily cheering and singing "For he's a jolly good fellow," and bade farewell to the Prime Minister amidst loud shouts of "Come again soon." Mr Lloyd George's impressions were of the deep gratitude Wales owes to her gal- lant sons, whilst he was overwhelmed with the spontaneity of the affectionate welcome which had been given him by these men who, having suffered the hardships of the battlefield for nearly four years, are now rejoicing in their well-earned rest.

CONWAY VALLEY HOLDING AVER-I…

CONWAY VALLEY HOLDING AVER-I AGES £16() AN ACRE. j Messrs W- Dew and Son and R. Arthur Jones, at the Castle Hotel, Conway, on Friday. offered for fale several properties on behalf of the executors, amongst which were included the well known holdings of Brynygynog and Ddol Castell. All lots were readily disposed of in the presence of a large oompany at high figures. For Pont-wgan, a small-holding of 5 acres, S800 was realised, averaging JCibO per acre. Brynvgynog, 13 acres, sold at J61500, rough- ly Bill per acre. A field of 3 acres made 9225. Ddol Castell, 65 acres, with somo upland sheep walk, realised Y4000. Bryn, a leasehold house near Conway, with a ground rent of 91 and 22 years to run, was disposed of at £650. The solicitors acting for the executors were Messrs Matthew Jones and Lamb, of Liverpool.

PLAS NEWYDD WITHDRAWN ATJ…

PLAS NEWYDD WITHDRAWN AT J -vioo.- At Llangollen, on Tuesday, great interest was manifested by the public, including summer visitors to the Valley, when Plas Newydd. the one-time home of "the Ladies of Llangollen," was offered for sale. Th« unoccupied house and grounds, including the stones of the Gorsedd of the Llangollen National Eisteddfod, and a small house known as "The Hermitage," were with- drawn at C5760. Plas Newydd and grounds were then submitted alone, and withdrawn at EAIOO. The Urban Council, who had decided not to burden the rates by purchas- ing the property, were representd. but ook no part in the bidding.

I ANOTHER DEMAND FORI IINQUIRY.

ANOTHER DEMAND FOR I INQUIRY. Earl Stanjiope, who took up the case of Miss Violet Douglas Pennant in the Peers' House, and has raided it on two or three occasions, has given notice that next Thursday he will move: T.iat. in view of the allegations made both in public and privately ag-ain^t Mias Violet Douglias Pennant, this House is of opinion that a judicial inquiry should be held forthwith to examine the Circum- stances leading to her dismissal from the Royal Air Force.

DRAFT NATIONALISATION BILL.…

DRAFT NATIONALISATION BILL. I NO COMPENSATION FOR THE OWN- I ERS OF ROYALTIES. The Miners' Federation of Great Britain have prepared a Bill which provides tor the nationalisation of all mines and miner als and the State control of the sale and the distribution of the output. The min- ers suggest the formation of a Ministry of Mines, the head of which shall preside over a mining council composed half of Government nominees and half of nomin- ees of the Miners' Federation. The Mining Council will appoint, subject to the general consent of the Treasury, managers and officials and workmen of all grades, and will have wide powers, and it shall be its duty to ensure that there is a sufficient supply of fuel at reasonable prices throughout Great Britain. The Bill provides for compensation to ex- isting owners, but none for royalty own- ers.

MINERS' INCOME TAXI "STRIKE."

MINERS' INCOME TAX I "STRIKE." REFUSAL TO PAY UNLESS ABATE-I MKNT IS RAISED TO £250. 1 A special conference of the South VY ales Miners' Federation at Cardiff on Tuesday. passed the following resolution''That j having regard to the refusal of the Gov- ernment to accept the proposal of the Labour Party to raise the income tax abatement to S250 per annum, the mem bers of the Federation refuse to pay furth- er income tax upon the present basis from April 5th, 1919, and call upon the Miners' Federation of Great Britain to take Eím. ilar aetioji." Amendments that the abatement should be increased to S350 and L500 were de- feated.

COAL OUTPUT: SERIOUSI SITUATION.

COAL OUTPUT: SERIOUS I SITUATION. Sir Auckland Geddes stated in the House of Commons on Tuesday that he greatly feared it would be necessary either to re- duce the supply of coal for industrial and domestic use, or limit the quantity allowed for export. The output of coal per person employed, he regretted to say. showed a decrease, without any shortening of the hours of working.

I WELSH VICTORY TOURNAMENT.I

WELSH VICTORY TOURNAMENT. I Cvrit Hughes, of Chester, the ex-Welsh champion, with a score of 152 for 36 holes, won the Welsh Professionals' "Victory" Tournament-, at Llandrindod Weils on Wednesday. Fifteen players took part in the competition, and the scoring was rath- er good considering the fast nature of the greens- The returns were:- Cyril Hughes (Chester) 77 75-152 R. S. Ferine (Penarth) 76 81-157 R. Walker (Southern Down) 76 81-157 G. Faiilktit,r 79 79&mdash157 A. Whiting (Pennevgwaith) 81 79-160 T. E. Grant (Tenby) 82 79-161 A. W. Matthews (Conway) 82 81-163 G. Humble (Llandrindod Wells) 83 81-164 W. Ivory (Penarth) 78 89&mdash167 J. G. Hutchison (Porthcawl) 86 87-173 X..J. Walker (Harlech) 88 BD-1 73 W. H. Booth (Blackliill) 85 &4-174 A. J. Jont's (Conway) 94 89-183

ABERYSTWYTH COMPETITION.I

ABERYSTWYTH COMPETITION. I The De Say Thomas ('up was played on the links of the Aberystwyth Golf Chib in u very strong north-easterly Mind Tho competition :ittracted 23 starters, the fol- lowing being the best J. A, Jone (net handi<ap B' 2 down (winner) 2 dow't (wi?)tcr) Profcssur Edward Kdw?tds (4), 4 d<.wn Profc?snr Korman Jones (7). 4 dOHI Mr R. Y. Bickers)aff (11)..5 down Dr. E. A. Lewis (14). 5 down: Rev. D. J. Jones (7). 6 down Rev. J. 7 down Mr C.. S. Collins (14). J.O down.

I- - - -I BANGOR UNIVERSITY…

I BANGOR UNIVERSITY AND THE HEROES' MEMORIAL. l THE QUESTION OF ARCHITECT. Dr. E. LloYd Owen, of Crieeiefcli, lia,- given notice to move at the next, meeting of the Court, of Governors of Bangor University College, a resolution expressing astonishment at the action cf foe Wefeh Heroes' Memorial Buihiing Committee in deciding aga.vnst open, oompefotion in not including' a Welshman amongst the six candidates to be invited to submit de- signs, and in recommending the appoint- ment as assessor of a gentleman who ? not a Welshman. -kll<)eiler n-iotion, of which notice has been given, will call attention to the need for a Fairuity of Building and Architec- tute.

R WELSH LIBRARIES. I

r WELSH LIBRARIES. I THEIR MERITS AND RESPONSI. I BILITIES. I XIX. &mdashCARDIFF FREE LIBRARY. (CONTINUED.) (From a Special Correspondent). N Of recent years the difficulties incident to war time notwithstanding, the authorities of Cardiff Free Library have endeavoured to maintain its past traditions by adding continually to its already rich contents, as opportunity offered, not only new issues and new works, but also valuable private collections. In addition to those mentioned in previous articles there have in the course of the current year been added sev- eral valuable collections of historical vol- umes and prints. Sir Wm. Seager, one of Cardiff's Parlia- mentary representatives, signalised his re- turn by presenting to the Free Library the Cruikshank collection from the library of the late Mr Allgood, liberal agent for the city. This collection comprised over 400 volumes and about 300 prints. Of more direct interest and value to Wales is the collection of ATSS., the pro- perty of the late Mr T. H. Thomas, better known as Arlunydd Penygarn. Mr Tho- mas, the official Herald Bard of the Gor- sedd, was as ardent a Welshman as he was distinguished as an artisL The Gorsedd owes far more to him than the rank and file of Welsh Bards have ever realised. It, says very little for the foresight of the authorities of the National Library, and very much for the Cardiff Free Library, that Mr Thomas' exceptionally interesting and valuable collection of MSS. should have found their permanent home at Car- diff instead of at Aberystwyth. It is to the liberality of Mr Edgar David, of Fairwater--a place historic in the Cromwellian period&mdashthat Cardiff is indebt- ed for this. It was Mr David who de- frayed the cost of the purchase of a col- lection which forms part of the historic Edward Llwyd collection of Welsh manu- scripts. The Cardiff lot, although it con- tains all told only twenty-six manuscripts, nevertheless boasts of some which WTelsh scholars and students regard as the most precious. Some of them rank amongst the oldest Welsh manuscripts now extant, and all of them are believed to have been written before the year 1400. One contains the Welsh text of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Ilistoria Regum Brittaniac, and of the Siege of Troy by Dares Phrygia. Another contains Welsh texts of Geoffrey of Mon- mouth, and of Bonhed y Seynt. These MS. are partly illuminated after the old monkish style. Another valuable early manuscript contains an ancient medical treatise in Welsh. This class of manu- script&mdashmedical trealise&mdashwas a distinct fea- ture of ancient Welsh writings from the days of Meddygon Myddfai, the historic Welsh physicians, from whom Sir John Williams is believed to claim direct des- 1 cent. Several of the modern Welsh Herba- lists are based upon this class of old manu- scripts. Carnarvonshire and Denbighshire are said to claim some, and not the least important-, of these ancient medical treat- ises. The Welsh Library at Cardiff is the pro- perty of the Corporation, and is supported solely from the borough fund. From its inception it has ever been open and free to all. Mosft of the restrictions preventing free access, common to many public institu- tions of the kind, are dispensed with at Cardiff. No "nomination," no "recom- mendation," no previous "application" is necessary to enable a visitor to benefit l)y the resources of the library. Everything in the extensive collection is available tor use in the Reading Room of the Reference Department. The institution knows no "eight hours "day," as t-he Library is open to all comers from 9.30 in the morning until 9 o'clock at night. The Library claims to be the largest in the world in printed items&mdasha claim cer- tainly open to question and requiring to be qualihed. It claims also to be "second only to the National Library in manuscript It,eitis"a claim which presupposes that, the National Library at Aberystwyth takes first place in extent and value of manu- scripts, which is also open to question. But at Cardiff both printed books and manu- scripts are at the service of serious stud- ents practically without restriction. They come from all parts of the Kingdom, from the Highlands of Scotland and the Wilds of C-onnemara, as well as from Gwynedd and Powys, and Dyfed, and Gwent, and Morganwg, and, in normal times, from the chief scats of learning on the Continent, and America, Canada., South A frica, Australia, India, and even uapan. The extent to-which these visitors avail themselves of the resources of the Library may be gathered from the single fact that in the year preceding the outbreak of war, the recorded number of Welsh books and manuscripts consulted reached the astound- ing figure of 16,569. It would be interest- ing to have, for the purposes of compar- ison, the number of such "consultations" for the same period at the National Li- brary at Ab<-rystw rh. Among those who regularly avail themselves of the facilities of tlils excellent library are school teach- ers, university students, journalists, liter- ateurs, Eisteddfod compet itors, and mem- bers of various organisations&mdashlearned, re- ligious, social, la bour, political. The upkeep of such an establishment in- volves heavy expense. The estimates for the current, year for Free Library purposes only totalled £ 12,500. This is an increase of say two-thirds, in other words, for every JE100 expended last year there will be this year spent £ 166. The increase, is to be at- tributed chiefly to higher wages and in- creased cost all round. The normal in- come, a three halfpenny rate, rich though Cardiff is. will not be sufficient to meet this heavy demand. But, Cardiff is never niggardly in money matters. All praisa to Cardiff and its municipal enterprise in providing-Wales with so ex- cellent a Welsh Library. But to the last- ing shame of the city authorities be it said that the Welsh Librarian. Mr Ifano Clones, who now also has supervision of the gen- end Reference Library, is the only library official employed who is conversant with the Welsh language and literature. There we have a picture of Cardiff municipal policy in miniature. Lavish expenditure of money niggardly recognition of the speci- al claims of Welsh-speaking Wales. That has been its bane in the past, it is it s wak. ness in the present, and will prove to be its undoing in the early future. Next week: St. Deiniol's Library. II a warden.


CP Air, Canadi>n People Gallery

CP Air closes base.

CP Air will close its Flight Attendant base in Montreal May 1, 1984 and move 85 flight attendants to Toronto and Vancouver.

(Source: AC Horizons issued March 1984.)

CP Air buys Eastern Provincial.

Canadian Pacific Airlines has announced plans to purchase Eastern Provincial Airways and its affiliate, Air Maritime Ltd., from Newfoundland Corp. for $10 million, subject to approval of the Canadian Transport Commission.

Eastern Provincial will continue to be headquartered in Atlantic Canada and will service its regional structure as a separate carrier under its own name and livery. It will be operated as a wholly owned subsidiary of CP Air.

Employee groups will not be amalgamated. EPA has some 850 employees and CP Air approximately 7,300

(Source: AC Horizons April 1984)

The airplanes of the 1930's and 40's certainly were durable. The Barkley-Grow light twin was introduced in Canada in 1939 with Yukon Southern Air Transport. Along with other operators, YSAT merged early in WWII into CPA, in which markings Leslie Corness frequently saw CF-BLV.

&ldquoBLV&rdquo, T8P1 built in 1938 c/n 3, remained in Edmonton when acquired by CPAL on December 23, 1943 assigned fin # 212. Later sold to H.R. Peets of Edmonton on November 29, 1949 and then by Associated Airways in 1951, then Associated was absorbed by PWA in 1956. Sadly, it came to a harsh end in a January 12, 1960 crash at Peace River, Alberta. This is about the best basic angle for shooting a Barkley-Grow, Beech 18, any Lockheed twin, DC-3, or most &ldquotail draggers&rdquo. Airplane hobby photographers understand such fundamentals.

(Source: Leslie Corness collection via Larry Milberry/CANAV Books & CPAL "Its History & Aircraft by D.M. Bain)


This scrapbook consists of press cuttings, including photographs, from national and regional newspapers, documenting the formation of the Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS) in 1917, and the appointment of Dame Katharine Furse as its first Director. Many cuttings describe parades, drill and inspections by various dignitaries. There is also coverage of the case of Violet Douglas-Pennant, Lady Rhondda's report on the state of the Women's Royal Air Force (WRAF) which led to her dismissal as Commandant of the Women's Royal Air Force, and the subsequent Judicial Inquiry set up by the House of Lords. The collection ends with victory celebrations in 1919 and the demobilisation of the WRNS. It also includes a large number of cuttings and photographs relating to women's war work in general.

The Women's Royal Naval Service (1916-1993) (WRNS), members known as Wrens, was formed in 1916 during the First World War. The Royal Navy was the first of the armed forces to recruit women and the Wrens took over the role of cooks, clerks, wireless telegraphists, code experts and electricians. In Nov 1917, Katharine Furse, the former Commander-in-Chief of the Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD), was appointed director. The women were so successful that other organizations such as the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) and the Women's Royal Air Force were established. By the end of the war, in Nov 1918, the WRNS had 5,000 ratings and nearly 450 officers. The Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS) of the First World War was demobilized in 1919 and was not reformed until Apr 1939. The main objective was for women to replace certain personnel in order to release men for active service. At first the Wrens were recruited from navy families living near the ports. During the Second World War the Women's Royal Naval Service was expanded rapidly. Between Dec 1939 and Jun 1945 numbers increased from 3,400 to 72,000. The duties were expanded and included flying transport planes. WRNS units were attached to most naval shore establishment in Britain. A large number of women served abroad in both the Middle East and the Far East. Some members of the service were employed in highly secret naval communications duties. The Wrens remained in existence until 1993, when women were fully integrated into the Royal Navy.

Katharine Furse [née Symonds] (1875-1952) was born in Bristol, on 23 Nov 1875. She married Charles Wellington Furse (1868-1904), the painter in 1900, but he died four years later. In 1909 she joined the first Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachments (VAD) attached to the Territorial Army. In the First World War (1914-1918) she was involved in setting up VAD stations in France and London. In 1916 she was appointed the First Commander in Chief Women's VAD and in 1917 Director Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS, also known as the Wrens). She was created a Dame in 1917. She was a keen skier and was involved with the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts.


Brief Interludes in Politics, Playwrighting

By age 40 Hastings enjoyed a very successful practice. He was elected a member of Parliament for the fledgling Labour Party in the early 1920s, and since he was the only barrister of senior rank in the House of Commons at the time, he became party spokesperson on legal matters. This political dalliance led to a brief stint as attorney general in the government of Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, the first Labour government in British history. Hastings disliked the grind of the job intensely, finding himself involved in resolving a boundary dispute between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland, as well as leftover war matters. He sometimes worked from seven in the morning until well past midnight, recalling: "Nothing that I began was I ever allowed to finish, and nothing was ever finished until something else was begun," according to Hyde. "Being an Attorney-General as it was in those days is my idea of hell."

In the early 1920s two cases came before the House of Lords for final decision that set legal precedent at the time. One was a divorce case so sensational that Parliament passed a statute banning the publication of details from divorce proceedings until the matter was decided. In the matter, a woman had become pregnant and her husband denied paternity the first trial ended in a hung jury, and hinged upon the question of whether a husband's claim that there had been no relations—though they had shared the same bed—was admissible in court. In another well-publicized case, a Roman Catholic physician attacked noted birth control advocate Dr. Marie Stopes, who then sued him for libel. Though the doctor's book did not mention Stopes by name in its pages, he did claim in its pages that a female doctor's practice in a London slum involved harmful "experiments" on the poor. Hastings defended Stopes, and the jury returned a mixed verdict on the charges the judge then decided in favor of the physician, but that decision was overturned on appeal, which appeal was subsequently overturned in the House of Lords.


Married Love by Marie Stopes, the Book that Scandalized WWI Society

The war forced sexual matters to the forefront of society. Soldiers were sent to hospitals more often for venereal disease than bodily injury, young women were in contact with young men in an unchaperoned capacity for the first time, and there were even scandals over the supposed immorality within female military branches (Violet Douglas-Pennant was forced out of commanding the WRAF and blamed her dismissal on the senior officers covering up affairs between men and women of the air force). On a more mundane level, sex sold entertainment during the war years, and racy revues and musicals, and the French boudoir farces banned from England by the Lord Chamberlain during the Edwardian era, found much favor with theatergoers. In short, the heightened awareness of mortality and a desire to shrug off stodgy, old-fashioned morals, led to many young people growing up in the shadow of war to seek pleasure where it lay, when it lay.

When Marie Stopes published Married Love in the spring of 1918, she was a divorcee who placed the blame for her failed marriage on the social and sexual inequalities between men and women. Married Love was her treatise on how a healthy and happy marriage should work, and placed particular emphasis on the disasters prone to the marriage bed. Needless to say, this book shocked and offended most respectable people, even as it immediately sold out and was in its sixth printing within two weeks. In the United States, still under the yoke of the then forty-five year old Comstock laws, Married Love was banned as obscene, but it was published privately by Dr. William Jay Robinson, who, with other medical titans, deemed it “scientific”.

Robinson’s publication was barely tolerated, and the only way an American reader could lay their hands on the text was to purchase it from a bookstore. Of course, it was probably smuggled into the States via Canada, but smugglers and resellers alike bore the risk of imprisonment. Despite these setbacks, Stopes and her book were revolutionary, and influenced a generation of young people to think about and look at sex and marriage in a new, truly modern and twentieth century light.

Full text at the Digital Library of the University of Pennsylvania

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Watch the video: Violet