1965: Kidnapping in Paris of Mehdi Ben Barka, leader of the Moroccan opposition, whose body has never been found.
1956: The Israeli army invades Sinai.
1923: Proclamation of the Turkish Republic byAtaturk, which definitively brought an end to the five-century-old Ottoman Empire.
1922: The King of Italy Victor-Emmanuel III appoints Mussolini head of government.
1863: Foundation of the Red Cross.