Hawaii 2016 - History

Hawaii 2016 - History


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Coral bleaching event now biggest in history – and about to get worse

The coral bleaching event sweeping the globe and destroying vast tracts of valuable coral reef is now officially the most widespread in recorded history, and is likely to continue for an unprecedented third year, according to the US weather agency.

For the coming four months, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration says its forecasts show warm ocean temperatures are expected to cause bleaching in the northern hemisphere, including around Hawaii, Micronesia, the Florida Keys and Puerto Rico.

“All northern hemisphere US-coral reefs are on alert for coral bleaching this year,” said Mark Eakin, coordinator of Coral Reef Watch at Noaa. “If we see bleaching in Florida or Hawaii this year it will be three years in a row.”

Coral in every major reef region has already experienced severe bleaching. About 93% of the reefs on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef have been affected, and almost a quarter of the reef on the 2,300km stretch is now dead.

Hawaii and the Florida Keys, which will probably be hit by bleaching in the coming months, have been affected twice already, in mid-2014 and mid-2015. Reefs in the Indian Ocean around the Maldives and Western Australia have suffered severe bleaching, as have those in the rest of the Pacific, the Red Sea and the Caribbean.

Although the bleaching event was already the longest in recorded history and was predicted to run past the middle of the year, Noaa’s latest climate model-based forecasts now suggest it will run at least through to the end of 2016.

Coral bleaches when water temperatures are a couple of degrees above the normal summer maximum for longer than about two weeks. Climate change has caused global sea surface temperatures to rise by about 1C over the past century, pushing corals closer to their bleaching threshold. A strong El Niño, as well as other weather phenomena, raised the temperature further this year.

“It’s time to shift this conversation to what we can and are doing to conserve these amazing organisms in the face of this unprecedented global bleaching event,” said the director of Noaa’s coral reef conservation program, Jennifer Koss.

Coral reefs can often recover from bleaching when there is enough time between bleaching events, provided there aren’t too many other stressors, such as overfishing and water pollution.

Relieving the local stressors was important, but not enough, Koss said. “Globally, we need to better understand what actions we all can take to combat the effects of climate change.”

Noaa tracks the water temperature from satellite data and uses that to estimate the probable bleaching it will cause. Eakin said the information was then given to scientists and managers on the ground.

“The biggest bleaching threat over the next six months is to the reefs in two US freely associated states: Palau and the Federated States of Micronesia,” he said. “Islanders there are very dependent on their coral reefs and diving tourism is a major contributor to their economies. This event may have major ecological and economic impacts on those islands.”

He added: “It is crucial that scientists and the public continue in-water monitoring to track the actual extent and severity of the bleaching it causes.”


Department of Land and Natural Resources

DEPARTMENT OF LAND AND NATURAL RESOURCES
News Release

For Immediate News Release June 23, 2016

VANDALS DAMAGE ONE OF HAWAII’S MOST IMPORTANT CULTURAL SITES
Kaniakapupu Was King Kamehameha III Summer Palace

(HONOLULU) – Kaniakapupu, in the forest above Honolulu, in the Nuuanu district, is central to the story of modern Hawai‘i. Not only was it the summer palace of King Kamehameha III and Queen Kalama, it was the first government building built in western style with mortar and plaster. Completed in 1845, Kaniakapupu was the “scene of entertainment of foreign celebrities and the feasting of chiefs and commoners. The greatest was a luau attended by 10,000 celebrating Hawaiian Restoration Day in 1847,” (from a plaque erected on-site by the Commission on Historical Sites). Earlier it was the site of a notable heiau for Hawaiian royalty.

Recently vandals etched a series of crosses on at least three of the inside walls of the crumbling structure. For more than 15 years, volunteers from Aha Hui Malama O Kaniakapupu have worked tirelessly to protect and preserve this historically and culturally significant place. During a recent trip to the site, the vice-chairman of the group, Baron Ching, pleaded, “Leave it alone. Don’t scratch it, don’t do anything to it, come with respect. Criminy sakes, I don’t know where you’re coming from, but this is not a graffiti palette to do your thing. This is important to a lot of people. This is important to the Hawaiian nation, yea. It’s just utter disrespect, utter disrespect. How does it make me feel? It makes me feel awful.”

On the day Ching visited the site with Ryan Peralta of the DLNR Division of Forestry and Wildlife, a family spread a blanket over the top of a stone structure just outside the walls of Kaniakapupu and prepared for a photo shoot. Even this seemingly innocuous activity is viewed as culturally disrespectful. Ching added, “Come with respect. There is history going back to the beginning of time in this area. Modern Hawai‘i was forged in this place…inside these walls every single monarch, every single high chief or chiefess were inside these walls…and it’s entirely inappropriate to put graffiti on the walls, to move the stones around. It’s entirely inappropriate to be climbing around this place.”

A DLNR Division of Conservation and Resources Enforcement (DOCARE) officer also checked out the site and the vandalism. Unfortunately unless vandals are actually caught in the act of desecrating the sacred site, it’s difficult to identify them and subsequently cite them.

Within the past month, vandals also etched marks on the walls underneath the newly restored fence surrounding Iolani Palace in downtown Honolulu. Reflecting on this kind of activity, DLNR Chair Suzanne Case commented, “It’s hard to understand how anyone thinks it is okay or pono to draw or etch graffiti on any of Hawai‘i’s historical or cultural treasures. They need to understand that their actions not only potentially destroy the cultural integrity of these sites and structures, but also show tremendous disrespect toward our host culture and to the countless volunteers and staff who work hard to preserve these places for future generations.”

Ching concluded, “It’s not the first time they’ve carved all kinds of stuff in there. They’re carving happy faces, all kinds of stupid stuff. This plaster is 180 years old was put here by the hands of the kapuna. It was the first government building built by the government of Hawai‘i. When you vandalize it or damage it in anyway, there’s no way we can repair that.”

Social media sites have potentially exacerbated vandalism by failing to point out that Kaniakapupu is closed to visitation and no one should be in the area. Anyone who witnesses or has knowledge of vandalism to any historical or cultural site in Hawai‘i is encouraged to call the statewide DOCARE Hotline at 643-DLNR.

Media Contact:

Dan Dennison
Senior Communications Manager
Hawaii Dept. of Land and Natural Resources
Office of the Chairperson
1151 Punchbowl Street, Room 131
Honolulu, HI 96813
(808) 587-0407


Black Hawaii and the South Pacific Secrets – Forbidden History

*Things your teacher never taught you in school include the birth-place of the original people of Hawaii. Their ancestral linage is shrouded in lies, assimilation, deception, murder, genocide, myth, mystery and historical manipulation. All in an attempted to deceive and cover-up the fact that indigenous Hawaiians were Black and Brown people descendants of the “motherland” who’s ancestral DNA link them directly to African.

Blue Hawaii or modern day “Asian” Hawaii is a European colonization construct that Hollywood and Elvis Presley films and music help usher in. By implanting a false history narrative and images into our physic, thus creating an illegitimate illusion within pop culture conciseness of the world.

It’s an historical fact that when European Americans invaded the islands of what is now called “Hawaii” capturing the Black Queen Liliuokalani, and holding her prisoner in her own palace until her death, they made her the last Black queen of Hawaii, forever breaking and interrupting the royal African blood-line and historical legacy.

Europeans than imported tens of thousands of Asian immigrants who out numbered the indigenous and would soon replace the native population, becoming indentured servants for the invaders of the new illegally acquired islands.

Colonized History
The face and color of Hawaii has changed from its original black and brown skin inhabitants to reflect a new complexion, hue and culture created through European colonization and Asian migration.

The story of Black Hawaii and the South Pacific is tragic and catastrophic it’s a cautionary tale of decent, lies, murder and invasion, that has been covered up, ignored and erased from history.

However the good news is now the indigenous people of Polynesia are embracing their history, ancient ancestral past and African origin.

Today’s Hawaii has long been considered biased with regards to their indigenous Black-Brown inhabitants and called racist by people of color who are not equally welcome to create economic enterprise on the islands with the exception of maybe, President Barack Obama, the unofficial, island son.

The history of the first Black Hawaiians, as told by indigenous historians goes like this: A beautiful, loving, generous people welcomed European strangers to their land, showing them grand hospitality and generosity. After the greedy foreigners partook in the hosts and indigenous peoples uninhibited hospitality, in place of gratitude they stole, plundered, burned, ravaged, raped, killed and created genocide on the unsuspecting population. Then the European Americans and Asians assimilated the culture of the Island’s indigenous people. Think, “Game of Thrones.”

The European scheme of dominance plays it self out, around the world like a calculated, meticulous plot from a movie or video game, time after time, continent after continent, indigenous people after indigenous people who all have one thing in common they are Black and Brown decedents of Africa.

Literally wiped off the map and stricken from history, from the Pacific Island to the Atlantic Caribbean islands, the Americas, Australia and everywhere in between.

There has been no, place that the European has ever gone in peace, with a bible, school teacher and an gun, that has turned out well for the original – indigenous people of the land.

The forbidden history of Black Hawaii and the South Pacific is another document case of genocide in global world history.

Contact historian, researcher, writer, media producer Diane Blackmon Bailey via: [email protected]


History and Architecture in Waikiki

Discover Waikiki’s architectural gems

As a child growing up in India, Purnima McCutcheon was a dreamer whose imagination was fueled by old temples, mosques, forts and palaces.

“I was born in Hyderabad but raised in Mumbai and traveled around the country a lot with my family,” she said. “Some of those buildings were centuries old, and I thought they were spectacular. I visualized being part of those historical scenes. Also, as a classical Indian dancer, I’ve always had a keen awareness of space and environment. Architecture has been the perfect career for me because I’m able to combine my interests in art, history and physics.”

COURTESY ERIC MCCUTCHEON
Purnima McCutcheon

Today McCutcheon is a project architect with Group 70 International a member of the American Institute of Architects, Honolulu Chapter’s board of directors and co-chairwoman of the volunteer committee of architects and architectural historians that has organized a guided walking tour of Waikiki as part of the 10th annual Architecture Month observance in April.

The two-hour tour will focus on eight sites. Docents will be at each site to explain their architectural significance.

“Waikiki plays a key role in Hawaii’s history and economy,” McCutcheon said. “The tour will show how Waikiki’s architecture and infrastructure have contributed to its development as a world-renowned resort.”

The “First Lady of Waikiki” — the Moana Surfrider, a Westin Resort & Spa — opened as the Moana Hotel on March 11, 1901, with 75 rooms in a six-story wooden structure that its architect, Oliver Traphagen, called “Colonial Style adapted for the tropics.”

Well-heeled guests arrived at a porte-cochere marked by six Ionic columns and flanked by colonnades adorned with fleur-de-lis. Design highlights also included ocular windows, decorative railings and graceful colonettes. Two six-story concrete wings, adding 150 rooms, were completed in 1917. Their symmetry, elaborate window casings with pediments and wide, low-pitched, hipped roofs reflect the Renaissance Revival style popular at the time.

MOANA SURFRIDER, A WESTIN RESORT & SPA
A bird’s-eye view of the grand “First Lady of Waikiki,” the Moana hotel.

“In the mid-1930s and the mid-1950s, the Moana underwent major ‘modernizations’ that stripped it of most of its distinctive features,” said Virginia Murison, lead architect for the $50 million, 20-month restoration that culminated with the hotel’s grand reopening in March 1989. “Still, the original 1901 building and the 1917 wings were placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. The contemporary ‘Surfrider’ wings on the hotel’s Diamond Head and Ewa sides were added in 1952 and 1969, respectively.”

During the tour, Murison will be stationed at the Moana to share more insights about that elegant Waikiki landmark.

Another highlight will be the 2-mile-long Ala Wai Canal, which was constructed of stone and concrete between 1921 and 1928. Added to the state Register of Historic Places in 1992, it was designed to divert runoff away from the beaches, drain mosquito-breeding marshes and provide fill to reclaim 625 acres of land.

Lucius E. Pinkham proposed the idea for a canal in 1906, when he was the territory of Hawaii’s president of the Board of Health. In a report to the board, he described “a great lagoon” that would “create a quite marvelously beautiful, unique district, a Venice in the midst of the Pacific.” Paving the way for construction of the canal was one of his primary accomplishments as territorial governor from 1913 to 1918.

“The Ala Wai is the mauka (toward the mountains) boundary of Waikiki today,” McCutcheon said. “Over the years, Waikiki has become visually dense with buildings. The canal’s bridges, tree-lined sidewalks, peaceful waters and large, open space add an aesthetic element.”

Also of note is St. Augustine Church Waikiki, which, built in 1962, is the latest of several Catholic churches that have occupied its Ohua Avenue site over the past 150-plus years. Docents will point out its Gothic-style gable roof and interior arches, which resemble hands clasped in prayer.

COURTESY MASON ARCHITECTS INC.
Stained glass at St. Augustine Church depicts its namesake.

A magnificent 36-by-70-foot stained-glass window above the main entrance honors St. Augustine’s namesake and patron saint. Ten steeply pitched, triangular stained-glass windows on both sides of the church depict biblical themes and important events in Roman Catholic history in Hawaii.

“Architecture tells the story of a place at a certain time in the same way as a book or a painting,” McCutcheon said. “A building’s design, materials and technology provide clues about prevailing trends, beliefs and lifestyles.”

Buildings typically incorporate the technology of the period in which they were constructed. For example, jalousie windows became popular in Hawaii in the late 1940s and 1950s.

“They were prevalent in homes throughout the islands that were built during that era, including walk-up apartments in Waikiki,” McCutcheon said. “The more you get to know a building, the deeper your connection to it, which can lead to advocacy for historic preservation and thoughtful, appropriate design in the future.”

AIA Honolulu’s Historic Waikiki Walking Tour

>> Meeting place: To be given out upon booking

>> Day: Saturday

>> Time: Between 8 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. Tour times are set on a first-come, first-served basis by advance online reservation and prepayment.

>> Cost: $15 per person. No refunds will be given confirmed participants are welcome to invite someone else to attend if their plans change.

>> Phone: 628-7244

>> Website: aiahonolulu.org

Notes: Participants should be mobile and able to walk 1 mile without difficulty. Bring water and snacks and wear comfortable shoes, sunscreen and hats.

Other Architecture Month events

Admission to these events is free, and advance registration is not required.

>> April 14, 21, 29: AIA’s Hawaii Island Section will screen “Alejandro Aravena: The Power of Synthesis” and “Olmsted and America’s Urban Parks” this double feature shows how architecture can positively transform communities.

>> April 14: 6 p.m., Donkey Mill Art Center, 78-6670 Mamalahoa Highway, Kona

>> April 21: 5:30 p.m., W.M. Keck Observatory headquarters, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Highway, Waimea

>> April 29: 5:15 p.m., Hawaii Innovation Center at Hilo, 117 Keawe St., Hilo

>> April 27: 6 p.m., “Urbanized,” a documentary about the issues and strategies behind modern urban design, Center for Architecture, 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 100

>> April 29: 5-8 p.m., Several Honolulu architecture companies invite the public to see works in progress and meet the architects who are spearheading them. A list of participating firms is at aiahonolulu.org.

Cheryl Chee Tsutsumi is a Honolulu-based freelance writer whose travel features for the Star-Advertiser have won several Society of American Travel Writers awards.


Hawaii

Origin of name: Uncertain. The islands may have been named by Hawaii Loa, their traditional discoverer. Or they may have been named after Hawaii or Hawaiki, the traditional home of the Polynesians.

10 largest cities 1 (2010): Honolulu, 374,701 Ewa, 279,683 Koolaupoko, 121,180 East Honolulu, 49,914 Pearl City, 47,698 Hilo, 43,263 Waipahu, 38,216 Kaneohe, 34,597 North Kona, 33,155 Mililani Town, 27,629.

Geographic center: Between islands of Hawaii and Maui

Number of counties: 5 (Kalawao non-functioning)

Largest county by population and area: Honolulu, 974,990 (2012) Hawaii, 4,028 sq mi.

State forests: 19 natural area reserves (over 109,000 ac.)

State park: 52 (25,000 ac.)

Residents: Hawaiian, also kamaaina (native-born nonethnic Hawaiian), malihini (newcomer)

2010 resident census population (rank): 1,360,301 (40). Male: 681,243 (50.1%) Female: 679,058 (49.9%). White: 336,599 (24.7%) Black: 21,424 (1.6%) American Indian: 4,164 (0.3%) Asian: 525,078 (38.6%) Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 135,422 (10.0%) Other race: 16,985 (1.3%) Two or more races: 320,629 (23.6%) Hispanic/Latino: 120,842 (8.9%). 2010 population 18 and over: 1,056,483 65 and over: 195,138 (14.3%) median age: 38.6.

First settled by Polynesians sailing from other Pacific islands between A.D. 300 and 600, Hawaii was visited in 1778 by British captain James Cook, who called the group the Sandwich Islands.

Hawaii was a native kingdom throughout most of the 19th century, when the expansion of the sugar industry (pineapple came after 1898) meant increasing U.S. business and political involvement. In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani was deposed, and a year later the Republic of Hawaii was established with Sanford B. Dole as president. Following annexation (1898), Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1900 and finally a state in 1959.

The Japanese attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, was directly responsible for U.S. entry into World War II.

Hawaii, 2,397 mi west-southwest of San Francisco, is a 1,523-mile chain of islets and eight main islands??Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Maui, Lanai, Molokai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, other than Midway, are administratively part of Hawaii.

The temperature is mild in Hawaii.Cane sugar, pineapple, and flowers and nursery products are their chief products. Hawaii also grows coffee beans, bananas, and macadamia nuts. The tourist business is Hawaii's largest source of outside income.

Hawaii's highest peak is Mauna Kea (13,796 ft). Mauna Loa (13,679 ft) is the largest volcanic mountain in the world by volume.

Among the major points of interest are Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Hawaii), Haleakala National Park (Maui), Puuhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park (Hawaii), Polynesian Cultural Center (Oahu), the USS Arizona and USS Missouri Memorial at Pearl Harbor, The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific (Oahu), and Iolani Palace (the only royal palace in the U.S.), Bishop Museum, and Waikiki Beach (all in Honolulu).

In 2008, Hawaii-born Barack Obama was elected president of the United States.


Hawaii Struggles to Keep Rail Project From Becoming a Boondoggle

KAPOLEI, Hawaii — From the start — when Honolulu officials began talking about building a 20-mile elevated train line near the southern coast of Oahu — there were concerns. How much would it cost? What would it do to the character of a state that has long celebrated its natural beauty and isolation? Can an island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean handle the kind of ambitious public works project one would associate with urban centers like Boston and New York?

Eight years after voters in Hawaii approved a referendum clearing the way for construction of the rail line, many of the concerns that have been voiced during a 40-year debate over the project have turned out to have merit.

The project was initially projected to cost $4.6 billion, but that number now is $6.7 billion, forcing the city in January to approve a five-year extension of a general excise tax surcharge to help cover the overrun.

City officials are awaiting the opening of two sets of bids, covering the final 10 miles of the project, to see if even that is enough. At this rate, city officials said, it could have the distinction of being, on a per-capita basis, the most expensive transit project in the country’s history — in a state that also has the highest per capita cost of living in the nation.

The train, which will take passengers from this city in western Oahu to the edge of Waikiki, is at least two years behind schedule, set for opening at the end of 2021.

As construction jams traffic and upends neighborhoods, a poll conducted in February by Civil Beat, a Hawaii news site, found an overwhelming number of respondents who said they either considered the rail plan a bad idea or were troubled by its progress. Just 15 percent of those polled called it a good idea.

Image

“It’s a disaster. In my view, we are worse than how we expected,” said Panos D. Prevedouros, a professor of civil engineering at the University of Hawaii, who has twice run for mayor opposing the project. “We were saying at the beginning we would be lucky if it could be done for $6.4 billion, and people thought we were close to lunacy. We are sitting here today, and we are now computing about $7.1 billion cost.”

“We have become numb to these numbers,” Mr. Prevedouros said. “But it’s very dear for a small place like us, with only like 400,000 taxpayers.”

Yet at this point, even its most ardent opponents are resigned to its completion. Close to seven miles of concrete railway are already arching up to 40 feet over farmland and crowded streets, and pillars are in place for the first of 21 stations. Federal transportation authorities have contributed $1.5 billion to the project, which Honolulu would probably have to return if it were cut back or abandoned.

“People are very angry about it,” said Mayor Kirk Caldwell of Honolulu, as he drove through the streets of his city. “But we are now heading toward eight miles completed. It’s like we are pregnant — we can’t just stop and tear it down.”

Daniel Grabauskas, the executive director of the Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation, said it was now just a matter of time until the benefits long promised by its advocates, to help Oahu deal with choking traffic and an absence of affordable housing, would be realized.

For now, “they don’t get to ride it,” he said. “They don’t get to see it. They have to deal with the traffic. This is kind of the darkest time for any new system that is coming into fruition.”

Hawaii is experiencing the kind of construction trauma well known to mainland governments that have embarked on such ambitious works projects as the Boston tunnel known as the “Big Dig” or the high-speed train that Gov. Jerry Brown is advocating in California.

But more than that, it is a discomfiting reminder of how at least one part of this once-tranquil island is changing, made readily apparent by the jumble of construction crews building the rail line and a skyline already crowded with cranes.

Ernest Y. Martin, the chairman of the Honolulu City Council, said he was stunned at how quickly the price tag exceeded projections.

“I was surprised we incurred a cost overrun so early in the project,” he said. “It was very disappointing. I still believe it’s the right thing to do.”

When cost estimates were first offered to voters, the region was in a recession, and construction crews and equipment were idling. Opponents filed two lawsuits, which delayed bidding on the second part of the project by 13 months.

By the time Honolulu won those cases, the construction market had exploded, which became clear when railway officials opened up bids.

“We gagged on the number,” Mr. Grabauskas said. “It was something over 60 percent higher than the estimates we had in 2011 and 2010.”

Benjamin J. Cayetano, a former governor of Hawaii and longtime critic of the project, argued that officials lowballed the original estimates of what it would cost to win voter approval.

“What is happening is what most of us predicted would happen,” he said. “The way I look at it, it might hit $9 billion. They haven’t hit the hardest part yet.”

The highway leading from Kapolei to Honolulu is packed with traffic, particularly during rush hours.

“I believe the rail project will make getting around Honolulu a lot simpler and easier for a large majority of our community,” said Gov. David Ige, a Democrat. “I do believe it’s important.”

And on an island with an acute shortage of housing, the corridor provides a passageway to encourage construction.

“Rail is a way to help get to affordable housing,” said Bob Nakata, a housing advocate and onetime pastor with the Kahalu’u United Methodist Church. “Rail as transportation is almost secondary.”

The main concern now is whether the city has raised enough money to finish the project.

“I’m holding my breath,” Mr. Caldwell said. “You see all these cranes everywhere? All of this is competing for a limited supply that has to be put on a boat to get here.”

Mr. Grabauskas said the question will not be resolved until summer. “We have not yet opened the bids for the final 10 miles and the final 12 stations,” he said. “That’s going to make or break us.”

At this point, though, even another round of cost overruns might not make a difference. “It’s gotten to the point where even I don’t recommend walking away from it,” Mr. Cayetano said.


A History of Hawaiʻi updated edition brings readers up to 2016

The third edition of A History of Hawaiʻi , considered to be one of the best comprehensive accounts of Hawaiʻi ’s history, is now available. The book spans centuries, from 1778 to present day, and is organized by time frame and theme. Governmental, economic, social and land history are explored through primary documents, political cartoons, stories, poems, graphs, maps, timelines and a glossary. The text includes biographies of many cultural practitioners and activists.

The book has an accompanying teacher’s manual and features skill set activities in each chapter with prompts for students to think about the material in the context of their own lives. The new text delves further into Hawaiian cultural and political movements from the overthrow and annexation to the Mālama Honua Worldwide Voyage. Focus on 2016 issues includes education, homelessness, rail development, sovereignty and the Thirty Meter Telescope conflict among other topics.

A History of Hawaiʻi was produced by the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa College of Education Curriculum Research and Development Group and co-authored by Emeriti Professors Eileen H. Tamura and Linda K. Menton and University Laboratory School Teacher Leah Tau-Tassill.

&ldquoOur History of Hawaiʻi text is one of a kind,&rdquo said UH Mānoa College of Education Dean Donald B. Young. &ldquoPrevious editions have been used throughout Hawaiʻi ’s schools. The third edition, thoroughly researched and classroom tested, adds more recent history and new classroom interactive activities that connect students to this place. Used as a classroom text, teacher reference or simply a good read, this book makes an important contribution to understanding Hawaiʻi and its economic, social and political history.&rdquo


American History

The state of Hawaii is one of the most attractive states in the entire United States. Hawaii only gained its statehood after the Congress passed the Admission Act which was signed by the President Dwight D. Eisenhower in March 18th, 1959 to become the 50th state to be fuly integrated in the union on August 21st, 1959 (Buck, 1993). This expository essay will look at the facts behind the integration of the Hawaii state in the union.

The August 21st 1959 saw the integration of the state of Hawaii into the union of the fifty states of the United States. Hawaii is the sole state in the United States that is made up of eight main islands. Hawaii is the only state of the United States that does not have a straight line boundary, has a royal palace, and which is completely surrounded by water. Hawaii attained statehood when the congress passed the Hawaii Admission Act and the then U.S. president signed it into law (Lineberry, 1963). On June 27th of 1959, a referendum asked the citizens of Hawaii to vote on the statehood bill. Hawaii voted 17 to 1 to accept on the bill. However, there has been criticism of the statehood issue because the only choices were to accept the Act or to remain a territory without the option of independence or addressing the legality of the overthrow. It is very clear that even without the criticism the United Nations Special Committee on decolonization later removed Hawaii from the United Nations list of Non-Self governing Territories (Lineberry, 1963). There exist many documents that illustrate the role of the congress, through the Admission Act, in the statehood process of Hawaii. Hawaii became the 50th state and celebrates its 50th anniversary this year. To begin with, there is the letter from Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii to U.S. House of Representatives protesting the United States assertion of ownership of Hawaii. This happened in December 19th, 1898 (Kuykendall, 1961).

In May 4th, 1900, President William McKinley nominated Sanford B. Dole to be Governor of the territory of Hawaii. Another fact that exists is that on August 15th, 1903, J. Res. 1 of the legislature petitioned with the United State congress to admit Hawaii as a state. This made the House of Representatives to at least recognize Hawaii as a regional country, which needed to be accounted for a state of its own. Another leader that facilitated Hawaiis statehood is Joseph Farrington he obtained a certificate of Election in November 16th, 1942, as Hawaiis delegate to congress (Kuykendall, 1961). The University of Hawaii further still contributed to the statehood of Hawaii, through the compilation of Hawaii 49th state brochure. This was to further support the Hawaiian statehood. The influence of the youths, represented by those in the universities, made the United States recognize the need to give Hawaii its statehood. Precisely, the brochure was compiled to reinforce the Hawaiian fight for statehood (Buck, 1993). The influence of the youths was further seen when the 8th grade social studies class, of Honokaa High and Elementary School, Hawaii, wrote a letter to the chairman of the committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.


The Final Days Of Hawaiian Sugar

Fermin Domingo, 61, climbs up the side of a sugar cane hauler for the last time. The haul truck driver has worked at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar (HC&S) company for the past 40 years, harvesting and hauling sugar cane to the mill. This is the last of Hawaii's sugar mills, and it too, is closing. Domingo and hundreds of other co-workers have gathered to wrap up the final harvest and say goodbye to a crop that shaped the islands.

Domingo fires up the engine and the truck slowly rumbles toward the mill, its tires churning through thick mud. It stops at the base of a conveyor belt and a giant crane hooks the final load of Maui sugar cane. Cheers break out from the hundreds of workers standing nearby. "I came here when I was 18 from the Philippines," says Domingo. "I joined the company and I started harvesting. It was fun working out there, but we're at the end and I don't know what to do later."

Workers at the mill look on as the last piece of the final harvest drives up to the factory to be processed. Molly Solomon/Hawaii Public Radio hide caption

For over a century, the sugar industry dominated Hawaii's economy. But that changed in recent decades as the industry struggled to keep up with the mechanization in mills on mainland U.S. That and rising labor costs have caused Hawaii's sugar mills to shut down, shrinking the industry to this one last mill.

Bill Cavilla is one of 675 workers who will lose their jobs once this operation closes by the end of the year. "It's just an emotional thing," he says. "Just realizing it's going to end."

The sugar mill started harvesting cane on Maui 145 years ago, around the time sugarcane plantations began taking over the islands' landscapes when the Civil War cut off sugar supplies from the south. Then, in the 1870s, the U.S. signed a "reciprocity treaty" with the Kingdom of Hawaii. The United States agreed to cut tariffs on Hawaiian sugar and rice, in exchange for Hawaii cutting tariffs on imported cotton and other American products.

The spread of sugarcane plantations on the islands brought immigrant labor in waves from China, Japan and the Philippines. A smaller number of people also came from Portugal, Puerto Rico, Scotland and Germany. That immigration laid the foundation for the multicultural population of today's Hawaii.

Some of the remaining workers at the mill stand in front of the last hauler truck of Hawaiian sugar cane. Molly Solomon/Hawaii Public Radio hide caption

"My grandparents emigrated from Japan to work in the plantations more than 100 years ago, like so many others," says David Ige, Governor of Hawaii, who has briefly stopped by to attend the last harvest at HC&S, along with some 500 other people.

The company has been financially struggling for decades, reporting losses of $30 million last year. Like other sugar companies, it blames the losses on rising costs from labor and transportation to land, as well as increased competition from producers such as Brazil.

The HC&S mill is owned by Alexander & Baldwin (A&B), a real estate and agricultural company in the state. Ige says the state supports A&B's plan to keep HC&S lands in agriculture. The company currently has about 140 acres of biofuel crops in the ground, as it transitions toward diversified agriculture. A&B also recently expanded its cattle pasturelands to 4,000 acres.

Fields of sorghum, one of the trial crops planted by Alexander & Baldwin. The company plans to replace the sugar cane acreage with diversified agriculture and cattle pasture. Molly Solomon/Hawaii Public Radio hide caption

Back at the mill, Howard Scott Pereira, a retired worker, has come by to say his final goodbyes. The 78-year-old brought his daughter Colleen who says the story of sugar is what brought her family to Hawai'i.

"Our families came when it was a territory to work the plantations," she says. "So we had to come."

The remaining workers at the mill process the last harvest, producing sugar for shipping to mainland U.S. The last shipment of sugar, a little more than 30,000 tons, is scheduled to reach Crockett, California in the coming weeks.

Robert Luuwai, the vice president of HC&S, walks through the sugar mill on Maui for one of the last times. Molly Solomon/Hawaii Public Radio hide caption


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