Gregory DD- 82 - History

Gregory DD- 82 - History


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Gregory

Francis Hoyt Gregory was born in Norwalk, Conn. 9 October 1789. While in the merchant service, he was impressed by the British in an incident typical of those which led in part to the War of 1812. After escaping, Gregory was appointed a midshipman 16 January 1809 by President Jefferson and reported to Revenge, commanded by Oliver Hazard Perry. In March 1809 he was transferred to the Gulf Squadron at New Orleans. While serving in Vesuvius and as Captain of Gun Boat 162, Gregory participated in the capture of an English brig smuggling slaves into New Orleans and three Spanish pirate ships. During the War of 1812, he served on Lake Ontario under Commodore Isaac Chauncey and participated in attacks on Toronto, Kingston, and Fort George. In August 1814 Gregory was captured by the British; refused parole, he was sent to England and remained there until June 1815.

After he was released by the British, Gregory joined the Mediterranean Squadron and operated along the North African coast until 1821. In that year he became Captain of Grampus and spent the following 2 years cruising the West Indies, to suppress piracy. While in the Indies, Gregory captured the notorious pirate brig Panchita and destroyed several other pirate ships. After fitting out the frigate Brandywine, destined to carry LaFayette back to France, in 1824, Gregory sailed a 64 gun frigate to Greece for the revolutionary government. From 1824-1828 he served at the New York Navy Yard, and in 1831 reported to the Pacific Station for a 3-year cruise in command of Falmouth. Gregory served as commander of the Station for 1 year.

From the Pacific, Gregory—appointed a Captain in 1838—sailed to the Gulf of Mexico, where he commanded North Carolina and Raritan and served in the blockade of the Mexican coast during the war with that country. After the Mexican War, Gregory commanded the squadron off the African coast, with Portsmouth as his flagship until June 1851. Returning to the States, he became Commandant of the Boston Navy Yard in May 1852 and served there through February 1856. His subsequent retirement ended a navy career which spanned nearly 50 years. When the bloody Civil War rolled across the land, Gregory returned to naval service to superintend the building and fitting out of naval vessels in private shipyards. Promoted to Rear Admiral 16 July 1862, he served throughout the 4 years of war and then retired again. Admiral Gregory died 4 October 1866 in Brooklyn, and was buried at New Haven, Conn.

I

(DD-82: dp. 1,191; 1. 314'4"; b. 30'11"; dr. 9'2", s.
34.75 k.; a. 4 4", 12 21" tt.; cpl. 141; cl. Wickes)

Gregory,' (DD-82) was launched 27 January 1915 by the Fore River Ship Building Co., Quincy, Mass.; sponsored by Mrs. George S. Trevor, great granddaughter of Admiral Gregory; and commissioned l June 1918, Comdr. Arthur P. Fairfield in command.

Joining a convoy at New York, Gregory sailed for Brest, France, 25 June 1918. She spent the final summer of the war escorting convoys from the French port to various Allied ports in Britain and France. As the war neared its close, Gregory was assigned to the patrol squadron at Gibraltar 2 November 1918. In addition to patrolling in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, Gregory carried passengers and supplies to the Adriatic and aided in the execution of the terms of the Austrian armistice. After six months of this duty, the flush-deck destroyer joined naval forces taking part in relief missions to the western Mediterranean 28 April 1919. In company with USS Arizona, Gregory carried supplies and passengers to Smyrna. Constantinople, and Batum. She then sailed for Gibraltar with the American counsel from Tiflis, Russia and some British army officers. Debarking her passengers on the rocky fortress, Gregory sailed for New York reaching the States 13 June 1919.

After brief tours in reserve at Tompkinsville, N.Y., the Brooklyn Navy Yard, and the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Gregory sailed to Charleston, S.C., 4 January 1921. A year of local training operations out of the southern port ended 12 April 1922 when Gregory entered the Philadelphia Navy Yard. She decommissioned 7 July 1922 and went into reserve.

As war broke again over Europe, threatening to involve the United States, Gregory and three other four-stackers were taken out of mothballs for conversion to high-speed transports. The DDs were stripped of virtually all their armament to make room for boats, while other important modifications were made for troops and cargo. Gregory recommissioned 4 November 1940 as APD-3 and joined Little, Colhoun, and McKean to form Transport Division 12 None of these valiant ships were to live through the Pacific war—all but McKean were lost during the Guadalcanal campaign.

Gregory and her sister APD's trained along the East. Coast for the following year perfecting landing techniques with various Marine divisions. On 27 January 27 with war already raging in the Pacific, she departed Charleston for Pearl Harbor. Exercises in Hawaiian waters kept TransDiv 12 in the Pacific through the spring, after which they returned to San Diego for repairs. They sailed for the Pacific again 7 June, reaching Pearl Harbor a week later to train for the upcoming invasion of Guadalcanal, America's first offensive effort in the long Pacific campaign.

Departing Noumea 31 July 1942, Gregory joined TF 62(Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher) and steamed for Guadalcanal. After sending her Marines ashore in the first l assault waves 7 August, Gregory and her sister APD' remained in the area performing a variety of tasks in one of history's most desperately fought over areas. The versatile ships patrolled the waters around the hotly contested islands—waters which were to gain notoriety as "Iron Bottom Sound"—and brought up ammunition & supplies from Espiritu Santo.

On 4 September Gregory and Little were returning to their anchorage at Tulagi after transferring a Marine Raider Battalion to Savo Island. The night was inky black with a low haze obscuring all landmarks. and the ships decided to remain on patrol rather than risk threading their way through the dangerous channel. As they steamed between Guadalcanal and Savo Island at ten knots, three Japanese destroyers (Yudachi, Hatsuyuki. and Murakamo) entered the Slot undetected to bombard American shore positions. At 0056 on the morning of 5 September, Gregory and Little saw 'dashes of gunfire which they assumed came from a Japanese submarine until radar showed four targets—apparently a cruiser had Joined the three DD's. While the two outgunned but gallant ships were debating whether to close for action or depart quietly and undetected, the decision was taken out of their hands.

A Navy pilot had also seen the gunfire and, assuming it came from a Japanese submarine, dropped a string of five 'dares almost On top of the two APD's. Gregory and Little, silhouetted against the blackness, were spotted immediately by the Japanese destroyers, who opened fire at 0100. Gregory brought all her guns to bear but was desperately over matched and less than 3 minutes after the fatal flares had been dropped was dead in the water and beginning to sink. Two boilers had burst and her decks were a mass of dames. Her skipper, IA. Comdr. H. F Bauer, himself seriously wounded, gave the word to abandon ship, and Gregory's crew reluctantly took to the water. Bauer ordered two companions to aid another crewman yelling for help and was never seen again; for his brave and gallant conduct he posthumous,sly received the Silver Star.

At 0123, with all of Gregory's and most of Little's crew in the water, the Japanese ships began shelling again— aiming not at the crippled ships but at their helpless crews in the water. All but 11 of Gregory's crew Survived, 6 of them swimming through the night all the way to Guadalcanal. Gregory sank stern first some 40 minutes after the firing had begun, and was followed 2 hours later by Little. Fleet Admiral Nimitz, in praising the courageous ships after their loss, wrote that "both of these small vessels fought as well as possible against the overwhelming odds . With little means, they performed duties vital to the success of the campaign." Gregory's name was struck from the Navy List 2 October 1942.

Gregory received two battle stars for service in World War II.


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View Complete Notes on Fielding Data

  • Pre-1916 SB & CS data for catchers is estimated from catcher assists, games started and opposition stolen bases.
  • From 1916 on SB, CS, Pickoff, & WP data for catchers and pitchers is taken from play-by-play accounts in the retrosheet files. There are several hundred games without pbp from 1916 to 1972 and for those we may not have any data.
  • CG & GS come from the retrosheet data and should be complete and pretty accurate from 1901 on.
  • Innings played (like SB and CS) come from the retrosheet play-by-play data and should be considered mostly complete from 1916 to 1972 and complete from then on.
  • Stats (PO,A,G, etc) for LF-CF-RF positions (since 1901) is taken from play-by-play or box score data as available.
  • Stats (PO,A,G,etc) for C,P,1B,2B,3B,SS,OF positions is taken from the official reported totals and may have been corrected at various times since their publication.
  • For detailed information on which games retrosheet is missing play-by-play from 1916 to 1972, please see their most wanted games list
  • For detailed information on the availability of data on this site by year, see our data coverage page

Gregory DD- 82 - History

4 -- GARLAND
4 -- GOLDTHWAITE
4 -- WEST ORANGE-STARK​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​


MOST DISTRICT CHAMPIONSHIPS
(Outright and Shared)
---current through 2020
55 – HIGHLAND PARK
47 – REFUGIO
44 – AMARILLO
44 – MART
​40 -- HONDO​
40 – JASPER

20 – WHITEWRIGHT
20 -- WINDTHORST​
20 – WORTHAM

MOST PLAYOFF WINS
---current through 2020

132 – REFUGIO

40 -- FRANKLIN
40 -- GIDDINGS​
40 -- GLADEWATER​
​40 -- THORNDALE
40 -- W.F. RIDER​

CONSECUTIVE PLAYOFF LOSSES
---current through 2020
22 -- CLINT (0-22), 1960-18
**19 -- AUSTIN, 1957-20
18 – BEN BOLT, 1990-13
**18 – FABENS, 1979-19
**17 -- HOUSTON WALTRIP, 1994-17​
**17 – #MARFA, 1949-10
**16 -- HULL-DAISETTA, 1998-20
​**16 -- PEARSALL, 1993-20
**16 -- SEAGOVILLE, 1995-19​
15 -- FORT STOCKTON, 1923-18​
**15 – HURST BELL, 1989-13
​**14 -- HALE CENTER, 1982-20
**14 -- HOUSTON WESTSIDE, 2006-20​
14 – SAN ANTONIO MCCOLLUM (0-14), 1970-03
13 – FW ARLINGTON HEIGHTS, 1979-08
13 – SAN ANTONIO FOX TECH, 1982-08
**13 -- WEST HARDIN, 1984-19​
12 -- BUFFALO, 1961-15
12 – COOPER, 1939-81
12 -- DALLAS SKYLINE, 1995-06​
**12 -- EL PASO BEL AIR, 1986-2020​
**12 -- FERRIS, 2000-20​
**12 -- FLOYDADA, 1981-18​
12 -- FORT WORTH DUNBAR, 2001-15​
**12 -- HAWKINS, 1991-2020​
**12 -- IRVING MACARTHUR, 1991-15​
12 -- PECOS, 1975-2015​
**12 -- SAN ANTONIO JEFFERSON, 1983-20​
**12 -- TRINITY, 1988-2020​
​**12 -- UVALDE, 2001-20
11 -- ALPINE, 2001-13​
**11 -- ANTHONY, 1981-19​
11 -- AUSTIN BOWIE, 1992-08​
11 – BRADY, 1961-03
11 -- DEWEYVILLE, 1980-18​
**11 -- FORT WORTH WYATT, 2000-19​
11 – LAKE DALLAS, 1968-05
11 – MINERAL WELLS, 1929-11
11 -- NEW DIANA, 1995-14
**11 -- POTEET, 1958-20​
11 – ROCKSPRINGS, 1936-95
10 -- AGUA DULCE, 1994-18​
**10 -- AUSTIN TRAVIS, 1992-13​
**10 -- BAIRD​, 1999-16
10 -- BALLINGER​, 2007-19
**10 -- BENAVIDES​, 1951-16
10 -- BOVINA, 1954-09​
10 -- BRACKETTVILLE, 1977-2003​
10 -- CHRISTOVAL, 2000-16​
10 -- CLINT MOUNTAIN VIEW, 2000-18​
10 -- DIBOLL, 2003-17
**10 -- GROESBECK, 1994-20​
**10 -- HOUSTON KASHMERE, 2004-19​
10 – HOUSTON KASHMERE, 1979-03​
10 – HOUSTON STERLING, 1987-00
10 -- LAKE HIGHLANDS, 2009-18​
**10 -- LAKE WORTH, 2009-20​
**10 -- MEDINA VALLEY, 2009-20​
**10 -- PASADENA DOBIE, 2004-20​
10 -- RIO HONDO, 1961-01​
**10 – #RISING STAR, 1962-95
10 -- RIVERCREST, 1978-16​
**10 -- SAN ANTONIO BURBANK, 1939-19​
**10 -- SEGUIN, 1988-20​
**10 -- SHEPHERD, 1967-19​​
10 – SPLENDORA, 1978-07
10 – WEIMAR, 1960-04


PLAYOFF RECORDS, 1951-2020
​ ---current through 2020
MOST PLAYOFF APPEARANCES: 50 by Refugio

CLASS 5A RECORDS, 1951-2020
Originally 3A (1951-79), then 4A (1980-2013) and now 5A (2014-20)
---current through 2020
MOST PLAYOFF APPEARANCES: 40 by Gregory-Portland

CLASS 4A RECORDS, 1951-2020
Originally 2A (1951-79), then 3A (1980-2013) and now 4A (2014-20)
​ ---current through 2020
MOST PLAYOFF APPEARANCES: 40 by Hondo

CLASS 3A RECORDS, 1951-2020
Originally 1A (1951-79), then 2A (1980-2013) and now 3A (2014-20)
​---current through 2020
MOST PLAYOFF APPEARANCES: 41 by Holliday

CLASS 2A RECORDS, 1951-2020
Originally Class B (1951-79), then 1A (1980-2013) and now 2A (2014-20)
​---current through 2020
​ MOST PLAYOFF APPEARANCES: 36 by Wheeler

100 – Argyle 52, Kennedale 48 (2014)
100 – Chapel Hill 57, Huffman Hargrave (2014)
100 – Dayton 56, Port Neches-Groves 44 (2014)
100 – Southlake Carroll 58, Denton Guyer 42 (2014)
100 – A&M Consolidated 55, Humble Kingwood 45 (2013)
100 – New Boston 61, Lone Oak 39 (2013)
100 – Seagraves 61, Booker 39 (2013)
100 – South Oak Cliff 63, Frisco Centennial 37 (2013)
100 – Aransas Pass 53, Sinton 47 (1999)
100 – Waco 56, Austin Crockett 44 (1991)


MOST POINTS SCORED — TEAM (GAME)
---current through 2020
124 by Waco vs. Houston Jeff Davis, 1927
122 by Waco vs. Brady, 1925
95 by Abilene vs. Fort Stockton, 1923
92 by Royse City vs. Leonard, 1938
89 by Lancaster vs. Duncanville, 1941
88 by Brownwood vs. Iowa Park, 2010
88 by Euless Trinity vs. Flower Mound, 2009
87 by Mansfield Lake Ridge vs. Dallas Samuell, 2016​
87 by Hewitt Midway vs. Meridian, 1954

70 by Wellington vs. Christoval, 2018​
70 by Austin Westlake vs. Edinburg Vela, 2017​
70 by Cuero vs. Crystal City, 2017​
70 by Mansfield Lake Ridge vs. Dallas Bryan Adams, 2017​
70 by Refugio vs. Holland, 2017​
70 by Geronimo Navarro vs. Poteet, 2016​
70 by Grapevine vs. FW Southwest, 2016​
70 by Highland Park vs. Mount Pleasant, 2016​
70 by Round Rock Cedar Ridge vs. Austin Anderson, 2016​
70 by Argyle vs. Lake Worth, 2015
70 by Boerne Champion vs. Georgetown, 2015
70 by Brock vs. Jim Ned, 2015
70 by Canadian vs. Hale Center, 2015
70 by LaVernia vs. Zapata, 2015
70 by Manvel vs. Clear Creek, 2015
70 by Victoria West vs. Mission Veterans, 2015
70 by Argyle vs. Lake Worth, 2014
70 by Cameron Yoe vs. Edna, 2014
70 by Cameron Yoe vs. Mineola, 2014
70 by Cibolo Steele vs. SA MacArthur, 2014
70 by FW Arlington Heights vs. Burleson, 2014
70 by Rockwall vs. Copperas Cove, 2014
70 by FB Ridge Point vs. Houston Wheatley, 2013
70 by Katy vs. Houston Madison, 2013
70 by Mansfield Legacy vs. McKinney North, 2013
70 by Seagraves vs. Springlake-Earth, 2013
70 by Gregory-Portland vs. C.C. Ray, 2012
70 by Hughes Springs vs. Hearne, 2012
70 by Katy vs. Cypress Ranch, 2012
70 by Stephenville vs. El Campo, 2012
70 by Wylie East vs. Sulphur Springs, 2012
70 by Chapel Hill vs. Jasper, 2011
70 by Corrigan-Camden vs. West Rusk, 2011
70 by Cameron vs. Newton, 2010
70 by Cedar Park vs. Austin LBJ, 2010
70 by Frisco Liberty vs. Richardson Pearce, 2010
70 by Albany vs. Rotan, 2008
70 by Kerrville vs. SA Burbank, 2008
70 by Monahans vs. Clint, 2008
70 by Devine vs. Poteet, 2007
70 by George West vs. Hebbronville, 2006
70 by Burnet vs. Wharton, 2003
70 by Falls City vs. Woodsboro, 2003
70 by Gregory-Portland vs. Pleasanton, 1994
70 by Waxahachie vs. Lubbock Estacado, 1992
70 by Jasper vs. Crosby, 1984
70 by White Oak vs. Edgewood, 1958
70 by Paducah vs. Pilot Point, 1954
70 by Cisco vs. Colorado City, 1926
70 by Cleburne vs. Lampasas, 1924

43-43 Austin LBJ vs. Waco University, 1992
35-35 SA Madison vs. SA Sam Houston, 1990
35-35 Arlington vs. Odessa Permian, 1987
34-34 Graham vs. Iowa Park, 1985
32-32 EP Irvin vs. EP Riverside, 1994
32-32 Barbers Hill vs. Hempstead, 1955


Wilton Cardinal Gregory

Wilton Cardinal Gregory is the seventh Archbishop of Washington.

His Eminence Wilton Cardinal Gregory was born December 7, 1947 in Chicago to Wilton Sr. and Ethel Duncan Gregory he has two sisters, Elaine and Claudia. He attended St. Carthage Grammar School, where he converted to Catholicism. He attended Quigley Preparatory Seminary South, Niles College (now St. Joseph’s College Seminary) of Loyola University and St. Mary of the Lake Seminary.

He was ordained a priest of the Archdiocese of Chicago on May 9, 1973, and three years after his ordination began graduate studies at the Pontifical Liturgical Institute (Sant’ Anselmo) in Rome. There, he earned his doctorate in sacred liturgy in 1980.

After having served as an associate pastor of Our Lady of Perpetual Help Parish in Glenview, IL as a member of the faculty of St. Mary of the Lake Seminary in Mundelein and as a master of ceremonies to Cardinals John Cody and Joseph Bernardin, he was ordained an auxiliary bishop of Chicago on December 13, 1983. On February 10, 1994, he was installed as the seventh bishop of the Diocese of Belleville, IL where he served for the next eleven years. On December 9, 2004, Pope Saint John Paul II appointed Bishop Gregory as the sixth archbishop of the Archdiocese of Atlanta, and he was installed on January 17, 2005. Pope Francis appointed him as the seventh Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Washington on April 4, 2019. He was installed on May 21, 2019. On October 25, 2020, Pope Francis named Archbishop Gregory one of thirteen new cardinals from around the world. Cardinal Gregory was elevated by Pope Francis to the College of Cardinals in a November 28, 2020 Consistory in Rome.

Cardinal Gregory currently serves as a Member of the Vatican Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life and on the Board of Trustees for the Papal Foundation. Additionally, he is the Catholic Co-Chair of the National Council of Synagogues consultation for the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB).

Cardinal Gregory is Chancellor of The Catholic University of America and Chairman of the Board of Trustees for The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception.

Cardinal Gregory has served in many leading roles in the U.S. church. In November 2001, he was elected president of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) following three years as vice president under Bishop Joseph Fiorenza of the Diocese of Galveston-Houston. During his tenure in office, the crisis of sex abuse by Catholic clergy escalated and under his leadership, the bishops implemented the “Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People.”

He has served on the USCCB’s Executive and Administrative Committees, the Administrative Board, the Committee on Doctrine and the U.S. Catholic Conference Committee on International Policy. Previously, Cardinal Gregory served as the chairman of the Bishops’ Committees on Personnel, Divine Worship and the Third Millennium/Jubilee Year 2000 from 1998-2001, and Liturgy from 1991-1993.

Cardinal Gregory has written extensively on church issues, including pastoral statements on the death penalty, social justice, and euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide. Cardinal Gregory has published numerous articles on the subject of liturgy, particularly in the African-American community.

Cardinal Gregory has been awarded nine honorary doctoral degrees. He received the Great Preacher Award from Aquinas Institute of Theology in 2002 Doctorate of Humanities from Lewis University in Romeoville, IL (2002-2003) Sword of Loyola from Loyola University of Chicago (2004) Doctorate of Humane Letters from Spring Hill College in Mobile, AL (2005) Doctorate of Humane Letters from Xavier University in Cincinnati, OH Doctorate of Humane Letters from McKendree College in Lebanon, IL Doctorate of Humanities from Fontbonne University in St. Louis, MO Honorary Law Degree from Notre Dame University (2012) and the Chicago Catholic Theological Union Honorary Doctorate (2013).

In 2006, Cardinal Gregory joined an illustrious group of preachers with his induction into the Martin Luther King, Jr. Board of Preachers at Morehouse College, Atlanta. At the National Pastoral Life Center in Washington, D.C., Cardinal Gregory was honored with the Cardinal Bernardin Award given by the Catholic Common Ground Initiative (2006).

The images below are free use and in the public domain. For questions or more information, contact [email protected] .

Cardinal Wilton D. Gregory celebrates a Mass of Thanksgiving December 3, 2020 at the Archdiocese of Washington Pastoral Center after his elevation to the College of Cardinals. Archbishop Wilton D. Gregory celebrates Mass at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception after being installed as Archbishop of Washington on May 21, 2019. Archbishop Wilton D. Gregory greets parishioners after a Mass at St. Augustine Catholic Church in Washington, D.C. on June 2, 2019.

St. Olga

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St. Olga, also called Helga or Saint Olga of Kiev, (born c. 890—died 969, Kiev feast day July 11), princess who was the first recorded female ruler in Russia and the first member of the ruling family of Kiev to adopt Christianity. She was canonized as the first Russian saint of the Orthodox Church and is the patron saint of widows and converts.

Olga was the widow of Igor I, prince of Kiev, who was assassinated in 945 by his subjects while attempting to extort excessive tribute. Because Igor’s son Svyatoslav was still a minor, Olga became regent of the grand principality of Kiev from 945 to 964. She soon had Igor’s murderers scalded to death and hundreds of members of their Slavic tribe killed. Olga then became the first of the princely Kievans to adopt Orthodox Christianity. She was probably baptized about 957 at Constantinople (now Istanbul), then the most powerful patriarchate. Her efforts to bring Christianity to Russia were resisted by her son but continued by her grandson, the grand prince St. Vladimir (died 1015) together they mark the transition between pagan and Christian Russia.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor.


6 Things You May Not Know About the Gregorian Calendar

1. The original goal of the Gregorian calendar was to change the date of Easter.
In 1582, when Pope Gregory XIII introduced his Gregorian calendar, Europe adhered to the Julian calendar, first implemented by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. Since the Roman emperor’s system miscalculated the length of the solar year by 11 minutes, the calendar had since fallen out of sync with the seasons. This concerned Gregory because it meant that Easter, traditionally observed on March 21, fell further away from the spring equinox with each passing year.

2. Leap years don’t really occur every four years in the Gregorian calendar.
The Julian calendar included an extra day in February every four years. But Aloysus Lilius, the Italian scientist who developed the system Pope Gregory would unveil in 1582, realized that the addition of so many days made the calendar slightly too long. He devised a variation that adds leap days in years divisible by four, unless the year is also divisible by 100. If the year is also divisible by 400, a leap day is added regardless. While this formula may sound confusing, it did resolve the lag created by Caesar’s earlier scheme𠅊lmost.

3. The Gregorian calendar differs from the solar year by 26 seconds per year.
Despite Lilius’ ingenious method for syncing the calendar with the seasons, his system is still off by 26 seconds. As a result, in the years since Gregory introduced his calendar in 1582, a discrepancy of several hours has arisen. By the year 4909, the Gregorian calendar will be a full day ahead of the solar year.

4. Some Protestants viewed the Gregorian calendar as a Catholic plot.
Though Pope Gregory’s papal bull reforming the calendar had no power beyond the Catholic Church, Catholic countries—including Spain, Portugal and Italy—swiftly adopted the new system for their civil affairs. European Protestants, however, largely rejected the change because of its ties to the papacy, fearing it was an attempt to silence their movement. It wasn’t until 1700 that Protestant Germany switched over, and England held out until 1752. Orthodox countries clung to the Julian calendar until even later, and their national churches have never embraced Gregory’s reforms.

5. Britain’s adoption of the Gregorian calendar sparked riots and protest—maybe.
According to some accounts, English citizens did not react kindly after an act of Parliament advanced the calendar overnight from September 2 to September 14, 1752. Rioters supposedly took to the streets, demanding that the government “give us our 11 days.” However, most historians now believe that these protests never occurred or were greatly exaggerated. On the other side of the Atlantic, meanwhile, Benjamin Franklin welcomed the change, writing, “It is pleasant for an old man to be able to go to bed on September 2, and not have to get up until September 14.”


How Did the Royal Family Start?

The current Royal Family, the House of Windsor, originated in 1917 when King George V proclaimed the last name of the family to be Windsor. However, the roots of the English monarchy trace back to the eighth and ninth centuries.

Centralized systems of government came into existence in England sometime between 700 and 900 A.D. Offa and Alfred the Great had begun to organize tribes under a single ruler, and Anglo-Saxon and Scottish kingdoms had monarchs by the time of the Norman invasion of 1066. William the Conqueror then became the English king, and his descendants ruled in the centuries that followed.

After the death of Queen Victoria, the Virgin Queen, in 1603, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were united. In 1801, Ireland was also included in the union to form the United Kingdom.

In 1917, King George V issued a royal proclamation that established the House of Windsor, giving family members an official last name. Previously, Royal Family members were only known by the kingdom or dynasty of their origin. The current Royal Family members all hail from the House of Windsor. They include Queen Elizabeth II, and in order of succession, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cambridge and Prince George of Cambridge.


Origins of the Doughnut Shape

The Dutch solution to the gooey, uncooked center of the doughnut was to stuff it with fillings that did not require cooking but Hansen Gregory, an American ship captain, had another solution. In 1847 Gregory punched a hole in the center of the dough ball before frying. The hole increased the surface area, exposure to the hot oil, and therefore eliminated the uncooked center.

More colorful versions of Gregory’s invention of the doughnut hole include him impaling a doughnut on the ship’s steering wheel so that he could use both hands to steer, or the idea for the shape being delivered to him in a dream by angels. However Gregory came up with putting a hole in the middle of his olykoek, he is the man credited with inventing the classic hole-in-the-middle shape.


Gregory DD- 82 - History

Name:
Levittown

Region:
Philadelphia and its Countryside/Lehigh Valley

County:
Bucks

Marker Location:
Levittown Parkway at U.S. 13, Levittown

Dedication Date:
November 28, 1992

Behind the Marker

In 1951, Levitt and Sons promoted their new development outside Philadelphia as "the most perfectly planned community in America." Shortly afterwards, America's leading urban critic, Lewis Mumford, quipped that "Mechanically it is admirably done. Socially the design is backward."

The second of three "Levittowns," Pennsylvania's Levittown was a massive project for a single builder. Using mass-production techniques, the Levitts pioneered the creation of affordable housing for thousands of families.

Intrigued by their huge residential developments, journalists, novelists, sociologists, and planners exaggerated both their novelty and normality, using the term "Levittown" to invoke the best and worst of suburban living. Their mass-produced housing came to symbolize both the conformity of American post-war consumer society and its promise of upward mobility and home ownership. Indeed, after World War II, pent-up demand, returning veterans, and favorable government loan guarantees fueled a booming market for affordable, single-family housing and spurred an unprecedented surge of suburban development across the nation.

Leading the way was Levitt and Sons of New York. During the Great Depression, the Levitts had built their business on custom-designed homes for upper-middle class buyers. Then during World War II, they constructed housing for the Navy at Norfolk, Virginia. Using their military experience to revolutionize the construction of residential housing, the Levitts in 1947 undertook the largest housing development in American history at Island Trees on Long Island, New York, where they built some 17,500 houses by 1951. Taking advantage of government-subsidized mortgages, veterans snapped them up as fast as the Levitts could build them.

After plans to build a second development in Long Island, called Landia, collapsed in 1950, the Levitts found their second opportunity for a massive housing development when U.S. Steel announced plans to build the Fairless Works, a large integrated plant at Morrisville, Pennsylvania. Levitt and Sons quickly purchased a substantial tract between the site of the Fairless Works and Kaiser Metal Products, then adapted their Landia plan for this location, anticipating correctly that it would become a Critical Defense Housing Area. As on Long Island, the Levitts selected a site near defense industries and built housing to tap a local labor market.

In contrast to the piecemeal Long Island development, the "master plan" of their new Pennsylvania Levittown called for curvilinear streets, no houses facing the parkways, and clearly defined neighborhood units within large master blocks. Organized by housing types, the neighborhoods, which ranged from fifty-one to 990 houses, tended to separate income and family age levels, counter to the plan's stated aims. To help provide identity, the street names within a given neighborhood began with the same letter. The plan also centered each master block of some 1,400 houses on an elementary school and recreational facilities, and replaced local shopping centers with a single "mile-long" shopping plaza.

Using six single-family house designs, the firm varied the look of houses by alternating the placement of building components on the lots and by offering a selection of exterior pastel colors. To limit costs, the Levitts also limited to size to four small rooms and a single bathroom, reduced room size, replaced basements with radiantly heated concrete slabs, and purchased materials directly from manufacturers. Circumventing union regulations, armies of "subcontractors" assembled pre-cut and "combat loaded" materials. Workers moved from one house site to house site where they performed one of more than 100 tasks in "an assembly line in reverse."

"It is boring it is bad," Alfred Levitt remarked in 1952, "but the reward of the green stuff seems to alleviate the boredom of the work." Coming from near and far, building materials included tiles supplied by the Robertson Art Tile Company in Morrisville and bamboo curtains from Japan, which replaced closet doors. Built-in General Electric kitchens, full landscaping, and an optional expandable attic added to the sales appeal.

Crowds flocked to the sales office when it opened in December 1951. Some purchased homes to move out of the city. Others, including displaced workers from the declining anthracite region and steelworkers from western Pennsylvania, did so to move closer to the new steel works. Although most had modest incomes, Levittown's residents represented many ethnic and religious groups, and built churches and synagogues on land donated by the developers. Writing in Philadelphia Magazine, David Bitten recalled an "unusual mix of liberal and conservative, Bronx-born Jew and Nanticoke coal cracker." Fearing the reaction of potential "white" buyers, the Levitts refused, however, to sell to African Americans. Indeed, when Daisy and William Myers purchased a house from friends in 1957, some of their Levittown neighbors threatened and harassed the African-American couple, who soon moved out. (In 2000, under 2 percent of Levittown's population was African American.)

Sprawling over four municipalities, Levittown's neighborhoods were divided between school districts and received uneven delivery of other services. A movement to incorporate in the 1950s failed, in part because of the reluctance of Falls Township residents to share their tax revenue from the steel works. Inadequate provision for adolescents and the elderly created other problems as the population aged, supporting some of Mumford's early criticisms.

Nevertheless, many Levittowners were deeply devoted to their community, schools, and swimming pools, and resented "the condescending attitudes of the Princeton types," in the words of long-time resident Gordon Parker. They created a successful community library and celebrated when their Little League team won the Little League World Series at Williamsport in 1960. Do-it-yourself additions transformed the housing stock, and as the landscaping matured, it attracted birds. When Levittown was twenty years old, Parker observed, "songs greet you in the morning and lull you to sleep in the evening as you rest on the patio."

Despite its beginnings as a massive, mass-produced housing development linked to Pennsylvania's expanding defense sector, Levittown served many families well, allowing them to own their homes and experience a much-desired suburban lifestyle.


Epilogue

‘Not Gregory but Gelasius I has rightly been described as the greatest pope between Leo the Great and Nicolas I. But if one were to ask about the greatest Christian personality, then the prize among all popes would have to go to Gregory’ This is how Erich Caspar, the great historian of the papacy, concluded his account of Gregory the Great. Compared with Innocent I or Gelasius I before, Gregory VII or Innocent III after him, Gregory I, Caspar thought, played no part in the development of the papal ‘idea’. His pontificate certainly made little impact on the development of the papacy as an institution. Immediately after his death there was a pronounced reaction against the ascetic ideals Gregory introduced. The groups in the clerical establishment whose dominance he had undermined (see above, chapter 8), in which opposition was concentrated to the new style he had brought to the Roman Church, reasserted their hold on it.

Nor did his pontificate mark a change in the direction of papal concerns and policies. The English felt grateful to Gregory, their father and magister , and shared a veneration for the see of Peter and Paul with the rest of Western Europe. But the papacy was slow to exploit the new openings for Roman influence that Gregory's pastoral and missionary initiatives secured in Gaul and in Britain. Under his successors papal interests remained concentrated in, and to a large extent confined to, Italy and the Empire.


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