Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1933 - History

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1933 - History

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Stanley Cup: N.Y. Rangers vs. Toronto Maple Leafs Series: 3-1
US Open Golf: Johnny Goodman Score: 287 Course: North Shore GC Location: Glenview, IL
World Series: New York Giants vs. Washington Twins Series: 4-1

Nobel Prizes

The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

BUNIN, IVAN ALEKSEYEVICH, stateless domicile in France, b. 1870, (in Voronezh, Russia), d. 1953: "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"

ANGELL, Sir NORMAN (RALPH LANE), Great Britain, b. 1873, d. 1967: Writer. Member of the Commission ExŽcutive de la SociŽtŽ des Nations (Executive Committee of the League of Nations) and the National Peace Council. Author of the book The Great Illusion, among others.

Physiology or Medicine
MORGAN, THOMAS HUNT, U.S.A., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, b. 1866, d. 1945: "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"

SCHR…DINGER, ERWIN, Austria, Berlin University, Germany, b. 1887, d. 1961; and DIRAC, PAUL ADRIEN MAURICE, Great Britain, Cambridge University, b. 1902, d.1984: "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

Pulitzer Prizes


Popular Movies

1. Animal Kingdom
2. Be Mine Tonight
3. Cavalcade
4. 42nd Street
5. Gold Diggers
6. I'm No Angel
7. The Kid from Spain
8. Little Women
9. Rasputin and the Empress
10. State Fair

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1933 - History

Date When Celebrated : This holiday is always on December 10

Today is Nobel Prize Day. It is a day in honor of Alfred Nobel, who died on this day in 1895. In his last Will and Testament, Nobel established several categories of prizes for accomplishments made for the betterment of mankind. While his heirs contested the will, Nobel's wishes prevailed and the first prizes were awarded in 1901. They are international recognition awards. The Nobel Prize Foundation Prize controls the determination of award recipients, and the annual presentation of awards.

What is the Nobel Prize? There are several Nobel prizes awarded each year to recognize academic, culture and scientific advances. One of the most important awards, is the Nobel Peace prize. It is awarded each year on December 10. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway, to "those who did their best for mankind'. All other Nobel Prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden, also on December 10. All recipients receive a gold medal, a diploma and a monetary gift. No more than 3 recipients can share a prize.

Interestingly, the prizes are not awarded posthumously. But, after a prize is announced, it is still awarded, if the person dies before receiving it.

Today's Quote: "For the greatest benefit to mankind", Alfred Nobel, in referencing the reason for the Nobel prizes.

History and Origin of Nobel Prize Day:

Nobel prizes have been awarded annually on this date since 1901,

Setting the Record Straight: Our research found a few internet websites incorrectly referring to this as a "National" day. This is totally incorrect. In his Last Will and Testament, Alfred Nobel referred to these international recognition awards as "for the betterment of Mankind". It is truly an international award in every way.

Ecards We've got you covered with free daily Ecards for just about any calendar holiday, occasion, event, or no event at all!

Holiday Insights , where everyday is a holiday, a bizarre day, a wacky day ,or a special event. Join us in the calendar fun each and every day of the year.

Frances Perkins

Frances Perkins (1880-1965) achieved historic gains as U.S. secretary of labor under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. After graduating from Mount Holyoke College, she was a teacher before becoming involved in social reform. She was the first woman to serve on the New York State Industrial Commission, as well as the first to hold a U.S. cabinet post with her appointment by Roosevelt in 1933. Perkins championed many of the policies that became part of the New Deal, and established the Social Security and Fair Labor Standards Acts. After resigning her position in 1945, she wrote a best-selling book and became a professor at Cornell University.

Frances Perkins was a social reformer and U.S. secretary of labor. Perkins grew up in Worcester, Massachusetts, where her father ran a stationery business. She was raised in comfortable, middle-class, Republican circumstances. Perkins attended Worcester Classical High School, a largely male institution, and then went to Mount Holyoke College, graduating as president of the class of 1902. (She cherished the Holyoke experience for the rest of her life, serving on the college’s board of governors and remaining involved in decisions affecting the school.) She taught physics and biology for several years, moving to Lake Forest, Illinois, in 1904. There she became involved in the social settlement movement, which kindled the interest in social reform that was to govern her life.

In 1907, Perkins moved to Philadelphia and then to New York City where she worked for social reform groups and simultaneously earned a master’s degree in sociology and economics from Columbia University. In 1910 she became secretary of the New York Consumers’ League where she investigated labor conditions and successfully lobbied the state legislature for a law to restrict the hours of women workers to fifty-four hours a week. Her association with Al Smith during those years led eventually to her appointment in 1918 as the first woman to serve on the New York State Industrial Commission. She became chair of the commission in 1926 and industrial commissioner of the state of New York in 1928. She was reappointed to that office by Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1929 and retained it until her appointment by him as secretary of labor in 1933.

When she married Paul Caldwell Wilson in 1913, Perkins successfully fought to retain her own name. Until her husband lost much of his inheritance in 1918, Perkins was involved with volunteer work. Thereafter, she worked to support her husband and child, a task that was to become increasingly important as Wilson began exhibiting the mental irrationality that was to keep him institutionalized for much of his later years.

The first female cabinet member in U.S. history and one of only two Roosevelt cabinet appointees to serve throughout his tenure, Perkins brought to the job an unwavering devotion to social reform. She demanded, and got from Roosevelt, a commitment to support federal initiatives in the areas of unemployment relief and public works, insurance to guard workers from the hazards of old age and unemployment, and efforts to regulate child labor as well as wages and hours for adults. These became the cornerstones of the New Deal’s policies for depression relief and reform. Carefully conceived under Perkins’s watchful eyes and shepherded by her through the intricacies of the political process, the Social Security Act and the Fair Labor Standards Act remain monuments to her ability to make progress through incremental steps and to her mastery of the art of compromise.

Although Roosevelt leaned heavily on her, Perkins’s strong attachment to social justice rendered her an unpopular figure in Congress and the press. She alienated business but won over the leaders of organized labor by resisting pressure from industrialists to intervene in strikes. She refused to succumb to threats of impeachment when right-wing congressional leaders urged her to deport Harry Bridges, leader of the Longshoremen’s Union and a suspected communist, without appropriate legal action.

Pearl S. Buck

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Pearl S. Buck, née Pearl Comfort Sydenstricker, pseudonym John Sedges, (born June 26, 1892, Hillsboro, West Virginia, U.S.—died March 6, 1973, Danby, Vermont), American author noted for her novels of life in China. She received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1938.

Pearl Sydenstricker was raised in Zhenjiang in eastern China by her Presbyterian missionary parents. Initially educated by her mother and a Chinese tutor, she was sent at 15 to a boarding school in Shanghai. Two years later she entered Randolph-Macon Woman’s College in Lynchburg, Virginia she graduated in 1914 and remained for a semester as an instructor in psychology.

In May 1917 she married missionary John L. Buck although later divorced and remarried, she retained the name Buck professionally. She returned to China and taught English literature in Chinese universities in 1925–30. During that time she briefly resumed studying in the United States at Cornell University, where she took an M.A. in 1926. She began contributing articles on Chinese life to American magazines in 1922. Her first published novel, East Wind, West Wind (1930), was written aboard a ship headed for America.

The Good Earth (1931), a poignant tale of a Chinese peasant and his slave-wife and their struggle upward, was a best seller. The book, which won a Pulitzer Prize (1932), established Buck as an interpreter of the East to the West and was adapted for stage and screen. The Good Earth, widely translated, was followed by Sons (1932) and A House Divided (1935) the trilogy was published as The House of Earth (1935). Buck was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1938.

From 1935 Buck lived in the United States. She and her second husband, Richard Walsh, adopted six children through the years. Indeed, adoption became a personal crusade for Buck. In 1949, in a move to aid the mixed-race children fathered in Asia by U.S. servicemen, she and others established an adoption agency, Welcome House. She also founded another child-sponsorship agency, the Pearl S. Buck Foundation (1964 later renamed Opportunity House), to which in 1967 she turned over most of her earnings—more than $7 million. Welcome House and Opportunity House merged in 1991 to form Pearl S. Buck International, headquartered on Buck’s estate, Green Hills Farm in Pennsylvania, which is a national historic landmark.

After Buck’s return to the United States, she turned to biography, writing lives of her father, Absalom Sydenstricker (Fighting Angel, 1936), and her mother, Caroline (The Exile, 1936). Later novels include Dragon Seed (1942) and Imperial Woman (1956). She also published short stories, such as The First Wife and Other Stories (1933), Far and Near (1947), and The Good Deed (1969) a nonfictional work, The Child Who Never Grew (1950), about her mentally disabled daughter, Carol (1920–92) an autobiography, My Several Worlds (1954) and a number of children’s books. Under the name John Sedges she published five novels unlike her others, including a best seller, The Townsman (1945). In December 2012 an unpublished manuscript completed just prior to Buck’s death was discovered in a storage locker in Texas, and it was published the next year. The novel, titled The Eternal Wonder, chronicles the peregrinations of a young genius.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.

A vision of the Nobel prize in medicine aligning with health equity

Since the Nobel Prizes began, medicine has evolved with a concept of health defined by the WHO ‘s founding documents in 1946 as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” [19] Like a new growth standard that captures more cases of malnutrition, this definition of health comes with more work. But, global health inequities are more visible and collaborations to address them are more developed than when the Nobel Prizes began.

Can the Prize expand? The Nobel Prize in Medicine is without clear equal in the health sciences – it is a worthy aspiration for physicians and physiologists alike. And, like the highest award in any field, it helps define the culture and scope of the discipline. The Prize in Medicine also constitutes a record of historical achievements, and discoveries are usually awarded more than two decades after they are made (with a notable exception of insulin). [20] This is the long view of the Prize in Physiology or Medicine as an exercise in writing the history of medicine.

Successful physician-scientists plan their life work first by understanding history and hearing stories of achievements that came before them. Let them hear the long version – the version where impact is defined in counting the number of lives touched by a discovery implemented through collaboration and by prioritizing the disproportionately affected. It is the version in which doctors are driven to discover after being exposed to great need. Let them aspire to be humanitarians as well as discoverers. Through medicine, children in need can be spared or treated for serious illness on their way to a state of complete well-being – a broader definition of medicine that could be used by the Nobel Committee to expand the Prize’s territory, along with our maturing concepts of health and equity.

The reality of an uncontrolled pandemic due to a novel but well-characterized virus invites us to consider that discovering the cause of a disease may no longer be the most important concern for medical research. New patterns that redefine achievement in Physiology or Medicine could emerge. We write during a phase of the pandemic in which COVID-19 vaccines were rapidly developed and administered to a set of prioritized front-line healthcare workers in a limited number of wealthy nations. Yet the pandemic carries a lesson in health equity. “In an interconnected world, none of us is safe until all of us are safe,” UN Secretary-General António Guterres proclaimed in a speech early in the pandemic era [21]. The collaborations that produce and broadly administer an effective vaccine for COVID-19 would arguably meet both the original Nobel Prize criteria of “the most important discovery in the field” and having “conferred the greatest benefit to humankind. “And when the most severe restrictions of COVID-19 are lifted, our universal experience of uncertainty can unite us across physical distance and bring global health equity into public focus. Similarly, a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine that honors a global health achievement from an area of greatest need could shift our values away from the ivory towers of research science towards impact.

Either that, or we can wait (like a quarter-million children), for a “blessed moment” when the eradication of malaria is achieved by combined efforts of novel vaccine development and a long vaccination campaign for an undeniably worthy new Nobel Prize Category. This prize could be endowed, perhaps, by a large and well-funded American pioneering organization in health science research with a fortune derived of a computer company - to honor “Global Medical Collaboration, Implementation, and Impact,” or simply, medical humanity.

#5 He earned a lot of money through his invention of Gelignite

Nobel went on to combine nitroglycerin with other compounds. In 1875 he invented Gelignite or blasting gelatin which was easily moldable, safer to handle without protection and a more powerful explosive than dynamite. Patented in 1876, Gelignite was adopted as the standard technology for mining in the Age of Engineering bringing Nobel a great amount of financial success.


Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in Mvezo, Umtata (now Mthatha), Transkei, South Africa. [2] He had thirteen siblings by the same father, and two mothers. [4] His parents were Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa [5] and Nosekeni Nonqaphi . [6] His given name was Rolihlahla, a Xhosa name meaning pulling the branch of a tree or informally, troublemaker. He was a member of the Thembu royal family. [7] On his first day of school, he was given the name Nelson by his teacher Miss Mdingane. [8] Giving children in Africa English names was a custom among Africans during that period. [8]

Mandela's father died when he was twelve. [9] Mandela then lived with the local regent who sent him to school. He was the first member of his family to go to a school. [10] He was expelled from Fort Hare University in 1941, because he led a group of students on political strike. [11] [12] After he was expelled, Nelson found a job as a night watchman. [13]

In 1944, Mandela helped start the African National Congress Youth League. [14] He was soon a high-ranked leader of the group. [14]

He wanted to free South Africa without violence, but the government started killing and hurting protesters. He then started Umkhonto we Sizwe with Walter Sisulu and other people in the African National Congress that he admired, such as Mahatma Gandhi. [15]

A trial was later held and became known as the Rivonia Trial. Mandela was on trial because of his involvement in sabotage and violence in 1962. [16] He was sentenced to life in prison, [14] and was sent to Robben Island, but was transferred to Victor Verster Prison in 1988. In 1990, he was let out of Victor Verster Prison after 26.5 years. He left prison after de Klerk removed a ban on the African National Congress. He ordered Mandela's release. He then received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993, with former State President of South Africa, Frederik Willem de Klerk. [2]

Mandela won the general election in April 1994. His inauguration was in Pretoria on 10 May 1994. Many people around the world saw his inauguration on television. The event had 4000 guests, including world leaders from different backgrounds. Mandela was the first South African President elected in a completely democratic election. [17]

As South Africa's first black President, [17] [18] Mandela became head of the Government of National Unity which was under controlled by the African National Congress (or ANC). The ANC had no knowledge in politics, but had representatives from the National Party and Inkatha. In keeping with earlier promises, de Klerk became first Deputy President, while Thabo Mbeki was chosen second. [19]

Although Mbeki had not been his first choice for President, Mandela soon trusted Mbeki throughout his presidency. This allowed Mbeki to organize policy details. Mandela moved into the presidential office at Tuynhuys in Cape Town. He would settle into the nearby Westbrooke Manor. Westbrooke was renamed Genadendal. [20] Preserving his Houghton home, he also had a house built in his home village of Qunu. [21] He visited Qunu regularly, walking around the area, meeting with local people who lived there, and judging tribal problems. [22]

He faced many illness at age 76. Although having energy, he felt left out and lonely. [23] He often entertained celebrities, such as Michael Jackson, Whoopi Goldberg, and the Spice Girls. He became friends with a number of rich business people, like Harry Oppenheimer and British monarch Elizabeth II on her March 1995 state visit to South Africa. This resulted in strong judgment from ANC anti-capitalists. Despite his surroundings, Mandela lived simply, donating a third of his $552,000 wealth to the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund, which he had founded in 1995. [24] In that same year, Mandela published his autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom. [25]

Although in favor of freedom of the press, Mandela was important of much of the country's media because it was owned and run by many middle-class whites. Mandela became known for his use of Batik shirts, known as Madiba shirts, even on normal events. [26] Mandela had never planned on serving a second term in office. Mandela gave his farewell speech on 29 March 1999, after which he retired. [27] Mandela's term ended on 14 June 1999. Thabo Mbeki succeeded Mandela as President of South Africa.

He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his leadership for his anti-apartheid activism in 1993. [2] After receiving the prize he said:

"We stand here today as nothing more than a representative of the millions of our people who dared to rise up against a social operation whose very essence is war, violence, racism, oppression, repression and the impoverishment of an entire people." [2]

Mandela was married three times and has six children. He had seventeen grandchildren, [28] and a growing number of great-grandchildren. [29] Though physically non-emotional with his children, he could be stern and demanding. [30]

Mandela married Evelyn Ntoko Mase in October 1944. They had two children. [31] Mandela remained married to Evelyn until they divorced in 1957. Evelyn died in 2004. [32] He then married Winnie Madikizela in 1958. They had two daughters. The couple filed for separation in 1992. They divorced in 1996. [33] Mandela married again to Graça Machel, on his 80th birthday in 1998. She was the widow of Samora Machel. Machel was the former Mozambican president and ANC ally who was killed in an air crash 12 years earlier. [34]

Though publicly criticizing him on several events, Mandela liked United States President Bill Clinton. Mandela personally supported him during his impeachment trial in 1998. [35]

Public retirement

In June 2004, Mandela announced that he was retiring from public life. Mandela said "Don't call me, I will call you". [36] Although continuing to meet with close friends and family, the Nelson Mandela Foundation denied invitations for him to appear at public events and most interview requests. [37]

On 27 March 2013, Mandela was hospitalized in Pretoria from a lung infection. It was reported on 28 March that he was responding well to treatment. [17] [38] Mandela was again hospitalized on 7 June from another lung infection, [39] On 23 June, his condition was announced to be critical. On 26 June, it was announced that Mandela was put on life-support. [40] On 4 July, Mandela's family announced that Mandela was under life-support [41] [42] and he was in a permanent persistent vegetative state. [43] The next day, the South African government denied the fact that Mandela was in a vegetative state. [44] Mandela was discharged from the hospital on 1 September 2013. [45]

2013 death rumor

Many South Africans thought that Mandela died overnight on 26 June after he was removed from his life support. [46] The South African government said that Mandela is still alive despite the rumor that he died. [46] It was later reported that the rumor was just a death hoax. CNN also reported that Mandela died, but later fixed the report soon afterwards. Photos were taken with Mandela and First Lady Michelle Obama as proof that Mandela was still alive.

Mandela died on 5 December 2013 at his home at Houghton Estate, Johannesburg from complications of a respiratory tract infection, aged 95. [3] He was surrounded by his family when he died. [3] His death was announced by President Jacob Zuma. [47]

On 6 December, Zuma announced a national mourning for ten days. [48] An event for an official memorial service was held at the FNB Stadium in Johannesburg on Tuesday 10 December. [48] He declared Sunday 8 December a national day of prayer: "We call upon all our people to gather in halls, churches, mosques, temples, synagogues and in their homes to pray and hold prayer services and meditation reflecting on the life of Madiba and his contribution to our country and the world." [48]

Mandela's body lay in state from 11 to 13 December at the Union Buildings in Pretoria. A state funeral was held on Sunday 15 December in Qunu. [49] [50] David Cameron, Barack Obama, Raul Castro, Bill Gates, and Oprah Winfrey were there. [3] [51]


On 28 June Mandela's family were arguing about where to bury Mandela. [52] On 29 June the South African government announced that a memorial service for Mandela will be held 10 to 14 days after his death at Soccer City. [53] On 1 July it was announced that if Mandela were to die he might become the first non-British person to be honored at Westminster Abbey. [54] [55] Queen Elizabeth II honored Mandela with a thanksgiving service at Westminster Abbey in early 2014. This made Mandela the first non-British person to be honored at Westminster Abbey. [56] [57] Mandela was buried in the village of Qunu in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. [3] Qunu is where he grew up. [3]

In South Africa, Mandela is sometimes called by his Xhosa clan name of Madiba. [59] [60] Nelson Mandela was honored with the following:

  • In 1990, Mandela received the Bharat Ratna Award in India. [61]
  • In 1992 received Pakistan's Nishan-e-Pakistan. [62]
  • In 1992, he was awarded the Atatürk Peace Award by Turkey. He refused the award, because of human rights violations committed by Turkey at the time. [63] He later accepted the award in 1999. [64]
  • In 1993, Mandela won the Nobel Peace Prize with F. W. de Klerk for their work during the civil rights revolution in South Africa. [2]
  • In 1993, Mandela received the key of the city of Chicago, Illinois from Mayor Richard M. Daley. [65]
  • In 2007, Mandela was honored with a statue in Westminster Abbey, London, England. [66]
  • In 2009, the United Nations made 18 July Mandela Day. [67]
  • In 2012, the Praia International Airport in Cape Verde was renamed as the Nelson Mandela International Airport. [68]
  • In 2013, a statue of Mandela was unveiled in the South African embassy outside of Washington, D.C.. [69]
  • The city of Johannesburg awarded him Freedom of the City. [70]
  • Sandton Square in Johannesburg was renamed Nelson Mandela Square in March 2004. [71]
  • The Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium was named in his honor. [72]
  • The Nelson Mandela Bridge, in Johannesburg was also named in his honor. [73]
  • Mandela was awarded the US Presidential Medal of Freedom by then-President of the United StatesGeorge W. Bush. [74]
  • Mandela was awarded the Order of Canada. [75]
  • Mandela was the first living person made an honorary Canadian citizen. [76]
  • Mandela was the last recipient of the Soviet Union's Lenin Peace Prize from the Soviet Union. [64]
  • Mandela first recipient of the Al-Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights [77]
  • Mandela was honored with the Order of the Aztec Eagle by the Mexican government. [78]
  • A park in Leicester, England was named Nelson Mandela Park was named after Mandela. [79] awarded him the Bailiff Grand Cross of the Order of St John. [80]
  • Mandela was also awarded the Order of Merit by Elizabeth II. [80]

Mandela has been portrayed in movies and television. In the 1997 movie, Mandela and de Klerk, Sidney Poitier plays Mandela. [81] Dennis Haysbert plays Mandela in Goodbye Bafana (2007). [82] In the 2009 BBC television movie, Mrs Mandela, Nelson Mandela is played by David Harewood. [83] In 2009, Morgan Freeman plays Mandela in Invictus (2009). [84] Terrence Howard also plays Mandela in the 2011 movie Winnie Mandela. [85] Mandela appeared as himself in the 1992 American movie Malcolm X. [86] In Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom he was played by Idris Elba. [87]

By the time of his death, Mandela had come to be widely considered "the father of the nation" within South Africa. [88] He is also seen as "the national liberator, the savior, its Washington and Lincoln rolled into one". [89] Throughout his life, Mandela had also faced criticism. Margaret Thatcher attracted international attention for describing the ANC as "a typical terrorist organization" in 1987. [90] She later made favors to release Mandela from prison. [90] Mandela has also been criticized for his friendship with political leaders such as Fidel Castro, Muammar Gaddafi, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, and Suharto. [91] [92]

10 Scientists Robbed of a Nobel Prize

To win a Nobel Prize is the ultimate accolade for a scientist. However, the Nobel prizes have rules which sometimes lead to people being overlooked for a prize: prizes may only be awarded to those still alive at the time of awarding, and no more than three people can share any one prize. This has led to some scientists, who many feel have contributed significantly to their field, never receiving a Nobel Prize. Of course, this list is highly subjective but I hope I can make good cases that the following were all deserving of a Nobel Prize.

All biology students, at some point, will have to study the Calvin cycle. This is the series of reactions which occur in plants that allow for the fixation of carbon dioxide. These reactions, which occur in chloroplasts, are the source of energy for plants. Understanding this route of carbon dioxide fixation is vital to understanding life on Earth.

The Calvin cycle was elucidated by the use of radioactive molecules to allow the steps in the cycle to be understood. Using carbon-14 carbon dioxide, the route of carbon transfer could be followed from the atmosphere to the final carbohydrate products. This work was carried out by Melvin Calvin, Andrew Benson (pictured &ndash right) and James Bassham. When the Nobel Prize was awarded for this stellar work, in 1961, it went to Calvin alone. Some unpleasantness appears to have occurred between Benson and Calvin, for when Calvin published his autobiography he does not mention Benson at all, despite mentioning many other people he worked with. There is ample evidence of the contribution which Benson made, and so this slight is hard to explain. To give some credit to Benson some scientists refer to the Calvin cycle as the Benson-Calvin cycle. Those who do research today in photosynthesis most commonly refer to the cycle as the C3 cycle an elegant name for an elegant cycle.

Mendeleev was not the first person to make a table of the elements, nor the first to suggest a periodicity in the chemical properties of the elements. Mendeleev&rsquos achievement was to define this periodicity and draw up a table of the elements according to it, which gave accurate predictions of future discoveries. Other attempts at making such a table had included all known elements, but ended up distorted as they left no space for unknown elements. Mendeleev left blank spaces in his table where other, then undiscovered elements, should fit. For these blank spaces it was possible, from the now recognized periodicity, to predict many things about their chemical and physical properties. This periodic law is basic to chemistry and physics.

Mendeleev lived until 1907, and so there was ample time for him to be awarded a Nobel Prize for his work. In fact, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1906, and it was thought he would win. However Arrhenius, who some thought bore a grudge against Mendeleev, pushed for the award to go to Henri Moissan for his work with fluorine. Whether or not there was a grudge between the two men Mendeleev died in 1907, and so became ineligible for the Prize.

As a side note, another scientist should be credited with devising a periodic table of the elements, Julius Lothar Meyer. He came up with a periodic table a few months after Mendeleev, that was almost identical to the Russian&rsquos. He was recognized by many at the time as having achieved almost as much as Mendeleev. However, Meyer died in 1895 and so was never eligible for the Nobel Prize.

Fred Hoyle is perhaps best known for his coining of the term &lsquoBig Bang&rsquo to describe the beginning of the universe. His intent was to mock those who proposed that the universe had a definite beginning, and that it all started with a big bang. Hoyle&rsquos contribution to science was to suggest a source for the heavier elements that exist in the universe. How is it that hydrogen and helium are converted into the heavier elements which exist? Hoyle first suggested that the conversion takes place inside stars, where the energy required for this nuclear fusion is possible. The theory of stellar nucleosynthesis was laid out in a groundbreaking paper called &ldquoSynthesis of the Elements in Stars.&rdquo Hoyle was a coauthor on that paper, with Margaret Burbidge, Geoffrey Burbidge, and William Fowler. In 1983, Fowler shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar for the theory of element formation by fusion in stars.

Many people have given theories on why Hoyle was not included in the Nobel Prize. He was an early proponent of the theory, and he did a great deal of the work in the theoretical physics, so it is strange Hoyle was neglected. Hoyle was known for supporting unpopular theories which may have harmed his chances of selection. His rejection of the big bang theory of the creation of the universe was probably a factor in his absence from the Nobel Prize. Hoyle was also hostile to the idea of chemical evolution leading to the generation of life, a key feature of evolutionary theory. This has led to him becoming well-quoted amongst the intelligent design rabble.

Pulsars were discovered by accident, when radio-emissions from stars were being studied to look for scintillation caused by solar wind. For this study, a large radio telescope was required. Jocelyn Bell, as a PhD student, helped in constructing this telescope over four acres of field using a thousand posts and over 120 miles of wire. Bell&rsquos project involved monitoring reams of paper for scintillating radio sources. It was while examining this data, that Bell noticed an anomaly which she decided required further study. When this anomaly was recorded in more detail it showed a regular pulse of 1.3 seconds. When Bell showed this to her supervisor, Antony Hewish, it was dismissed as man-made interference. 1.3 seconds was considered too short a time period for something as large as a star to do anything. Famously, the signal was dubbed LGM-1 (Little Green Men&ndash1). When other regular pulses were discovered in different parts of the sky, it became clear that the radio pulses were natural. These sources were termed pulsars, short for pulsating stars.

For his work in radio astronomy and, specifically, &ldquohis decisive role in the discovery of pulsars&rdquo Hewish was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics, in 1974. Hewish shared the prize with another radio astronomer, but Bell was not given a share, despite her definite role in their discovery and her dogged pursuit of the anomalous signal, leading to discovery of the first four pulsars. While many feel Bell was hard done by, she has, herself, spoken in support of the Nobel committee&rsquos choice.

The 1909 Nobel Prize for physics went to Guglielmo Marconi, for his work with radio communication. There is no doubt that Marconi did important work in the development of radio, and developed a law relating the height of a radio antenna to the distance it may broadcast. Marconi is known as the father of long distance radio communication. However, there is good reason to suggest that the prize should have been shared with Nikola Tesla.

Tesla has taken on an almost mythic status with all manner of strange stories adhering to the, admittedly eccentric, inventor. Tesla began lecturing about using radio communication in 1891, and began demonstrating devices using wireless telegraphy soon after. Between 1898 and 1903, Tesla was granted several patents to protect his inventions relating to radio. Patent law is complex, and it was not until the 1940s that US courts acknowledged that Tesla&rsquos work pre-dated that of Marconi. So Tesla has a very good case for being included in the 1909 Nobel Prize which went to Marconi.

Of course, Tesla did work in a number of other fields where he might have qualified for a Nobel Prize. Tesla is most famous for his role in the development of alternating current and its transmission using high voltage gained through dynamos. Tesla&rsquos great rival was Thomas Edison who championed DC electricity. It is said, though hard to confirm, that the rivalry between the two led to both being denied Nobel Prizes. Neither would accept a Prize if the other was honored first and they would never share one, so neither was ever honored with one.

Tuberculosis was once one of the major deadly infections mankind suffered from. With the coming of penicillin in the 1940s, it seemed that the age of bacterial infection was coming to an end. Unfortunately, penicillin is ineffective against the bacterium which causes TB. This is because there is a divide in bacteria based on their cell wall structure Gram-positive (those with thick walls) and Gram-negative (those with thin walls). Penicillin works on Gram-positive, but not Gram-negative bacteria, like TB. An antibiotic was needed which would kill those bacteria. It was this aim which Schatz, as a young researcher, pursued. Schatz grew a large number of strains of Streptomyces bacteria, and tested them for antibiotic properties against Gram-negative bacteria. After just a few months, Schatz had his antibiotic, which he named streptomycin. It would prove to be effective against TB and a range of other penicillin-resistant bacteria.

In 1952, Schatz&rsquo supervisor, Selman Waksman, was awarded the Nobel Prize &ldquofor his discovery of Streptomycin.&rdquo While some have argued the award was, in fact, for Waksman&rsquos wider scientific work, the Prize commendation says otherwise. Schatz had been convinced to sign away his rights to the patent over Streptomycin, and in the press it was Waksman who gained all of the credit. Schatz sued Waksman for his share of the royalties of streptomycin, and was officially credited as co-discoverer. That was in 1950, but he was still denied a share of the Nobel.

The law of parity in quantum mechanics was accepted as true for years. The law of parity, very simply (I should say I&rsquom not a physicist by trade), states that physical systems which are the mirror image of each other should behave identically. The law of parity holds true for three fundamental forces: electromagnetism, gravity and the strong nuclear force. Two scientists suggested that the law of conservation of parity would not be true for the weak nuclear force Tsung-Dao Lee and Chen-Ning Yang.

For their work on disproving parity in the weak nuclear force Lee and Yang were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1957. The experimental proof of their theory was provided by Chien-Shiung Wu. Wu designed and carried out the measurements of beta-decay which proved that parity is not conserved in the weak nuclear force. Since there was a spare space on the Nobel Prize awarded for proof of parity violation and Wu&rsquos work was vital for the acceptance of non-parity it does seem strange that she was not given a share of the award.

Modern biology is unthinkable without DNA and genetics. Today we know that DNA and genetics are intimately linked, but at the beginning of the twentieth century it was thought that the molecule which transmitted heritable traits was probably a form of protein. Others had theorized about what the molecule of inheritance would be like, and proof existed that it could be altered by exposure to X-rays, but no one knew what it was until the Avery&ndashMacLeod&ndashMcCarty experiment. The experiment showed that a molecule in heat killed bacteria could be transferred to living bacteria and transform them. This work gave the opportunity to isolate the molecule of heritability from the heat killed bacteria. The molecule they identified as able to transform the bacteria proved to be DNA. This was the fist time that a molecule had been shown to definitely have a role in heritability.

Some historians of science have questioned whether the work of Avery was as important as it appears in retrospect DNA was not conclusively proved to be the general molecule of inheritance in all living things. The paper certainly did not cause a huge academic stir but it was well received and appears to have influenced other researchers. Even if the work were restricted to its strict findings on the transmission of lethality between bacteria it surely merited consideration for a Nobel Prize in Medicine. It is on the basis that his work stands alone that I include Avery and not because he was overlooked for the later DNA based Nobel Prizes.

Many organisms are bioluminescent but it is the glowing jellyfish Aequorea victoria that has most aided biology. In protein biochemistry it is often important to know where a protein is located within a cell. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) isolated from A. victoria has allowed researchers to image cells and with very simple techniques to see where specific proteins are. GFP is so important because it is stable, works within living cells, and can be used as a simple test of whether your genetic manipulation has worked &ndash Does your sample glow when a specific wavelength of light is shone on it? The cloning of GFP and its DNA sequence was done by Douglas Prasher in 1992. Since then GFP has become one of the most used tools in the biology toolkit.

In 2008 the Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three other researchers who had improved GFP as a biochemical tool. By this time Prasher had left academia and was working as a bus driver. All three laureates agreed that Prasher&rsquos role had been vital and all three thanked him in their Nobel speeches. They paid for Prasher and his wife to attend the Nobel ceremony. Prasher has since returned to academia.

Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atomic nucleus into lighter nuclei, often with the release of neutrons as well. Since fission can occur via the bombardment of nuclei with neutrons this can lead to a chain reaction where one splitting nucleus gives out neutrons which cause more fission events, which give out neutrons which cause more atomic splitting, and so on. Fission is accompanied by a release of energy and so chain reactions can be used to generate electricity in nuclear power plants or be used to create atomic bombs. This splitting of atoms by bombardment with neutrons was discovered in 1938 when Otto Hahn discovered that the product of fission of uranium was barium. This led to a realization that the products of nuclear fission are lighter than the original atom.

It was Lise Meitner, then living in Sweden as a consequence of the anti-Jewish laws in Germany, and her nephew Otto Frisch who explained that some of the missing mass in nuclear fission was converted to energy. According to Einstein&rsquos famous equation if you convert a small amount of mass you get an enormous amount of energy. For her theoretical work and interpretation of the results of Hahn&rsquos experiments it is widely thought that Meitner deserved a share of the Nobel Prize awarded to Hahn in 1944.

Half of the Nobel Prize for Medicine this year was awarded to Ralph Steinman for his discovery of the role of dendritic cells in adaptive immunity. These cells help regulate the body&rsquos immune response by capturing and presenting antigens from pathogens to white blood cells. They also stop the body from erroneously recognizing itself as a pathogen. This work has had, and will continue to have, huge repercussions in everything from organ donation, autoimmune diseases, and vaccine development. All in all a well deserved Nobel Prize.

Unfortunately Professor Steinman died three days before the awarding of the prize by the Nobel Committee, who did not learn of his death until after the announcement of the award. This lead to some hasty examinations of the Nobel charter. It was ultimately decided that since the prize had been awarded in good faith that Steinman was still alive the award would stand.

It is likely that several of the treatments Professor Steinman was receiving for the pancreatic cancer which killed him would have been directly influenced by his work and kept him alive sufficiently long to, just, be eligible for the prize.

29 thoughts on &ldquo Ig Nobel Prizes: GoatMan, Volkswagen, And The Personalities Of Rocks &rdquo

How about a trigger warning for the dumbass that ran an automated image stabilisation filter on the video and screwed the whole thing up? That can’t possibly be intentional.

I was wondering if I’d taken the wrong coffee this morning

Thanks for pointing that out, I thought I’d accidentally had my coworker’s coffee today

My calendar must be broken it reads September 26th but this seems more like April 1st.
I’m not sure what to think about the Nobel Prize anymore. Went downhill years ago…

Oh honey, learn to read. Ig Nobel Prize.

“Going down hill” may be referring to the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize.

What do you mean? He’s got even MORE potential now!

Instead of perpetuating a “look-this-is-funny” mindset. How about encouraging an attitude of “wtf-are-these-morons-doing-with-taxpayer-money. ” sense of outrage. And, yes the nobel prize committees lost all credibility when they awarded it to yassar arafat (a cold blooded murdering terrorist), and then again to that left leaning anti-American obama. We need a new threat of armed revolution to reclaim (this is for CONUS citizens only), America from the government bureaucrats who don’t give a crap about the people they’re supposed to be serving. “Outing” some of these un-answerable to The People faceless bureaucrats by physically going after them (a’la Tony Soprano style problem solving) would work wonders ! “fuggedah ’bout it”!.

Here’s a collection of government waste: (and I don’t mean capital hill)
1) $171,000 To Study How Monkeys Gamble
2) $856,000 To Film Mountain Lions Running On Treadmills
3) Synchronized Swimming For Sea Monkeys
4) Swedish Massages For Bunnies
5) Free Luxury Gym Memberships For Federal Bureaucrats
6) $331,000 To Study Whether “Hangry” Spouses Are More Likely To Stab Voodoo Dolls

And the list goes on, and on.
There is no personal accountability. That’s why some ‘street justice’ against the administrators of approving this sort of insane waste of our tax dollars would be a good incentive for them to be more dilligent in how our money is spent.

I don’t know that the monkey gambling experiment is a waste of money, look at how the research of Laurie Santos showed how the economic decisions of monkeys mirror our own, it shows much of or economy is run by our genes, and the implications are quite profound. Monkey gambling could have the same repercussions.

It’s true – some research that looks foolish on the surface may have serious implications. I suspect the ” Synchronized Swimming For Sea Monkeys” for example, has something to do with swarm robotics.

…and that’s actually kind of the point of the Ig Nobles anyway: first I was like “silly” and then I was like “science”.

Is that the one where when they had excess tokens to pay for food they tried to pay each other for sex?

“…that left leaning anti-American obama.”
I know I am grabbing a hot poker right not, but please explain. What is wrong with the political left, and how is Obama anti-American. Seeing how we are better off now than we were 8 years ago, If Obama was trying to destroy this country he is doing a poor job.

Granted a large chunk of government bureaucrats seem to care more about their wallets than about their citizens, but more care about their parties than about making the country better. For example, the supreme court absence. the Republicans said that they would refuse any candidate Obama nominated, before they even saw who he selected. We do need a revolution, a revolution of free thought. Forget about blind party loyalty and start thinking for your self about what you agree on and who to vote for.

“Seeing how we are better off now than we were 8 years ago,”
No, I do not think we are better off than we were. No.

Chris’s hormone levels are probably still surging due to his age. There is no “left”, just responsible adults making rational decisions while some people polarize every issue. Obama is and was centered and anyone who can’t recognize that is a loon.

” What is wrong with the political left”

The fact that they are fundamentally self-serving authoritarians who keep a pretense of altruism for the naive?

The left cause tends to become corrupted because it is operating on an idea of liberty that argues man is not truly free until he can collectively force everyone to behave according to what he deems as “good”. Rather than live and let live, it is the idea that you can bring everyone’s interests in-line with yours and vice versa by dialectically discovering the ultimate objectively and rationally right way to do things, that serves everyone in an optimal way, and then enforcing it. If someone disagrees they must be irrational or evil, or just too ignorant to understand their own good.

In so doing, leftism really becomes the act of double-thinking that your subjective version of the “correct society” and the good that should be enforced is ultimately more valid than anyone else’s while simultaneously arguing for moral relativity and subjectivity of value to discard anyone else’s ideas. The dialectical underpinnings of leftism is that truth is found through discussion and compromize, and once everyone agrees what the truth is – or in practice when you and your homies agree with yourself what the truth is – it becomes uncompromizable dogma. It’s a thoroughly confused ideology, like an atheist beating people over the head with a bible without a hint of irony or self-awareness.

In real mixed economies and politics leftism most often becomes just about crony capitalism and voting your special interest group more money. It cannot solve the issues it promises, such as poverty and unemployment, because as soon as they would it would rob the leftist career politician their purpose and their voters. Instead, it employs endless posturing and “raising awareness” while actually doing jack shit about anything.

In that sense, for the left to even exist there must exist a perpetual strife between the underprivileged proletariat and the elitist bourgeoisie. If all else fails and things seem to be going more or less in a good direction, problems must be manufactured to keep the “good fight” going and the actual elite at the handle of power and privilege.

Don’t read that as an apology of the right, whose version is simply that what has been is what should be (naturalistic fallacy), or that objective truth is found in God or written in the Constitution, or in Ayn Rand and the invisible hand of the market… etc. which is just as dogmatic but simply forgoes the mental gymnastics of pretending to listen to anyone else.

Or the centrist who makes the fallacy of the middle ground. Other than that, the centrist is forced to fencehop on the left and right, and is thus forced to practice a whole other meta-level of doublethink to accomplish that and not realize that they’re just being opportunistic assholes.

Hi Chris,
Your list of Government wasted money is peanuts compared to the wastage carried out by the people. Think of all those delightfully gas guzzling cars on the highways with only one occupant, think of the amount of food thrown away, the throwaway manufactured goods etc etc. You may say ‘it’s the people’s choice, you mustn’t restrict their freedom. Quite right. But the voters, as a group, are happily wasteful – and so criticism of their government for being wasteful is a little high handed.

US government expenditure is 42% of the GDP.

If you want to throw stones, throw stones at the government as well for pointless energy-consuming bureaucracy and funding make-work that serves nobody, that is in great part responsible for all that waste of manufactured goods and services.

Blame government regulations that demand impractically high fuel economy out of passenger vehicles while exempting trucks from the same, which increased the price of small economy cars and created the SUV. Blame the government for subsidizing corn production for the benefit of the corporate farmers, and then turning the surplus corn into ethanol at nearly 1:1 cost in fossil fuels, and then forcing it into gasoline to create a demand for the ethanol – where it creates acetaldehyde through incomplete combustion, which contributes to urban pollution and causes lung cancer, which causes health care costs to rise.

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1933 - History

A shy, insecure child, Eleanor Roosevelt would grow up to become one of the most important and beloved First Ladies, authors, reformers, and female leaders of the 20 th century.

Born on October 11, 1884 in New York City, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was the first of Elliot and Anna Hall Roosevelt’s three children. Her family was affluent and politically prominent, and while her childhood was in many ways blessed, it was also marked by hardship: her father’s alcoholism, as well as the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers before she was ten years old. She was raised by her harsh and critical maternal grandmother, who damaged Eleanor’s self-esteem. Timid and awkward, she believed that she compared badly with other girls.

In 1899, Roosevelt began her three years of study at London’s Allenswood Academy, where she became more independent and confident. Her teacher, Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre, with her passionate embrace of social issues, opened Roosevelt up to the world of ideas and was an early force in Roosevelt’s social and political development.

Roosevelt returned to New York for her social debut in 1902. She became involved with the settlement house movement, teaching immigrant children and families on Rivington Street. In 1905, after a long courtship, she married her distant cousin Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a charming, Harvard graduate in his first year of law school at Columbia University. Her uncle and close relative, President Theodore Roosevelt, walked her down the aisle.

The Roosevelts settled in New York, where Eleanor found herself under the thumb of her controlling mother-in-law, Sara Roosevelt, who, like her grandmother earlier, was harsh in her criticism of her daughter-in-law. While Franklin advanced his career, his wife raised their daughter and four sons under the watchful eye of her often belittling mother-in-law.

All that changed in 1911, when Franklin was elected to the New York State Senate, and the couple moved to Albany, away from Sara. Two years later, the Roosevelts moved to Washington, DC, when Franklin joined Woodrow Wilson’s administration as Assistant Secretary of the Navy. While she was initially uncomfortable with the DC political scene, Roosevelt was growing in her political consciousness. When World War I broke out, she volunteered with various relief agencies, further increasing her visibility and political clout. Hurt when she discovered in 1918 that her husband had had an affair with another woman, she remained married, though her feelings changed. She began to live a more independent life and often escaped to Val-Kill, her upstate New York home, where she was also part of a women-owned furniture cooperative. Nonetheless, she remained his political ally and advisor, among those who urged him to remain in public life despite the polio he contracted in 1921.

Although initially wary of women’s suffrage, after its passage in 1920, Roosevelt promoted women’s political engagement, playing a leadership role in several organizations, including the League of Women Voters and the Women’s Trade Union League. She surrounded herself with politically astute women such as Molly Dewson and Rose Schneiderman. She was head of the Women’s Division of the Democratic National Committee, recruited in 1928 to help Al Smith’s presidential bid. Her activities were widely covered in the media in the 1920s, making her more publically recognizable than her husband when he decided to run for governor in 1928. Though unhappy about his bid for the governorship and his equally successful run for the presidency in 1932, Roosevelt became the most politically active and influential First Lady in history, using the position to advance many of her progressive and egalitarian goals.

In the White House from 1933 to 1945, First Lady Roosevelt kept a dizzying schedule. She wrote nearly 3,000 articles in newspapers and magazines, including a monthly column in Women’s Home Companion, where she asked the public to share their stories, hardships, and questions. In a few short months, she received several hundred thousand responses and donated what she earned from the column to charity. She also authored six books and traveled nationwide delivering countless speeches. She held weekly press conferences with women reporters who she hoped would get her message to the American people.

Roosevelt had immense influence on her husband’s decisions as president and in shaping both his cabinet and the New Deal. Working with Molly Dewson, head of the Women’s Division of the DNC, she lobbied her husband to appoint more women, successfully securing Frances Perkins as the first woman to head the Department of Labor, among many others. She also ensured that groups left out of the New Deal were included by seeking revisions to programs and legislation, including greater participation for women in the heavily male-dominated Civilian Conservation Corps. She also championed racial justice, working to help black miners in West Virginia, advocating for the NAACP and National Urban League, and resigning, with much media fanfare, from the Daughters of the American Revolution when they refused to allow African American singer Marion Anderson to perform in their auditorium.

Roosevelt’s political activism did not end with her husband’s death in 1945. Appointed in 1946, she served for more than a decade as a delegate to the United Nations, the institution established by her husband, and embraced the cause of world peace. She not only chaired the United Nations Human Rights Commission, she also helped write the 1948 United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. She spoke out against McCarthyism in the 1950s. In 1960, at the request of President John F. Kennedy, she chaired the President’s Commission on the Status of Women, which released a ground-breaking study about gender discrimination a year after her death in 1963. She also worked on the Equal Pay Act that was passed that same year. Roosevelt’s commitment to racial justice was evident in her civil rights work and efforts to push Washington to take swifter action in housing desegregation and protections for Freedom Riders and other activists. Kennedy nominated Roosevelt for the Nobel Peace Prize and though she did not win, she remained at the top of national polls ranking the most respected women in America decades after her death.

Unedited version reprinted with permission from: Doris Weatherford. American Women's History: An A to Z of People, Organizations, Issues, and Events, (Prentice Hall, 1994), 294-298.

Cook, Blanche Wiesen. Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume I, The Early Years, 1884-1933. (Penguin Random House, 1993).

Cook, Blanche Wiesen. Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume II, The Defining Years, 1933-1938 (Penguin Random House, 2000).

Chafe, William F. “Eleanor Roosevelt” in Sicherman, Barbara and Carol Hurd Green, et al. Notable American Women: The Modern Period. (Radcliffe, 1980) p. 595-601.

MLA – Michals, Debra. “Eleanor Roosevelt.” National Women’s History Museum, 2017. Date accessed.

Chicago – Michals, Debra “Eleanor Roosevelt.” National Women’s History Museum. 2017.

The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project at George Washington University.

"Eleanor Roosevelt." Historic World Leaders , edited by Anne Commire, Gale, 1994. Biography in Context , . Accessed 12 Aug. 2017.

Asbell, Bernard. Mother and Daughter: The Letters of Eleanor and Anna Roosevelt. (Coward, McCann, 1982).

Cook, Blanche Wiesen, Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume III, The War Years and After, 1939-1962 (Penguin Random House, 2016).

Goodwin, Doris Kearns. No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II (Simon & Schuster, 1994).

Hareven, Tamara K. Eleanor Roosevelt: An American Conscience. (Quadrangle, 1968).

Lash, Joseph. Love, Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt and Her Friends. (Doubleday, 1982).

Watch the video: Countries With Most Number of Nobel Prize Winners. Number of Nobel Laureates per Country