Did Mountbatten favour India in partition of India-Pakistan?

Did Mountbatten favour India in partition of India-Pakistan?

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Christopher Beaumont's said that Mountbatten pressured Radcliffe to change the boundary in India's favour.

See this BBC article:

The documents repeatedly allege that Mountbatten put pressure on Radcliffe to alter the boundary in India's favour.

Is this true? If yes, why did Mountbatten side with India?

Yes he did.

According to Jinnah vs Gandhi, the possible reasons include:

  • Mountbatten was a liberal and was opposed to the religion based partition demands of Jinnah(the Father of Nation, Pakistan)
  • Nehru/Gandhi were good with diplomacy and negotiations
  • Mountbatten was not pleased with the demands and negotiation style of Jinnah so it was a personality clash
  • Though Radcliffe was impartial, he answered to Mountbatten and this swung some territory in India's favor
  • There was a timeline to be stuck to, Mountbatten made many screwups and a hasty exit from India to meet the deadline and prevent a possible civil war/bad press for the Crown.
  • The book Jinnah vs Gandhi by Roderick Mattews covers this part of the Gandhi-Jinnah-Montbatten relationship.

All these little factors tilted towards India and Nehru.

Yes. Mainly because Jinnah was so arrogant and had a sort of superiority complex that Mountbatten did not like. Also, Jinnah was too eager to create Pakistan as early as possible so that he alone could take the credit for creating a Muslim state. All those irritated Mountbatten and he swung towards Hindus. Thus he favored India by offering majority of fertile regions to her.

Yes. Believe it or not, when Pakistan invaded Kashmir in '47, it was Mountbatten who convinced the Maharaja of Kashmir to accede to India in return for military assistance to repel the Pakistani invasion.

Lord Mountbatten: royalty, politics and partition

Common cause: Lord and Lady Mountbatten (Hugh Bonneville and Gillian Anderson) meet up with Gandhi (Neeraj Kabi) in Viceroy's House Credit: Pathé

Follow the author of this article

Follow the topics within this article


Prince Louis of Battenberg was born on 25 June 1900 at Frogmore House in the Home Park, Windsor, Berkshire. He was the youngest child and the second son of Prince Louis of Battenberg and his wife Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. His maternal grandparents were Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, who was a daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His paternal grandparents were Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia, Princess of Battenberg. [1] His paternal grandparents' marriage was morganatic because his grandmother was not of royal lineage as a result, he and his father were styled "Serene Highness" rather than "Grand Ducal Highness", were not eligible to be titled Princes of Hesse and were given the less exalted Battenberg title. His elder siblings were Princess Alice of Battenberg (later Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark, mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh), Princess Louise of Battenberg (later Queen Louise of Sweden), and Prince George of Battenberg (later George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven). [1]

He was baptised in the large drawing room of Frogmore House on 17 July 1900 by the Dean of Windsor, Philip Eliot. His godparents were Queen Victoria, Nicholas II of Russia (represented by the child's father) and Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg (represented by Lord Edward Clinton). [2] He wore the original 1841 royal christening gown at the ceremony. [2]

Mountbatten's nickname among family and friends was "Dickie" however "Richard" was not among his given names. This was because his great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, had suggested the nickname of "Nicky", but to avoid confusion with the many Nickys of the Russian Imperial Family ("Nicky" was particularly used to refer to Nicholas II, the last Tsar), "Nicky" was changed to "Dickie". [3]

Prince Louis was educated at home for the first 10 years of his life he was then sent to Lockers Park School in Hertfordshire [4] and on to the Royal Naval College, Osborne, in May 1913. [5] His mother's younger sister was Russian Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. In childhood he visited the Imperial Court of Russia at St Petersburg and became intimate with the Russian Imperial Family, harbouring romantic feelings towards his maternal first cousin Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna, whose photograph he kept at his bedside for the rest of his life. [6]

From 1914 to 1918, Britain and its allies were at war with the Central Powers, led by the German Empire. To appease British nationalist sentiment, King George V issued a royal proclamation changing the name of the British royal house from the German House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor. The king's British relatives followed suit with Prince Louis's father dropping his German titles and name and adopting the surname Mountbatten, an anglicization of Battenberg. His father was subsequently created Marquess of Milford Haven.

Early career Edit

Mountbatten was posted as midshipman to the battlecruiser HMS Lion in July 1916 and, after seeing action in August 1916, transferred to the battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth during the closing phases of the First World War. [5] In June 1917, when the royal family stopped using their German names and titles and adopted the more British-sounding "Windsor", Prince Louis of Battenberg became Louis Mountbatten and was created Marquess of Milford Haven. His second son acquired the courtesy title Lord Louis Mountbatten and was known as Lord Louis until he was created a peer in 1946. [7] He paid a visit of ten days to the Western Front, in July 1918. [8]

He was appointed executive officer (second-in-command) of the small warship HMS P. 31 on 13 October 1918 and was promoted sub-lieutenant on 15 January 1919. HMS P. 31 took part in the Peace River Pageant on 4 April 1919. Mountbatten attended Christ's College, Cambridge, for two terms, starting in October 1919, where he studied English literature (including John Milton and Lord Byron) in a programme designed to augment the education of junior officers which had been curtailed by the war. [9] [10] He was elected for a term to the Standing Committee of the Cambridge Union Society and was suspected of sympathy for the Labour Party, then emerging as a potential party of government for the first time. [11]

He was posted to the battlecruiser HMS Renown in March 1920 and accompanied Edward, Prince of Wales, on a royal tour of Australia in her. [7] He was promoted lieutenant on 15 April 1920. [12] HMS Renown returned to Portsmouth on 11 October 1920. [13] Early in 1921 Royal Navy personnel were used for civil defence duties as serious industrial unrest seemed imminent. Mountbatten had to command a platoon of stokers, many of whom had never handled a rifle before, in northern England. [13] He transferred to the battlecruiser HMS Repulse in March 1921 and accompanied the Prince of Wales on a Royal tour of India and Japan. [7] [14] Edward and Mountbatten formed a close friendship during the trip. [7] Mountbatten survived the deep defence cuts known as the Geddes Axe. Fifty-two percent of the officers of his year had had to leave the Royal Navy by the end of 1923 although he was highly regarded by his superiors, it was rumoured that wealthy and well-connected officers were more likely to be retained. [15] He was posted to the battleship HMS Revenge in the Mediterranean Fleet in January 1923. [7]

Pursuing his interests in technological development and gadgetry, Mountbatten joined the Portsmouth Signals School in August 1924 and then went on briefly to study electronics at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. [7] Mountbatten became a Member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), now the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET). [16] He was posted to the battleship HMS Centurion in the Reserve Fleet in 1926 and became Assistant Fleet Wireless and Signals Officer of the Mediterranean Fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Roger Keyes in January 1927. [7] Promoted lieutenant-commander on 15 April 1928, [17] he returned to the Signals School in July 1929 as Senior Wireless Instructor. [7] He was appointed Fleet Wireless Officer to the Mediterranean Fleet in August 1931 and, having been promoted commander on 31 December 1932, [18] was posted to the battleship HMS Resolution. [7]

In 1934, Mountbatten was appointed to his first command – the destroyer HMS Daring. [7] His ship was a new destroyer, which he was to sail to Singapore and exchange for an older ship, HMS Wishart. [7] He successfully brought Wishart back to port in Malta and then attended the funeral of King George V in January 1936. [19] Mountbatten was appointed a personal naval aide-de-camp to King Edward VIII on 23 June 1936 [20] and, having joined the Naval Air Division of the Admiralty in July 1936, [21] he attended the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937. [22] He was promoted captain on 30 June 1937 [23] and was then given command of the destroyer HMS Kelly in June 1939. [24]

In July 1939, Mountbatten was granted a patent (UK Number 508,956) for a system for maintaining a warship in a fixed position relative to another ship. [25]

Within the Admiralty, Mountbatten was called "The Master of Disaster" for his penchant of getting into messes. [26] [27]

Second World War Edit

When war broke out in September 1939, Mountbatten became Captain (D) (commander) of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla aboard HMS Kelly, which became famous for its exploits. [21] In late 1939 he brought the Duke of Windsor back from exile in France and in early May 1940 Mountbatten led a British convoy in through the fog to evacuate the Allied forces participating in the Namsos Campaign during the Norwegian Campaign. [24]

On the night of 9–10 May 1940, Kelly was torpedoed amidships by a German E-boat S 31 off the Dutch coast, and Mountbatten thereafter commanded the 5th Destroyer Flotilla from the destroyer HMS Javelin. [24] On 29 November 1940 the 5th Flotilla engaged three German destroyers off Lizard Point, Cornwall. Mountbatten turned to port to match a German course change. This was "a rather disastrous move as the directors swung off and lost target" [28] and it resulted in Javelin being struck by two torpedoes. He rejoined Kelly in December 1940, by which time the torpedo damage had been repaired. [24]

Kelly was sunk by German dive bombers on 23 May 1941 during the Battle of Crete [29] the incident serving as the basis for Noël Coward's film In Which We Serve. [30] Coward was a personal friend of Mountbatten and copied some of his speeches into the film. [29] Mountbatten was mentioned in despatches on 9 August 1940 [31] and 21 March 1941 [32] and awarded the Distinguished Service Order in January 1941. [33]

In August 1941, Mountbatten was appointed captain of the aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious which lay in Norfolk, Virginia, for repairs following action at Malta in January. [29] During this period of relative inactivity, he paid a flying visit to Pearl Harbor, three months before the Japanese attack on it. Mountbatten, appalled at the US naval base's lack of preparedness, drawing on Japan's history of launching wars with surprise attacks as well as the successful British surprise attack at the Battle of Taranto which had effectively knocked Italy's fleet out of the war, and the sheer effectiveness of aircraft against warships, accurately predicted that the US would enter the war after a Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. [29] [34]

Mountbatten was a favourite of Winston Churchill. [35] On 27 October 1941, Mountbatten replaced Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger Keyes as Chief of Combined Operations Headquarters and was promoted to commodore. [29]

His duties in this role included inventing new technical aids to assist with opposed landings. [21] Noteworthy technical achievements of Mountbatten and his staff include the construction of "PLUTO", an underwater oil pipeline to Normandy, an artificial Mulberry harbour constructed of concrete caissons and sunken ships, and the development of tank-landing ships. [21] Another project Mountbatten proposed to Churchill was Project Habakkuk. It was to be an unsinkable 600-metre aircraft carrier made from reinforced ice ("Pykrete"): Habakkuk was never carried out due to its enormous cost. [21]

As commander of Combined Operations, Mountbatten and his staff planned the highly successful Bruneval raid, which gained important information and captured part of a German Würzburg radar installation and one of the machine's technicians on 27 February 1942. It was Mountbatten who recognised that surprise and speed were essential to capture the radar, and saw that an airborne assault was the only viable method. [36]

On 18 March 1942, he was promoted to the acting rank of vice admiral and given the honorary ranks of lieutenant general [37] and air marshal to have the authority to carry out his duties in Combined Operations and, despite the misgivings of General Sir Alan Brooke, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, [38] Mountbatten was placed in the Chiefs of Staff Committee. [39] He was in large part responsible for the planning and organisation of the St Nazaire Raid on 28 March, which put out of action one of the most heavily defended docks in Nazi-occupied France until well after the war's end, the ramifications of which contributed to allied supremacy in the Battle of the Atlantic. After these two successes came the Dieppe Raid of 19 August 1942. He was central in the planning and promotion of the raid on the port of Dieppe. The raid was a marked failure, with casualties of almost 60%, the great majority of them Canadians. [29] Following the Dieppe Raid, Mountbatten became a controversial figure in Canada, with the Royal Canadian Legion distancing itself from him during his visits there during his later career. [40] His relations with Canadian veterans, who blamed him for the losses, "remained frosty" after the war. [41]

Mountbatten claimed that the lessons learned from the Dieppe Raid were necessary for planning the Normandy invasion on D-Day nearly two years later. However, military historians such as Major-General Julian Thompson, a former member of the Royal Marines, have written that these lessons should not have needed a debacle such as Dieppe to be recognised. [42] Nevertheless, as a direct result of the failings of the Dieppe Raid, the British made several innovations, most notably Hobart's Funnies – specialised armoured vehicles which, in the course of the Normandy Landings, undoubtedly saved many lives on those three beachheads upon which Commonwealth soldiers were landing (Gold Beach, Juno Beach and Sword Beach). [43]

In August 1943, Churchill appointed Mountbatten the Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Command (SEAC) with promotion to acting full admiral. [29] His less practical ideas were sidelined by an experienced planning staff led by Lieutenant-Colonel James Allason, though some, such as a proposal to launch an amphibious assault near Rangoon, got as far as Churchill before being quashed. [44]

British interpreter Hugh Lunghi recounted an embarrassing episode during the Potsdam Conference when Mountbatten, desiring to receive an invitation to visit the Soviet Union, repeatedly attempted to impress Joseph Stalin with his former connections to the Russian imperial family. The attempt fell predictably flat, with Stalin dryly inquiring whether "it was some time ago that he had been there". Says Lunghi, "The meeting was embarrassing because Stalin was so unimpressed. He offered no invitation. Mountbatten left with his tail between his legs." [45]

During his time as Supreme Allied Commander of the Southeast Asia Theatre, his command oversaw the recapture of Burma from the Japanese by General Sir William Slim. [46] A personal high point was the receipt of the Japanese surrender in Singapore when British troops returned to the island to receive the formal surrender of Japanese forces in the region led by General Itagaki Seishiro on 12 September 1945, codenamed Operation Tiderace. [47] South East Asia Command was disbanded in May 1946 and Mountbatten returned home with the substantive rank of rear-admiral. [48] That year, he was made a Knight of the Garter and created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton, as a victory title for war service. He was then in 1947 further created Earl Mountbatten of Burma and Baron Romsey, of Romsey in the County of Southampton. [49] [50]

Following the war, Mountbatten was known to have largely shunned the Japanese for the rest of his life out of respect for his men killed during the war and, as per his will, Japan was not invited to send diplomatic representatives to his funeral in 1979, though he did meet Emperor Hirohito during his state visit to Britain in 1971, reportedly at the urging of the Queen. [51]

Last Viceroy of India Edit

His experience in the region and in particular his perceived Labour sympathies at that time led to Clement Attlee advising King George VI to appoint Mountbatten Viceroy of India on 20 February 1947 [52] [53] charged with overseeing the transition of British India to independence no later than 30 June 1948. Mountbatten's instructions were to avoid partition and preserve a united India as a result of the transfer of power but authorised him to adapt to a changing situation in order to get Britain out promptly with minimal reputational damage. [54] [55] He arrived in India on 22 March 1947 by air, from London. In the evening, he was taken to his residence and, two days later, he took the Viceregal Oath. His arrival saw large-scale communal riots in Delhi, Bombay and Rawalpindi. Mountbatten concluded that the situation was too volatile to wait even a year before granting independence to India. Although his advisers favoured a gradual transfer of independence, Mountbatten decided the only way forward was a quick and orderly transfer of power before 1947 was out. In his view, any longer would mean civil war. [56] The Viceroy also hurried so he could return to his senior technical Navy courses. [57] [58]

Mountbatten was fond of Congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru and his liberal outlook for the country. He felt differently about the Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah, but was aware of his power, stating "If it could be said that any single man held the future of India in the palm of his hand in 1947, that man was Mohammad Ali Jinnah." [58] During his meeting with Jinnah on 5 April 1947, [59] Mountbatten tried to persuade him of a united India, citing the difficult task of dividing the mixed states of Punjab and Bengal, but the Muslim leader was unyielding in his goal of establishing a separate Muslim state called Pakistan. [60]

Given the British government's recommendations to grant independence quickly, Mountbatten concluded that a united India was an unachievable goal and resigned himself to a plan for partition, creating the independent nations of India and Pakistan. [21] Mountbatten set a date for the transfer of power from the British to the Indians, arguing that a fixed timeline would convince Indians of his and the British government's sincerity in working towards a swift and efficient independence, excluding all possibilities of stalling the process. [61]

Among the Indian leaders, Mahatma Gandhi emphatically insisted on maintaining a united India and for a while successfully rallied people to this goal. During his meeting with Mountbatten, Gandhi asked Mountbatten to invite Jinnah to form a new central government, but Mountbatten never uttered a word of Gandhi's ideas to Jinnah. [63] When Mountbatten's timeline offered the prospect of attaining independence soon, sentiments took a different turn. Given Mountbatten's determination, Nehru and Patel's inability to deal with the Muslim League and, lastly, Jinnah's obstinacy, all Indian party leaders (except Gandhi) acquiesced to Jinnah's plan to divide India, [64] which in turn eased Mountbatten's task. Mountbatten also developed a strong relationship with the Indian princes, who ruled those portions of India not directly under British rule. His intervention was decisive in persuading the vast majority of them to see advantages in opting to join the Indian Union. [65] On one hand, the integration of the princely states can be viewed as one of the positive aspects of his legacy. [66] But on the other, the refusal of Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, and Junagadh to join one of the dominions led to future tension between Pakistan and India. [67]

Mountbatten brought forward the date of the partition from June 1948 to 15 August 1947. [68] The uncertainty of the borders caused Muslims and Hindus to move into the direction where they felt they would get the majority. Hindus and Muslims were thoroughly terrified, and the Muslim movement from the East was balanced by the similar movement of Hindus from the West. [69] A boundary committee chaired by Sir Cyril Radcliffe was charged with drawing boundaries for the new nations. With a mandate to leave as many Hindus and Sikhs in India and as many Muslims in Pakistan as possible, Radcliffe came up with a map that split the two countries along the Punjab and Bengal borders. This left 14 million people on the "wrong" side of the border, and very many of them fled to "safety" on the other side when the new lines were announced. [56]

When India and Pakistan attained independence at midnight of 14–15 August 1947, Mountbatten remained in New Delhi for 10 months, serving as the first governor-general of an independent India until June 1948. [70] On Mountbatten's advice, India took the issue of Kashmir to the newly formed United Nations in January 1948. This issue would become a lasting thorn in his legacy and one that is not resolved to this day. [71] Accounts differ on the future which Mountbatten desired for Kashmir. Pakistani accounts suggest that Mountbatten favoured the accession of Kashmir to India, citing his close relationship to Nehru. Mountbatten's own account says that he simply wanted the maharaja, Hari Singh, to make up his mind. The viceroy made several attempts to mediate between the Congress leaders, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Hari Singh on issues relating to the accession of Kashmir, though he was largely unsuccessful in resolving the conflict. [72] After the tribal invasion of Kashmir, it was on his suggestion that India moved to secure the accession of Kashmir from Hari Singh before sending in military forces for his defence. [73]

Notwithstanding the self-promotion of his own part in Indian independence – notably in the television series The Life and Times of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Mountbatten of Burma, produced by his son-in-law Lord Brabourne, and Freedom at Midnight by Dominique Lapierre and Larry Collins (of which he was the main quoted source) – his record is seen as very mixed. One common view is that he hastened the process of independence unduly and recklessly, foreseeing vast disruption and loss of life and not wanting this to occur on his watch, but thereby actually helping it to occur (albeit in an indirect manner), especially in Punjab and Bengal. [74] John Kenneth Galbraith, the Canadian-American Harvard University economist, who advised governments of India during the 1950s and was an intimate of Nehru who served as the American ambassador from 1961 to 1963, was a particularly harsh critic of Mountbatten in this regard. [75]

The creation of Pakistan was never emotionally accepted by many British leaders, among them Mountbatten. [76] Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League's idea of Pakistan. [77] Jinnah refused Mountbatten's offer to serve as Governor-General of Pakistan. [78] When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged the creation of Pakistan had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied, "Most probably". [79]

Career after India Edit

After India, Mountbatten served as commander of the 1st Cruiser Squadron in the Mediterranean Fleet and, having been granted the substantive rank of vice-admiral on 22 June 1949, [80] he became Second-in-Command of the Mediterranean Fleet in April 1950. [70] He became Fourth Sea Lord at the Admiralty in June 1950. He then returned to the Mediterranean to serve as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet and NATO Commander Allied Forces Mediterranean from June 1952. [70] He was promoted to the substantive rank of full admiral on 27 February 1953. [81] In March 1953, he was appointed Personal Aide-de-Camp to the Queen. [82]

Mountbatten served his final posting at the Admiralty as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from April 1955 to July 1959, the position which his father had held some forty years before. This was the first time in Royal Naval history that a father and son had both attained such high rank. [83] He was promoted to Admiral of the Fleet on 22 October 1956. [84]

In the Suez Crisis of 1956, Mountbatten strongly advised his old friend Prime Minister Anthony Eden against the Conservative government's plans to seize the Suez canal in conjunction with France and Israel. He argued that such a move would destabilize the Middle East, undermine the authority of the United Nations, divide the Commonwealth and diminish Britain's global standing. His advice was not taken. Eden insisted that Mountbatten not resign. Instead, he worked hard to prepare the Royal Navy for war with characteristic professionalism and thoroughness. [85] [86]

Military commanders did not understand the physics involved in a nuclear explosion. This became evident when Mountbatten had to be reassured that the fission reactions from the Bikini Atoll tests would not spread through the oceans and blow up the planet. [87] As Mountbatten became more familiar with this new form of weaponry, he increasingly grew opposed to its use in combat yet at the same time he realised the potential for nuclear energy, especially with regard to submarines. Mountbatten expressed his feelings towards the use of nuclear weapons in combat in his article "A Military Commander Surveys The Nuclear Arms Race", which was published shortly after his death in International Security in the Winter of 1979–1980. [88]

After leaving the Admiralty, Mountbatten took the position of Chief of the Defence Staff. [70] He served in this post for six years during which he was able to consolidate the three service departments of the military branch into a single Ministry of Defence. [89] Ian Jacob, co-author of the 1963 Report on the Central Organisation of Defence that served as the basis of these reforms, described Mountbatten as "universally mistrusted in spite of his great qualities". [90] On their election in October 1964, the Wilson ministry had to decide whether to renew his appointment the following July. The Defence Secretary, Denis Healey, interviewed the forty most senior officials in the Ministry of Defence only one, Sir Kenneth Strong, a personal friend of Mountbatten, recommended his reappointment. [90] "When I told Dickie of my decision not to reappoint him," recalls Healey, "he slapped his thigh and roared with delight but his eyes told a different story." [90]

Mountbatten was appointed colonel of the Life Guards and Gold Stick in Waiting on 29 January 1965 [91] and Life Colonel Commandant of the Royal Marines the same year. [92] He was Governor of the Isle of Wight from 20 July 1965 [93] and then the first Lord Lieutenant of the Isle of Wight from 1 April 1974. [94]

In 1969, Mountbatten tried unsuccessfully to persuade his cousin, the Spanish pretender Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, to ease the eventual accession of his son, Juan Carlos, to the Spanish throne by signing a declaration of abdication while in exile. [96] The next year Mountbatten attended an official White House dinner during which he took the opportunity to have a 20-minute conversation with Richard Nixon and Secretary of State William P. Rogers, about which he later wrote, "I was able to talk to the President a bit about both Tino [Constantine II of Greece] and Juanito [Juan Carlos of Spain] to try and put over their respective points of view about Greece and Spain, and how I felt the US could help them." [96] In January 1971, Nixon hosted Juan Carlos and his wife Sofia (sister of the exiled King Constantine) during a visit to Washington and later that year The Washington Post published an article alleging that Nixon's administration was seeking to persuade Franco to retire in favour of the young Bourbon prince. [96]

From 1967 until 1978, Mountbatten was president of the United World Colleges Organisation, then represented by a single college: that of Atlantic College in South Wales. Mountbatten supported the United World Colleges and encouraged heads of state, politicians and personalities throughout the world to share his interest. Under his presidency and personal involvement, the United World College of South East Asia was established in Singapore in 1971, followed by the United World College of the Pacific in Victoria, British Columbia, in 1974. In 1978, Mountbatten passed the presidency of the college to his great-nephew, the Prince of Wales. [97]

Mountbatten also helped to launch the International Baccalaureate in 1971 he presented the first IB diplomas in the Greek Theatre of the International School of Geneva, Switzerland. [98] [99] [100]

In 1975 he finally visited the Soviet Union, leading the delegation from UK as personal representative of Queen Elizabeth II at the celebrations to mark the 30th anniversary of Victory Day in World War II in Moscow. [101]

Alleged plots against Harold Wilson Edit

Peter Wright, in his 1987 book Spycatcher, claimed that in May 1968 Mountbatten attended a private meeting with press baron Cecil King, and the government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Solly Zuckerman. Wright alleged that "up to thirty" MI5 officers had joined a secret campaign to undermine the crisis-stricken Labour government of Harold Wilson and that King was an MI5 agent. In the meeting, King allegedly urged Mountbatten to become the leader of a government of national salvation. Solly Zuckerman pointed out that it was "rank treachery" and the idea came to nothing because of Mountbatten's reluctance to act. [102] In contrast, Andrew Lownie has suggested that it took the intervention of the Queen to dissuade him from plotting against Wilson. [103]

In 2006, the BBC documentary The Plot Against Harold Wilson alleged that there had been another plot involving Mountbatten to oust Wilson during his second term in office (1974–1976). The period was characterised by high inflation, increasing unemployment and widespread industrial unrest. The alleged plot revolved around right-wing former military figures who were supposedly building private armies to counter the perceived threat from trade unions and the Soviet Union. They believed that the Labour Party was unable and unwilling to counter these developments and that Wilson was either a Soviet agent or at the very least a Communist sympathiser – claims Wilson strongly denied. The documentary alleged that a coup was planned to overthrow Wilson and replace him with Mountbatten using the private armies and sympathisers in the military and MI5. [104]

The first official history of MI5, The Defence of the Realm (2009), implied that there was a plot against Wilson and that MI5 did have a file on him. Yet it also made clear that the plot was in no way official and that any activity centred on a small group of discontented officers. This much had already been confirmed by former cabinet secretary Lord Hunt, who concluded in a secret inquiry conducted in 1996 that "there is absolutely no doubt at all that a few, a very few, malcontents in MI5 . a lot of them like Peter Wright who were right-wing, malicious and had serious personal grudges – gave vent to these and spread damaging malicious stories about that Labour government." [105]

Marriage Edit

Mountbatten was married on 18 July 1922 to Edwina Cynthia Annette Ashley, daughter of Wilfred William Ashley, later 1st Baron Mount Temple, himself a grandson of the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. She was the favourite granddaughter of the Edwardian magnate Sir Ernest Cassel and the principal heir to his fortune. The couple spent heavily on households, luxuries and entertainment. [7] There followed a honeymoon tour of European royal courts and America which included a visit to Niagara Falls (because "all honeymooners went there"). [3]

Mountbatten admitted: "Edwina and I spent all our married lives getting into other people's beds." [106] He maintained an affair for several years with Yola Letellier, [107] the wife of Henri Letellier, publisher of Le Journal and mayor of Deauville (1925–28). [108] Yola Letellier's life story was the inspiration for Colette's novel Gigi. [107]

After Edwina died in 1960, Mountbatten was involved in relationships with young women, according to his daughter Patricia, his secretary John Barratt, his valet Bill Evans and William Stadiem, an employee of Madame Claude. [109]

Sexuality Edit

Ron Perks, Mountbatten's driver in Malta in 1948, alleged that he used to visit the Red House, a gay brothel in Rabat. [110] Andrew Lownie, a fellow of the Royal Historical Society, wrote that the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) maintained files regarding Mountbatten's alleged homosexuality. [111] Lownie also interviewed several young men who claimed to have been in a relationship with Mountbatten. John Barratt, Mountbatten's personal and private secretary for 20 years, [112] has denied Mountbatten was a homosexual, claiming it would be impossible for such a fact to be hidden from him. [109]

Allegations of sexual abuse Edit

The FBI file on Mountbatten, begun after he took on the role of Supreme Allied Commander in Southeast Asia in 1944, contains a claim by American author Elizabeth Wharton Drexel that Mountbatten had "a perversion for young boys". [111] [113] Norman Nield, Mountbatten's driver from 1942 to 1943, told the tabloid New Zealand Truth that he transported young boys aged 8 to 12 and was paid to keep quiet. Robin Bryans had also claimed to the Irish magazine Now that he and Anthony Blunt, along with others, were part of a ring that engaged in homosexual orgies and procured boys in their first year at public schools such as the Portora Royal School in Enniskillen. Former residents of the Kincora Boys' Home in Belfast have asserted that they were trafficked to Mountbatten at his residence in Mullaghmore, County Sligo. [114] [115] [116] These claims were dismissed by the Historical Institution Abuse (HIA) Inquiry. [117] [109] [118] The HIA stated that the article making the original allegations "did not give any basis for the assertions that any of these people [Mountbatten and others] were connected with Kincora". [117]

Daughter as heir Edit

Lord and Lady Mountbatten had two daughters: Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma (14 February 1924 – 13 June 2017), [119] sometime lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth II, and Lady Pamela Hicks (born 19 April 1929), who accompanied them to India in 1947–1948 and was also sometime lady-in-waiting to the Queen. [1]

Since Mountbatten had no sons when he was created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton on 27 August 1946 [120] and then Earl Mountbatten of Burma and Baron Romsey, in the County of Southampton on 28 October 1947, [121] the Letters Patent were drafted such that in the event he left no sons or issue in the male line, the titles could pass to his daughters, in order of seniority of birth, and to their male heirs respectively. [50]

Leisure interests Edit

Like many members of the royal family, Mountbatten was an aficionado of polo. He received US patent 1,993,334 in 1931 for a polo stick. [122] Mountbatten introduced the sport to the Royal Navy in the 1920s and wrote a book on the subject. [3] He also served as Commodore of Emsworth Sailing Club in Hampshire from 1931. [123] He was a long-serving Patron of the Society for Nautical Research (1951–1979). [124]

Mentorship of the Prince of Wales Edit

Mountbatten was a strong influence in the upbringing of his grand-nephew, Charles, Prince of Wales, and later as a mentor – "Honorary Grandfather" and "Honorary Grandson", they fondly called each other according to the Jonathan Dimbleby biography of the Prince – though according to both the Ziegler biography of Mountbatten and the Dimbleby biography of the Prince, the results may have been mixed. He from time to time strongly upbraided the Prince for showing tendencies towards the idle pleasure-seeking dilettantism of his predecessor as Prince of Wales, King Edward VIII, whom Mountbatten had known well in their youth. Yet he also encouraged the Prince to enjoy the bachelor life while he could, and then to marry a young and inexperienced girl so as to ensure a stable married life. [125]

Mountbatten's qualification for offering advice to this particular heir to the throne was unique it was he who had arranged the visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth to Dartmouth Royal Naval College on 22 July 1939, taking care to include the young Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret in the invitation, but assigning his nephew, Cadet Prince Philip of Greece, to keep them amused while their parents toured the facility. This was the first recorded meeting of Charles's future parents. [126] But a few months later, Mountbatten's efforts nearly came to naught when he received a letter from his sister Alice in Athens informing him that Philip was visiting her and had agreed to repatriate permanently to Greece. Within days, Philip received a command from his cousin and sovereign, King George II of Greece, to resume his naval career in Britain which, though given without explanation, the young prince obeyed. [127]

In 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Charles about a potential marriage to his granddaughter, Hon. Amanda Knatchbull. [128] It was about this time he also recommended that the 25-year-old prince get on with "sowing some wild oats". [128] Charles dutifully wrote to Amanda's mother (who was also his godmother), Lady Brabourne, about his interest. Her answer was supportive, but advised him that she thought her daughter still rather young to be courted. [129]

In February 1975, Charles visited New Delhi to play polo and was shown around Rashtrapati Bhavan, the former Viceroy's House, by Mountbatten. [130]

Four years later, Mountbatten secured an invitation for himself and Amanda to accompany Charles on his planned 1980 tour of India. [129] Their fathers promptly objected. Prince Philip thought that the Indian public's reception would more likely reflect response to the uncle than to the nephew. Lord Brabourne counselled that the intense scrutiny of the press would be more likely to drive Mountbatten's godson and granddaughter apart than together. [129]

Charles was rescheduled to tour India alone, but Mountbatten did not live to the planned date of departure. When Charles finally did propose marriage to Amanda later in 1979, the circumstances were changed and she refused him. [129]

On 27 April 1977, shortly before his 77th birthday, Mountbatten became the first member of the Royal Family to appear on the TV guest show This Is Your Life. [131]

Assassination Edit

Mountbatten usually holidayed at his summer home, Classiebawn Castle, on the Mullaghmore Peninsula in County Sligo, in the north-west of Ireland. The village was only 12 miles (19 km) from the border with County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland and near an area known to be used as a cross-border refuge by IRA members. [132] [133] In 1978, the IRA had allegedly attempted to shoot Mountbatten as he was aboard his boat, but poor weather had prevented the sniper taking his shot. [134]

On 27 August 1979, Mountbatten went lobster-potting and tuna fishing in his 30-foot (9.1 m) wooden boat, Shadow V, which had been moored in the harbour at Mullaghmore. [133] IRA member Thomas McMahon had slipped onto the unguarded boat that night and attached a radio-controlled bomb weighing 50 pounds (23 kg). When Mountbatten and his party had taken the boat just a few hundred yards from the shore, the bomb was detonated. The boat was destroyed by the force of the blast and Mountbatten's legs were almost blown off. Mountbatten, then aged 79, was pulled alive from the water by nearby fishermen, but died from his injuries before being brought to shore. [133] [135] [136]

Also aboard the boat were his elder daughter Patricia, Lady Brabourne her husband Lord Brabourne their twin sons Nicholas and Timothy Knatchbull Lord Brabourne's mother Doreen, Dowager Lady Brabourne and Paul Maxwell, a young crew member from Enniskillen in County Fermanagh. [137] Nicholas (aged 14) and Paul (aged 15) were killed by the blast and the others were seriously injured. [138] Doreen, Dowager Lady Brabourne (aged 83), died from her injuries the following day. [139]

The attack triggered outrage and condemnation around the world. [140] The Queen received messages of condolence from leaders including American President Jimmy Carter and Pope John Paul II. [141] Carter expressed his "profound sadness" at the death. [142]

His death leaves a gap that can never be filled. The British people give thanks for his life and grieve at his passing. [143]

George Colley, the Tánaiste (Deputy head of government) of the Republic of Ireland, said:

No effort will be spared to bring those responsible to justice. It is understood that subversives have claimed responsibility for the explosion. Assuming that police investigations substantiate the claim, I know that the Irish people will join me in condemning this heartless and terrible outrage. [143]

The IRA issued a statement afterward, saying:

The IRA claim responsibility for the execution of Lord Louis Mountbatten. This operation is one of the discriminate ways we can bring to the attention of the English people the continuing occupation of our country. . The death of Mountbatten and the tributes paid to him will be seen in sharp contrast to the apathy of the British Government and the English people to the deaths of over three hundred British soldiers, and the deaths of Irish men, women, and children at the hands of their forces. [132] [144]

Six weeks later, [145] Sinn Féin vice-president Gerry Adams said of Mountbatten's death:

The IRA gave clear reasons for the execution. I think it is unfortunate that anyone has to be killed, but the furor created by Mountbatten's death showed up the hypocritical attitude of the media establishment. As a member of the House of Lords, Mountbatten was an emotional figure in both British and Irish politics. What the IRA did to him is what Mountbatten had been doing all his life to other people and with his war record I don't think he could have objected to dying in what was clearly a war situation. He knew the danger involved in coming to this country. In my opinion, the IRA achieved its objective: people started paying attention to what was happening in Ireland. [145]

Adams later said in an interview, "I stand over what I said then. I'm not one of those people that engages in revisionism. Thankfully the war is over." [146]

On the day of the bombing, the IRA also ambushed and killed eighteen British soldiers at the gates of Narrow Water Castle, just outside Warrenpoint, in County Down in Northern Ireland, sixteen of them from the Parachute Regiment, in what became known as the Warrenpoint ambush. [147] It was the deadliest attack on the British Army during the Troubles. [133]

Funeral Edit

On 5 September 1979 Mountbatten received a ceremonial funeral at Westminster Abbey, which was attended by the Queen, the royal family and members of the European royal houses. Watched by thousands of people, the funeral procession, which started at Wellington Barracks, included representatives of all three British Armed Services, and military contingents from Burma, India, the United States (represented by 70 sailors of the U.S. Navy and 50 U.S. Marines [148] ), France (represented by the French Navy) and Canada. His coffin was drawn on a gun carriage by 118 Royal Navy ratings. [149] [150] During the televised service, the Prince of Wales read the lesson from Psalm 107. [149] In an address, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Donald Coggan, highlighted his various achievements and his "lifelong devotion to the Royal Navy". [151] After the public ceremonies, which he had planned himself, Mountbatten was buried in Romsey Abbey. [152] [153] As part of the funeral arrangements, his body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley. [154]

Aftermath Edit

Two hours before the bomb detonated, Thomas McMahon had been arrested at a Garda checkpoint between Longford and Granard on suspicion of driving a stolen vehicle. He was tried for the assassinations in Ireland and convicted on 23 November 1979 based on forensic evidence supplied by James O'Donovan that showed flecks of paint from the boat and traces of nitroglycerine on his clothes. [155] He was released in 1998 under the terms of the Good Friday Agreement. [133] [156]

On hearing of Mountbatten's death, the then Master of the Queen's Music, Malcolm Williamson, wrote the Lament in Memory of Lord Mountbatten of Burma for violin and string orchestra. The 11-minute work was given its first performance on 5 May 1980 by the Scottish Baroque Ensemble, conducted by Leonard Friedman. [157]

Mountbatten's faults, according to his biographer Philip Ziegler, like everything else about him, "were on the grandest scale. His vanity though child-like, was monstrous, his ambition unbridled. He sought to rewrite history with cavalier indifference to the facts to magnify his own achievements." [158] However, Ziegler concludes that Mountbatten's virtues outweighed his defects: [159]

He was generous and loyal. He was warm-hearted, predisposed to like everyone he met, quick-tempered but never bearing grudges. His tolerance was extraordinary his readiness to respect and listen to the views of others was remarkable throughout his life.

Ziegler argues he was truly a great man, although not profound or original. [159]

What he could do with superlative aplomb was to identify the object at which he was aiming, and force it through to its conclusion. A powerful, analytic mind of crystalline clarity, a superabundance of energy, great persuasive powers, endless resilience in the face of setback or disaster rendered him the most formidable of operators. He was infinitely resourceful, quick in his reactions, always ready to cut his losses and start again. He was an executor of policy rather than an initiator but whatever the policy, he espoused it with such energy and enthusiasm, made it so completely his own, that it became identified with him and, in the eyes of the outside world as well as his own, his creation.

Others were not so conflicted. Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer, the former Chief of the Imperial General Staff, once told him, "You are so crooked, Dickie, that if you swallowed a nail, you would shit a corkscrew". [160]

Mountbatten's most controversial legacy came in his support for the burgeoning nationalist movements which grew up in the shadow of Japanese occupation. His priority was to maintain practical, stable government, but driving him was an idealism in which he believed every people should be allowed to control their own destiny. Critics said he was too ready to overlook their faults, and especially their subordination to communist control. Ziegler says that in Malaya, where the main resistance to the Japanese came from Chinese who were under considerable communist influence, "Mountbatten proved to have been naïve in his assessment. He erred, however, not because he was 'soft on Communism'. but from an over-readiness to assume the best of those with whom he had dealings." Furthermore, Ziegler argues, he was following a practical policy based on the assumption that it would take a long and bloody struggle to drive the Japanese out, and he needed the support of all the anti-Japanese elements, most of which were either nationalists or communists. [161]

Mountbatten took pride in enhancing intercultural understanding and in 1984, with his elder daughter as the patron, the Mountbatten Institute was developed to allow young adults the opportunity to enhance their intercultural appreciation and experience by spending time abroad. [162] The IET annually awards the Mountbatten Medal for an outstanding contribution, or contributions over a period, to the promotion of electronics or information technology and their application. [16]

Canada's capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, erected Mountbatten Avenue in his memory. [163] The Mountbatten estate in Singapore and Mountbatten MRT station were named after him. [164]

He was appointed personal aide-de-camp by Edward VIII, George VI [181] and Elizabeth II, and therefore bore the unusual distinction of being allowed to wear three royal cyphers on his shoulder straps. [182] [183]

Lord Mountbatten: Last Viceroy of India (1947-1948)

Lord Mountbatten served as last Viceroy of India from 12 February 1947 – 15 August 1947 and then first Governor General of Free India from 15 August 1947 – 21 June 1948. During his tenure, India got independence in the form of two dominions of India Pakistan. Two Boundary Commissions were set, Pakistan raided Kashmir and Mahatma Gandhi was shot dead.

Pakistan Day

Upon his arrival, Lord Mountbatten immediately began the procedure to transfer the power. On March 27, 1947 Muslim League observed Pakistan Day, which resulted in riots, massacre and atrocities. The Interim government, which was in existence since 2 September 1946 had failed in controlling the riots, and later uselessness of opposition of demand for a separate Pakistan by the Muslim league was realized by the leaders of the Interim Government Including Nehru.

Dickie Bird Plan, 1947

Mountbatten prepared “Dickie Bird Plan” for India’s independence. The main proposal of this plan was to that provinces should become first independent successor states rather than an Indian Union or the two dominions of India & Pakistan.

As per this plan all the provinces viz. Madras, Bombay, United Provinces of Bengal, Punjab & North West Frontier etc. were proposed to be declared Independent. The states later would decide whether to join constituent assembly or not.

This plan was not discussed in details with leaders of India and Mountbatten discussed just informally. He gave the plan a final touch and sent to London. Later when he moved to Shimla, Nehru joined him as a guest. Here the details of the plan were put by Mountbatten before Nehru. Nehru rejected the plan right away and told him that this plan would invite Balkanization of India and would provoke conflict and violence. Consequently, Mountbatten cabled to England that this plan was cancelled.

June 3 Plan: June 3, 1947

By June 1947, Congress had given consent to partition. On June 3, 1947, Prime Minister Atlee announced the Partition Plan or June 3 Plan in the House of Commons. The plan laid down the following provisions.

  • The provincial legislative Assemblies of Bengal and Punjab would meet in two parts separately, one representing Muslim majority districts and another representing the Hindu Majority districts to decide by the vote on partition.
  • In case of Sind and Baluchistan, the provincial assemblies would take the decision.
  • In case of NWFP, the decision had to be taken on the base of referendum.
  • A referendum was to be organized in Sylhet region of Assam which was Muslim majority.
  • The Paramount of the princely states will not be transferred to either of India or Pakistan. So, they would in theory become sovereign when India is partitioned.

Congress accepted the plan. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan called the Congress treacherous which has thrown the Khudai Khidmatgars to wolves. The partition became realty soon. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan rejected the referendum but the voting was done in favour of Pakistan.

Partition Committee and Partition Council

Partition Committee was formed which was chaired by Lord Mountbatten and its members were Vallabh Bhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Liaqat Ali Khan and Abdur Rab Nishtar. Later this committee was replaced by a Partition Council. In this council, Congress was represented by Sardar Patel and Dr. Rajendra Prasad, with C. Rajgopalachari as alternate member. Muslim league was represented by Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Liaqat Ali Khan and Abdur Rab Nishtar as alternate member. Please note that even after 15 August 1947, this partition council was in existence, but the composition was changed as 2 members from each dominion. Patel and Dr. Prasad kept representing Indian Domain even at that time.

Indian Independence Act 1947

The Indian Independence Act was based upon the Mountbatten plan of 3 rd June 1947 and was passed by the British parliament on July 5, 1947. It received royal assent on July 18, 1947. It provided for two dominion states: India and Pakistan. The boundaries between the two dominion states were to be determined by a Boundary Commission . It provided for partition of Punjab & Bengal and separate boundary commissions to demarcate the boundaries between them. The authority of the British Crown over the princely states ceased and they were free to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent. Both the dominions of India and Pakistan were to have Governor Generals to be appointed by the British King. The act also provided for a common Governor General if both of them agreed. The constituent assemblies of both the states were free to make constitutions of their respective countries. For the time being till the constitution was made, both of them would be governed in accordance with the Government of India act 1935. Any modification or omission could be done by the Governor General. British Government would not continue any control on any dominion. The Governor General was invested with adequate powers until March 1948 to issue orders for effective implementation of the provisions of the Indian independence act 1947. Those civil servants who had been appointed before the August 15, 1947, will continue in service with same privileges.


Jinnah left for Karachi on August 7, 1947. Here the Constituent assembly of Pakistan met on August 11, 1947 and elected him the President. Three days later, he was sworn in as Governor General of Pakistan. On the midnight of 14 August and 15 August 1947, India and Pakistan came into existence. The Constituent assembly then appointed Lord Mountbatten as the First Governor General of the Indian Dominion. In the Morning of August 15, 1947, a new cabinet headed by Jawahar Lal Nehru was sworn in. India paid a heavy price, thereafter in the form of thousands of lives that got burnt in the fire of partition.

Late 1930s: Fear begins to dominate​

● The 1936–37 provincial election results have great historical significance. Despite separate electorates based on religion, the Muslim League (the major opposition party to Nehru’s Indian National Congress) fared badly even in Muslim majority provinces — a consequence of the fact that other than religion, it was considerations like class and language which defined identities for many Indian voters then. The Congress Party gained power in most provinces. Thus, one can say that even as late as in 1937, the majority of Muslims in India did not favor the Muslim League.

● However, for many of India’s Muslims, the subsequent experience of being ruled by Congress politicians (we should be careful not to confuse the colonial-era Congress party with its post-Independence avatar) who frequently behaved in ways that failed to inspire confidence in the Muslim population, struck a new fear of a “Hindu Raj.” In other words, even though prominent Congress leaders like Nehru, Patel, and Bose were broadly secular in their outlook, many other leaders nurtured regressive ideas regarding Hindu supremacy and were dismissive of the appeals of tolerance and religious harmony in the country. The words and actions of such bigoted leaders continued to make many Muslims fearful of their fate once the British left, a fear that was expressed politically by the Muslim League.

1 /17 India and Pakistan Independence Day 2017 - In pictures

Indian school children take selfie picture as they perform cultural dance during the Independence Day celebrations in Jammu, the winter capital of Kashmir, India, 15 August 2017. India celebrates 70 years of independence from British rule on 15 August 2017

Pakistani Rangers (black) and Indian Border Security Force personnel (brown) perform perform during the daily beating of the retreat ceremony at the India-Pakistan Wagah Border Post, some 35kms west of Amritsar on August 14, 2017. Pakistan celebrates its independence on August 14, one day before India's independence day on August 15

A member of the daredevil team of Jammu and Kashmir Police displays skills during an Independence Day parade in Srinagar

Indian girls wear tri colour bangles practice prior to take part during Independence Day celebrations in Secunderabad,the twin city of Hyderabad

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi addresses the nation on the country's Independence Day from the ramparts of the historical Red Fort in New Delhi, India, Tuesday, Aug. 15, 2017. India marks its independence in 1947 from British colonial rule. In the background, Indian children stand in formation to spell out the Hindi word "Bharat", which is the name of the country

Indians carry a huge Indian national flag on a bridge across river Sabarmati as they celebrate Independence Day in Ahmadabad, India

Indian students carry national flags as they perform in a cultural program during the India's Independence Day celebrations in Bangalore, India

Indian students perform in a cultural program during the India's Independence Day celebrations in Bangalore, India

Indian students perform in a cultural program during the India's Independence Day celebrations in Bangalore, India, 15 August 2017. India celebrates 70 years of independence from British rule on 15 August 2017

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi inspects a guard of honour during the country's 71st Independence Day celebrations, which marks the 70th anniversary of the end of British colonial rule, at the historic Red Fort in New Delhi on August 15, 2017

People attend a flag hoisting ceremony during India's Independence Day celebrations in Ahmedabad, India

National Cadet Corps (NCC) parade during India's Independence Day celebrations at Bakshi Stadium in Srinagar, the summer capital of Indian Kashmir

Indian Kashmir Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti waves to crowd during India's Independence Day celebrations at Bakshi Stadium in Srinagar, the summer capital of Indian Kashmir

Pakistan airforce pilots demonstrate their skill during an air show to celebrate the 70th Independence Day in Islamabad, Pakistan

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi greets school girls dressed as Hindu Lord Krishna, after addressing the nation from the historic Red Fort during Independence Day celebrations in Delhi, India

Attendees wave Pakistan's national flag while singing national songs at a ceremony to celebrate the country's 70th Independence Day at the mausoleum of Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Karachi, Pakistan

People from Pakistani Sikh community celebrate the 70th Independence Day in Peshawar, Pakistan

The Indian National Congress, set up in 1885, is seen by many historians as the beginning of a new movement that led to the end of the British Raj.

It came about following a rise in the middle classes in India who were becoming increasingly discontent with the way the country was being ruled. The Congress, launched with 70 members, debated British policy towards India and pushed for more rights for Indians.

Over time the group expanded to have more than 15 million members and by the early 20th century it was the centre of the Indian independence movement.


From the end of the First World War onwards, Mahatma Gandhi became a prominent pro-independence figure - leading millions in his quest for a peaceful solution.

During the Second World War – in which 2.5 million Indian troops fought alongside British ones - and in response to the Congress’ “Quit India” movement, Britain promised to grant India independence.

And following the end of the war, a bruised Britain no longer had the resources or mandate to continue ruling the country.

As the violence between Muslims and Hindus continued, viceroy Louis Mountbatten advised the country should be partitioned to create a predominantly-Muslim territory and a separate country for the majority of Hindus.

Seventy years ago today, the British-ruled India was divided into two new independent countries India and Pakistan. There were two ceremonies, one in Pakistan on August 14 and one in India on August 15 to enable Mountbatten to attend both.

To mark the occasion, then-Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru addressed the newly-independent state at midnight.

He said: “At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance.”

Immediately, millions of people rushed to switch sides of the border - fearing they would be discriminated against because of their religion – and the two countries began fighting over the territory of Kashmir.

The contested land – which both countries claim in full – has been divided since and central to the testy and violent relationship between the two states.

Since independence, three wars have been fought between them. Both countries have performed nuclear tests and have accused each other of funding and arming militants.

In 2015 the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited eastern Pakistani city of Lahore to meet his counterpart Nawaz Sharif. It was seen as a significant turning point in relations between the two countries but was followed by an attack on an Indian airbase by Pakistani militants in 2016.

To mark the 70th anniversary of the partition, Prime Minister Modi urged India to reject religious violence and, in his speech from the ramparts of Delhi's Red Fort, he made no mention of Pakistan and the continued conflict.

On Monday, a song uniting the national anthems of both countries went viral and was praised for promoting peace. The song, dubbed the “peace anthem”, features singers from India and Pakistan, recording in the studio and on location around both countries.

It opens with the words, "When we open our borders to art, peace comes along” and ends with “let’s stand together for peace”.

Have your say. Get involved in exciting, inspiring conversations. Get involved in exciting, inspiring conversations with other readers. VIEW COMMENTS

Koolblue's Blog

In a quiet village in the northern English county of Yorkshire, Robert Beaumont rifles through his father’s archives.
The various and somewhat tatty pieces of paper he unearths are no ordinary collection of paternal memoirs.
They are the thoughts and reflections of his father, Christopher Beaumont, who played a central role in the partition of India in 1947, which resulted in arguably the largest mass migration of peoples the world has ever seen.
After the death in 1989 of Mountbatten’s Private Secretary, Sir George Abell, Beaumont was probably not exaggerating when he claimed to be the only person left who "knew the truth about partition".

‘Bending the border’
It is estimated that around 14.5 million people moved to Pakistan from India or travelled in the opposite direction from Pakistan to India.

In 1947, Beaumont was private secretary to the senior British judge, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, who was chairman of the Indo-Pakistan Boundary Commission.
Radcliffe was responsible for dividing the vast territories of British India into India and Pakistan, separating 400 million people along religious lines.
The family documents show that Beaumont had a stark assessment of the role played by Britain in the last days of the Raj.
"The viceroy, Mountbatten, must take the blame – though not the sole blame – for the massacres in the Punjab in which between 500,000 to a million men, women and children perished," he writes.
"The handover of power was done too quickly."
The central theme ever present in Beaumont’s historic paperwork is that Mountbatten not only bent the rules when it came to partition – he also bent the border in India’s favour.
The documents repeatedly allege that Mountbatten put pressure on Radcliffe to alter the boundary in India’s favour.
On one occasion, he complains that he was "deftly excluded" from a lunch between the pair in which a substantial tract of Muslim-majority territory – which should have gone to Pakistan – was instead ceded to India.
Beaumont’s papers say that the incident brought "grave discredit on both men".

Punjab ‘disaster’
But Beaumont – who later in life was a circuit judge in the UK – is most scathing about how partition affected the Punjab, which was split between India and Pakistan.

"The Punjab partition was a disaster," he writes.
"Geography, canals, railways and roads all argued against dismemberment.
"The trouble was that Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs were an integrated population so that it was impossible to make a frontier without widespread dislocation.
"Thousands of people died or were uprooted from their homes in what was in effect a civil war.
"By the end of 1947 there were virtually no Hindus or Sikhs living in west Punjab – now part of Pakistan – and no Muslims in the Indian east.
"The British government and Mountbatten must bear a large part of the blame for this tragedy."

Personality clash
Beaumont goes on to argue that it was "irresponsible" of Lord Mountbatten to insist that Beaumont complete the boundary within a six-week deadline – despite his protests.

On Kashmir, Beaumont argues that it would have been "far more sensible" to have made the flash-point territory a separate country.
According to Beaumont, the "formidably intelligent" Radcliffe "did not get on well" with Mountbatten.
"They could not have been more different," he writes.
"Mountbatten was very good-looking and had a well-deserved history of personal bravery but, to put it mildly, he had few literary tastes.
"Radcliffe… was very quietly civilised. It was a relationship so like chalk and cheese that Lady Mountbatten had to use all her adroitness to keep conversation between them on an even keel."
Beaumont died in 2002 – his son Robert remembers him with great affection.
"He was also a man of supreme honesty, who spoke out on numerous occasions against the official British version of events surrounding partition without in any way being disloyal to his country," Robert Beaumont recalls.

Mountbatten’s cynical role at Indian partition

Pakistan’s path to freedom was crammed with blood, terror, rape, and plunder. In 1947, millions of peaceable people abandoned their hearths and homes and fled India to migrate Pakistan in pursuit of free, safe, and secure lifestyle.

The last Viceroy of British India, Lord Mountbatten, had a cynical role in ramping up migrants’ miseries. At the time of partition of India in 1947, he had pledged to make sure that “there is no bloodshed and riot” during the transition of government to India and Pakistan.

But Mountbatten viciously failed to keep his promise and demonstrated sheer incompetence in preventing communal disturbances, violence, and killings. As a result, about one million humans were killed while the world also witnessed arguably the largest mass migration of history.

Women were the prime victims of the partition of India. Tens of thousands of the abducted women went through relentless mental and physical ferocities after they were forcibly held as permanent hostages, captives, and forced wives in the “other” country. However, rapes of Muslim women were roughly double than those of Hindu and Sikh women.

Mountbatten manifested a great bias towards India and against Pakistan. He crooked the rules in a way that preferred India and pressurised Sir Cyril Radcliffe to alter the boundary in India’s favour. Radcliffe was the chairman of the Indo-Pakistan Boundary Commission that was responsible for the demarcation of British India into India and Pakistan on religion lines.

Mountbatten manifested a great bias towards India and against Pakistan

While British India was alienated into two independent dominion states – India and Pakistan – based on two-nation theory (Hindu and Muslim), the princely state of J&K remained a relic discord between the two South Asian rivals of the subcontinent.

At the time of division, Mountbatten deliberately kept mum about 1846’s Treaty of Amritsar, which entitled Gulab Singh to rule J&K, and was scrapped through Article 7 of the Independence Act. The Act was passed by the British parliament on July 18, 1947, and subscribed the creation of India and Pakistan. It also rescinded the suzerainty of His Majesty over British India and its princely states including J&K, all treaties, agreements, obligations, and grants.

So it was Mountbatten’s perfidious insolence that piled up convoluted rumpuses between India and Pakistan on J&K and pressed the historians to reproach British imperialism for independence, which was accompanied by a bloody partition and communal violence amid Hindus and Muslims.

As it was mutually agreed among all sides that the Muslim-majority regions would be assigned to Pakistan, the geopolitical location of J&K and the fact that it was largely Muslim populated necessitated the state’s ruler Maharaja Hari Singh to enjoin the territory with Pakistan. But Indian took control of the J&K militarily and averred that the Hindu monarch has signed an Instrument of Accession with New Delhi.

The Instrument is alleged to have signed on October 26, 1947, and Indian forces began to intervene in J&K on the morning of October 27, 1947. Historian Alastair Lamb argues that the date of signing the accession agreement is false as the Maharaja was travelling by road from Srinagar to Jammu on October 26, 1947. So it wasn’t possible for him to sign the Instrument while he was escaping to save his life.

Lab further maintained that the earliest possible time of signing the documents by Maharaja of J&K was in the afternoon of October 27, 1947, after the overt Indian intervention in the state. “Falsification of such a fundamental element as the date of signature, however, once established, can only cast grave doubt over the validity of the document as a whole,” Lamb clinched.

Even if such an agreement was signed between Maharaja and the Indian emissaries, the divisive contract clarified that J&K would retain autonomy in all matters except defence, foreign affairs and communications. The contract also did not bind the state to Indian constitution and stipulated that the ruler’s decision to accede to India must be ratified by the people of J&K through a referendum/plebiscite, which never took place.

Mountbatten’s biographer, Philip Ziegler, said he had “legendary capacity for self-deception” and he “was a man who preferred falsehood to truth.”

Ziegler also panned the Instrument that had handwritten corrections and ended with the last sentence “in haste and with kind regards.” This speaks volubly about the state of Maharaja’s mind and authenticates that the instrument was extracted under coercion and duress so should be invalid in the court of law. While no UN resolution incorporates India’s view that Maharaja had acceded to India, the accession instrument stands stolen.

Although New Delhi had incorporated Article 370 in its constitution (despite not being in practice), it did not fit comfortably at all with the “authoritarian Indian administration(s).” On August 5, the fascistic BJP regime eventually abrogated Article 370 (and Article 35A) and striped the semiautonomous status of J&K.

The writer works in a private organisation, “Market & Business Analysts” and writes on geopolitical issues and regional conflicts

“Mountbatten gave away India, and his wife. Cuckolded by Nehru”: Netflix’s British series The Crown tips the hat to first Prime Minister of India

The affair between Lord Mountbatten's wife, Edwina and Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of Independent India is no secret.

Jawaharlal Nehru sharing a light moment with Edwina Mountbatten (left), Netflix series The Crown

Lord Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India, was charged with overseeing the transition from British India to independent India by 30th June, 1948. On his arrival he realised the situation is too volatile to wait for too long and decided to grant independence to India sooner rather than later. In the process he even split India into India and Pakistan.

The affair between Lord Mountbatten’s wife, Edwina and Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of Independent India is no secret. In an article that called Mountbatten “man-eater”, dailymail.co.uk recounted how Mountbatten fell in love with Nehru and how her promiscuity took a toll on her children. According to Lady Mountbatten’s daughter Pamela, ‘She found in Panditji [Nehru] the companionship and equality of spirit and intellect that she craved. Each helped overcome loneliness in the other.’

This has now found its way into the popular Netflix series The Crown, created by British writer Peter Morgan and produced by Left Bank Pictures and Sony Pictures Television. The Crown is a historical drama that chronicles life of Queen Elizabeth from her younger days to her reign and gives a glimpse into the personal life of the royals. Lord Mountbatten was also the uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and husband to Queen Elizabeth. There are a few references to Lord Mountbatten and India’s first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru.

In first season’s first episode, during the wedding ceremony of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip at first Winston Churchill appears to be referring to Lord Mountbatten as the man who gave away India. In the same sequence, few other people too say the same.

“Oh, it is Lord Mountbatten, the Duke of Edinburgh’s uncle. The man who gave away India, and his own wife. Cuckolded by Nehru, if you please. Cuckold is the husband of the wife who has cheated on him with another man.

In second season, Lord Mountbatten is appearing to accept the affair his wife had with Jawaharlal Nehru to Queen Elizabeth.

In the above video, one can see Lord Mountbatten speaking to his niece-in-law, Queen Elizabeth, about the ‘wild spirit’ she married to. He says he knew it because he was married to one too. “Trying to tame them is no use. There were times in India, it was all right under my nose, with Nehru of all people, my opposite number,” actor playing Lord Mountbatten said. “The humiliation could not have been more complete,” he said.

Chronology of EVENTS that resulted in division of ‘Unified INDIA’ into India & Pakistan


Please login to bookmark

  • This research is primarily based on the writings of Ishtiaq Ahmed
  • Ishtiaq Ahmed – Swedish Pakistani Political Scientist. Ishtiaq is a secular minded person and his writings are unbiased & neutral (truth as it is)
  • If you want to understand the events that led to Partition of India, watch this 6-part series
    • Dialogue between Arvind Saharan & Ishtiaq Ahmed (6-part series – Compulsory Watch)
      • The Partition of India – Episode 1 – In conversation with Professor, Dr. Ishtiaq Ahmed – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3aGWDX7ASs
      • East India Company 1612–1757
      • Company rule in India 1757–1858
      • British Raj 1858–1947
      • Partition of India 1947
      • History of the British Raj – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_British_Raj
      • Founded 28 December 1885
      • 2 Britishers were its founding members
      • Founded 30 December 1906
      • Founder – Khwaja Salimullah (4 th Nawab of Dhaka)
      • Headquarters – Lucknow
      • Muslim League leadership was overwhelmingly of Urdu & Bengali decent
      • *Basis of 2 Nation Theory (compulsory watch 5:50 to 21:02)
        • Science Ka Adda: From Science to Anti-Science | A Journey from Sir Syed Ahmad Khan To Allama Iqbal – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sE0GWZgq0YA&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=1
        • *YouTube (34:33-36:03 – Compulsory Watch): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3aGWDX7ASs&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=2
        • The Muslim candidate was no longer obliged to consult the Hindus to get his vote (Muslim candidate, Muslim Voter)
        • The Hindu candidate was no longer obliged to consult the Muslims to get his vote (Hindu candidate, Hindu Voter)
        • Integral Evolution in a political system was damaged
        • *Edwin Samuel Montagu (British Secretary of State for India) – “By introducing this, we are preventing the creation of Indian National Consciousness”
        • Lucknow Pact – Congress & Muslim League agreed to allow representation to religious minorities in the provincial legislatures.
        • Jinnah played a crucial role to bring both parties (Congress & Muslim League) to an agreement.
        • Gandhi asked ‘all Indians’ to join Indian Army and support British in WW 1
          • In return Gandhi thought British would leave India sooner
          • Delegation of Congress & Muslim League went to Britain in 1916 and pleaded not to remove caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
          • Jinnah was part of Khilafat Movement
          • 1919 – Britain dismembered Ottoman Empire (Treaty of Sèvres)
          • Jinnah “ 1 st they took away our land, now they want to destroy our religion”
          • There will be no State Religion
          • Men & Women will have equal rights as citizens
          • India will be a Federation with strong center
          • Supported by Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
          • Iqbal was the one who first proposed the IDEA of Muslim Homeland in North-West part of India (with or without the support of British)
          • Later he disowned his comments
          • Died in 1938
          • On 28 January 1933, Ali voiced the idea in a pamphlet titled “Now or Never Are We to Live or Perish Forever?”
          • He is credited with creating the name “Pakistan” for a separate Muslim homeland in North-West part of India
          • Jinnah practiced LAW in England.
          • In-detail information of these 3 years of Jinnah’s life is not present
          • Rajagopalachari, Kriplani, Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Patel resigned in protest. Gandhi persuaded these 4 to come back to Congress.
          • Birla’s made a press campaign against Nehru from April to June 1936
          • Punjab 2/175
          • Sindh, North West Frontier – 0 seats
          • Congress won the Elections
          • There was a ‘Gentlemen Agreement’ in UP – whatever the result is, we will form a coalition government. But Congress alone formed the Government.
          • Rajendra Prasad, Abdul Kalam Azad, Nehru, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai – asked Jinnah to join Congress if he is to be considered for Minister ship.
          • *Then on Jinnah assumes the leadership of Muslim Separatism.
          • In provinces Congress won – Congress Flag, Vande Mataram, Wardha Scheme were introduced
          • Jinnah felt this is the 1 st taste of Hindu Raj even before the British Left
          • *YouTube (1:08:19 onwards – Compulsory Watch): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3aGWDX7ASs&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=2
          • Lahore Resolution – The resolution called for independent states as seen by the statement on 23 march 1940:
            • That geographically contiguous units are demarcated regions which should be constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North Western and Eastern Zones of (British) India should be grouped to constitute ‘independent states’ in which the constituent units should be autonomous and sovereign.
            • Observation: Pseudo-intellectuals (on both sides India & Pakistan) quote this statement and say “Jinnah didn’t want separate Homeland for Muslims, but he wanted Muslim majority provinces (North West & North East) of INDIA to be much more autonomous”
            • *Most Important Speech of JINNAH – JINNAH wanted Partition of India – this speech creates the basis of ‘2 Nation Theory’, which is borrowed from Iqbal & Rahmat Ali without recognizing them being recognizing as original sources
            • Jinnah Says “23rd march 1940 resolution means nothing else, except that the division of INDIA”
            • Observation: What was not mentioned explicitly (on 23 rd march) is now definitely clarified
            • Jinnah says “It is a fair demand, because these are 2 nations, when India & Pakistan come into being, it will create the basis of the true peace in the sub-continent, because two separate nations will have a full chance to develop according to their genius”
            • Jinnah wanted division of INDIA (2 nd Proof)
              • Later on 100’s of times Jinnah said ‘I want the Division of India’
              • *“If the Muslims want to divide INDIA on the basis of religion, we will have PUNJAB divided on the basis of religion as well”
              • Bhagat Singh was concerned with the divisive politics of Congress Party
              • Congress in its rallies raised following slogans
                • Naara e Takbir Allah o Akbar
                • Vande Mataram
                • Sat Sri Akaal
                • Instead of ‘Hindustan Zindabad’
                • Agenda: to build a united front against CONGRESS
                • Nothing Fruitful (actionable) came out of this meeting
                • Jinnah believed in Constitutional Road towards Self-Rule
                • Gandhi believed in Mass Movement (Civil Disobedience) towards Self-Rule
                • From 9 th August British started arresting Congress Leaders
                • August 1942-June 1947 – The whole Congress Party was in jail, and Muslim League had a free hand to go around preaching its Idea of Pakistan (open field to propagate its ideology)
                • Jinnah in his rallies talked about ‘Islamic State, Justice during the Golden years of Islam’, but never used ISLAM in the official documents
                  • His ideology appealed to the ordinary Muslims
                  • * “When the 1 st Indian converted to Islam, that’s when the foundation of Pakistan were laid, because that Indian was ostracized by his community, they would not dine with him, they would not sit with him”
                  • Observation:
                    • Jinnah’s grand father – Premji Bhai Thakkar converted to Islam
                      • Premji Bhai Thakkar’s decision to get into the fish business in the coastal town of Veraval, Gujarat got him ostracised and excommunicated from his strict vegetarian community of Lohanas, a sub-caste of Dhudhi Rajput.
                      • Source: https://www.news18.com/news/india/fish-to-blame-for-indias-partition-book-claims-taboo-business-pushed-jinnahs-grandfather-to-convert-2000857.html
                      • * Jinnah’s MIND – Creation of Pakistan is ‘Revenge & Rejection of Hindus’
                      • ‘we are willing to cooperate during WW2 only if you assure us, after the War there will be the division of INDIA’
                      • Jinnah – “In Muslim majority provinces if referendum happens, only the Muslims will vote, the Hindus & Sikhs will not vote”
                      • Gandhi was not willing to accept this demand
                      • 1944 – Talks between Jinnah & Gandhi failed
                      • Observation:
                        • If referendum happened in Punjab (57.1% Muslims & 42.9% Hindus & Sikhs), 42.9% non-Muslims + at least 15-20% of secular Muslims (Unionist Party) would have voted in favor of united INDIA.
                        • If Punjab was not partitioned, then India would not have been partitioned.
                        • “If partition of India happened, Muslims should be expelled from East Punjab, Sikhs who come from West Punjab should be accommodated in Central Punjab (Indian side) & Princely States”
                        • Observation:
                          • *The seed (IDEA) of Khalistan (separate homeland for SIKH’s) was started in 1945 (not in 1980’s)
                          • Muslim league started using ‘Islamic Sloganeer’
                            • ‘Voting for Pakistan is voting for Holy Prophet’
                            • ‘those Muslims who don’t vote for Muslim League, there marriages will be declared invalid, and they will be denied Islamic Burial’
                            • Cabinet Mission Plan explained (1:10:02 to 1:19:55) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2RTXqyI_clM&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=1
                              • *Congress never wanted Partition, but when they realized having a United India which will be extremely hard to govern (Cabinet Mission Plan), they accepted Partition.
                              • Jinnah – “in one hand I have Constitutional Methods, in other hand I am holding a Pistol, now through ‘Direct Action’ we will create Pakistan”
                              • Muslim League governed Bengal Province in 1946
                              • Communal riots in BENGAL
                                • Calcutta riots (15 August – 17 September 1946) – 7000 to 10,000 Hindus and Muslims killed
                                • Noakhali riots (September–October 1946) – 5000 Hindus killed
                                • Happened mainly in Slums
                                • YouTube: Partition, 1947: How ‘United Bengal’ Almost Became A New Country | The Quint – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8MNNN2o3Mc&list=LL&index=8
                                • *The American photojournalist Margaret Bourke-White, who had witnessed the opening of the gates of a Nazi concentration camp a year earlier, wrote that Calcutta’s streets “looked like Buchenwald (Hitler’s Germany).”
                                  • Source: The Great Divide – https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/06/29/the-great-divide-books-dalrymple
                                  • YouTube (16:21-19:44) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jdU1yHBnE3g&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=1
                                    • *In public rallies, Muslim League leaders were talking about ‘Historic Islamic Victories against the KAFFIRS & how fortunate we are – Jinnah called for Direct Action in the month of Ramadhan (August)’
                                    • 5000-6000 Muslims killed
                                    • Nehru went to Bihar and condemned the attacks on Muslims
                                    • Hindu JAT v/s Muslim Meo – approximately 200 people killed (mainly Muslims)
                                    • In December 1946, the Sikhs and Hindus of Hazara district, NWFP, were subjected to unprecedented savagery of Muslim mobs. Thousands fled to Punjab, some got refuge in Rawalpindi, but most went eastwards where Sikhs were in substantial numbers.
                                    • Hindu & Sikh Genocide happened in Hazara district (Mansehra, Balakot, Bafa, Shinkiari)
                                    • Hundreds if not thousands were killed
                                    • In 1943 Lord Wavell became the Viceroy of India. He saw a document saying ‘Trusteeship of India would remain under British for the next 30 years (till 1973)’
                                    • American President Roosevelt pressured British Government to make India Independent.
                                      • Churchill (Prime Minister) of Britain was pro Muslim League & anti Congress
                                      • Americans wanted India to be independent & united
                                      • Americans were paying salaries to British Army
                                      • British Economy was really bad
                                      • 22 march 1940 – Jinnah says “Up until now the British just ignored me, now they are laying the Red Carpet for me”
                                        • In the end, this is actually what happened
                                        • “Please don’t oppose the Creation of Pakistan, we as a Muslim Nation will be able to serve you not only in South Asia, but in Middle East also because of our cultural links”
                                        • 1946 – Lieutenant General Francis Tucker’s statement
                                          • “we need to create an ISLAMIC ARC extending from Algeria, into Arabian Desert, into Turkey, into Northern Hindustan where through Islamic Ideology and British Science, we can prevent Soviet Communism”
                                          • Francis Tucker – pro Muslim League, anti-Congress
                                          • On 11 may 1946 he submits the memorandum – decides against the ‘Partition of India’
                                          • Outcome of this meeting – Partition of INDIA is in the Interest of BRITISH
                                            • Hindustan may go its own way, but JINNAH has interest in joining the Common Wealth, we should demand Pakistan access to – Karachi port facilities, Pakistan air fields, Muslim Man Power”
                                            • Jinnah & Muslim League supported British Army during WW2, but Gandhi & Congress where pressing ‘Quit INDIA Movement’
                                              • Nehru was – anti colonial, anti-imperial, inclined towards communism, leftist
                                              • *British Interest was Dividing India (49:58 to 1:10:02) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2RTXqyI_clM&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=1
                                              • Nehru v/s Jinnah who was right? – these are secondary issues
                                              • Moral: beggars are not choosers
                                              • If Partition of India is imminent, then necessary plan to implement it
                                              • In December 1946, the Sikhs and Hindus of Hazara district, NWFP, were subjected to unprecedented savagery of Muslim mobs. Thousands fled to Punjab, some got refuge in Rawalpindi, but most went eastwards where Sikhs were in substantial numbers.
                                              • Hindu & Sikh Genocide happened in Hazara district (Mansehra, Balakot, Bafa, Shinkiari)
                                              • Hundreds if not thousands were killed
                                              • 8 Mar 1947 – CONGRESS High Command Resolution
                                                • “we support SIKH demand for the Partition of PUNJAB”
                                                • Now Congress also wants PARTITION, not on Muslim League’s conditions, but on its conditions
                                                • 2 March 1947 – ‘Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana (Punjab Unionist Party)’ Chief Minister Punjab resigns
                                                  • Unionist party was a secular party. Initially Unionist party + Congress + Akali Dal formed a coalition government
                                                  • The Partition of India – Episode 3 – In conversation with Professor, Dr. Ishtiaq Ahmed (from 47:56 till end) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jdU1yHBnE3g&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=1
                                                  • Seth Kalyan Das (prominent business man) & his Family were butchered
                                                  • 150-200 Hindus killed
                                                  • Rawalpindi City was a Hindu & Sikh majority city, while Rawalpindi District was Muslim majority district.
                                                  • Sikh’s were property holders in Rawalpindi City
                                                  • Neither Jinnah nor Mamdot (Muslim League – Punjab Chief) issued a public statement condemning the killings
                                                  • Observation:
                                                    • *British Indian Army’s Northern Command was in Rawalpindi – why didn’t they stop the riots?
                                                    • Fight was equal on both sides
                                                    • *YouTube (27:00 to 42:35): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JN2UQ2vv5iA&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=2
                                                    • Jinnah wanted to accommodate Sikh’s also and in return wanted ‘Total Punjab’ to Pakistan
                                                    • Jinnah promised a blank cheque to Sikh Leaders
                                                      • Jinnah “what all your demands are, I am ready to accept”
                                                      • Jinnah even promised Sikhs, they will have a separate Army & administrative province inside Pakistan
                                                      • Sikh Leader Gyani Kartar Singh was inclined to accept Jinnah’s offer
                                                      • Hardit Singh Malik to JINNAH “Sir you are making all the promises but God forbid if something happens to you, what will happen then?”
                                                        • “My friend, in Pakistan my word will be like the word of God. No one dare go back on it,” replied Jinnah. ”
                                                        • If Sikhs had accepted this offer, entire Punjab may have gone to Pakistan.
                                                          • Total Punjab = West Punjab (now in Pakistan) + East Punjab (Punjab, Haryana, most of Himachal Pradesh)
                                                          • East Punjab & entire JAMMU & KASHMIR would have become part of Pakistan
                                                          • Thanks to MASTER TARA SINGH it did not happen
                                                          • 3 Christian Legislators in Unified Punjab Assembly voted in favor of Pakistan instead of India
                                                          • 89 votes came in favor of India, 91 votes came in favor of Pakistan, 3 Christian votes played a decisive role
                                                          • 89 votes came against the division of Punjab, 91 votes came in favor, 3 Christian votes played a decisive role
                                                          • Had these 3 Christians voted in favor of INDIA, India may have got LAHORE (the crown jewel of the British Raj) & more land during partition
                                                          • Why did these 3 Christian Legislators voted in favor PAKISTAN ?
                                                            • Answer: British told them to vote in favor of ‘Creation of Pakistan’
                                                            • YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ieBCqPoKGYQ
                                                            • Master Tara Singh (leader of Sikh Community) came out of Punjab Assembly (in LAHORE) and shouted ‘Pakistan Murdabad’
                                                            • 22 nd March 1947 – Lord Mountbatten (Last Viceroy of British Raj) arrives in India
                                                              • Mountbatten was ordered to transfer of power by June 1948
                                                              • Mountbatten talks with all kinds of leader – Congress, Muslim League, Ambedkar, Dravidian parties
                                                              • Around mid-April 1947 – Mountbatten came to the conclusion “Partition of India” is the only workable solution
                                                              • “we Muslims have been a loyal people, we never opposed British Rule, How can British refuse our (Pakistan) entry into British Common Wealth”
                                                              • Jinnah says he has the support of Churchill in regards to ‘Creation of Pakistan’
                                                              • Churchill hated Hindus & Congress
                                                                • Source: Why did Winston Churchill hate the Hindus and prefer the Muslims? – https://qz.com/india/948392/why-did-winston-churchill-hate-the-hindus-and-prefer-the-muslims/
                                                                • Jinnah contradicting ‘2 Nation Theory’
                                                                  • Hindus & Muslims can’t leave together at All-India level, at the same time Muslim League demanded not divide Punjab & Bengal on religion bases
                                                                  • May 1947 Jinnah Says
                                                                    • “Punjabi is 1 st a Punjabi, next he may be Sikh or Hindu or Muslim”
                                                                    • “Bengali is 1 st a Bengali, next he may be Hindu or Muslim”
                                                                    • YouTube (42:34 to 1:14:01): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JN2UQ2vv5iA&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=2
                                                                    • Partition Plan – There will be a Boundry Commision, the effected parties will present their case. The Muslim & non-Muslim contiguous areas will be separated and given to India & Pakistan, and other factors will be taken into account.
                                                                    • Partition plan doesn’t talk about STATUS of Princely States (Bahawalpur, Patiala, Junagarh, KASHMIR, Kalat)
                                                                    • 23 rd July 1947 – Punjab Assembly
                                                                      • All Muslims (including Unionist Party) voted against Partition of Punjab
                                                                      • All Hindus & Sikhs voted in favor of Partition of PUNJAB
                                                                      • All Muslims voted against partition, all Hindus (except 1 or 2) voted in favor of Partition of BENGAL
                                                                      • *YouTube (1:00:05 to 1:02:52): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JN2UQ2vv5iA&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=2
                                                                      • If British stayed till 30 June 1948 as stated by Clement Attlee (PM of UK) – British would have been held responsible for failure of Law & Order & Ultimately the Genocide of 1-2 Million (ordinary Hindu, Muslim & Sikhs)
                                                                        • That’s the reason why British left INDIA 11 months early in August 1947
                                                                        • Few British Navy Officers were killed, few were taken as hostages
                                                                        • From July 1947 onwards – retaliation from Sikhs & Hindu mobs in East Punjab
                                                                        • Maharaja of Patiala – played a huge role in Genocide of Muslims during the partition of Punjab
                                                                        • Pakistan Military annexed Kalat
                                                                        • For liberals in Pakistan, it was a crucial speech in which Mr Jinnah spoke in the clearest possible terms of his dream that the country he was creating would be tolerant, inclusive and secular.
                                                                        • Jinnah – “You are free. You are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan,” Jinnah declared. “You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the state.
                                                                        • Decoding Jinnah’s 11 Aug 1947 Speech: Prof. Dr. Ishtiaq Ahmed – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TY2N6LWwc9M&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=3
                                                                          • *Actual Reason: If all the Muslims in India (30 million) were expelled, Pakistan would have collapsed in its inception. This is the reason why Jinnah gave that Secular Speech.
                                                                          • Partition of India was ‘Partition of British India’, not the Princely States (ex: Kashmir, Bahawalpur, Hyderabad, Kalat, Patiala)
                                                                          • 48:56 – 52:52 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2RTXqyI_clM
                                                                          • 18 th July 1947 – Indian Independence Act (passed in British Parliament) – 2 Independent Dominion (Pakistan & India)
                                                                            • Princely States were ordered to negotiate either with India or Pakistan
                                                                            • Sir Ganga Ram – civil engineer and architect – the father of modern Lahore
                                                                              • His contributions – colleges, roads, agricultural communities, railway stations, buildings, Okara Power Plant, Canals
                                                                              • Sir Ganga Ram – True Legend – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YIHy6oGxijA
                                                                              • 46:28 onwards – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=an_z-vR9IN0
                                                                              • Hindus & Sikhs were confident that Lahore will remain with India, but Lahore was given to Pakistan
                                                                              • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radcliffe_Line

                                                                              In Punjab 80% properties were owned by Hindus & Muslims. 75% revenue is generated by Hindus & Muslims.

                                                                              80% of Businesses were controlled by Hindus & Sikhs in LAHORE. Congress demanded – Lahore

                                                                              Sikhs demanded – Sialkot, Nankana Sahib, Gujranwala, Sahiwal (Montgomery), Faisalabad (Lyallpur), Lahore

                                                                              All of the above places were given to Pakistan

                                                                              *Radcliffe Line satisfies 99.9% of Muslim Leagues demands. Muslim League wanted Division of Punjab only based on Religion (they achieved what they want)