Convention of Reichenbach, 27 June 1813

Convention of Reichenbach, 27 June 1813

Convention of Reichenbach, 27 June 1813

The Convention of Reichenbach (27 June 1813) was an agreement between Austria, Prussia and Russia, in which the Austrians agreed to join the war against Napoleon unless he agreed to a series of demands.

During the spring campaign of the War of Liberation Napoleon had inflicted two defeats on the Prussians and Russians, at Lützen and Bautzen, but he was unable to turn either of these victories into the sort of decisive success he had achieved at Austerlitz or Jena/ Auerstadt. On 2 June Napoleon agreed to a temporary pause in the fighting, and on 4 June this was extended into a full armistice (Armistice of Pleischwitz). Both sides needed time to regroup after the spring campaign, although Napoleon probably came off worst from the pause, which came just as the Allies were on the brink of disaster in Silesia.

In the aftermath of the armistice both sides attempted to win over Austria, which had remained neutral throughout the spring campaign.

On 26 June the Austrian foreign minister Metternich met with Napoleon at Dresden, in a famously stormy meeting. This news was then sent east to Reichenbach, in Prussian Silesia (now Dzierzoniow in Poland) where Tsar Alexander and King Frederick William III of Prussia were based. Also present was Count Stadion, then serving as an Austrian foreign ministry advisor.

On 27 June Stadion committed Austria to joining the Sixth Coalition if Napoleon didn't agree to their terms. These were probably designed to be rejected. The Grand Duchy of Warsaw was to be abolished, with most of it going to Russia. The Confederation of the Rhine would also be abolished. Prussia would regain all of the lands lost after the disasters of 1806 (apart from in Poland). Austria would regain Illyria, on the Adriatic coast. France would also surrender all of the areas of northern Germany she had taken in 1810 (in particular Hamburg and Lübeck). However Napoleon would have been left with Italy, Belgium and the Rhine as the eastern frontier of France. In return all Metternich offered was a promise of Austrian neutrality and to mediate between France and her enemies. The Allies also agreed not to make peace with France separately.

Metternich committed Austria to joining the Sixth Coalition once Napoleon had publicly rejected the terms. There is still a great deal of controversy about Metternich's motives. The most popular view is that he deliberately chose terms he knew Napoleon wouldn't accept, especially after his victories at Lützen and Bautzen, in order to draw Austria into the war. The alternative is that the negotiations at Dresden were a genuine attempt to agree the basis for peace, and it was Napoleon's rejection of them that made up Metternich's mind.

Although Napoleon did indeed reject the Austrian terms, news then arrived from Spain of Wellington's victory at Vittoria. This encouraged Napoleon to try once more, and Armand-Augustin, marquis of Caulaincourt, was sent to Prague to resume negotiations (Congress of Prague, 15 July-10 August 1813). On 12 August 1813 Austria declared war on France, although she didn’t officially join the Sixth Coalition until the treaty of Teplitz (9 September 1813).

The talks at Reichenbach also produced treaties between Britain and Prussia and Britain and Russia, although Britain didn't sign the main Convention. On 14 June Britain agreed to pay Prussia 66,666 pounds sterling to help pay for 80,000 Prussian troops. In return Prussia gave Hildesheim and other areas to the Electorate of Hanover. On 14 June Britain agreed to pay 1,333,334 pounds sterling to Russia to help support 160,000 troops.

Some sources give a date of 19 July for the Reichenbach agreement, but this was the date on which the Prussians, Russians and Bernadotte agreed to some Austrian changes to the Trachenberg Plan, the overall Allied military plan for the autumn campaign.

Napoleonic Home Page | Books on the Napoleonic Wars | Subject Index: Napoleonic Wars


Historical Events on June 27

    Duke of Alva's army occupies Portugal New Amsterdam (now New York City) enacts first speed limit law in North America 1st sea battle of Lagos: a French fleet under Anne Hilarion de Tourville defeated an Anglo-Dutch fleet under George Rooke Polish parliament selects monarch August of Saxony as king

Victory in Battle

1709 Peter the Great of Russia defeats Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Poltava, Charles goes into exile

Battle of Dettingen

1743 War of the Austrian Succession: Battle of Dettingen: in Bavaria, King George II of Britain personally leads troops into battle. The last time a British monarch commanded troops in the field.

Event of Interest

1746 Flora MacDonald helps Bonnie Prince Charlie, disguised as Betty Burke an Irish maid, evade capture by landing him on the Isle of Skye

Event of Interest

1759 British general James Wolfe begins the siege of Quebec.

Liberty Bell

1778 Liberty Bell returns home to Philadelphia after the British departure

Event of Interest

1789 French Revolution: King Louis XVI orders the nobility and clergy of the Estates-General to meet with the Third Estate, by then called the National Assembly

Event of Interest

1857 James Donnelly becomes engaged in a drunken brawl with Patrick Farrell, who suffers a fatal blow to the head. Farrell dies two days later, which makes James Donnelly a wanted man and draws the Donnelly family into the notorious feud

    -28] Battle at Garnett's/Golding's Farms, Virginia Battle of Gaines's Mill, VA (Cold Harbor, Chickahominy Bluffs) Day 3 Skirmish at Fairfax Courthouse, Virginia Atlanta Campaign: Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia: Colonel Sherman makes unsuccessful frontal attack on Confederate defensive lin Bank of California opens doors 1st NLer to get 6 hits in 9 inn game (Dave Force, Philadelphia Athletics) Democratic Party elects Samuel Tilden as US presidential candidate

Event of Interest

1890 Cecil Rhodes' colonists attack Motlousi in Matabeleland

    Canadian boxer George Dixon becomes first black world champion when he stops English bantamweight champion Edwin "Nunc" Wallace in 18 rounds in London, England US National Championship Women's Tennis, Philadelphia Cricket Club: Mabel Cahill beats defending champion Ellen Roosevelt 6-4, 6-1, 4-6, 6-3 Great stock crash on NY stock exchange American Annie Londonderry [Annie Kopchovsky] sets out from Boston to become first woman to bicycle around the world (completes journey September 1895)

Around The World Alone In A Fishing Boat

1898 Canadian-American adventurer Joshua Slocum arrives in Newport, Rhode Island, completing the 1st solo circumnavigation of the globe

Wimbledon Women's Tennis

1898 Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Charlotte Cooper beats Louisa Martin 6-4, 6-4 for her 3rd Wimbledon singles championship

    Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Defending champion R.F. Doherty beats younger brother Laurence Doherty 6-3, 6-3, 2-6, 5-7, 6-1 Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Blanche Bingley-Hillyard beats Charlotte Cooper 6-2, 6-3

Boxing Title Fight

1914 Defending champion Jack Johnson beats fellow American Frank Moran on points in 20 rounds in Paris, France to retain his lineal heavyweight boxing title

    US signs treaty of commerce with Ethiopia 100°F (38°C), Fort Yukon, Alaska (state record) Dutch SDAP demonstrates against conscription

Event of Interest

1917 Venizelos takes over as Prime Minister of Greece and severs relations with Central Powers, bringing Greece onside with the Allies in WWI

1st Aerial Refueling

1923 Capt. Lowell H. Smith and Lt. John P. Richter perform the first ever aerial refueling in a DH-4B biplane

Capt. Lowell H. Smith and Lt. John P. Richter (bottom aircraft) performing the first aerial refueling over the skies of Rockwell Field in California, June 27, 1923.

British Golf Open

1924 British Open Men's Golf, Royal Liverpool GC: American Walter Hagen wins his 2nd Open Championships, 1 stroke ahead of runner-up Ernest Whitcombe

Event of Interest

1929 President Paul von Hindenburg refuses to pay German debt of WWI

    Ryder Cup Golf, Scioto CC: Walter Hagen captains his 2nd victorious American team US wins, 9-3 Ryder Cup Golf, Southport & Ainsdale GC: Great Britain wins, 6½-5½ GB's last Cup victory until 1957 Federal Savings & Loan Association created

Gregory Conquers Julius Caesar

1940 USSR returns to the Gregorian calendar, using Sunday as a rest day, after 6 years using a Russian six-day calendar

    Bialystok Poland falls to Germany Nazi manifest against the Jews in Amsterdam FBI captures 8 Nazi saboteurs from a sub off NY's Long Island PQ-17 convoy leaves Iceland for Archangelsk Elly Dammers throws Dutch record spear (41,43m) Fanny Blankers-Koen runs Dutch record 200m (24.5) Cherbourg, France liberated by Allies Foundation 1940-45 established 98°F (36.8°C) in De Bilt, Netherlands WRC TV channel 4 in Washington, D.C. (NBC) begins broadcasting "Captain Video & His Video Rangers" debut on DUMONT-TV "Liar" closes at Broadhurst Theater NYC after 12 performances PGA Championship Men's Golf, Scioto CC: American Chandler Harper wins his only major title beats Harry Williams Jr., 4 & 3 in the final

Event of Interest

1950 North Korean troops reach Seoul, UN asks members to aid South Korea, Harry Truman orders US Air Force & Navy into Korean conflict

    South Africa heeds United Nations call to assist Korea Joseph Laniel appointed French premier 1st atomic power station opens - Obninsk, near Moscow in Russia CIA-sponsored rebels overthrow elected government of Guatemala Hungary beats Brazil, 4-2 in the "Battle of Berne" as FIFA World Cup quarter-final descends into an all-out brawl with 3 players sent-off fighting continues in dressing rooms after final whistle "Julius LaRosa Show" debuts on CBS-TV 1st automobile seat belt legislation enacted (Illinois) Indians trailing Orioles 9-1 come back to win 12-11 in 11 innings Hurricane Audrey, kills 526 in Louisiana & Texas The British Medical Research Council publishes a report suggesting a direct link between smoking and lung cancer. Billy Pierce's perfect game bid broken with 2 outs in 9th Harry Burrell flies KC-135 record (5:27:42.8) NY to London 8th Berlin International Film Festival: "Wild Strawberries" wins Golden Bear "West Side Story" closes at Winter Garden Theater NYC after 734 performances

US Women's Golf Open

1959 US Open Women's Golf, Churchill Valley CC: Mickey Wright successfully defends her Open title by 2 strokes from Louise Suggs

    Players vote Henry Aaron unanimously for the All-Star Game British Somaliland becomes part of Somalia Chlorophyll "A" synthesized in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Event of Interest

1962 NASA civilian pilot Joseph A. Walker takes X-15 to 6,606 kph, 37,700 m

Event of Interest

1962 Ross Perot begins Electronic Data Systems

    In South Africa, the General Law Amendment Act (Sabotage Act) No 76 commences, increasing the state president's power to declare organisations unlawful and to add further restrictions to banning orders Bill J Kramer & Dakotas record Lennon & McCartney "I Call Your Name"

Event of Interest

1963 US President John F. Kennedy spend his 1st full day in Ireland

    USAF Major Robert A Rushworth in X-15 reaches 86,900 m Phillies Johnny Callison hits for cycle, but Phillie centerfielder Tony Gonzalez's error ends his record 205 consecutive errorless games "Sie Liebt Dich (She Loves You)" by Die Beatles peaks at #97 Dark Shadows, American Gothic soap opera, premieres on ABC-TV Race riot in Buffalo NY (200 arrested) The world's first ATM is installed in Enfield, London Ludvik Vaculik publishes "Manifest of 2000 words" in Prague 50,000 attend Denver Pop Festival Honduras/El Salvador breaks diplomatic relations due to soccer match Following the arrest of Bernadette Devlin, intense riots erupt in Derry and Belfast leading to a prolonged gun battle between Irish republicans and loyalists

Event of Interest

1971 "You're a Good Man Charlie Brown" closes at Golden NYC after 31 performances

Event of Interest

1972 Legendary video game and home computer Atari, Inc. founded by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney in Sunnyvale, California

Film Release

1973 "Live & Let Die", 8th James Bond Film, 1st to star Roger Moore, also starring Jane Seymour, 1st released in the US

    John W Dean tells Watergate Committee about Nixon's "enemies list" Uruguayan president dissolves parliament and heads a coup d'état "Flip Wilson Show" last airs on NBC-TV US President Nixon visits USSR 25th Berlin International Film Festival: "Adoption" wins the Golden Bear "Pacific Overtures" closes at Winter Garden NYC after 193 performances Air France Airbus hijacked in Germany to Uganda Portuguese general Antonio Eanes elected president In South Africa, the National President of the Black People's Convention, Kenneth Hlaku Rachidi, declares that riots in Soweto have lead to a new era of political consciousness Air France A-300B Airbus hijacked from Athens arrives at Entebbe, Uganda four hijackers members Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and Bader-Meinhof Gang in Germany 5-4 Supreme Court decision allows lawyers to advertise Djibouti (Afars & Issas) claims Independence from France

Baseball Record

1977 Willie McCovey smashes 2 HRs in inning for 2nd time (Apr 12, 1973)

    Henry Rono of Kenya sets record for 3,000 m, 7:32.1 Soyuz 30 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Polish) to Salyut 6 space station US Seasat 1, 1st oceanographic satellite, launched into polar orbit

Event of Interest

1979 Heavyweight Muhammad Ali confirms that his 3rd retirement is final (it isn't)

    Supreme Court rules employers may use quotas to help minorities 1st female state police graduates (NJ) Dodgers' Jerry Reuss no-hits SF Giants 8-0 Italian plane crashes into Tyrrheense Sea, kills 81 US revives draft registration

#1 in the Charts

1981 "Bette Davis Eyes" by Kim Carnes returns to #1 slot

Assassination Attempt

1981 Ali Khamenei narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by the Mujaheddin-e Khalq, when a bomb concealed in a tape recorder, explodes on a desk in front of him

    "Dancin'" closes at Broadhurst Theater NYC after 1,774 performances "Play Me a Country Song" opens & closes at Virginia Theater NYC STS-4, 4th NASA Space Shuttle mission, launches Highest price paid for painting by a living artist 960,200 pounds - Miro Mariners bat out of order against White Sox in 2nd inning NASA launches space vehicle S-205 Soyuz T-9 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 7 space station

Event of Interest

1984 Emmy 11th Daytime Award presentation - Susan Lucci loses for 5th time

    Fire destroys a set in "A View to a Kill" UEFA European Championship Final, Parc des Princes, Paris, France: Michel Platini & Bruno Bellone score as France beats Spain, 2-0 Late Night's 1st Tower Drop

Event of Interest

1986 Ibrahim Babangida's regime in Nigeria launches the 'Structural Adjustment Program" to restructure the Nigerian economy via deregulation and privatization with the support of the IMF and the World Bank

    "The Living Daylights", 15th James Bond film, 1st film to star Timothy Dalton premieres in London In South Africa, the Afrikaans Protestant Church, a breakaway faction of Dutch Reformed Church, is formed

Boxing Title Fight

1988 Mike Tyson KOs Michael Spink in 91 seconds, in Atlantic City ($67m)

Contract of Interest

1990 Jose Canseco signs record $4,700,000 per year Oak A's contract

Event of Interest

1990 Salman Rushdie, condemned to death by Iran, contributes $8600 to help their earthquake victims

    NBA Draft: Syracuse power forward Derrick Coleman first pick by New Jersey Nets Emmy 18th Daytime Award presentation - Susan Lucci loses for 12th time

Event of Interest

1992 "57 Channels (and Nothin' on)" by Bruce Springsteen peaks at #68

Event of Interest

1993 Senior Players Championship Men's Golf, TPC of Michigan: Jim Colbert wins his lone career major title by 1 stroke from Raymond Floyd

Event of Interest

1993 Don Henley booed in Milwaukee when he dedicates the song "It's Not Easy Being Green" to President Clinton

    "Gray's Anatomy" closes at Beaumont Theater NYC after 8 performances 118°F (47.8°C) at Lakewood, New Mexico a state record NY Daily News increases prices to 50 cents Aerosmith become first major band to let fans download a full new track free from the internet Holland's debut in English domestic comp (v Northants, NatWest) Mason City Iowa's TV news personality Jodi Huisentruit disappears Space shuttle STS-71 (Atlantis 14), launches Former WMMS engineer William Alford is sentenced to 10 days & $1,000 fine for cutting feed during Howard Stern's broadcast from Cleveland Opening of the Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Malaysia. NHL Draft: Rimouski Oceanic (QMJHL) center Vincent Lecavalier first pick by Tampa Bay Lightning ATB go to No.1 on the UK singles chart with '9pm, Till I Come' The Chemical Brothers go #1 on the UK album chart with 'Surrender', their second #1 album LPGA Championship Women's Golf, DuPont CC: Juli Inkster shoots final round 65 to win by 4 strokes ahead of runner-up Liselotte Neumann completes career grand slam Senior Players Championship Men's Golf, TPC of Michigan: Hale Irwin wins his 5th of 7 Champions Tour major titles by 7 strokes from Australian Graham Marsh WLAF World Bowl 7, Rheinstadion, Düsseldorf: Frankfurt Galaxy beats Barcelona Dragons, 38-24

Beatification

2001 Pope John Paul II beatifies 28 Ukrainian Greek Catholics, including 27 martyrs most of whom were killed by the Soviet secret police. Beatification takes place at the service in Lviv, western Ukraine during his first visit to this country.


Reichstadt Convention of 1876

a secret agreement between Russia and Austria-Hungary on the Balkan question.

The convention was concluded on June 26 (July 8) during a meeting of Emperor Alexander II and Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince A. M. Gorchakov with Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph and Minister of Foreign Affairs G. Andrássy in Reichstadt Castle (now Zákupy, Bohemia). There was no official text of the convention only notes were taken of the negotiations, and the Austrian and Russian versions differed.

By the convention both sides pledged noninterference in Serbia&rsquos and Montenegro&rsquos war against Turkey. In the event of a Turkish victory, it was proposed that the status quo be restored and administrative reforms be introduced in Bosnia and Hercegovina. According to the Russian notes, if Serbia and Montenegro won the war, Serbia was to receive Hercegovina and the Adriatic port of Spizza (Spič), and Montenegro a part of old Serbia and Bosnia. Turkish Croatia and border districts of Bosnia were to be transferred to Austria-Hungary. According to the Austrian notes, Serbia and Montenegro were to obtain only border districts of Bosnia and Hercegovina the larger part of these provinces was to be given to Austria-Hungary, which did not want the creation of a large Slavic state in the Balkans. In addition, Austria-Hungary agreed to the return to Russia of southwestern Bessarabia, which had been taken away by the Treaty of Paris of 1856, and the unification of Batumi with Russia.

In the event of the &ldquocomplete collapse&rdquo of Turkey, the convention, according to the Russian notes, provided for the formation of Bulgaria and Rumelia as independent principalities. In the Austrian version, Bulgaria and Rumelia, together with Albania, were to be granted autonomy while remaining part of the Ottoman Empire. Both powers agreed that Greece be given Thessaly and Epirus (according to the Russian notes) and Crete (according to the Austrian), recognizing the possibility of transforming Istanbul into a &ldquofree city.&rdquo As the situation in the Balkans became more acute, the Reichstadt Convention was supplemented by the Russo-Austrian Convention of 1877.


Convention of Reichenbach, 27 June 1813 - History

Historical events in the month of June, by day:

June 1, 1533 - Anne Boyln is crowned Queen of England.

June 1, 1813 - The term "Don't give up the ship!' is coined by Captain James Lawrence, U.S. Chesapeake.

June 1, 1843 - Snow falls in Buffalo and Rochester, NY, Cleveland, Ohio and other places.

June 1, 1927 - Peace Bridge between the United States and Canada opens.

June 1, 1938 - Superman Comic is published.

June 1, 1971 - Ed Sullivan's final show.

June 2, 1692 - Salem Witch Trials begin.

June 2, 1835 - PT Barnum's circus begins first tour of U.S.

June 2, 1886 - Grover Cleveland is married while in serving as U.S. president.

June 2, 1924 - Congress grants U.S. citizenship to people of American Indian descent.

June 2, 2004 - Ken Jennings begins his 74 day winning streak on television game show Jeopardy.

June 3, 1539 - Hernando de Soto claims Florida for Spain.

June 3, 1946 - The first bikini bathing suit is displayed (in Paris, France).

June 3, 1964 - The Rolling Stones begin their first US tour.

June 3, 1969 - The last episode of the original Star Trek television series airs on NBC.

June 3, 1989 - Tiananmen Massacre, Chinese troops shoot pro-democracy protestors.

June 4, 780 B.C. - China becomes the first to record a solar eclipse.

June 4, 1070 - Roquefort cheese is first made in a cave in Roquefort, France.

June 4, 1942 - WWII Battle of Midway begins. It lasts from June 4-7.

June 4, 1973 - A patent for the ATM is granted to Don Wetzel, Tom Barnes and George Chastain.

June 4, 1987 - After winning 122 straight races, hurdler Edwin Moses' winning streak is broken.

June 5, 1861 - Harriet Beecher Stoewe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is published.

June 5, 1968 - Bobby Kennedy is assassinated.

June 6, 1844 - The YMCA is founded in London, England.

June 6, 1925 - Chrysler Corporation is founded.

June 6, 1933 - The first drive-in theater opened in Camden, New Jersey.

June 6, 1944 - WWII D-Day. Allied forces successfully landed in Normandy, France.

June 6, 1946 - Henry Morgan is the first to take his shirt off on television.

June 6, 1998 - "Sex and the City" television show premieres

June 7, 1775 - The United Colonies makes a name change and becomes The United States.

June 7, 1892 - George T. Sampson of Dayton Ohio patents the first clothes dryer, using a rack and heat from a stove.

June 7, 1893 - Mahatma Gandhi performs his first of many acts of civil disobedience.

June 7, 1192 - U.S. army tests the first use of a machine gun mounted on an airplane.

June 8, 452 - Italy is invaded by Attila the Hun.

June 8, 1872 - Congress approves the penny post card.

June 8, 1942 - Bing Crosby records "Silent Night".

June 8, 1948 - "The Milton Berle Show" premieres on NBC TV.

June 8, 1966 - NFL and AFL announce plan to become NFC and AFC in one league, beginning in 1970.

June 9, 1898 - China lease Hong Kong to the United Kingdom for 99 years.

June 9, 1898 - Brinks unveils the first armored security van.

June 9, 1 - Robert Goddard patents the first rocket powered airplane.

June 10, 1610 - Dutch colonists settle on Manhattan Island

June 10, 1692 - Bridget Bishop is the first woman to be convicted and hung at Salem witch trials.

June 10, 1752 - Benjamin Franklin flies a kite in a lightening storm and discovers electricity.

June 10, 1735 - Alcoholics Anonymous was founded.

June 10, 1933 - John Dillinger robs his first bank in New Carlisle, OH. He stole $10,600.

June 10, 2003 - NASA launches the Spirit Rover, beginning the Mars Exploration Rover program.

June 11, 1184 B.C. - Troy is sacked and burned. (Estimated date)

June 11, 1742 - Benjamin Franklin invents the Franklin stove.

June 11, 1982 - The movie E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial was released.

June 12, 1880 - John Lee Richmond pitches baseball's first "Perfect Game".

June 12, 1931 - Al Capone is indicted on 5,000 counts of prohibition and perjury.

June 12, 1939 - Baseball Hall of Fame is dedicated in Cooperstown, NY.

June 12, 1942 - Anne Frank receives a diary as a birthday present.

June 12, 1965 - Sonny & Cher make their first television appearance on American Bandstand.

June 12, 1987 - U.S. President Ronald Reagan challenges Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall.

June 13, 1884 - The first roller coaster ride opens at Coney Island in Brooklyn, NY. It cost 5 cents a ride.

June 13, 1884 - The U.S. Department of Labor is created.

June 13, 1983 - Pioneer 10 becomes the first satellite to leave the solar system.

June 14, 1775 - The U. S. Army is formed.

June 14, 1834 - Isaac Fischer Jr. patents sandpaper.

June 14, 1924 - Thomas J. Watson renames the Computer Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) to International Business Machines Company (IBM)

June 14, 1775 - The original movies version of "Dracula", starring Bela Lugosi, is released.

June 14, 1938 - Benjamin Grushkin patents Chlorophyll

June 14, 1971 - President Richard M. Nixon installs a tape recording system in the White House.

June 14, 2017 - JP Morgan becomes the first bank to create its own crypto-currency.

June 15, 1215 - King John of England places the royal seal (signs) on the Magna Carta.

June 15, 1775 - George Washington is appointed the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Army.

June 15, 1903 - The first Teddy Bear is introduced in America. It is made by Morris and Rose Michtom.

June 15, 1936 - Adolph Hitler announces the construction of the Volkswagen Beetle.

June 15, 1950 - Walt Disney's "Cinderella" is released.

June 15, 1976 - Leon Spinks defeats Muhammad Ali in 15 rounds for the World Heavyweight title.

June 15, 1996 - Cleveland Browns Head Coach Bill Belechick is fired. His record in Cleveland : 36-44.

June 16, 600 - Pope Gregory the Great issues a decree saying "God Bless You" is the proper response to a sneeze.

June 16, 1883 - The first issue of "Ladies Home Journal" is published.

June 16, 1959 - Fidel Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista and becomes the 16th Prime Minister of Cuba.

June 16, 1989 - The premiere of Ghostbusters II.

June 17, 1775 - The Battle of Bunker hill took place, one of the first battles of the Revolutionary War. "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes."

June 17, 1837 -Charles Goodyear receives his first rubber patent.

June 17, 1885 - The Statute of Liberty arrive in New York City.

June 17, 1963 - U.S. Supreme Court rules against Bible reading and prayer in public schools.

June 17, 1994 - Accused of murdering his wife, police chase O.J. Simpson in his Ford Bronco for 1 1/2 hours as Americans watch live on national television.

June 18, 618 - The three century Tang Dynasty rule begins in China with the coronation of Li Yuan as Emperor of Gaozu.

June 18, 1682 - William Penn founds Philadelphia.

June 18, 1812 - The War of 1812 begins as the United States declares war with Britain.

June 18, 1861 - The first American fly-casting tournament was held in Utica, NY.

June 18, 1873 - Women's rights advocate Susan B. Anthony is arrested for voting in Rochester, N.Y. She is fined $100.

June 18, 1983 - Sally Ride becomes the first woman in space.

June 18, 1934 - The Federal Communications Commission is created.

June 19, 1964 - After an 83 day filibuster, the Civil Rights act of 1964 is approved.

June 20, 1782 - The U.S. Congress approves the Great Seal of the United States and the bald eagle as its symbol.

June 20, 1840 - Samuel Morse patents the telegraph.

June 20, 1867 - President Andrew Johnson announces the Alaska purchase from the Russian Empire. The price tag: $7.2m.

June 20, 1939 - The first rocket plane to use liquid propellants is tested

June 20, 1967 - Muhammad Ali is convicted refusing induction into armed services.

June 20, 1975 - The movie "Jaws" was released.

June 21, 1768 - The first medical diploma in America is issued to Dr. John Archer from the College of Philadelphia.

June 21, 1788 - The U.S. Constitution goes into effect as New Hampshire becomes the 9th state to ratify it.

June 21, 1834 - Cyrus McCormick patents the reaping machine.

June 21, 1893 - The first ferris wheel is introduced at the Chicago Columbian Exposition.

June 21, 1948 - 33 1/3RPM LP record format is introduced. It is planned to replace the 78RPM format.

June 21, 1969 - Cleveland's Cuyahoga river catches fire due to pollution.

July 21, 1990 - Florida passes a law that prohibits wearing thong bathing suits.

June 22, 1847 - Hanson Gregory creates the first Doughnut.

June 22, 1870 - The U.S. Congress creates the Department of Justice.

June 22, 1874 - The game of lawn tennis is created.

June 22, 1934 - John Dillinger is named America's first Public Enemy Number One.

July 22, 1990 - Florida passes a law that prohibits wearing thong bathing suits.

July 23, 1860 - US Secret Service is created.

July 23, 1888 - Frederick Douglas is the first African American to be nominated for U.S. Vice President. He received one vote at the Republican convention.

July 23, 1967 - Contraceptive pills are first sold.

June 23, 1981 - Longest game in Professional Baseball is completed. Pawtucket Red Sox beat Rochester Red Wings 3-2 in 33 innings (game began 18th April)

June 23, 2016 - Brexit: The United Kingdom votes to leave the European Union.

June 24, 1509 - Henry VII is crowned the King of England.

June 24, 1938 - A 450 ton meteor crashed in Chicora, PA. north of Pittsburgh. The only casualty was one cow. RIP.

June 24, 1968 - The deadline to convert silver certificate dollar bills into silver bullion.

June 24, 1992 - The Orlando Magic takes LSU Center Shaquille O'Neal with the first pick of the NBA draft.

June 25, 1630 - Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts introduced the fork to American dining. At first its use was considered sacrilegious

June 25, 1876 - Custer's Last Stand: Lt Colonel George Custer and the 7th Cavalry are wiped out by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians at the Battle of Little Big Horn.

June 25, 1929 - President Herbert Hoover authorizes construction of the Boulder Dam. It was later renamed the Hoover Dam.

June 25, 1942 - Major General Dwight D. Eisenhower is appointed commander of U.S. forces in Europe during WWII.

June 25, 1984 - Prince releases his album "Purple Rain".

June 26, 1498 - The toothbrush is invented in China.

June 26, 1952 - Soap opera "The Guiding Light" moves from radio and premieres on television. It runs until 2009.

June 26, 1959 - The Saint Lawrence Seaway is opened.

June 26, 1976 - The U.S. returns Iwo Jima and onin Islands to Japan.

June 26, 1976 - The CN tower in Toronto, Canada opens.

June 27, 1859 - The song "Happy Birthday to You" was first sung. Also, see Famous Birthdays

June 27, 1934 - The Federal Savings and Loan Association is created.

June 27, 1950 - President Harry S. Truman orders U.S. Forces to South Korea to defend against invading North Korean forces.

June 27, 1972 - Atari Inc. is founded.

June 27, 2003 - The U.S. creates the "Do Not Call" registry to combat unwanted telemarketing calls.

June 28, 1776 - The final draft of the U.S. Constitution is submitted to the Continental Congress.

June 28, 1820 - Colonel Robert Gibbon eats a tomato on the step of the courthouse in Salem, MA. to prove that they are not poisonous.

June 28, 1894 - Labor Day is established as a holiday for federal employees.

June 28, 1914 - Austria's Archduke Ferdinand and his wife Sophie are assassinated by a Bosnian Serb, leading to the start of WWI.

June 28, 1919 - Treaty of Versailles is signed, ending WW I.

June 28, 1977 - In the third round of a heavyweight boxing match, Mike Tyson bites Evander Holyfield's ear. Tyson was disqualified from the match and later suspended from boxing.

June 28, 2007 - The bald eagle was removed from the endangered species list.

June 28, 2009 - Professor Stephen Hawking hosts a 'party for time travellers' at the University of Cambridge. Invitations are not sent out until after the party.

June 29, 1613 - Shakespeare' Globe Theater burns down.

June 29, 1964 - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is passed after an 83 day filibuster in the U.S. Senate.

June 29, 2009 - Financier Bernie Madoff is sentenced to 150 years in US maximum prison, for conducting a massive Ponzi scheme.

June 30, 1859 - French acrobat Blondin crosses over the Niagara Falls on a tightrope.

June 30, 1908 - A giant fireball, most likely from an air burst of a large meteoroid or comet flattens 80 million trees near the Stony Tunguska River in Yeniseysk Governorate, Russia.

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The Genius of Metternich: Austria’s Resurrection Through "Active Neutrality"

Despite its weaknesses, the Habsburg Empire under Metternich succeeded in obtaining a strategically and politically advantageous position in the run-up to the last war with Napoleon.

In April 2013, Metternich’s game of duplicity was almost uncovered by Napoleon, after the Austrian foreign minister tried to coax Bavaria and Saxony, both French allies, to defect and join the Allies. Metternich wanted to win both countries over as allies of Austria. At that time, he was especially concerned about Saxony, which Prussia had already tried to annex once the French were expelled from Germany and which would have reignited the old Austro-Prussian rivalry. Napoleon uncovered the treachery, but yet again Austria remained unpunished. The Little General was already leading a Grande Armee against the Russians and Prussians and would finish off Austria at a later stage.

War Breaks Out

Russian, Prussian and French forces clashed in the spring of 1813, with Austria still just a neutral observer. On May 2, the first major battle of the campaign was fought at Luetzen. The result: a French victory. The Russian-Prussian contingent was forced to retreat. On May 21, another fight ensued near Bautzen, in Saxony—another victory for Napoleon. Yet, these were hard-fought victories for the French. Overall, the two engagements had cost all sides involved more than 70,000 dead and wounded. And the Allies, in comparison to past experiences, still had not been decisively defeated. One of the reasons for this is that Napoleon was unable exploit his victories due to the lack of French cavalry, which mostly perished during the Russian campaign the previous year.

After the beaten Allies had retreated from Saxony to Silesia, Metternich suggested a truce, which was accepted by all sides on June 4. He sent a cryptic note to his wife: “The first big step has been made, dear friend!” Napoleon soberly conveyed to his minister of war, Clarke, why he consented to the ceasefire: “My lack of cavalry and the hostile position of Austria.” It appears that all sides were biding time.

During the ceasefire, the Russian czar, impulsive and volatile, wrote a few desperate notes to the Austrian Emperor: “One word of yours can decide the fate of Europe once more—time is running out!” Napoleon, meanwhile, ordered his wife, Marie Louise, daughter of Franz I, to keep up her correspondence with her father and convince the Austrian Emperor not to abandon the Austro-French alliance. Napoleon became more and more convinced that Austria would betray him.

Revealingly, Austria, prompted by the Prince of Schwarzenberg, had already secretly launched a massive rearmament program and was feverishly rebuilding its forces. However, Schwarzenberg notified Metternich that the new army would only achieve provisional combat readiness by the second week of August. Metternich during that time was oscillating between hope and despair: Would he be able to maneuver the country into an advantageous position before Napoleon would turn against the Habsburgs or before a genuine peace treaty between France, Russia and Prussia was concluded? However, there was already evidence of Austria’s true designs: In the last days of May, the Austrian Emperor moved his court to Gitschin in Bohemia. Geographically and symbolically, this relocation situated him closer to the allied armies in Silesia and Saxony.

Switching Sides

On June 10, 1813, during a secret council of war in Wurschen, a military operations plan, which for the first time included Austrian forces, was mapped out by the Allies. Meanwhile, all resources available to the state were poured into the new Austrian Army, which was so hastily assembled that recruits had to be trained while on march. Austria thus prepared to reassert itself as a power.

In late June, Metternich was dispatched to Dresden by Franz I to meet with Napoleon and to ostensibly convey the Allies’ peace terms to the Emperor of France. Austria would officially remain neutral and the chief intermediary between the warring factions. In secret, however, Metternich’s real mission was to persuade Napoleon to release Austria of its treaty obligations with France. Should war break out, Napoleon, not Austria, would be seen as the aggressor.

The historian, Guenther Muechler, called the meeting between Metternich and Napoleon the “world historical duel of Dresden.” It lasted for eight and a half hours and passed into legend as soon as it was over. The peace conditions of the Allies prescribed the end of French hegemony in Europe. Metternich sensed that Napoleon could never agree to the terms outlined in the peace proposal. Napoleon was said to have angrily thrown his hat across the room (Metternich refused to pick it up). The French Emperor declared: “Austria caresses itself into thinking that without having fired a single shot, without drawing the sword, she can convince me to sign such conditions…!” His aim was to intimidate Austria—a country he had always considered to be a spent force—and to cajole it to fulfill its treaty obligations or at least to remain neutral. Napoleon bid a threatening farewell to his Austrian nemesis: “We shall meet in Vienna!”

Yet, despite what he later recounted in his memoirs, Metternich did try to negotiate a genuine preliminary peace settlement to avoid Austria’s entry into the war, which stood in no contradiction to the active-neutrality doctrine he was pursuing. Austria’s military defeat in 1809 had left deep wounds. War for Metternich was too uncertain to be an effective tool of diplomacy. Once war broke out, the diplomats and military commanders would have little control over events—especially when the adversary was Napoleon Bonaparte. He firmly believed that the only true choice policy makers had was whether or not to enter a conflict, and that once involved, the arbitrary momentum of war was impossible to direct. The foreign minister also had personal reasons for why he preferred peace to war: Hostilities would diminish his power and influence, since diplomats are scarcely needed on the battlefield.

After two days of ignoring Metternich in Dresden, Napoleon finally consented to release Austria of its treaty obligations. The Habsburgs would then be able to convene a peace congress on Austrian soil in Prague in July and August, 1813. Entirely convinced that Austria was double-crossing him, Napoleon had little choice but to consent to Austria’s offer—particularly after reports had trickled in of the enormous Austrian army gathering in Bohemia.

Napoleon reasoned that by keeping Austria neutral, he would defeat the Prussian and Russian armies piecemeal and ultimately have his revenge on Austria. This could only be achieved by keeping the empire out of the fight. However, fulfilling treaty obligations was an important formality for the etiquette obsessed Emperor Franz I—he felt free to abandon the active-neutrality doctrine. On June 27, hedging its bets, Austria had secretly signed the Convention of Reichenbach. This was a day before Metternich’s famous encounter with Napoleon in Dresden. The convention stipulated that should the peace negotiations break down, Austria would finally commit to the Allied cause.

A peace congress was convened in Prague in August 1813. Yet, none of the dispatched delegates—with the exception of the French delegation–genuinely believed in the possibility of a negotiated peace. The French had no authority to consent to any agreement without Napoleon’s personal approval, indicating that Napoleon was still only biding time. Yet he panicked towards the end of the congress and, for a brief moment, seemed open to a negotiated settlement. However, at that point, Austria was finally ready for war. A last exchange of letters between the French chief negotiator, Caulaincourt, and Metternich, resulted only in a reiteration of the main demand of the Allies—the complete abandonment of the French empire in Central Europe. This time, however, he added an Austrian ultimatum: France had to agree to these terms, in short order, or face war.

On the night of August 10, time ran out. Bonfires on the hills surrounding Prague signaled Austria’s entry into the war on the Allies’ side. According to eyewitness accounts, column after column of soldiers were seen marching through the streets of Prague in the direction of the border. “The great moment has finally arrived!” stated a triumphant Metternich in a letter to his wife from that night. On August 12, Napoleon, in a last ditch effort to keep Austria out of the war, sent a courier to the French delegation in Prague with the instructions to “make peace under any circumstances.” This was the French Emperor’s last attempt to divide the Allies.

Austria had rejoined the ranks of the great European powers. With an army of 300,000 soldiers, Austria contributed the largest contingent to the coalition and also received the supreme command of the combined allied forces (The supreme allied commander was Prince von Schwarzenberg, the same Austrian general who led the 30,000 strong Austrian corps into Russia the previous year.). The final showdown occurred in the fall of 1813. For three arduous days, from October 16 to October 19, the Allies and Napoleon clashed outside the German city of Leipzig in what was the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic era. Napoleon and his army were routed. The Allies continued their campaign, marched on France and occupied Paris the following spring.

In 1814 and 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, the Allies redrew the map of Europe. This would scarcely have been possible without Austria and Metternich. Despite its internal weaknesses, backward institutions and desperate political situation, the Habsburg Empire under Metternich succeeded in obtaining a strategically and politically advantageous position in the run-up to the last war with Napoleon. Consequently, the empire momentarily rose to become one of the major postwar power brokers in Europe. Austria’s resurrection effectively resulted from the active-neutrality doctrine advanced by Metternich and his advisors in 1812 and 1813. Years later, in his memoirs, the former foreign minister remarked on his delicate sleight of hand with the French and the Allies: “A similar eccentric political posture has never been before in history, and a second example of its kind, will in likelihood never be recorded again.”


Project Leipzig (1813)

A fter their defeat at Bautzen (20-21 may, 1813) the Allied retreated towards the south-east in two columns of weary soldiers in order to cross the Neisse River. Their rearguard, commanded by Eugen of Wurttemberg and comprising his 2nd Russian Corps, remained in Reichenbach and was catched by Reynier's VII Corps (not fighting in Bautzen) and the 1st Cavalry Corps. Napoleon himself arrived to the battlefield and engaged the Guard Light cavalry, including the famous Red Dutch Lanciers, a "new spectacle" for Wurttemberg, as it had been a long time since he did seen a force of French cavalry.
This will be my next battle. It will be fought using the 'one-half' Napoleon's Battles version and for the OOB's and basic narrative I will use the Nafziger' s book (Lutzen and Bautzen. Napoleon's Spring Campaign of 1813, The Emperor press, 1992) and the Digby 's Databook (The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book, Greenhill Books, 1998).
The picture is taken from The red Lancer Inc.

2 comments:

Rafa,
I'll be looking forward to the battle report and photos of that one!
Ian


3 - Geometry, Convention, and the Relativized A Priori: Reichenbach, Schlick, and Carnap

Kant's analysis of scientific knowledge – as articulated especially in his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science of 1786– is based on a sharp distinction between “pure” and “empirical” parts. The pure part of scientific knowledge consists of physical geometry (which, for Kant, is of course necessarily Euclidean geometry), more generally, the totality of applied mathematics presupposed by Newtonian physics (viz., classical analysis), Galilean kinematics (the classical velocity addition law), and the Newtonian laws of motion. In short, the entire spatiotemporal framework of Newtonian physics-what we now call the structure of Newtonian space-time – belongs to the pure part of natural science. The empirical part then consists of specific laws of nature formulated within this antecedently presupposed framework: for example, and especially, the law of universal gravitation and, more generally, the various specific force laws that can be formulated in the context of the Newtonian laws of motion.

Kant holds that the pure part of scientific knowledge consists entirely of synthetic a priori judgments . It does not represent merely conceptual knowledge but rather results from applying the conceptual faculty of pure understanding to the distinct sensible faculty of pure intuition. (This is what Kant calls the “schematism” of the pure concepts of the understanding.) The synthetic a priori judgments belonging to the pure part of scientific knowledge then represent the conditions of possibility of the empirical part: the former must be in place before the latter have well-defined meaning and truth value (“relation to an object”) in the first place.


Germany – 1813

Russian, Austrian, and Prussian troops in Leipzig.
Painting byAlexander Sauerweid.

The Treaty of Reichenbach between Austria, Russia and Prussia signed on 27 June set out the four minimal Austrian conditions and guaranteed that Austria would enter the war unless Napoleon had accepted them by the expiry of the armistice on 20 July. The allies made it clear to Metternich, however, that although they would enter negotiations on this basis they would only sign a peace if it included other terms which would end Napoleon’s domination of Germany and guarantee Prussian security. Relations between Austria and the allies reached their lowest ebb when Metternich returned from discussions with Napoleon in Dresden and imposed an extension of the armistice until 10 August. Some of the loudest denunciations of this extension came from Baron Stein. In his case the normal allied view that Austrian peace terms were inadequate was enhanced by fierce disagreement with Metternich about the war’s ultimate goals. Stein wanted a reborn and more united German confederation with a constitution guaranteeing civil and political rights. He appealed to German nationalist feeling to achieve this. Since April 1813, however, Stein’s influence with Alexander had been in decline as Germany failed to revolt against Napoleon and the allies’ need for Austrian assistance became more pressing. Now he attempted to strike back, claiming that Metternich was pulling the wool over allied eyes and that with half a million Russians, Prussians and Swedes ready to take the field against 360,000 enemy troops Austrian help was probably unnecessary anyway. Previously he had supported Nesselrode because the latter shared Stein’s view that Russia should commit herself wholeheartedly to the liberation of Germany from Napoleon. Now, however, he called Nesselrode Metternich’s dupe, a well-meaning but empty weakling.

In reality Nesselrode was right and Stein was wrong. The allies could not have driven Napoleon out of Germany without Austrian help. At the very moment when Stein was writing these denunciations Metternich was moving quietly to swing Austria towards the allied camp. With peace negotiations now in the offing, Metternich wrote to Francis II that it was essential that he and the emperor were in complete agreement as to future policy. The peace negotiations might have three outcomes. The two sides might agree terms, in which case Austria need only rejoice. Metternich did not need to spell out to Francis how unlikely this outcome was, since the Austrians were well aware how far apart the opposing sides were as regards acceptable peace terms. A second and somewhat likelier possibility was that Napoleon would accept the Austrian minimal terms and the allies would reject them. Metternich wrote that Austria could not determine in advance what to do in this event since to some extent it would depend on contexts and circumstances. Under no circumstances could it side with France, however, and the defeat or dissolution of the allied coalition would be a great threat to Austrian security. Armed neutrality might be a short-term option but it would be very difficult to sustain for any length of time and the only other alternative would be to join the allies.

Metternich’s memorandum concentrated, however, on the third and likeliest possibility, which was that Napoleon would reject the Austrian terms. In that case Metternich’s unequivocal advice was that Austria must declare war. He concluded his memorandum with a question: ‘Can I count on Your Majesty’s firmness in the event that Napoleon does not accept Austria’s conditions for peace? Is Your Majesty resolutely determined in that case to entrust a just cause to the decision of arms – both those of Austria and of the whole of the rest of united Europe?’

Francis responded that any decent man must desire stable and lasting peace and that this was all the more true for a sovereign like himself who bore responsibility for the well-being of ‘his good subjects’ and their ‘beautiful lands’. No greed for territory or other advantages could justify war. But he trusted Metternich’s judgement: ‘To a great extent I have you to thank for the present excellent political situation of my monarchy.’ Therefore he agreed with his foreign minister’s conclusions. In the event that Napoleon accepted Austria’s terms and the allies rejected them he would await Metternich’s advice. If Napoleon rejected the Austrian terms then the monarchy would declare war on France.

In the end therefore everything depended on Napoleon and he played into the allies’ hands. The French representatives at the Prague peace conference arrived late and without powers to negotiate terms. Nothing could have done more to confirm Austrian suspicions that Napoleon was merely playing for time and had no interest in peace. Not until two days before the armistice was due to expire did Napoleon make a serious diplomatic move. On 8 August Caulaincourt, one of the two French delegates to the peace conference, visited Metternich’s quarters to inquire what price Austria required to stay neutral or join the French camp. Not until the day after the armistice expired did the French provide Metternich with a response to the four minimal peace conditions set out by Austria. Napoleon agreed to abandon the Poles and hand over much of Illyria to Austria. He conceded nothing as regards the north German ports, rejected Prussian annexation of Danzig, and required compensation for the King of Saxony to make up for the fact that he had lost his position as Duke of Warsaw. These conditions would never have satisfied Metternich and by now it was in any case too late. Austria had closed the peace conference and now declared war on France.

Ever since August 1813 most historians, French ones included, have condemned Napoleon’s ineptitude in failing to use diplomacy to divide the allies and keep Austria neutral. Even the inadequate concessions presented to Metternich on 11 August might have made an impact on Francis II if put forward as a first move at the beginning of the peace conference. There was room to exploit differences in Austrian and Russo-Prussian war aims, as regards both German and Polish territories. If the peace conference could be extended to include Britain, Napoleon’s chances of sowing dissension must improve further. All the continental powers resented the fact that, while their territories had been occupied and ravaged, the United Kingdom had remained inviolate and become seemingly ever richer. They hoped to achieve territorial concessions by Napoleon in Europe in return for British willingness to hand back French colonies.

Nevertheless, even if Napoleon erred in not using diplomacy more skilfully to explore potential splits among his enemies, it is possible to understand his point of view in the summer of 1813. Refusal seriously to explore peace terms was much less obvious a blunder than his initial agreement to the armistice. The French monarch feared that once he began making concessions the allies would raise their demands. He was correct: the Russians and Prussians intended to do just this. The concessions he was being urged to make in north Germany might conceivably be acceptable in the context of a general peace which would include the return of French colonies, but Napoleon could hardly be expected to concede these territories in a continental peace and thereby find himself naked when he had to bargain later with the British.

A fundamental issue underlay all these peace negotiations. The allies, and indeed Austria, wanted to restore something approaching a balance of power in continental Europe. Napoleon was committed to French empire or at least hegemony. His defenders might plausibly assert that unless he preserved some version of French dominion on the continent he had lost his war with Britain and the vastly powerful maritime empire which it had created. Napoleon’s basic problem was that although the continental powers resented the British version of empire, the French version was a much more direct threat to their interests. No amount of clever diplomacy could alter this. The only way in which Napoleon could get the continental powers to accept his empire was by re-creating their terror of French military power, which the disaster of 1812 had undermined. This was not an impossible task in August 1813. Napoleon had good reason to believe that he could defeat the Russians, Prussians and Austrians because the chances were very evenly matched. This adds to the drama of the autumn 1813 campaign.

In numerical terms Napoleon’s forces were inferior to the allies but not greatly so. The Russian and Prussian official histories put allied numbers in Germany at the beginning of the autumn campaign at just over half a million. Napoleon himself reckoned in early August that he could put 400,000 men in the field, not counting Davout’s corps at Hamburg, which was subsequently able to detach 28,000 men from garrison duties for an offensive against Berlin. On 6 August his chief of staff reported 418,000 men in the ranks. Exact numbers available for action on the battlefield are impossible to calculate for either side: roughly speaking, however, in the first two months of the campaign Napoleon could put rather more than four men in the field to every five allies. It was fortunate for the allies that 57,000 French troops were facing Wellington in the Pyrenees and another small corps under Marshal Suchet was still attempting to hold Catalonia.

After two months the odds would shift somewhat towards the allies. The only reinforcements Napoleon could expect were Augereau’s small corps which was forming in Bavaria. There were dangers in moving Augereau forward, since this made it easier for Bavaria to switch sides, which is what happened in October. To some extent the Russians faced a similar dilemma in the Duchy of Warsaw, where Bennigsen’s Army of Poland was both a strategic reserve and an occupation force. In the Russian case, however, it was possible to move Lobanov-Rostovsky’s Reserve Army into the Duchy to replace Bennigsen’s 60,000 troops when they set off for Saxony. A steady flow of Austrian recruits also joined Schwarzenberg’s army in September and October. In addition, once one began looking beyond the 1813 campaign it was clear that Austria and Russia had greater reserves of untapped manpower than Napoleon, especially if he was forced to rely just on France’s own population. Napoleon’s best chance of defeating the allies would therefore come in the first two months of the autumn campaign. This thought is unlikely to have worried the French emperor. After all, most of his great victories had been won in less time than this.

They had been won by better soldiers than he commanded in August 1813, however. Above all, Napoleon remained very inferior to the allies in cavalry. His mounted arm had improved considerably during the armistice, chiefly in terms of numbers. Some good cavalry regiments subsequently arrived from Spain. The Guards cavalry was mostly competent, as were the Polish and some of the German regiments. But the bulk of Napoleon’s French cavalry was still well inferior to the Russian reserves formed by Kologrivov, not to speak of the veteran Russian cavalrymen. In addition, all sources agree that the cavalry was the best arm of the Austrian army. The situation as regards artillery was if anything the opposite. French equipment was much less cumbersome than Austrian guns and caissons. The Prussian artillery was so weak that the Russians had to second some of their own batteries to a number of Prussian divisions in order to give them sufficient firepower. The Prussian general staff history concluded that French artillery officers were usually more skilful than their allied counterparts. The main allied advantage as regards artillery was numerical. If they could concentrate their three field armies and Bennigsen’s Army of Poland on a single battlefield, the weight of their firepower should be overwhelming.

The majority of both the allied and the Napoleonic infantry were recruits, most of whom had never seen action before August 1813. The French conscripts were younger than their allied peers, but on the other hand many of them had experienced the spring campaign, which was true neither of the Austrians nor of the Prussian Landwehr. The Russian reserves were also going into action for the first time but at least in their case they had enjoyed plenty of time to train and were usually very tough and resilient. Above all, however, the Russian infantry contained more veterans than its French counterpart. This meant not just the men who had served throughout the 1812 and spring 1813 campaigns, but also many thousands of veterans who returned to their regiments during the armistice from hospitals and detached duties. Not surprisingly, the Guards contained exceptionally large number of veterans. The Guards regiments had not seen action in the spring 1813 campaign, and many of them had received drafts of veteran troops from regiments of the line.

Though his army was inferior to the allies in both numbers and quality, in other respects Napoleon enjoyed key advantages. As he himself pointed out to Count Bubna, Metternich’s envoy, interior lines combined with a clear chain of command and his own undisputed leadership were very valuable in themselves. When opposed to a coalition made up of equal great powers with diverse interests, and with armies deployed in a huge semicircle from Berlin in the north to Silesia in the east and Bohemia in the south, these advantages ought to be decisive. In his memoirs, Eugen of Württemberg wrote that in August 1813 he had been optimistic about allied victory but having discovered after the war how disunited and conflict-ridden the allied leadership had been he was now very surprised by ultimate allied success.

The allied commander-in-chief was the Austrian field-marshal, Prince Karl von Schwarzenberg. Before 1813 Schwarzenberg had shown himself to be a skilful ambassador and a competent and courageous commander of a division. His record of commanding larger units had been less impressive. Nothing in his personality or career suggested that he was a match for Napoleon as the commander of a huge army. Schwarzenberg was a patient, tactful, kind and honourable man. He believed in the allied cause and served it unselfishly and to the best of his ability. A grand seigneur, he had the manners and the lack of personal ambition appropriate to his status. In the manner of an Eisenhower, he could absorb and defuse conflicts between the many ambitious and aggressive personalities over whom he exercised command. Of course, the aristocratic Schwarzenberg was fluent in French, the lingua franca of the allied high command. As commander-in-chief, however, he was hampered by his lack of confidence in his own military ability, his awe of Napoleon, and the immense difficulty of commanding a coalition army of equal great powers, two of whose sovereigns insisted on travelling with his headquarters and second-guessing his decisions. Though he often found Alexander very difficult to handle, Schwarzenberg on the whole liked him. He echoed the consensus that the Russian monarch was ‘good but weak’. Frederick William III on the contrary was ‘a coarse, churlish and insensitive person whom I dislike as much as I value the poor, valiant Prussians’.

For all his inadequacies, Schwarzenberg was the best man available for the post of commander-in-chief. The supreme commander had to be an Austrian, not a Russian. This reflected allied dependence on Austria in August 1813 as well as the fact that the largest allied army was deployed on Austrian territory. Even if the Austrians had been willing – which was far from the case – Alexander himself would never have accepted the job. Had he wished to be the supreme military commander, the position was his for the asking after Kutuzov’s death in April 1813. Some of his generals urged him to take personal command then but Alexander was far too lacking in confidence in his military abilities to agree. Instead he preferred to operate from behind the shoulder of the actual commander-in-chief, to the latter’s acute discomfort.

The emperor treated Schwarzenberg with more respect than he had Wittgenstein. At the beginning of the autumn campaign, for example, one even finds him telling Wittgenstein to obey Schwarzenberg’s orders when they conflicted with Alexander’s own commands. Quite soon, however, confidence in the supreme commander began to fade and old habits to some extent returned. Schwarzenberg quickly learned that the only way to guarantee that Russian commanders would actually execute his orders was to consult in advance the emperor’s representative at allied headquarters, Karl von Toll, and on any major matters to get Alexander’s own approval. Inevitably this delayed and blurred decision-making to a degree which could have proved fatal.

Consulting Alexander and Frederick William entailed listening to the opinions of their military advisers. In Alexander’s case this meant above all Barclay de Tolly, Diebitsch and Toll. Always inclined to trust foreign ‘military professors’, Alexander now found a partial substitute for Pfühl in Major-General Antoine de Jomini, one of the most respected military writers of the time, who had deserted from Napoleon’s army during the armistice. Alexander put even more trust in Napoleon’s old rival General Moreau, who had defeated the Austrians at Hohenlinden in 1800 and whom he had invited into his entourage from American exile. For Schwarzenberg and his Austrian staff officers it was bad enough having to listen to the allied monarchs and their Russian and Prussian generals. Having to defer to Moreau and Jomini was the final straw. The commander-in-chief wrote to his wife about the frustrations of being ‘surrounded by weaklings, fops of every sort, creators of eccentric schemes, intriguers, idiots, chatterers and fault-finders’. Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky commented in his diary that allied decision-making was sometimes akin to the deliberations of a popular assembly, quite unlike the clear-cut system of command which had existed – in his rather idealized memory – at Kutuzov’s headquarters in 1812.

If Schwarzenberg’s power over the main army – the so-called Army of Bohemia – was conditional, it was almost non-existent as regards the two other allied armies. The Army of the North was commanded by Bernadotte and was deployed around Berlin. As the de facto sovereign of a large, independent country Bernadotte had to be given command of one of the armies and would be very difficult for any commander-in-chief to control. In so far as anyone at the main army headquarters could influence Bernadotte’s actions, it was Alexander to whom the Swedish crown prince to some extent deferred. In any case, the whole area between Schwarzenberg’s and Bernadotte’s armies was held by Napoleon, so messengers between the two headquarters generally made a huge detour to the east and took many days to shuttle back and forth. Even Schwarzenberg’s attempts to control General Blücher, the commander of the Army of Silesia, bore little fruit. By delay and by appealing to Alexander and Frederick William the Prussian general successfully resisted all the commander-in-chief’s many efforts to draw the Army of Silesia into Bohemia in order to cover the main army’s right flank. At least in the Army of Bohemia Schwarzenberg could give direct orders to the 120,000 men who formed its Austrian contingent. In the Army of Silesia and the Army of the North, however, there were no Austrian troops.


Preparando o novo cenário: from the death of Dom João de Bragança to.

Manuel Godoy had already been Prime Minister of Spain from November 1792 to March 1798: even if he would have liked to keep the Spain in a neutral policy towards the French Republic, the execution of Louis XVI (21 January 1793) by the revolutionaries had horrified the reigning monarchs of Europe and had caused an international response. Spain and Portugal entered the First Coalition Spain with Great Britain (25 May), Spain with Portugal (15 July) and Portugal with Great Britain (26 September) signed treaties mutual aid against revolutionary France, alliance that had brought Portuguese soldiers into the War of the Pyrenees [and Roussillon] (1793–1795), which ended in defeat with the French conquest of northeastern Spain. In July 1795, Godoy had negotiated the [Second] Peace of Basel (22 July) with France, by which Spain's frontier was restored, but negotiating and signing the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso (19 August 1796), in which France and Spain have become allies and it was required at Spain to declare war on Great Britain, had placed the Spanish monarchy in a difficult and delicate diplomatic position towards its Portuguese ally, which was still allied to Great Britain and could not make peace with France without damaging its alliance (and several overseas economic interests) with the British ally. The Portuguese government, thus, had sought a neutrality that had proved fragile.

With Britain too powerful for France to attack directly, France set its sights on Portugal. After the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire, Napoleon Bonaparte coerced Spain to issuing an ultimatum to force Portugal to break with Great Britain and subjugate the country to the French interests. With government's refusal, Portuguese neutrality became unviable. Spain, where Godoy de facto acted as Prime Minister, with backing from French auxiliary corps invaded in 1801, setting off the War of the Oranges (16 May – 6 June) a defeated Portugal signed the Treaty of Badajoz (6 June) and the subsequent Treaty of Madrid (29 September), under which agreed to close its ports to British ships and several other concessions (commercial, territorial, payment of indemnity. ).

Phalamus

Did the Portuguese royal family escape to Brazil as they did IOTL during the French Invasions or did they stay to face defeat?

If no, the United Kingdom of Portugal Brazil and Algarves would never form and Brazil would remain a colony for the time being. Either way, there was certainly no Brazillian crown when Dom João died ITTL, so you should correct that.

Anyway, this looks like an interesting TL.

Urbanus VII

Did the Portuguese royal family escape to Brazil as they did IOTL during the French Invasions or did they stay to face defeat?

If no, the United Kingdom of Portugal Brazil and Algarves would never form and Brazil would remain a colony for the time being. Either way, there was certainly no Brazillian crown when Dom João died ITTL, so you should correct that.

Anyway, this looks like an interesting TL.

Urbanus VII

At the same time at Lisbon the marriage of the Prince Pedro Carlos of Bourbon, heir presumptive, had always been at the center of the political preoccupations of both the House of Braganza [formally extinct in the male line, which had in the prince the only male exponent (via female line) still alive], both for the Government who feared a dynastic crisis and of succession in a period already politically very difficult and restless.
João Carlos de Bragança e Ligne de Sousa Tavares Mascarenhas da Silva, Duke of Lafões, Prime Minister and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and War from 6 January 1801, had prevaricated on the issue, taking time and not defining a strategy, because he had personal interests in a possible succession crisis: he was a close relative of the Portuguese royal family because his father was Miguel de Bragança, illegitimate son of King Pedro II of Portugal, created Infante of Portugal and "Serene Higheness" by King John V, and, then, possible pretender to the throne for him and his son José João Miguel, Duke of Miranda do Corvo (born on 20 June 1795, but that he would die unexpectedly on 15 November 1801). The Duke of Lafões was dismissed from his office on 21 may 1801 due to the entry of the Spanish forces under the command of Manuel Godoy in Alentejo during the War of the oranges.
The new Prime Minister Rodrigo Domingos de Sousa Coutinho Teixeira de Andrade Barbosa, future Count of Linhares, who had been for seventeen years envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the Court of Turin, during his hard office, having reproposed (16 August 1803) the idea of transfer of the Portuguese royal family and Court to Brazil (already proposed on 30 May 1801 by João de Almeida Portugal, Marquis of Alorna) [1], suggested the necessity of a marriage before a possible departure and proposed an union between the Prince Pedro Carlos and the Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy, eldest daughter of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and Maria Teresa of Austria-Este, but the girl was too young because she was only eleven years old.

[1] Don Rodríguez de Sousa Coutinho had suggested that if Portugal had to enter in a European war, and especially if Napoleon had invaded Portugal, rather than risk the loss of Brazil as a result of a possible internal rebellion or of the probable usurpation of some European rival, the Royal House should move there with his court and, there, establish "a great and powerful empire" in South America. For strategic and commercial reasons, the British government was in favor of such action in the case of a French invasion. When in June 1807 Napoleon decided to invade Portugal in his attempt to destroy British trade with Europe, and gave an ultimatum demanding the closure of Portuguese ports to English ships, British Chancellor George Canning formulated a counter-threat: if Portugal obeyed to Napoleon, Britain would destroy the Portuguese navy (as it had already done with the Danish one) and would also have taken Brazil. But if the House of Braganza did not surrender to Napoleon, Britain would maintained its obligation to protect them if had decided to move temporarily to Brazil.
The real British interest was obtain the opening of Brazilian ports and markets to their trades, so that British products would reached Latin America, neutralizing the consequences of the failure of the invasions of 1806–1807 in the Río de la Plata.

Urbanus VII

Because in the European scenario, Portugal was the weakest player, and it could not not continue to avoid struggle, and because Spain was a cumbersome and unreliable neighbor, creating intrigues, ambiguous movements and secret agreements into the Portuguese Court, after the recent double matrimonial union (1802) between the Spanish line and the Neapolitan line of the House of Bourbon, the necessity to ensure as soon as possible of the heirs, led the Prime Minister João Rodrigues de Sá e Mello de Menezes e Sottomayor and the Regent Dona Maria Ana Francisca of Braganza to turn their attention to one of the daughters of Ferdinand IV of [Naples and] Sicily and Maria Carolina of Austria, allies of the British (or, better said, under their protection): the choice fell on Princess Maria Amalia Teresa, four years older than Prince Pedro Carlos, already sexually mature and, therefore, it was hoped, already able to give birth to children.
For this reason the Neapolitan wedding took place by proxy on 2 August 1804 and in person at Lisbon on 29 September.
The marriage was soon blessed with the birth of the first son, the Prince Pedro de Alcántara Manoel Gabriel Fernando María da Conceição etc., called Pedro Manuel or, more familiarly, simply Manuel, on 2 November 1805.

After the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805), in which the Franco-Spanish fleet lost, the government of Portugal restored relations with its old ally and, at the refusal of the Portuguese government to join the French Continental Blockade against British trade (during the Treaties of Tilsit between Emperors Napoleon and Alexander, the first had expressed irritation that Portugal was open to trade with the Great Britain), in the 1807 Franco-Spanish forces led by General Junot again marched towards Portugal and and invaded it, by starting the Peninsular War (1807–1810/1814).

JonasResende

Interesting POD, knew about D. Joao's illness and him nearly dying, but I've never seen it developed into a TL. Keep up the good work, Urbanus.

The heir to the Portuguese crown is a Spanish infante? Wonder if the Bragancas will turn their backs on Portugal once they get to Brasil (believing it [Portugal] to be a lost cause) and focus on ruling the rest of their empire from Rio, while Napoleonic Spain has to deal with a united Iberia.

Urbanus VII

Interesting POD, knew about D. Joao's illness and him nearly dying, but I've never seen it developed into a TL. Keep up the good work, Urbanus.

The heir to the Portuguese crown is a Spanish infante? Wonder if the Bragancas will turn their backs on Portugal once they get to Brasil (believing it [Portugal] to be a lost cause) and focus on ruling the rest of their empire from Rio, while Napoleonic Spain has to deal with a united Iberia.

Thanks for the appreciation.
Even if the heir is different and the House of Braganza now at the sunset, the history is the same, with the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil. Several other threads have exhibited significant reflections pro and cons to an alternative independence of Brazil, or to displacement of the power center of the Colonial Empire Portuguese in Brazil. I'm thinking above it, expecting to have a good idea. A bit of "chaos" I'm thinking for the years '20 of the nineteenth century, during the liberal revolutions.

Now I want to present more stories (from Europe, Italy, America. ) and bring them to converge on a [alternate] Congress of Vienna. Hence develop
Do not forget that, in TTL, there is around a Infanta Carlota Joaquina with an alternative life

Urbanus VII

The regency of La reine d’Etrurie [Maria Luisa] was the agony of a power, dissolved even before to have ruled.
She had sought support and aid from his protector, Napoleon but Napoleon, now become the new Emperor of the French, had other thoughts about the vassal states: get settled his family [2].
Meanwhile Elisa Bonaparte, married with Felice Pasquale Baciocchi, Princess of Lucca and Piombino, conspired to ruin the Maria Luisa [3].
The political crisis, in which were involved the royal family and the government (attempted coup d'état led by the Crown Prince Fernando against his father and Godoy), and the war in Spain (Peninsular War), sounded the death knell for the kingdom of Maria Luisa, fatally destined to be swept away.
With the Treaty of Fontainebleau (27 October 1807), Napoleon decided the end of the kingdom of Etruria and the annexion of Tuscany directly to the French empire, frustrating the hopes of his sister Elisa [4].
So, in December, after exhumed the body of her husband [5], at who was again given burial at Aranjuez, Maria Luisa departed [6].

After the Abdications of Bayonne (6–10 May 1808), while Fernando VII, his brother Carlos Isidro and his uncle Antonio Pascual were exiled at Valençay, the Infanta Carlota Joaquina, abandoned her husband-uncle Antonio, and Maria Luisa, with their children, decided to accompany their parents Charles IV and Maria Luisa, plus their younger brother Francisco de Paula and Godoy, to the Château de Fontainebleau (25 May) and then to Compiègne (18 June) but the weather of the northen France was not suitable for the health of the ex-King Charles IV, afflicted from years by the gout, and he therefore asked to Napoleon to make his dwelling more southerly after a brief passage through Aix-en-Provence, the Court of Charles IV arrived in Marseille (4 October), where staied three years [7]. However, Maria Luisa was removed from her family, and was conducted coercively in Nice, where she lived some time under strict vigilance. Here, she tried secret to escape but the plan was discovered [8] and La reine d’Etrurie with her daughter was conducted to Rome and imprisoned in the convent of Santi Domenico e Sisto, near the Quirinal.

Fearing acts of Spanish nationalists, in 1812 Napoleon forced the ex-King Charles IV and his family to move to Rome (25 May), where they settled in the summer to Palazzo Borghese (16 June).
Joachim Murat entered in Rome on 19 January 1814, after having secretly reached an agreement with Austria and having repudiated his ties with Napoleon [9]. With the liberation of Maria Luisa from her captivity in convent, the Spanish Royal Family got together and fixed its residence at Palazzo Barberini. The Infanta Carlota Joaquina at that time has caressed with the idea of marrying her son Antonio Pío with Maria Luisa Carlotta, daughter of her sister Maria Luisa and sole heiress of the branch Bourbon-Parma, in order to claim the rights over Parma and Piacenza. But Maria Luisa opposed to this marriage project, and also rejected several other proposed plans by her relatives.
Meantime, Fernando VII had been released and acknowledged as King of Spain by Napoleon with the Treaty of Valençay (11 December 1813) whit his brother Carlos Isidro and his uncle Antonio Pascual, he entered in Spain on 22 March 1814. Nevertheless, the restored Fernando denied his parents the return in Spain they remained in exile, by living of the pension sent to them by their son, who obtained, by Pope Pius VII, folded to the pressures of the new King of Spain, that in September of 1814 Godoy was expelled from Rome the relationship between son and parents remained troubled during the next four years.
In between, the news of a deputation that had arrived in Madrid from the American colonies reached the Infanta Carlota Joaquina, by catching her attention and interest.

[2] For a moment he thought of marrying Maria Luisa with his brother Lucien, who refused.
[3] Elisa Baciocchi yearned to succeed his weak neighboring Spanish the initial uncertain attitude of Napoleon, left free field to the intrigues of his ambitious sister, who began to undermine secretly Maria Luisa, to ruin her at the emperor's eyes, because her political plan was to take Maria Luisa's place in Florence.
[4] At Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany only in 1809 (2/3 March), but did not actually ruled over the region.
[5] Luigi was initially buried in the Cappelle Medicee (Medici Chapels).
[6] A carriage with the coffin of Louis, guarded by four chaplains, preceded that of Maria Luisa another carriage carried the cradle of her daughter. At the beginning of the journey, the escort was remarkable in Cafaggiolo met the Princess Elisa, who was waiting for the post-horses which, however, were all taken from the convoy of Maria Luisa the two women, however, not was there seen. The escort around the wandering La reine d’Etrurie, who was without money, diminished rapidly and the cortege maiden had reduced to the coffin, the baby-girl and four Spanish women remained faithful to their mistress.
[7] Napoleon, promising financial aid, allowed to Charles IV to maintain a Court in exile of around 200 persons in service, until the French payments have been suspended and without any attention from the Emperor, Godoy had to take care of selling jewels and horses, as well as reducing the service and the life of the Court.
[8] Gaspare Chifenti, from Livorno, sent to the Court of Palermo, and Francesco Sassi della Tosa, butler of Maria Luisa, sent to the Court in London, with the idea to organize the escape of the former Queen from Nice, betrayed by a letter of Maria Luisa intercepted by the police of Napoleon, were both arrested, tried by a military court (24–25 July) and sentenced to be shot (26 July).
[9] Napoleon reacted angrily: he ordered to the French Imperial Navy to attack the Neapolitan fleet, recalled his ambassador from Naples and asked all the French present in the Neapolitan capital to return home. To disturb his brother-in-law, he freed even Pius VII, until then held prisoner in Fontainebleau, sending him back to Rome in order to claim the Papal temporal authority.

Urbanus VII

In Latin America the fall of the State Colonial was inevitable, and this collapse had fed anarchy and chaos, civil and foreign wars, important conflicts of interest and economic divisions. Such was the case of Argentina.

The Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata had been founded (1776) by the Spanish Crown in order to counteract Portuguese territorial competition. The founding of the viceroyalty had contributed to a reorientation towards the Atlantic (i.e. Buenos Aires) of the economies of the central-west provinces (Tucumán, Cuyo), Bolivia and Chile, previously related primarily to Peru, the maximum Spanish interest center.
These provinces were not prepared for the independence which occurred more as a result of the Napoleonic wars (and crisis) in Europe than as effect of local political, economic and social processes [10].
At the end of the Napoleonic parabola, the real power of Spain in America was very scanty. But when the independence was assured, the war continued: war between the nascent States, and war within those States.

After the defeat of Napoleon at Leipzig (16–19 October 1813) the European events announced the next return of Fernando VII to the Spanish throne and it was evident that the restored monarch (acknowledged by Napoleon with the Treaty of Valençay on 11 December 1813, entered in Spain on 22 March 1814), without delay, would have sent an armed expedition to the Rio de la Plata to quell the Revolution with the collaboration of the Realists of Montevideo. Of course, according to its new strategy (destroy the monopolies of the other colonial empires to promote free trade) and in order to pursue its own commercial interests, Britain refused to give it the naval support that the King Fernando needed to regain his empire, and not even it allowed to other powers to help him.
At the initial reconciliation measures suggested above all by the distance's problem and by the complexity of Spanish political [the reestablishment of the absolutist monarchy and rejection the liberal constitution of 1812 (4 May 1814)], given their ineffectiveness, the Spanish authorities had decided to respond to the revolutionary events that have occurred in the Rio de la Plata and in the other American colonies. The same decisions adopted by King Fernando VII proved a double and ambiguous attitude towards the American colonies, ranging from the use of negotiation to the force. Thus, in his manifesto of 27 May 1814, addressed to the overseas provinces, the King of Spain urged reconciliation and promised forgiveness. But in June of that year, after the fall of Montevideo in possession of Buenos Aires authorities, which had then produced a fundamental change in the context of the situation in the region, the king restored the Council of the Indies (that did not exist from 1787) and had to be evaluated the sending or less of a shipment to the Rio de la Plata. The tendency of the Spanish government, in fact, was to continue and intensify the concentration of all his efforts against the rebellions in the north Spanish-American, so that the Rio de la Plata had been completely neglected.

Meantime, the serious defeats suffered by the armies of Buenos Aires in the Banda Oriental and Upper Peru, in addition to the landing of a Spanish military expedition in Montevideo, led the Assembly [of Year XIII] of the young republic of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to decide to concentrate the executive power in a person creating the position of Supreme Director.
However, due to its centralized character, the Supreme Directory created strong autonomistic resistance in the others Provinces [11], and the rapid fall, one after another, of the Directors threw the government of Buenos Aires [12] into a severe crisis, aggravated by the conflict among the provinces and by the internal political chaos.

In this scenario, when the Spanish policy of mediation had become anachronistic, besides the Britain, some other powers, including the United States, began to compete for the friendship of the new Latin American states.
In this scenario, on 13 September 1814 the Supreme Director Gervasio Antonio de Posadas proposed the appointment of Manuel Belgrano and Pedro Medrano, then replaced by Bernardino Rivadavia, as envoys to the Spanish government.
This diplomatic mission would have aroused the keen interest of the ambitious Infanta Carlota Joaquina and of the French Baron Hyde de Neuville.

[10] The puppeteer behind the independence movements in Latin America was, in the end, always the same: Great Britain. Wrote Nathan Majolo Madariaga that by the eighteenth century, also in America, Great Britain had come to a virtually dominant mercantilist position «make flourishing the commerce by means of the war» expressed the British policy since the time of William Pitt the Elder. Britain's strategy had been to allow its continental allies to fight against their enemies on the European continent, with the help of English money, while the British navy conquered new commercial enclaves overseas for both their strategic value and their importance for trade (by subduing India, strengthening the monopoly over North American trade, by gaining the dominance over the trade in tea, textiles, tobacco, rice, wood, indigo, grains, etc., the more lucrative exports to the continent European). By the end of the eighteenth century, to all this was added the development of new technologies. The result had been the Industrial Revolution, which has placed Britain half a century ahead of its continental competitors. Despite this resounding success, there were limits to this type of imperial development, fight wars or to finance those to distract the other European powers (more so as the Seven Years' War had been fought both in Europe and overseas) had become so costly that new forms of taxation had to be sought. The imposition of new taxes by the British in their American colonies, in part, had had as a consequence the (North) American Revolution, giving birth to a new era. Louis XVI had summoned the States General to impose new taxes also in reason to repay the debt caused by the wars of his predecessors, and the consequence in this case had been the French Revolution of 1789. The result of the combination of both events had gave life to a new world. The Indipendence of the United States of America, however, represented the first important lesson for the British: that the empire could not last indefinitely and the overseas world could not be forever dominated. The second lesson was that the not true that the commerce thrives with war. They had adopted, thus, a new strategy: act in such a way that the other imperial powers lose their empires, both from a strategic that commercial perspective, and destroy their monopolies to promote free trade, from which they could benefit to the maximum thanks to their greater industrial development. From that moment forward and with a few exceptions, the British have become the promoters of Latin American independence, most of the time indirectly. And after the independence of the Spanish colonies, they have become also the unofficial guarantors of these. When Great Britain formed the third coalition to fight Napoleon, the alliance with France cost Spain the sinking of its fleet at Trafalgar (21 October 1805): its overseas empire was thus isolated from motherland and at the mercy of the enemy fleet. This important fact ended up greatly favoring the independence of the American colonies of Spain.
[11] In the time that followed the independence of the Rio de la Plata region, even if the idea of forming a unified state was never completely abandoned by the ruling classes, however, none of the provinces was willing to give up the option of its own independence if it was not possible to structure a federal "nation" compatible with its interests (interests and factions not fixed, but subject to a succession continuous of changes, in accordance with the changes of various economic and political realities). At the beginning, the independence movement was above all associated to the interests of Buenos Aires, but this had proved be an obstacle both for independence that for unification, so that the centrifugal tendencies that followed the 1810 had degenerated into chronic armed conflicts between city-states (the "provinces" were purely the territorial domain of these) wherein the power, sovereignty and a sense of identity were concentrated, and that aspired to inherit and monopolize the old Spanish power.
[12] The capital of the old viceroyalty had had to confront, during the first years of the indipendence, with the capitals of the provinces (intendencies) in their autonomist tendencies, in the conflict to impose his authority in the region in a centralizing project. Then, in 1816 a large part of Buenos Aires' public opinion concluded that the centralist project was too costly for Buenos Aires, and that it more convenient also the autonomy. The invention of Argentina entailed gigantic difficulties.

Urbanus VII

[A bit of history (OTL) and notes necessary to understand some of the changes that will affect the next chapters]

The 1813 marked the beginning of the end of the Napoleonic epopee, the beginning of the end of Napoleonic attempt of concretize his project for a Novus Ordo Mundi.
This important year seemed to give shape to the worldly Talleyrand's bon mot that «treason is a matter of dates».
After the disaster of the Russian campaign, the Prussian abandonment of its alliance with Napoleon (Convention of Tauroggen, 30 December 1812 [13] Treaty of Kalisch, 28 February 1813 [14]) marked the first crack in the chain of the Napoleonic Coalition System.
On 17 March also King Frederick William III of Prussia declared war on France.
To the purpose to broaden and consolidate an anti-Napoleonic alliance, on 19 March Frederick-William and Alexander I signed a manifesto or Convention of Breslau, calling all German Princes in the Confederation of the Rhine to support «freeing the common homeland» signalling their, otherwise, after the final defeat of Napoleon, «the risk of being deprived of their States».
The Battle of Möckern (5 April), where combined Prusso-Russian forces defeated French troops, marked the beginning of the "German Liberation War".

Due to in the German Campaign a great deal of men lost, sick and injured, lacking him the cavalry to force a decisive victory, Napoleon, who he thought to be can control events after a rest period, accepted the Armistice of Pleiswitz (4 June) and the Austrian proposal of negotiations and a congress (potentially in Prague), entering in Dresden (10 June) and settling himself into the palace of the King of Saxony, hoping that more time would allow him to bring up more men and also more cavalry.
Meantime, regardless of the continuation of hostilities, diplomacy continued in its functions. On 12 June, in an agreement, Russia and Prussia tried to convince Austria, remained loyal to Napoleon and where the foreign minister Metternich was aimed to mediate a peace between France and its continental enemies, to reject the alliance with France, and with the Convention of Reichenbach (14–15 June), Britain agreed to provide financial support to the allies, in exchange, Prussia and Russia promised not to make any agreement with France without English approval. On 27 June Metternich, who had had the day before a stormy encounter of six hours with Napoleon in the Marcolini Palace (Dresden) after the which the Emperor had accepted Austrian mediation [15], signed an agreement with Russia and Prussia, stipulating that Francis I of Austria was committed to join himself the allies and to declare war on France if Napoleon had not accept their conditions [16].

In the Iberian Peninsula, in late May, the British troops, massed around Lisbon since March and prepared to entry in Spain, began the offensive operations until the Battle of Vitoria (21 June), when the Spanish defeat was to mark the end of the French presence in Spain and the denouement of Joseph Bonaparte's reign.

[13] The armistice known as Convention of Tauroggen was an unilaterally decision of the Prussian General Field Marshal Yorck, without consent of his king, that can be summarized with the words of Alexandre Dumas «the difference between treason and patriotism is only a matter of dates».
[14] The Treaty of Kalisch, formalizing the Russo-Prussian alliance (in that which in the preamble to the treaty was designed as a sacred – indeed almost religious – mission to impose peace and to depose Napoleon), has broke down completely the Franco-Prussian alliance and has put definitely Prussia on the side of the Allies. In the treaty has been stipulated that as to the reconstruction of Prussia, it was to be recreated in a form that match that of pre-1806, but which not necessarily geographically identical borders the definition of the Prussia's eastern frontier would be were left to a subsequent agreement.
[15] Only because feared to lose Austria as ally, even if he realized that he could not rely on Austrian military aid.
[16] The conditions were: to give up the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and some Hanseatic cities, including, Hamburg, Bremen and Lübeck to allow the reconstitution of Prussia as it was in 1806 the disappearance of the Confederation of the Rhine (i.e. Napoleon's armed influence in Germany).

Urbanus VII

[A bit of history (OTL) and notes necessary to understand some of the changes that will affect the next chapters]

Having Napoleon accepted the Austrian mediation (30 June), the armistice was prolonged until 10 August and a congress in Prague was planned.
The Congress of Prague opened on 29 July [17], but Napoleon prevaricated, taking the talks seriously only towards 8 August. At the midnight of 10 August, when it became apparent that Napoleon was not interested in compromise, Metternich put an end to the Congress and Austria declared war on France. The day after, Napoleon changed his mind and considered some concessions to the allies, but it was however too late: indeed the Allies, who had probably hoped the war rather than the compromise, refused to countenance Napoleon's proposals, and the war the war was declared.
In the Treaty of Toeplitz (9 September), in reality two secret bilateral agreements, one between Russia and Austria and the other between Russia and Prussia, was reaffirmed that Austria and Prussia would return to their power position pre-1805/6, though not necessarily with identical possessions, and agreed the dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine. Austria obtained that remained out of the agreements the solution of the problem about the territories that Prussia held in Polish lands, and the options regarding the future Austrian influence in Italy. Britain acceded to the treaty on 3 October.
Meanwhile Austria managed to engage negotiations with Bavaria, leading to an armistice (17 September) and to the Treaty of Ried (8 October) [18].

After a series of hard-fought victories in the Pyrenees against French retreating forces, on 7 October the British led by Wellington crossed the river Bidasoa and set foot in France.

With the French defeat and retreat in the Battle of Leipzig, also known as Battle of Nations (16–19 October 1813), Napoleon had lost significant part of his Grande Armée and of the allies, had been decisively damaged in his military reputation and the French presence to east of the Rhine was ended, however he went back to organize the counter-offensive to obtain a decisive victory. The fight was by no means over. However for the first time would be on French soil… in fact, the Tsar Alexander, whose power was continuously growing, more than ever determined to carry the war onto French soil, now urged all of his allies to push the Coalition army in a gigantic offensive.

With the Agreement of Valençay (11 December 1813), intended as the preliminary to a separate peace treaty between France and Spain, a beleaguered and desperate Napoleon agreed to release and recognize Ferdinand VII, imprisoned at the château since 1808, as King of Spain in exchange for a complete cessation of hostilities. But neither side, mistrusting the intentions of the other, had intention of trusting, and the fighting continued on into France.

In early 1814, after crossed to the western bank of the Rhine, Russian, Austrian and other German armies of the Sixth Coalition invaded France, thus beginning the Campaign in north-east France, advancing towards Paris, which capitulated after a brief battle on 31 March. The Tsar Alexander and the King of Prussia rode down the Champs-Elysées to the head of victorious troops: it was the first time, after the Hundred Years War, that a foreign army entered the French capital.
On 2 April, the French Senate agreed to the Coalition's terms of surrender and passed a resolution to deposing Napoleon, who at the Palace of Fontainebleau wanted to fight again, after the mutiny of his marshals, abdicated in favour of his son (4 April), however refused by the Coalition, and then forced to abdicate unconditional on 6 April, a day after that with a decree passed by the French Senate declared his deposition, absolving the French people and army from their oath of fidelity to him, abolished the right of succession in his family and also called the Count of Provence to the throne as King Louis XVIII. The Treaty of Fontainebleau (11–13 April 1814) [19] ratified all this. The Allies have sent Napoleon into exile on the island of Elba, which was to be his comic-opera kingdom, leaving him his title of Emperor. The victorious powers signed the Treaty of Chaumont (1–9/19 March) and First Treaty of Paris (30 May) [20], which formally ended the War of the Sixth Coalition, and starting to redraw the map of Europe.


The New England Secession Movement

The United States was nearly dissolved when the southern states seceded, launching the Civil War. But this was not the first time the Union threatened collapse.

Half a century earlier the Union was nearly split apart when the New England states plotted to break away. The New England secession movement, led mainly by the Federalists, culminated in the Hartford Convention of 1814 which narrowly voted to remain in the United States.

A Series of Outrages

Events leading to the convention began with the inauguration of Thomas Jefferson as president in 1801. Jefferson was a Virginian with pro-agriculture, pro-expansion, and anti-British sentiments that conflicted with the predominantly pro-manufacturing, anti-expansion, and pro-British sentiments in the New England states. Federalists opposed Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase because they believed that southerners and foreigners would pour onto the new land, thus politically diminishing New England. By 1804, New Englanders began discussing secession. Their argument was essentially the same argument later used by the southern States: if the federal government became too oppressive, the States had the sovereign right to resist the federal power.

Later, in response to collateral damage suffered by the war between Britain and France, President Jefferson enacted a trade embargo that prohibited Americans from trading with either country. The law aimed to deprive Britain and France of American goods, but American markets were also harmed because they lost their major trading partners. The New England economy was especially damaged because of the region’s dependence on trade. Many condemned the law and resorted to smuggling as the flames of secession intensified.

In 1809, Jefferson was succeeded as president by James Madison, another Virginian. Not only did Madison enforce Jefferson’s embargo more stringently, but he initiated the War of 1812 against Britain. Many New England Federalists feared the war would permanently cut them off from British trade, and so many opposed the war. The governors of Massachusetts and Connecticut refused to send state troops to fight the British, and Connecticut denounced Madison’s conscription plan as unconstitutional. When Madison ordered federal troops into New England to quell civil unrest, a convention was called to air grievances against the federal government.

Convention of Grievances

The Hartford Convention opened on December 15, 1814 at the Old State House in Hartford, Connecticut, and it consisted of 26 delegates from Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Vermont (Maine was not yet a State). While many New Englanders advocated secession, the delegates proved more moderate, mainly out of fear that if they voted for secession and New England opted to remain in the Union, their careers would be ruined. So instead of secession the delegates proposed several constitutional amendments aimed to limit federal power, including:

  • Requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress to declare war
  • Limiting presidents to one term
  • Requiring that a succeeding president come from a different state than his predecessor (aimed directly at breaking the Virginia presidential dynasty of Washington, Jefferson and Madison)

In addition, the delegates asserted their sovereignty over unconstitutional federal authority. While the wisdom of secession was debated by the delegates, it was not debated whether or not secession was legal. To the delegates and many other Americans at the time, secession was an inherent State right and an important check on the powers of a potentially despotic federal government. These beliefs were the basis of the southern secession that sparked the Civil War half a century later.

Secession Becomes Treason

By the time the delegates reached Washington to deliver their proposals, the War of 1812 had ended, thus minimizing the importance of the Hartford Convention. Now that the British were no longer an issue, many Americans turned against New England as a hotbed of treason. Although few argued the legality of secession, many felt that by considering secession in a time of war, the New England Federalists were traitors. As a result, the Federalist Party quickly lost popularity and dissolved.

As time went on, more and more Americans began equating secession with treason, even though they were not necessarily one and the same as the founders had interpreted the Constitution. Southerners began embracing the ideals of the Hartford Convention, and northerners began perceiving them as traitors. This sectional difference helped lead to the Lincoln administration’s war against the southern secession, the most terrible war in American history.


Watch the video: PIC 1813