Philip II of Spain by Moro

Philip II of Spain by Moro

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Antonis Mor

Sir Anthonis Mor, also known as Anthonis Mor van Dashorst and Antonio Moro (c. 1517 — 1577), was a Netherlandish portrait painter, much in demand by the courts of Europe. He has also been referred to as Antoon, Anthonius, Anthonis or Mor van Dashorst, and as Antonio Moro, António Mouro, Anthony More, etc., but signed most of his portraits as Anthonis Mor. [1]

Mor developed a formal style for court portraits, largely based on Titian, that was extremely influential on court painters across Europe, especially in the Iberian Peninsula, where it created a tradition that led to Diego Velázquez. It can include considerable psychological penetration, especially in portraits of men, but always gives the subject a grand and self-possessed air.


Background Edit

The Spaniards had been exploring the Philippines since the early 16th century. Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese navigator in charge of a Spanish expedition to circumnavigate the globe, was killed by warriors of datu Lapulapu at the Battle of Mactan. In 1543, Ruy López de Villalobos arrived at the islands of Leyte and Samar and named them Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain, at the time Prince of Asturias. [1] Philip became King of Spain on January 16, 1556, when his father, Charles I of Spain (who also reigned as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor), abdicated the Spanish throne. Philip was in Brussels at the time and his return to Spain was delayed until 1559 because of European politics and wars in northern Europe. Shortly after his return to Spain, Philip ordered an expedition mounted to the Spice Islands, stating that its purpose was "to discover the islands of the west". [2] In reality its task was to conquer the Philippines for Spain. [3] At the time of the first Spanish missions, the population of Luzon and the Visayas is estimated to lay somewhere between 1 and 1.5 million, with overall density being low. [4]

Conquest under Philip II Edit

King Philip II of Spain, whose name has remained attached to the islands, ordered and oversaw the conquest and colonization of the Philippines. On November 19 or 20, 1564 a Spanish expedition of a mere 500 men led by Miguel López de Legazpi departed Barra de Navidad, New Spain, arriving off Cebu on February 13, 1565, conquering it despite Cebuano opposition. [5] : 77 [6] [7] : 20–23 Spanish policy towards the colonization of the Philippines was that it should be a peaceful conversion rather than a military conquest, a product of internal Spanish debates following the violence of their conquest of the New World, and of Philip II's personal convictions. The reality on the ground was different, as hardship for the colonizing soldiers contributed to looting and enslavement, despite the entreaties of representatives of the church who accompanied them. In 1568, the crown permitted the establishment of the encomienda system that it was abolishing in the New World, effectively legalizing a more oppressive conquest. Although slavery had been abolished in the Spanish Empire, it was allowed to continue in some forms the Philippines due to its already present use on the islands. [8]

Due to conflict with the Portuguese, who blockaded Cebu in 1568, and persistent supply shortages, [9] in 1569 Legazpi transferred to Panay and founded a second settlement on the bank of the Panay River. In 1570 Legazpi sent his grandson, Juan de Salcedo, who had arrived from Mexico in 1567, to Mindoro to punish the Muslim Moro pirates who had been plundering Panay villages. Salcedo also destroyed forts on the islands of Ilin and Lubang, respectively south and northwest of Mindoro. [5] : 79

In 1570, Martín de Goiti, having been dispatched by Legazpi to Luzon, conquered the Kingdom of Maynila. Legazpi followed with a larger fleet including both Spanish forces and some Visayan allies, [5] : 79–80 taking a month to bring these forces to bear due to slow speed of local ships. [10] This large force caused the surrender of neighboring Tondo. An attempt by some local leaders to defeat the Spanish was repelled. Legazpi renamed Manila Nueva Castilla, and declared it the capital of the Philippines, [5] : 80 and thus of the entire Spanish East Indies, [11] which also encompassed Spanish territories in Asia and the Pacific. [12] [13] Legazpi became the country's first governor-general.

In 1573, Japan expanded its trade in northern Luzon. [14] [ failed verification ] In 1580, the Japanese lord Tay Fusa established the independent Wokou Tay Fusa state in non-colonial Cagayan. [15] When the Spanish arrived in the area, they subjugated the new kingdom, resulting in 1582 Cagayan battles. [16] With time, Cebu's importance fell as power shifted north to Luzon. [ citation needed ] In the late 16th century the population of Manila grew even as the population of Spanish settlements in the Visayas decreased. [17]

Spanish settlers Edit

The Spanish successfully invaded the different local states by employing the principle of divide and conquer. [18] Under Spanish rule, disparate barangays were deliberately consolidated into towns, where Catholic missionaries were more easily able to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. [19] [20] Under Spanish rule, Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity. [21] They also founded schools, a university, hospitals, and churches. [22] To defend their settlements, the Spaniards constructed and manned a network of military fortresses across the archipelago. [23] Slavery was also abolished. As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially. [24] [25]

Spanish rule brought most of what is now the Philippines into a single unified administration. [26] [27] From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as part of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain, later administered from Madrid following the Mexican War of Independence. [28] Administration of the Philippine islands were considered a drain on the economy of Spain, [29] and there were debates about abandoning it or trading it for some other territory. However, this was opposed for a number of reasons, including economic potential, security, and the desire to continue religious conversion in the islands and the surrounding region. [30] [31] The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown, [29] which averaged 250,000 pesos [32] and was usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas. [33] Financial constraints meant the 200-year-old fortifications in Manila did not see significant change after being first built by the early Spanish colonizers. [34]

Some Japanese ships visited the Philippines in the 1570s in order to export Japanese silver and import Philippine gold. Later, increasing imports of silver from New World sources resulted in Japanese exports to the Philippines shifting from silver to consumer goods. In the 1570s, the Spanish traders were troubled to some extent by Japanese pirates, but peaceful trading relations were established between the Philippines and Japan by 1590. [35] Japan's kampaku (regent), Toyotomi Hideyoshi, demanded unsuccessfully on several occasions that the Philippines submit to Japan's suzerainty. [36]

On February 8, 1597, King Philip II, near the end of his 42-year reign, issued a Royal Cedula instructing Francisco de Tello de Guzmán, then Governor-General of the Philippines to fulfill the laws of tributes and to provide for restitution of ill-gotten taxes taken from indigenous Filipinos. The decree was published in Manila on August 5, 1598. King Philip died on September 13, just forty days after the publication of the decree, but his death was not known in the Philippines until middle of 1599, by which time a referendum by which indigenous Filipinos would acknowledge Spanish rule was underway. With the completion of the Philippine referendum of 1599, Spain could be said to have established legitimate sovereignty over the Philippines. [37]

The European population in the archipelago steadily grew although native Filipinos remained the majority. During the initial period of colonialization, Manila was settled by 1200 Spanish families. [38] In Cebu City, at the Visayas, the settlement received a total of 2,100 soldier-settlers from New Spain (Mexico). [39] Spanish forces included soldiers from elsewhere in New Spain, many of whom deserted and intermingled with the wider population. [40] [41] [42] Immigration blurred the racial caste system [43] [44] [45] Spain maintained in towns and cities. [46] At the immediate south of Manila, Mexicans were present at Ermita [47] and at Cavite [48] where they were stationed as sentries. In addition, men conscripted from Peru, were also sent to settle Zamboanga City in Mindanao, to wage war upon Muslim defenders [49] There were also communities of Spanish-Mestizos that developed in Iloilo, [50] Negros [51] and Vigan. [52] Interactions between indigenous Filipinos and immigrant Spaniards plus Latin-Americans eventually caused the formation of a new language, Chavacano, a creole of Mexican Spanish.They depended on the Galleon Trade for a living. In the later years of the 18th century, Governor-General Basco introduced economic reforms that gave the colony its first significant internal source income from the production of tobacco and other agricultural exports. In this later period, agriculture was finally opened to the European population, which before was reserved only for indigenous Filipinos.

Manila was the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade. [53] Manila galleons were constructed in Bicol and Cavite. [54] [55] The Philippine economy depended on this trade, which was inaugurated in 1565 between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico. Trade between Spain and the Philippines was via the Pacific Ocean to Mexico (Manila to Acapulco), and then across the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean to Spain (Veracruz to Cádiz). Manila became a major center of trade in Asia between the 17th and 18th centuries. All sorts of products from China, Japan, Brunei, the Moluccas and even India were sent to Manila to be sold for silver 8-Real coins which came aboard the galleons from Acapulco. These goods, including silk, porcelain, spices, lacquerware and textile products were then sent to Acapulco and from there to other parts of New Spain, Peru and Europe.

During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts, [56] as well as defending against external military challenges. [29] [57] The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista. [58] War against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the South nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury. [59] Moros from western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago also raided the coastal Christian areas of Luzon and the Visayas. Settlers had to fight off the Chinese pirates (who lay siege to Manila, the most famous of which was Limahong in 1573).

  • Composed of 6 to 10 appointed royal councilors
  • Governed all the Spanish colonies in the King's name, and had legislative power
  • Served as the court of appeals for the colonies
  • Initially exercised executive (as Governor), legislative, judicial (as President of the Audiencia), military (as Captain General), and ecclesiastical (as Vice Patron) powers
  • By 1821 or 1875, the office became Governor General
  • Appointed by the King with the advice of the council and probably the Viceroy prior to 1821
  • Balanced by the Audiencia
  • Had full spiritual authority over the army and navy as military Vicar General of the islands
  • Advised the Captain General, especially in matters concerning the governance and provisioning of the Church in the Philippines
  • Ecclesiastical governor of the islands' suffragan dioceses, headed by bishops.
  • Appointed dignitaries or the staff of a diocese, if the captain general failed to do so
  • Functioned as the Supreme Court and advised the Captain General
  • Initially composed of four judges (oidores), an attorney-general (fiscal), and a constable, with attached advocates for the accused, a defender of the naturales ("natives"), and other minor officials the number of oidores and fiscales would be increased after
  • Took charge of government upon the death of the governor (mayor) up to the arrival of his successor
  • Exercised executive and judiciary powers in the province
  • Collected tribute
  • Until the mid-19th century, he had the privilege to engage in trade (indulto de comercio), which occasioned many abuses against the local population
  • No provision was made restricting the alcalde mayor to engage in trade
  • If a provincia was large, the alcalde mayor had a corregidor to administer over corregimientos (provincial district)
  • Exercised executive and judiciary power
  • Provincial council which assisted the alcalde mayor
  • Composed of a public prosecutor, finance administrator, treasurer, vicars forane, provincial doctor, and four principles of the capital elected by the capitanes municipales of the province
  • Administered over a pueblo, assisted by other pueblo officials
  • Position was initially restricted to the local married men of the elite (principalia)
  • By 1768, the position became elective. Any person elected acquired elite status, diluting the political power given by the Spanish to the hereditary datus the old Principalía class.
  • Equivalent of the pre-Maura Law gobernadorcillo
  • Head of the tribunal municipal
  • Elected by the residents of the municipio
  • Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families
  • Collected tribute in the barangay
  • Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period
  • Position was made elective in 1786 the gobernadorcillo and other cabezas chose a name and presented it to the Governor General for appointment to the position in a specific barangay.
  • After three years of service, a cabeza was qualified for election to the office of the gobernadorcillo.

Political system Edit

The Spanish quickly organized their new colony according to their model. The first task was the reduction, or relocation of indigenous Filipinos into settlements. The earliest political system used during the conquista period was the encomienda system, which resembled the feudal system in medieval Europe. The conquistadores, friars and native nobles were granted estates, in exchange for their services to the King, and were given the privilege to collect tribute from its inhabitants. In return, the person granted the encomienda, known as an encomendero, was tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants, justice and governance. In times of war, the encomendero was duty bound to provide soldiers for the King, in particular, for the complete defense of the colony from potential invasions of outside powers such as the Dutch, British and Chinese. The encomienda system was abused by encomenderos and by 1700 was largely replaced by administrative provinces, each headed by an alcalde mayor (provincial governor). [61] The most prominent feature of Spanish cities was the plaza, a central area for town activities such as the fiesta, and where government buildings, the church, a market area and other infrastructures were located. Residential areas lay around the plaza. During the conquista, the first task of colonization was the reduction, or relocation of the indigenous population into settlements surrounding the plaza.

National government Edit

On the national level or social class, the King of Spain, via his Council of the Indies (Consejo de las Indias), governed through his representative in the Philippines, the Governor-General of the Philippines (Gobernador y Capitán General). With the seat of power in Intramuros, Manila, the Governor-General was given several duties: head of the supreme court, the Royal Audiencia of Manila Commander-in-chief of the army and navy, and the economic planner of the country. [ citation needed ] All executive power of the local government stemmed from him and as regal patron, he had the authority to supervise mission work and oversee ecclesiastical appointments. His yearly salary was 40,000 pesos. The Governor-General was commonly a peninsular Spaniard, a Spaniard born in Spain, to ensure loyalty of the colony to the crown or tiara.

Provincial government Edit

On the local level, heading the pacified provinces (alcaldías), was the provincial governor (alcalde mayor). The unpacified military zones (corregimiento), such as Mariveles and Mindoro, were headed by the corregidores. City governments (ayuntamientos), were also headed by an alcalde mayor. Alcaldes mayores and corregidores exercised multiple prerogatives as judge, inspector of encomiendas, chief of police, tribute collector, capitan-general of the province, and even vice-regal patron. Their annual salary ranged from P300 to P2000 before 1847 and P1500 to P1600 after 1847. This could be augmented through the special privilege of "indulto de commercio" where all people were forced to do business with him. The alcalde mayor was usually an Insular (Spaniard born in the Philippines). In the 19th century, the Peninsulares began to displace the Insulares, which resulted in the political unrests of 1872, notably the 1872 Cavite mutiny and the Gomburza executions.

Municipal government Edit

The pueblo or town was headed by the Gobernadorcillo or little governor. Among his administrative duties were the preparation of the tribute list (padron), recruitment and distribution of men for draft labor, communal public work and military conscription (quinto), postal clerk and judge in minor civil suits. He intervened in all administrative cases pertaining to his town: lands, justice, finance and the municipal police. His annual salary, however, was only P24 but he was exempted from taxation. Any native or Chinese mestizo, 25 years old, proficient in oral or written Spanish and has been a cabeza de barangay of 4 years can be a gobernadorcillo.

Any member of the Principalía, who speaks or who has knowledge of the Spanish language and has been a Cabeza de Barangay of 4 years can be a Gobernadorcillo. Among those prominent is Emilio Aguinaldo, a chinese mestizo, [62] and who was the Gobernadorcillo of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit). The officials of the pueblo were proficient. taken from the Principalía, the noble class of pre-colonial origin. Their names are survived by prominent families in contemporary Philippine society such as Duremdes, Lindo, Tupas, Gatmaitan, Liwanag, Mallillin, Pangilinan, Panganiban, Balderas, Zabarte and Agbayani, Apalisok, Aguinaldo to name a few. [ citation needed ]

Barrio government Edit

Every barangay was further divided into "barrios", and the barrio government (village or district) rested on the barrio administrator (cabeza de barangay). He was responsible for peace and order, recruited men for communal public works, and collecting the barrio's taxes. Cabezas should be literate in Spanish and have good moral character and property. Cabezas who served for 25 years were exempted from forced labor.

In addition, this is where the sentiment heard as, "Mi Barrio", first came from.

The Residencia and the Visita Edit

To check the abuse of power of royal officials, two ancient Castilian institutions were brought to the Philippines: the Residencia, dating back to the 5th century, and the Visita, which differed from the residencia in that it was conducted clandestinely by a visitador-general sent from Spain and might occur anytime within the official's term, without any previous notice. Visitas could be specific or general.

Maura law Edit

The legal foundation for municipal governments in the country was laid with the promulgation of the Maura Law on May 19, 1893. Named after its author, Don Antonio Maura, the Spanish Minister of Colonies at the time, the law reorganized town governments in the Philippines with the aim of making them more effective and autonomous. This law created the municipal organization that was later adopted, revised, and further strengthened by the American and Filipino governments that succeeded Spanish.

Economy Edit

Manila-Acapulco galleon trade Edit

The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was the main source of income for the colony during its early years. Service was inaugurated in 1565 and continued into the early 19th century. The Galleon trade brought silver from New Spain, which was used to purchase Asian goods such as silk from China, spices from the Moluccas, lacquerware from Japan and Philippine cotton textiles. [63] These goods were then exported to New Spain and ultimately Europe by way of Manila. Thus, the Philippines earned its income through the trade of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon. To Spain, the galleon trade was the link that bound the Philippines to her. [64]

While the trade did bring some results which were beneficial to the Philippines, most effects were disadvantageous. [65] However, the trade did result in cultural and commercial exchanges between Asia and the Americas that led to the introduction of new crops and animals to the Philippines such as tomatoes, avocado, guava, papaya, pineapple, and horses. [65] These gave the colony its first real income. The trade lasted for over two hundred years, and ceased in 1815 just before the secession of American colonies from Spain. [66]

Royal Society of Friends of the Country Edit

José de Basco y Vargas, following a royal order to form a society of intellectuals who can produce new, useful ideas, formally established the Spanish Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country, after the model of the Royal Basque Society. Composed of leading men in local and foreign scholarships and training grants in agriculture and established an academy of design. It was also credited to the carabao ban of 1782, the formation of the silversmiths and gold beaters guild and the construction of the first paper mill in the Philippines in 1825. It was introduced in 1780, vanished temporarily in 1787–1819, 1820–1822 and 1875–1822, and ceased to exist in the middle of the 1890s.

Royal Company of the Philippines Edit

On March 10, 1785, King Charles III of Spain confirmed the establishment of the Royal Philippine Company with a 25-year charter. [67] After revocated the Royal Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas that had a monopoly on Venezuelan trade, the Basque-based company was granted a monopoly on the importation of Chinese and Indian goods into the Philippines, as well as the shipping of the goods directly to Spain via the Cape of Good Hope. The Dutch and British both bitterly opposed it because they saw the company as a direct attack on their trade in Asia. It also faced the hostility of the traders of the Galleon trade (see above) who saw it as competition. This gradually resulted in the death of both institutions: The Royal Philippine Company in 1814 and the Galleon trade in 1815. [68]

The first vessel of the Royal Philippine Company to set sail was the "Nuestra Señora de los Placeres" commanded by the captain Juan Antonio Zabaleta. [69]

Taxation Edit

Also there was the bandalâ (from the Tagalog word mandalâ, a round stack of rice stalks to be threshed), an annual forced sale and requisitioning of goods such as rice. Custom duties and income tax were also collected. By 1884, the tribute was replaced by the cedula personal, wherein everyone over 18 were required to pay for personal identification. [70] The local gobernadorcillos were responsible for collection of the tribute. Under the cedula system taxpayers were individually responsible to Spanish authorities for payment of the tax, and were subject to summary arrest for failure to show a cedula receipt. [71]

Aside from paying a tribute, all male Filipinos as well as Chinese immigrants from 16 to 60 years old were obliged to render forced labor called "polo". This labor lasted for 40 days a year, later reduced to 15 days. It took various forms such as the building and repairing of roads and bridges, construction of public buildings and churches, cutting timber in the forest, working in shipyards and serving as soldiers in military expeditions. People who rendered the forced labor was called "polistas". He could be exempted by paying the "falla" which is a sum of money. The polista were according to law, to be given a daily rice ration during their working days which they often did not receive. [72]

There were three naval actions fought between Dutch corsairs and Spanish forces in 1610, 1617 and 1624. Known as the First, Second and Third Battles of Playa Honda. The second battle is the most famous and celebrated of the three, with nearly even forces (10 ships vs 10 ships), resulting in the Dutch losing their flagship and retreating. Only the third battle of 1624 resulted in a Dutch naval victory.

In 1646, a series of five naval actions known as the Battles of La Naval de Manila was fought between the forces of Spain and the Dutch Republic, as part of the Eighty Years' War. Although the Spanish forces consisted of just two Manila galleons and a galley with crews composed mainly of Filipino volunteers, against three separate Dutch squadrons, totaling eighteen ships, the Dutch squadrons were severely defeated in all fronts by the Spanish-Filipino forces, forcing the Dutch to abandon their plans for an invasion of the Philippines.

On June 6, 1647, Dutch vessels were sighted near Mariveles Island. In spite of the preparations, the Spanish had only one galleon (the San Diego) and two galleys ready to engage the enemy. The Dutch had twelve major vessels.

On June 12, the armada attacked the Spanish port of Cavite. The battle lasted eight hours, and the Spanish believed they had done much damage to the enemy flagship and the other vessels. The Spanish ships were not badly damaged and casualties were low. However, nearly every roof in the Spanish settlement was damaged by cannon fire, which particularly concentrated on the cathedral. On June 19, the armada was split, with six ships sailing for the shipyard of Mindoro and the other six remaining in Manila Bay. The Dutch next attacked Pampanga, where they captured the fortified monastery, taking prisoners and executing almost 200 Filipino defenders. The governor ordered solemn funeral rites for the dead and payments to their widows and orphans. [73] [74] [75]

There was an expedition the following year that arrived in Jolo in July. The Dutch had formed an alliance with an anti-Spanish king, Salicala. The Spanish garrison on the island was small, but survived a Dutch bombardment. The Dutch finally withdrew, and the Spanish made peace with the Joloans, and then also withdrew. [73] [74] [75]

There was also an unsuccessful attack on Zamboanga in 1648. That year the Dutch promised the natives of Mindanao that they would return in 1649 with aid in support of a revolt against the Spanish. Several revolts did break out, the most serious being in the village of Lindáo. There most of the Spaniards were killed, and the survivors were forced to flee in a small river boat to Butuán. However, Dutch aid did not materialize or have objects to provide them. The authorities from Manila issued a general pardon, and many of the Filipinos in the mountains surrendered. However, some of those were hung or they were enslaved. [73] [74] [75]

The demands of these wars has been regarded as a potential cause of population decline. [76]

In August 1759, Charles III ascended the Spanish throne. At the time, Great Britain and France were at war, in what was later called the Seven Years' War.

British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764, however they were unable to extend their conquest outside of Manila as the Filipinos stayed loyal to the remaining Spanish community outside Manila. [7] : 81–83 Spanish colonial forces kept the British confined to Manila. Catholic Archbishop Rojo, who had been captured by the British, executed a document of surrender on October 30, 1762, giving the British confidence in eventual victory. [77] [78]

The surrender by Archbishop Rojo was rejected as illegal by Don Simón de Anda y Salazar, who claimed the title of Governor-General under the statutes of the Council of Indies. He led Spanish-Filipino forces that kept the British confined to Manila and sabotaged or crushed British-fomented revolts, such as the revolt by Diego Silang. Anda intercepted and redirected the Manila galleon trade to prevent further captures by the British. The failure of the British to consolidate their position led to troop desertions and a breakdown of command unity which left the British forces paralysed and in an increasingly precarious position. [79]

The Seven Years' War was ended by the Peace of Paris signed on February 10, 1763. At the time of signing the treaty, the signatories were not aware that the Manila was under British occupation and was being administered as a British colony. Consequently, no specific provision was made for the Philippines. Instead they fell under the general provision that all other lands not otherwise provided for be returned to the Spanish Crown. [80]

Spanish colonial rule of the Philippines was constantly threatened by indigenous rebellions and invasions from the Dutch, Chinese, Japanese and British. The previously dominant groups resisted Spanish rule, refusing to pay Spanish taxes and rejecting Spanish excesses. All were defeated by the Spanish and their Filipino allies by 1597. In many areas, the Spanish left indigenous groups to administer their own affairs but under Spanish overlordship.

From its inception, the Captaincy General of the Philippines was governed from Mexico City as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. However, following Mexican independence in 1821, the Philippines and other Spanish Pacific islands were ruled directly from Madrid. The loss of supply routes and trading posts via Mexico presented logistical issues to the Spanish government, isolating the Philippines and rendering them more difficult to govern efficiently.

Early resistance Edit

The Resistance against Spain did not immediately cease upon the conquest of the Austronesian cities. After Rajah Patis of Cebu, some indigenous Filipino nobles resisted Spanish rule. Throughout their rule, the Spanish government had faced numerous revolts across the country, most of which they had successfully quelled while others were won through agreements with the leaders of the revolts themselves.

The Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of Mindanao and Jolo, [81] and the Moro Muslims in the Sultanate of Sulu formally recognized Spanish sovereignty. [82] [83]

During the British occupation of Manila (1762–1764), Diego Silang was appointed by them as governor of Ilocos and after his assassination by fellow Filipinos, his wife Gabriela continued to lead the Ilocanos in the fight against Spanish rule. Resistance against Spanish rule was regional in character, based on ethnolinguistic groups. [84]

Hispanization did not spread to the mountainous center of northern Luzon, nor to the inland communities of Mindanao.

The opening of the Philippines to world trade Edit

In Europe, the Industrial Revolution spread from the United Kingdom to Spain during the period known as the Victorian era. The industrialization of Europe created great demands for raw materials from the colonies, bringing with it investment and wealth. Governor-General Basco had opened the Philippines to this trade. Previously, the Philippines was seen as a trading post for international trade but in the nineteenth century it was developed both as a source of raw materials and as a market for manufactured goods.

Following the opening of Philippine ports to world trade in 1834, [85] shifts started occurring within Filipino society. [86] [87] The decline of the Manila Galleon trade contributed to shifts in the domestic economy. Communal land became privatized to meet international demand for agricultural products, which led to the formal opening of the ports of Manila, Iloilo, and Cebu to international trade. [88]

Philip II

Philip II of Spain inherited the Kingdoms of Spain, Naples, and the Netherlands from his father Charles V. As a prince, he was briefly married to Mary I of England, and has ever since been regarded as a villain to English Protestants. He was an ardent Catholic, and reigned over a far flung realm during a very difficult period in history. Although he is a favorite target of Calvinist calumny, his personal morals were not particularly bad, by European monarchial standards, and he was a meticulous and careful, although often ineffective statesman. He was however, highly intolerant of heresies and his harsh measures to surpress Calvinist rebellions in his territories undoubtedly alienated a large portion of his Netherland subjects.

The Dutch rebellion and the Spanish Armada are the two conflicts Philip II is most well known for, but they were only a few of the ongoing conflicts during his reign. At the time Philip came to the throne, the Ottoman Empire was stepping up its attacks in the Mediterranean, and posed a threat not only of piracy, but of invasion. Philip formed, a multi-national Christian navy, in order to oppose them, but it suffered a disastrous defeat at the battle of Djerba. Eventually however, the Philip's navies were victorious, and the naval Battle of Lepanto, led by Philip II's half-brother, Don John of Austria, essentially destroyed the Ottoman threat in the Mediterranean.

War with France was also nearly constant problem for Spain. The last major campaign of the Italian Wars, occurred between 1551 and 1559. After defeating the French in Italy, Spain opened up a front in the Rhine region, and quarted Spainish soldiers on territories of the Netherlands. After the war was over, the Dutch states wanted the solders removed, but instead they were taxed to support a standing foreign army on their own territory. This was one of the original causes of the Dutch rebellion, the other being the spread of Calvinist heresies. Philip II favored a very severe policy and sent Alva to put down the Rebellion. His iron-fisted antics only alientated the population, and caused the Northern Dutch to openly declare their independence. The great hero Don John of Austria later become Governor, but even his more accomodating style failed to heal the divisions. At last Philip appointed Alexander Farnese, and although he governed well and brought the southern states back into the fold, even he was unable to regain control of the Northern states.

At the same time, Spain's relationship with England had deteriorated considerably, due to many factors—piracy and the war in the Netherlands among them. Philip meticulously planned for a Spanish Armada to invade England but it failed miserablely.

On the domestic front, Philip is often blamed for mismanaging Spain's government so that, in spite of the enormous riches pouring into the country from the American colonies and from Portugal's trading posts in the far East, Spain remained a poor country. There is some truth to this, but many of the problems Philip had to deal with were fairly intractable, and power was shared between the monarchy and the nobles in a manner that made powerful, centralized decision-making very difficult. The enormous, unearned wealth flowing into the country was largely consumed by a frivolous aristocracy and a collection of intrenched, regional, bureaucracies rather than used for the public good, but Philip did not have strong monarchial powers to prevent this.

Philip II

Philip II was Titian’s most important patron, and the pair’s artistic relationship was one of the most fecund of the Renaissance. They met twice while Philip was still a prince, in Milan (December 1548-January 1549) and Augsburg (November 1550-1551), and Titian painted the prince’s portrait on both occasions. On 29 January 1549 Philip paid the painter 1000 escudos for certain portraits he paints at my behest, including his own, which he received on 9 July, after Titian had made replicas for Philip’s aunt, Queen Mary of Hungary, and Antoine Perrenot de Granvela. Titian again painted the prince in Augsburg. On May 16, 1551, Philip wrote to Queen Mary of Hungary: This [letter] accompanies Titian’s portraits. mine in armour is a good likeness, though made with haste, and if there were more time I would have him do it again.

The Museo del Prado’s painting is considered to be the one mentioned by Philip in 1551, as it is the only surviving or documented portrait of him in armour. Charles Hope disagrees, believing that the work’s finished appearance does not justify Philip’s criticism. Hope instead dates it from Philip and Titian’s first meeting in Milan. Beyond the difficulty of interpreting Philip’s use of the word haste (traditionally it is associated with an unpolished painting, but could also allude to one of poorer quality), Hope is correct in considering this a magnificent and considerably detailed portrait. However, that does not invalidate dating it from 1551.

As with the portrait from 1548-49, various replicas were made of the one from 1550-51. The inventories of both Philip (1553) and Queen Mary of Hungary (1558) reveal the existence of identical portraits whose descriptions match that of the Museo del Prado’s work. The fact that the painting sent to Mary in 1551 was a replica would explain both its hasty execution and its lesser quality (Hurtado de Mendoza had already informed Philip in 1549 that the replicas of his first portrait lacked the quality of the original). This would mean the Museo del Prado’s painting is the original from 1550-51, which Philip kept for himself, while Mary’s replica has disappeared. The first portrait is known from a workshop replica. X-rays have revealed that Titian painted it over a portrait of Philip’s father, Charles V, who appears in armour and is identical to the painting that disappeared in the fire at El Pardo in 1604, which is known through copies by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz.

The present likeness is not so much an exercise in psychological introspection as an exaltation of the prince’s dignity. Titian portrays him with a gesto bell di maestá reale (grand gesture of regal majesty), as Pietro Aretino said of the 1549 portrait. This explains the work’s emphasis on representative elements such as the column, the table covered with crimson velvet and the imposing armour crafted by Colman Helmschmid of Augsburg. Titian employed his respected ability to smoothly idealise his models, rendering a more svelte Philip that does not recall the sturdy individual of medium stature that he actually was. Along with a contemporaneous portrait that Antonio Moro painted for the Habsburgs, the present work established a model for courtly representations that lasted for more than a century. It is one of Titian’s most influential works (Text drawn from Falomir, M.: Italian Masterpieces. From Spain´s Royal Court, Museo del Prado, 2014, p. 78).


Four hundred years after his death, Philip II remains one of the most controversial figures in history, admired and reviled in equal measure. He is a figure of global importance, the first ruler on whose territories the sun never set. He led Europe in its defence against the seemingly irresistable power of the Ottoman Empire and many of the nations of Western Europe were forged in part by their responses to his ambitions - Portugal was conquered and most of Italy was controlled by him, while the Low Countries, England and France fought long and bitter wars against him. Philip proclaimed himself the leader of Catholic Europe but quarrelled incessantly with the popes of the Counter-Reformation. In consolidating his monarchy in Spain, Philip used the arts as a political tool Titian and Palestrina did some of their greatest work for him.

This new study traces the development of Philip II and of a kingship that lay at the heart of European political, religious and cultural evolution. It looks in detail at the ministers who worked with this most demanding of kings and at the government that evolved during his reign. It deals also with the pressures of a tortured private life and explores the paradox of a man who as a young ruler was deeply prudent but who became extraordinarily aggressive in his old age and who by his successes and failures - both of them on an epic scale - re-shaped the world in which he lived.

From the Back Cover

Four hundred years after his death, Philip II remains one of the most controversial figures in history, admired and reviled in equal measure. He is a figure of global importance, the first ruler on whose territories the sun never set. He led Europe in its defence against the seemingly irresistable power of the Ottoman Empire and many of the nations of Western Europe were forged in part by their responses to his ambitions - Portugal was conquered and most of Italy was controlled by him, while the Low Countries, England and France fought long and bitter wars against him. Philip proclaimed himself the leader of Catholic Europe but quarrelled incessantly with the popes of the Counter-Reformation. In consolidating his monarchy in Spain, Philip used the arts as a political tool Titian and Palestrina did some of their greatest work for him.

This new study traces the development of Philip II and of a kingship that lay at the heart of European political, religious and cultural evolution. It looks in detail at the ministers who worked with this most demanding of kings and at the government that evolved during his reign. It deals also with the pressures of a tortured private life and explores the paradox of a man who as a young ruler was deeply prudent but who became extraordinarily aggressive in his old age and who by his successes and failures - both of them on an epic scale - re-shaped the world in which he lived.

About the Author

PATRICK WILLIAMS is a Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Portsmouth.

Philip II1527–1598

Philip II, king of Spain, was the first sovereign in history to rule a world empire upon which the sun never set. Overseas treasure and trade proved important in his statecraft and wars.

In 1556 he succeeded his father, Emperor Charles V (1500–1558), to rule Spain, the chief Caribbean islands, Florida, Mexico, and Central and South America except Brazil. In 1565 Spanish conquistadors began the conquest of the Philippines (named after him), and opened a trans-Pacific trade route to Mexico, sailed annually by the Manila galleon. The Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in Seville, established in 1503 regulated Spain's commerce with the Americas, and the annual treasure fleets that brought the gold and silver used in Philip's wars and Europe's trade with Asia. Little remained for his efforts to improve the science of navigation. In 1580 Philip acquired Portugal and its rich commercial empire: Brazil, African outposts involved in the slave trade, Goa and other ports on India's west coast, Malacca in Malaysia, Macao, and Indonesia's Spice Islands. Spanish trade with the new world grew, as did Portuguese trade with Asia, until the 1590s, when the effects of Philip's war with Asia, until the 1590s, when the effects of Philip's wars started its steady declined.

In Europe Philip inherited the Low Countries (today's Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands), much of Italy, and wars with the Turks. A staunch Catholic, he failed to suppress Protestantism in Holland, and became involved in war with the English, who supported Dutch independence, engaged in piracy, and in 1588 defeated his invasion Armada.

Charles I and Philip II

Charles, elder son of Juana, and grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand, was born in the year 1500, at Ghent, and all his life held an affection for the people of his native land, which the Spaniards never shared. Still, he was virtually King of Spain at the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, and his mother, owing to her lunacy, only nominally queen. Henceforth, for more than half a century, this grandson of the King of Aragon and Queen of Castile appears the dominant figure, the greatest ruler, in Europe. "It has been said that Charles had more power for good or ill in Europe than has been exercised by any man since the reign of Augustus and that, on the whole, he did as much harm with it as could possibly be done."

This is the verdict of an impartial historian, and seems borne out by the facts, for his long reign was chiefly one of war, and waged more for personal aggrandizement than for reasons of state. He was seventeen years of age when he first entered Spain, the year following Ferdinand's death, and eighteen when proclaimed king at Valladolid. The interregnum had been skillfully bridged by Cardinal Ximenes, who had vigorously suppressed various insurrections caused by the dissatisfaction of the nobles and the people at the introduction of a host of foreigners, greedy and rapacious, from the Flemish country. Notwithstanding the great services of the octogenarian Ximenes, who had so faithfully served not alone the young prince, but before him his mother and grandparents, he sent him a frivolous letter containing implied reproof, which reached the cardinal either just before or just after his demise, which occurred in November, 1517. Adrian of Utrecht, subsequently Pope, succeeded Ximenes, under whom Charles's forces met and overcame the rebels, headed by Juan de Padilla, in 1522.

In January, 1519, another great personage departed this life, in the death of Maximilian, Emperor of Germany, paternal grandfather of the young King of Spain, upon whom, in June of the same year, was be stowed the imperial crown. He was thus at nineteen years of age, as Charles V of Germany and Charles I of Spain, sovereign over a vastly wider realm than any Castilian king had ever dreamed of conquering. From his father, Philip, he had inherited dominion over the Netherlands and Franche-Comte through his mother and from Ferdinand the kingdoms of Spain and now, by the Diet of Frankfort, he was made Emperor of Germany. It may be said that with his coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle, in October, 1520, his troubles really began for Francis, the French king, also young and powerful, urged a right to the crown and henceforth, until the death of the latter, in 1549, there was enmity between them.

That same year occurred the famous meeting on the Field of the Cloth of Gold, between French Francis and Henry VIII of England but not long after Henry was fighting as an ally of Charles against the King of France. To recount their quarrels and battles would be too wearisome as well as fruitless a task but they culminated at the famous battle of Pavia, when the French king's army was routed, and Francis himself taken prisoner by the Spaniards, in 1524. He was not released until he had forfeited his claims to Charles's possessions in Burgundy, etc., and returned to France in January, 1526, after signing the Treaty of Madrid, and leaving as hostages two of his sons.

But Francis did not respect his promises, and soon there was war again between the two, more battles, more signing of treaties, more shedding of blood and devastation of territories, until the war worn subjects of both sovereigns were weary of a conflict in which they obtained no gains and shared no profits. Especially were the Spaniards wroth at being repeatedly called upon to donate funds and men, men and funds, for the carrying on of foreign wars. Yet they rarely rebelled, and only grumbled and protested when the Cortes was called, knowing that meant only more money for the king and his favourites, more sacrifices at the feet of Moloch the insatiate. Through all the years of his reign Charles was carrying on war of another kind, also, with the enemies of the Romish Church. Simultaneously with his coronation as Emperor of Germany rose the apparition of Protestantism in the person of the redoubtable Luther and the assembling of the Diet of Worms, for the discussion and extermination of Lutheranism, was one of the first acts of the young sovereign, in January, 1521. It was an unequal fight, that between the poor peasant-priest Luther and the mighty emperor yet, though the former died in 1541, his cause eventually won—as all the world knows—and not all Charles's efforts could strangle in its cradle the young giant of Reformation.

At the age of twenty-six. Charles married Isabella of Portugal, a beautiful princess, to whom he was much attached, and who became the mother of his only legitimate son, Philip II, who was born in 1527. That same year Charles was called upon to wage another little war with Francis, who had broken his pledges and formed a league with Henry of England and the Pope. The Spanish armies, under lead of the recreant Constable of Bourbon, overran Italian territories, took and sacked the city of Rome, committing every imaginable excess, and ending by making the Pope himself a prisoner. Although his own army had committed this sacrilege, Charles pretended to be grieved at the event, particularly at the indignity offered to the person of the Pope but only three years later he had the imperial crown set upon his brow by this same Pope Clement, who had only regained his liberty by the payment of a heavy ransom.

The treaty then signed by the hitherto hostile belligerents, called the Peace of Cambrai, was probably hastened by the threatened invasion of western Europe by the Mohammedans under Soleyman the Magnificent and it was this fear also that caused Charles to treat his Protestant subjects so leniently in Germany, when in Spain they would all have been burned at the stake or put to the sword. But he needed their valiant arms in opposing the Moslems of Turkey in their victorious progress hence they were temporarily spared, to grow eventually into a body politic of such proportions that, to his sorrow, they eventually overcame him. He, however, vindicated his claim to be considered the champion of Christendom, in 1535, by organizing an expedition against Barbarossa, the pirate king, and liberating hundreds of Christians confined in the dungeons of Tunis. Another attempt upon Algiers, in 1541, resulted in the dispersion of the Spanish fleet by a storm, and disastrous defeat. The year 1536 was made memorable to the citizens of Ghent because, having refused to furnish their quota for carrying on the wars in France, they were treated by Charles as rebels and punished with terrible severity.

In 1540 Loyola established in Spain the order of Jesuits, which subsequently came to have such influence in religious and political affairs. The French king in 1542 renewed hostilities, and after two years of warfare a peace was declared, in 1544. About this time it seemed to Charles that the occasion was ripe for a war of extermination against his Protestant subjects of Germany. At first he triumphed over their large and well-equipped armies, in 1547 defeating the Elector of Saxony and taking him prisoner. That year, also, Francis of France died, and thus the emperor was left freer to persecute those who differed from him in their religious beliefs. But a Protestant champion soon arose in the person of Prince Maurice of Saxony, whose vigorous action not only reduced the emperor to the humiliating necessity of signing a treaty of peace (August 2, 1552), but set in motion a train of events that forever made impossible his cherished project of the rooting out of Protestantism.

Three disastrous years of warfare followed the Peace of Passau, but nothing was gained for Charles, and in 1555, by the Peace of Augsburg, his hated enemy, Protestantism, scored a triumph through receiving legal recognition, by which its roots struck so deep into European soil that no efforts of the emperor's could avail to extricate them. It is thought that the humiliation of this defeat of his lifelong scheme in behalf, of the papists was the cause of his final determination to abdicate in favour of his son Philip, which he did in October of the same year, 1555. His mother, Juana, died this year, having passed the whole term of her son's brilliant reign in the gloom of insanity.

In January, 1556, he formally ceded all his Spanish possessions to Philip, and retired to the monastery of Yuste, where he passed three years more in the quietude of peaceful scenes, and finally expired on the 21st of September, 1558.

After forty years of fighting, he found nothing so delightful as the seclusion of a monastery after mingling in the stirring scenes of a world of which he was at times the most prominent figure and centre around which it moved, he found nothing so conducive to tranquillity and happiness as the domestic avocations of gardening and carving simple toys. He had crossed central and western Europe forty times, had visited England, carried war into Africa, had battled with the French, the British, the Italians, and Turks while at the same time his great captains had subjugated the natives of the two Americas, and deluged the western isles and continents with blood. Mexico, Peru, and Chili were reduced to submission during his reign. In 1521 the great navigator, Magellan, had passed through the straits that now bear his name and circumnavigated South America, on that same voyage discovering the Philippine Islands, which were afterward named in honour of Philip II.

We should pause here to note that it was during Charles's reign that Spain's history became inextricably mingled with or touched upon that of every great division of the world, and that the emperor held possessions in Asia, Africa, Europe, North and South America.

Flora Cassen: Philip II of Spain and His Italian Jewish Spy

A bitter conflict between the Spanish and Ottoman empires dominated the second half of the sixteenth century. In this early modern “global” conflict, intelligence played a key role. The Duchy of Milan had fallen to Spain, and for Jewish men like Simon Sacerdoti (c.1540-1600), expulsion by King Philip II (1527 -1598) was a very real risk. But Sacerdoti, scion to one of Milan’s wealthiest Jewish families, had direct access to high-level information from the enemy Ottomans, information that was of great value to Philip and to Spain.

Professor Flora Cassen (UNC)

Flora Cassen is Assistant Professor of History and Van der Horst Fellow in Jewish History and Culture at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. A native of Antwerp, in Belgium, she received her PhD in History and Judaic Studies from New York University in 2007. Her research has been supported by fellowships and grants from the Belgian Academy of Rome, the Medieval Academy of America, the Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture, and the Vidal Sassoon Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism.

Her forthcoming book with the University of Cambridge Press, Marking the Jews in Renaissance Italy: Politics, Religion,and the Power of Symbols, examines the roots of anti-Judaism through a study of discriminatory marks that Jews were compelled to wear in 15th and 16th century Italy. Her current project studies Italian Jews who were spies for the king of Spain. It examines how early modern intelligence networks functioned and probes questions of Jewish identity in a time of uprootedness and competing loyalties.

In episode nine of History Hub’s podcast series – ‘Kingdom, Empire and Plus Ultra: conversations on the history of Portugal and Spain, 1415-1898‘ – Professor Cassen is in conversation with series host Dr Edward Collins. In the episode, which is available to podcast on iTunes and Soundcloud, they discuss Professor Cassen’s current project on Italian Jewish spies in the employ of Spain, in this case King Philip II of Spain, and his Italian Jewish spy, Simon Sacerdoti.

A bitter conflict between the Spanish and Ottoman empires dominated the second half of the sixteenth century. In this early modern “global” conflict, intelligence played a key role. The Duchy of Milan had fallen to Spain, and for Jewish men like Simon Sacerdoti (c.1540-1600), expulsion by King Philip II (1527 -1598) was a very real risk. But Sacerdoti, scion to one of Milan’s wealthiest Jewish families, had direct access to high-level information from the enemy Ottomans, information that was of great value to Philip and to Spain. Sacerdoti, thus, found himself serving a king and an empire with a long history of harming the Jews, while spying on the Ottomans, a power far more tolerant of Jews. The podcast explores Sacerdoti’s actions and motivations and examine early modern diplomacy and espionage, as well as the place of the Jews in a time of competing empires and loyalties.

‘Philip II of Spain and His Italian Jewish Spy’ with Professor Flora Cassen (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).

Read Professor Cassen’s article on the subject in the Journal of Early Modern History.

Kingdom, Empire and Plus Ultra

This History Hub podcast series features interviews with experts in the areas of Portuguese and Spanish history, from the beginning of the Portuguese discoveries in 1415 to the end of Spanish dominion in America in 1898. The interviews, conducted by historian Dr. Edward Collins, cover a range of topics on the domestic and overseas histories of both nations, which include, among others: the Portuguese explorations of Africa and Asia, Spanish navigation and settlement in America, the church in Portugal and Spain, monarchy and intermarriage in the Iberian kingdoms, natural science and mapping in America, the role of nautical science, Irish historical relations with Portugal and Spain, and imperial competition in Europe and overseas. The interviewees comprise a number of established and renowned academics, as well as up-and-coming researchers from universities and institutions worldwide.

This History Hub series is funded by UCD Seed Funding and supported by UCD School of History. Series editor is Mike Liffey (Real Smart Media). Download series episodes on iTunes or listen via Soundcloud.

  • Series introduction by Edward Collins
  • Episode 1: Portugal and Spain in the 15th and early-16th centuries: a brief overview by Edward Collins
  • Episode 2: Ellen Dooley on the Spanish Inquisition and the religious image in Spain & America, 1478–1700
  • Episode 3: Ricardo Padrón on America, the Pacific, and Asia in the Imperial Imagination, 1513-1609
  • Episode 4: Allison Bigelow on the Science of Colonial Silver: Rethinking the History of Mining and Metallurgy in the Early Americas
  • Episode 5: Early Colonial Brazil, English Piracy, and the Adventures of Anthony Knivet (1591-1599) by Vivien Kogut Lessa de Sá
  • Episode 8: Zoltan Biedermann on ‘A Negotiating Empire: Portuguese diplomacy in Asia and the Global Renaissance’

Image:detail from ‘Philip II of Spain’ by Giacomo Antonio Moro [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.


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Philip II of Spain

Philip II of Spain was the only son of the Habsburg Emperor Charles V and his cousin Isabella of Portugal and was born in the Spanish capital of Valladolid on 21 May 1527.

Philip had two sisters with whom he was close, Joanna and Maria of Austria. He was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, and pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive." He added, "He dresses very tastefully, and everything that he does is courteous and gracious." In 1543 Phillip married his double cousin Maria Manuela of Portugal, the daughter of King John III of Portugal and his wife Catherine of Austria. but she died giving birth to their son, Don Carlos, Prince of the Asturias on 12 August 1545 at Valladolid.

Philip II of Spain

The young Carlos was willful and, in adolescence, began to exhibit signs of mental instability. Many of Carlos' physical and psychological afflictions may have been the result of inbreeding in the House of Habsburg and the House of Portugal. Instead of the normal of eight great-grandparents, Carlos had but four, his parents had the same coefficient of co-ancestry (1/8) as if they were half siblings.

Philip's thirty seven year old cousin Mary Tudor succeeded to the throne of England in 1553 on the death of her Protestant half-brother, Edward VI. There were several attempts by England's Protestant element to overthrow the new Catholic queen, which led Mary to the decision to form an alliance with Catholic Spain, a decision which was unpopular with the English, who disliked the idea of having a foreign king.

Don Carlos

English national pride was not prepared to countenance a Spanish King, who was also a Catholic and rebellion broke out led by Thomas Wyatt. Mary arrested her half-sister, Elizabeth, whom she suspected of compliance in the plot and sent her to the Tower after which the fires of revolt were extinguished. The Spanish were reluctant to allow Philip to depart for England until the threat posed by Jane Grey was removed. The unfortunate Jane and her husband were accordingly beheaded.

Philip of Spain duly arrived in England and to elevate Philip to the same rank as Mary, his father ceded the crown of Naples as well as his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, to him. The marriage was celebrated in July 1554, Phillip was eleven years younger than his bride. Philip and Mary appeared on coins together, with a single crown suspended between them as a symbol of joint reign. Mary, who had known little affection since her mother's death, was in love for the first time in her life at the age of thirty-seven. Philip, much younger than his bride, unfortunately, did not reciprocate her affection. Phillip's father, Charles V abdicated in 1555 and Philip became king of Spain, the Netherlands, and all Spanish dominions in Italy and America. Philip reactivated the Spanish Inquisition in an attempt to deal with the growth of Protestantism in Europe.

Mary believed herself pregnant but was humiliated when the desperately awaited child did not arrive at the due time and she had to accept that she had been mistaken. The Queen had suffered from a phantom pregnancy. Philip, never particularly enamoured of her, left England shortly after, leaving Mary desolate and deserted and pathetically yearning for his return.

Philip returned briefly to enlist England's support in a war against France, which led to the loss of Calais in 1558, which had been in English hands since the conquests of Edward III, a source of great sadness to the Queen. She was reported to have said at the time "When I am dead and chested you will find Calais written on my heart." Mary again believed herself pregnant of a child which would continue her work and ensure a Catholic succession. It turned out to be a tumour.

Philip, realizing that the succession of Mary, Queen of Scots to the English throne would be disadvantageous to Spain since she was at that time married to the Dauphin of France, had to be avoided at all costs. He persuaded Mary to name Elizabeth as her successor and marry her to a Spaniard. Elizabeth resisted such a marriage and the Queen could not, in good conscience, force her to do so. Mary died, deserted again by her husband, on 17 November 1558, of either uterine or ovarian cancer.

Isabella Clara Eugenia

Reluctant to sever his tie with England, Philip proposed marriage to England's new sovereign, his sister-in-law, Elizabeth I , but his offer was diplomatically declined. Philip married for a third time to Elisabeth of Valois, the daughter of King Henri II of France in 1559. He was enchanted by his 14-year-old bride, and despite their age difference, Elisabeth wrote to her mother, that she considered herself to be fortunate to have married so charming a prince. The marriage produced two daughters:-

(i) Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, (12 August 1566 - 1 December 1633), who married Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, had three children, all of whom died in infancy

(ii) Catherine Michelle of Spain (10 October 1567 - 6 November 1597), married Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy.

Elisabeth had originally been betrothed to Philip's son, Carlos, but political complications unexpectedly necessitated marriage to Philip. Her relationship with her troubled stepson Carlos was warm and friendly. Despite reports of his progressively bizarre behaviour, Carlos was always kind and gentle to Elisabeth.

Philip's son and heir Don Carlos were wild and unpredictable in his behaviour. He harboured a strong dislike to the Duke of Alba, who became the commander of Philip's forces in the Netherlands, a position that had been promised to him. Carlos also began to exhibit an antipathy towards his father, whose murder, according to Carlos' confessor, he supposedly contemplated. In the autumn of 1567. Carlos made preparations to flee to the Netherlands. However, Don Juan of Austria, Phillip's illegitimate half-brother, informed Phillip of his plans and in January 1568 Don Carlos was arrested and placed in solitary confinement on his father's orders. He died in isolation six months later. It was later claimed that he was poisoned on the orders of King Philip, although modern historians feel that Carlos died of natural causes. He grew very thin and developed eating disorders during his imprisonment, alternating self-starvation with heavy binges.

Elisabeth suffered a miscarriage on 3 October 1568, and died the same day, along with her newborn daughter. After her death, her mother Catherine de' Medici offered her younger daughter Margaret as a bride for Philip, but Philip declined the offer, because he thought it was against Biblical and Canon Law to marry the sister of a deceased wife. He married for a fourth time to his niece, Anna of Austria, the daughter of his sister Maria of Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II, who had once been considered as a bride for his son, Don Carlos.

Anne of Austria

The aging king was said to be in love with his young bride, by all accounts, it was a happy marriage and marriage produced four sons and four daughters:-

(i) Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias (4 December 1571 - 18 October 1578), died young

(ii)Charles Laurence (12 August 1573 - 30 June 1575), died young

(iii) Diego, Prince of Asturias (15 August 1575 - 21 November 1582), died young

(iv) Philip III of Spain (3 April 1578 - 31 March 1621)

(v) Maria (14 February 1580 - 5 August 1583), died young.

Anna of Austria died of heart failure eight months after giving birth to Maria in 1580 and Phillip never remarried.

Philip continued the policy of the Catholic Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille. He was merciless in the suppression of Protestantism in Spain, which had surfaced in Valladolid and Seville. When a man condemned to death for heresy reproached him for his cruelty, he is said to have replied "If my own son were guilty like you, I should lead him with my own hands to the stake". In 1568 the Muslims of Granada rebelled against him they were eventually defeated, but three years later, in 1570, rebellion broke out in the Netherlands, offering a much more serious threat.

Philip was crowned king of Portugal in 1580 and made a fresh attempt to regain control over the northern Netherlands. Elizabeth I sent aid to Protestants in the Netherlands. Philip had hoped that Mary, Queen of Scots, the heir to the English throne, would eventually become Queen of England and return the country to Catholicism, but in February 1587 Elizabeth finally signed her death warrant and she was executed at Fotheringhay Castle.

Philip decided to strike at the Protestant Elizabeth and in July 1588 the Spanish Armada sailed for England. On 6 August the Armada anchored at Calais. At midnight, eight fire ships were sailed towards the Spanish ships in the harbour. The Spanish ships fled to the open sea, making them targets for the English, many of the Spanish galleons. were sunk while the remainder headed north. The Armada rounded Scotland and headed south, but strong gales drove many of the ships onto Irish rocks. Thousands were drowned and those that managed to reach land were often killed by the English. Of the 25,000 men that had set out in the Armada, less than 10,000 arrived home safely.

The defeat of the Spanish Armada gave heart to Protestants across Europe. The storm that smashed the armada was seen by Philip's enemies as a sign of the will of God. Many Spaniards blamed the admiral of the armada for its failure, but Philip was not among them. A year later, he remarked: " It is impiety, and almost blasphemy to presume to know the will of God. It comes from the sin of pride. Even kings, Brother Nicholas, must submit to being used by God's will without knowing what it is. They must never seek to use it.

In 1591, Aragon rose against Philip's rule. Philip's military campaigns created severe financial problems and by 1596 Spain was bankrupt.

Philip II died of cancer at the age of 71 at El Escorial, near Madrid, on 13 September 1598. He suffered a painful death, which involved a severe attack of gout, fever, and dropsy, which he endured with patience. For 52 days the King deteriorated slowly. Finding it too painful to be moved to be washed, a hole was cut in his mattress for the release of bodily fluids. He was succeeded by his son Philip III.

Portrait of Philip II of Spain, by Antonio Moro

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