Second combat of Sobral, 14 October 1810

Second combat of Sobral, 14 October 1810


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Second combat of Sobral, 14 October 1810

The second combat of Sobral of 14 October 1810 was a skirmish south of the village of Sobral that would turn out to be the most serious attack the French would launch against the Lines of Torres Vedras. The first of Masséna’s troops had discovered the lines on the morning of 11 October, and on 12 October Junot’s 8th Corps had made the first tentative attack on the Allied position, driving the British picket line out of Sobral. The British had only pulled back 300 yards, and had formed a new picket line on the southern side of a ravine that separated Sobral from the lower slopes of Monte Agraça, where they built a barricade to block the high road.

On the morning of 14 October Junot decided to push the British outposts further away from his lines around Sobral. After a short bombardment, Junot sent the compagnies d’elite of the 19th of the Line to attack the British outposts, that day manned by the 71st Foot. The French attack forced the British pickets to abandon their advanced line, but the rest of the 71st then launched a counterattack, which forced the French to retreat back into Sobral. The British pursued as far as the village, before being themselves forced to retreat by the presence of Ménard’s brigade. Junot did not press his attack, and the British were able to reoccupy their original picket line. This skirmish cost the British 67 casualties and the French at least 120.

While this skirmish was taking place, Masséna finally made his first visit to the front to view the Lines of Torres Vedras. He arrived at Sobral in time to see the failure of the French attack, and to decide not to press the attack. This was perhaps the key moment of the campaign. Seeing Wellington’s army fortified in a strong position, and remembering the losses he had suffered at Bussaco when attacking an unfortified position, Masséna decided not to risk attacking the Lines, and instead on 15 October the French settled down outside the lines, remaining there for the next month. During this period no more serious attacks were made on the Allied outposts, and on 14 November Masséna was finally forced to retreat to Santarem by a lack of supplies.

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Origins Edit

It has been alleged [ who? ] that the regiment traces its lineage to the original Fourth United States Infantry, which was organized as the Infantry of the Fourth Sub-Legion on 4 September 1792, only four years after the adoption of the Constitution. The infantry of the Fourth Sub-Legion fought at Miami Rapids in 1794. In 1796, it was re-designated the Fourth Regiment of the Infantry. After ten years, due to a reduction in the army, the regiment was disbanded in 1802. However, according to the United States Army Center of Military History, this Fourth Infantry was a temporary unit with no lineal connection to either the original permanent 4th Infantry Regiment, or the modern 4th Infantry Regiment. See the lineage of the first 4th US Infantry below.

Northwest Territory Indian Wars Edit

In 1808, the Regular Army was reorganized to meet the growing threat posed by the Indian nations living on the western boundaries of the United States. The first permanent Regular Army unit to bear the designation of 4th Infantry Regiment was constituted on 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army, and organized during May–June 1808 in New England.

Under the leadership of General William H. Harrison, the 4th Infantry, commanded by Colonel John Parker Boyd, was sent into the Northwest Territories, which included Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Its mission was to eliminate the threat posed by a union of Indian tribes from the surrounding area. The hostile actions of these tribes were effectively stopping settlement of this vast area. General Harrison, who was later to become a United States President, led the 4th Infantry and a force of militia and volunteers against the Indians at Tippecanoe. During this battle, the American forces completely routed the Indians, bringing peace to the area, but at a cost of 188 dead. The regiment then returned to Fort Vincennes, and in 1812, after a trying march through the forests of Ohio, joined forces with General William Hull.

War of 1812 Edit

Within months of the Battle of Tippecanoe, the United States declared war against Great Britain. This required the increased manning of the Regular Army.

The modern 4th Infantry Regiment was constituted 11 January 1812 in the Regular Army as the original 14th Infantry Regiment, and organized in March 1812 in Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.

On 12 July, General Hull crossed with his command into Canada (then British North America), and made camp at Sandwich (now Windsor), Canada, just on the Canada–US border. The regiment remained inactive for the rest of the month and grew restless. Then the Fourth was given a mission of escorting some supplies into Camp Detroit, previous escorts having been surprised and routed. The Fourth Infantry undertook this duty enthusiastically, and although ambushed at the Battle of Maguaga, fourteen miles below Detroit, by a superior force of British, Canadians, and Indians, the American regulars captured the enemy's concealed breastworks, wounded Chief Tecumseh, and completely routed their opponents.

Before they could follow up on their success and complete the victory, the Fourth received orders from General Hull to return to Detroit. There, the Fourth found out that General Hull had surrendered his entire force to include the Fourth led by Captain Cook to Lieutenant Bullock of the 41st Regiment on 16 August 1812 at Fort Detroit, Michigan. [2] For this General Hull was tried and found guilty of "Cowardliness" and "Neglect of Duty". President Monroe, mitigating the court-martial sentence that General Hull be shot, ruled: "The rolls of the army shall no longer be debased by having upon them the name of Brigadier General Hull". The Fourth Infantry's colors, taken by the British at the surrender ordered by Hull, were kept in the Tower of London until 1889, then the colors for many years hung in the Chapel of the Royal Hospital Chelsea [3] until 1961. Along the walls of the Great Hall are replicas (the original are in the museum). [4] They are currently in the Welch Regiment Museum. [5] [6]

After remaining several months in Canada as prisoners of war, the officers and men were returned under parole to Boston and given furloughs until exchanged for British prisoners of war. Early in 1813 the exchange was effective and the regiment reassembled and recruited to strength. It fought at the second Battle of Lacolle Mills, Canada and at Plattsburgh in 1814. These actions give the 4th Infantry campaign credit for the War of 1812.

Following the end of the War of 1812, and consistent with the reduction in force of the Regular Army, the original 4th Infantry Regiment was consolidated on May–October 1815 with the 9th and 13th Infantry (both constituted 11 January 1812), the 21st Infantry (constituted 26 June 1812), the 40th Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813), and the 46th Infantry (constituted 30 March 1814) to form the 5th Infantry Regiment. Thereafter separate lineage.

In the same time period the 14th Infantry Regiment was consolidated May–October 1815 with the 18th Infantry Regiment and 20th Infantry Regiment (both constituted 11 January 1812) and the 36th Infantry Regiment and 38th Infantry Regiment (both constituted 29 January 1813) to form the modern 4th Infantry Regiment. On 21 August 1816 unspecified 4th Infantry Regiment companies were redesignated as Companies A and B, 4th Infantry Regiment. These companies would later be instrumental in the reorganization of 4th Infantry Regiment from the original organizational model, which included a headquarters element and 10 lettered companies with no battalion organization. The original Companies A and B would become Headquarters and Headquarters Company 1st and Headquarters and Headquarters Company 2nd Battalion.

Creek and Seminole Campaigns Edit

For the next twenty years, the regiment fought almost constantly with the Creek Indians in Georgia, and the Seminoles in Florida under the command of General Andrew Jackson, a future president. In constant and long hardships the regiment marched through swamps, building cantonments and raking roads to open what now is the state of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida. A letter of Gen. Lorenzo Thomas stated: "Each company built its own double block of logs and a house of one story for the officers quarters. The troops also saved the boards for flooring, and rived the pine shingles for roofs. In truth, the troops did the entire work, the quartermaster department only furnishing the few tools to work with, such as nails and other hardware. Scarcely a nail was used to secure the shingles, they being hung on the rafters with wooden pegs. The spaces between the logs were chinked with moss and clay and afterward the whole was whitewashed. All completed with scarcely any expense to the government." [7]

In December 1835, Osceola's Seminoles cut the line of communication and supply to one of the border stations, Fort King. One hundred artillerymen from Fort Brooke under Major Gardner were ordered to re-establish the contact. At the last moment, Major Gardner's bride of a few weeks fell ill. Captain and Brevet-Major Francis L. Dade of the Fourth Infantry took command for Major Gardner. Dade joined the expedition with eleven men of B Company, Fourth Infantry. The march was begun on 20 December on 28 December, forty miles short of Fort King, Major Dade's column was ambushed by Osceola. The only survivors of the attack were three badly wounded privates who reported the command had fought stubbornly from eight in the morning until five at night when, their ammunition exhausted, they were killed. Those who died or were wounded were: Francis L. Dade, Brevet Maj., Pvt. John Barnes, Pvt. Donald Campbell, Pvt. Marvin Cunningham, Pvt. John Doughty, Pvt. Cornel Donovan, Pvt. William Downes, Pvt. Enoch Yates, Pvt. Samuel Hall, Pvt. Wiley Jones, Pvt. John Massacre, suffering some casualties: Pvt. David Hill was killed at Fort Call on 21 August 1836, Pvt. David Mclaughlin and Pvt. William Walker were killed at Thonotosassa on 26 August 1836, Sgt. Levi Clendening was killed at Chrystal River on 9 February 1837, Pvt. Othiel Lutz, Pvt. John Stewart, and Pvt. Bathol Shumard were killed at Okeechobee on 25 December 1837, and Pvt. William Foster was killed at Big Cypress on 20 December 1841.

By 1842, the Fourth Infantry had caught up with the Indians and sent Osceola to a cell at Moutrie in which he would remain until his death. Hostile tribes that lived in these areas fled west of the Mississippi. The death roll of one company for one year includes casualties from the Indians, cholera, and five diagnosed types of fever. The same death roll has the entry "Intemperance" after two more soldier's names. In Orders No. 15, Western Army, 28 August 1832, General Winfield Scott states:

"In addition to the foregoing, the senior surgeon present recommends the use of flannel shirts, flannel drawers, and woolen stockings but the commanding general, who has seen much of disease, knows that it is intemperance which, in the present state of the atmosphere, generates and spreads the calamity, and that when once spread, good and temperate men are likely to take the infection. "He, therefore, peremptorily commands that every soldier or ranger who shall be found drunk or sensibly intoxicated after the publication of this order be compelled, as soon as his strength will permit, to dig a grave at a suitable burying-place, large enough for his own reception, as such grave cannot fail soon to be wanted for the drunken man himself or some drunken companion. This order is given as well to serve for the punishment of drunkenness as to spare good and temperate men the labor of digging graves for their worthless companions." [8]

Mexican–American War Edit

In 1842, the regiment was ordered to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, where after half a century of existence the regiment enjoyed for the first time the comforts of a regular post. The regiment trained at Jefferson barracks for two years when in 1844, it was ordered to the western border of Louisiana for the war with Mexico. Hostilities were precipitated by the murder of Colonel Cross and the killing of a lieutenant with a small detachment of 4th Infantry soldiers by Mexican raiders. Although this happened in April, communications were slow and it was not until September that the command sailed to Corpus Christi, Texas, where with the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 8th Infantry regiments, one artillery regiment acting as infantry, seven companies of dragoons, and four companies of light artillery formed the Army of Observation under General Zachary Taylor. The pay was seven dollars a month and flogging was the usual means of punishment. U.S. Grant, then a lieutenant in the 4th Infantry, stated in his personal memoir: "A more efficient army for its number and armament, I do not believe ever fought a battle than the one commanded by General Taylor in his first two engagements on Mexican--or Texan soil". [9]

The Army of Observation soon became the Army of Occupation. On the fields of Palo Alto, Resaca De La Palra, and at Monterey, where the regimental band of the Fourth threw away their instruments, seized a Mexican light battery, and swung it about upon their fleeing enemy. According to the official citation, the breast cord of honor given them and their successors was red, the artillery's color, to show that they were expert artillerymen as infantrymen. General Taylor had in his command leaders such as Lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant and Captain Robert E. Lee serving as a company commander of engineers. These battles had a great influence in molding the leaders of the American Civil War, which followed. [ citation needed ]

General Taylor having successfully invaded Northern Mexico moved the base of active operations to Vera Cruz on the east coast. In January 1847, the 4th Infantry was taken by sea to the port of Vera Cruz and after a siege, the city capitulated. General Scott commanding the Army at Vera Cruz ordered the advance on the capital, Mexico City, in April. On 17 April and 18th General Scott's forces moved through the mountain pass at Gerro Gordo, where General Santa Anna lost his wooden leg in a hasty retreat. The Mexican soldiers fought well and the pass was won only after desperate attacks.

Garrison duty Edit

At the finish of the war the 4th Infantry left from Vera Cruz, and reached Camp Jeff Davis, Pascagoula, Mississippi, on 23 July 1848. The regiment was ordered to proceed by sea to New York and to take station at several different points on the lakes, between Mackinac and Plattsburgh. Ordinary garrison duties were performed until June 1852.

The regiment was consolidated at Fort Columbus, New York, to board the SS Ohio and travel to Aspinwall, on the Isthmus of Panama on 5 July 1852. Their mission was to travel across the Isthmus of Panama and set up camp on the Pacific coast to protect early settlers of the Pacific Northwest. After a long journey on the overcrowded ship (1,100 officers, men and camp followers) the regiment safely reached Aspinwall on 16 July 1852. The rainy season was at its height on the Isthmus and cholera was raging. Transportation was lacking for the trip across the Isthmus of Panama, the jungles, mountains, and rivers were difficult to cross and cholera decimated the organization as well as the families who accompanied the men. The total deaths from cholera, fever, and allied diseases from the time the regiment arrived on the Isthmus to a few weeks after the arrival at Benicia on the west coast, amounted to one officer and 106 enlisted men.

On arrival on the Pacific coast, the regiment was distributed among many small posts. Vancouver Barracks, Fort Townsend, Fort Hoskins, Fort Humboldt, Fort Dalles, Fort Steilacoom, Fort Jones, Fort Boise, Fort Lane, [10] Fort Reading, [11] Fort Yamhill, Orford, Fort Walla Walla, Crook, Fort Ter-Waw, Fort Cascades, Fort Simcoe, Fort Gaston, Chehalis, Fort Yuma, and Fort Mohave were all garrisoned and many of them built by the 4th Infantry at some time between 1852 and 1861.

Major Granville O. Haller of the 4th Infantry led an expedition from Fort Dalles into central Washington, and Lieutenant William A. Slaughter also of the 4th Infantry with forty-eight men from Fort Steilacoom crossed Natchez Pass to aid Major Haller when attempts to move the Indians of Puget Sound onto reservations caused trouble between them and some white settlers. Captain Maloney of the 4th Infantry, and Captain Gilmore Hayes of the Washington Volunteers had started for Yakima via Natchez Pass when they were overtaken on 29 October 1855 by the Nisqually tribe under Chief Leschi. Lt. Slaughter and his men plus Captain Hayes' force met the Indians at the crossing of the White River, and on 4 November 1855 fought without decisive results. The following day the troops met hostiles in the difficult country between the White and Green Rivers. The troops fell back into the valleys and on 24 November 1855, Lt. Slaughter, commanding a platoon of the 4th Infantry and a company of volunteers, was attacked in his camp at Puyallup. The lieutenant moved to the present site of Auburn and here again the Indians attacked. Slaughter and two corporals of the volunteer company were killed, four other men were injured, one later dying of his wounds. For years the town, which sprang up on this site, was known as Slaughter in honor of this officer of the 4th Infantry it was later changed to Auburn.

During the hostilities many settlers had taken refuge at Fort Steilacoom, the woman and children being left there, while the men enrolled in the volunteers. Ezar Meeker, one of the settlers, paid the following tribute to First Lieutenant John Nugen of the Fourth Infantry, commanding Fort Steilacoom while Captain Maloney was in the field.

It would be a pleasure, could I but know he was alive, to even yet thank that kind and considerate gentleman, Lieutenant Nugen, for his forbearance and energetic efforts to contribute to the safety and comfort of the panic stricken citizens. It is a source of deep gratification even at so late a day to bear this testimony to his memory, if perchance he may have passed to the beyond. By improvising some temporary quarters for his forces, most of whom, however, were placed on guard duty, room was provided in the soldier's barracks for the woman and children, while the men were placed on guard with what few soldiers were left." [12]

Hostile tribes attacked Seattle on 26 January 1856, and two settlers were killed. Meanwhile, the regular forces were augmented by additional companies of the 4th Infantry from Vancouver Barracks and by three companies of the 9th Infantry. On 12 February 1856, they moved from Fort Steilacoom and were joined by Chief Patkanim with friendly Indians. This force advanced against the hostiles at Muckleshoot, losing one man and nine wounded, in a second battle on the White River overrunning the Indian encampment. Leshi retreated through Natches Pass and surrendered to Colonel. Wright, the commanding officer of the 4th Infantry, who had been conducting a vigorous campaign against the Yakima Indians and their allies, while the action in the west was occurring. By the close of the Leschi War, the 4th Infantry included in its present and past roster of officers such as Robert C. Buchanan, Christopher C. Augur, Alden, William Wallace Smith Bliss, Ulysses S. Grant, Philip Sheridan, Henry M. Judah, DeLancey Floyd-Jones, R.N. Scott, Lewis Cass Hunt, Granville O. Haller, Henry C. Hodges, Waller, David Allen Russell, Henry Prince, Benjamin Alvord, August Kautz, Robert Macfeely and George Crook. Many of these officers would later serve in the American Civil War.

In 1859, General William S. Harney ordered the occupation of San Juan Island as part of the territory of the United States. Three companies of the Fourth Infantry and one of the Ninth, under the command of Captain George Pickett, did the occupying. The British commander had under his command five men-of-war with 167 guns, and 2,000 sailors and marines. The British invited an officer of the Fourth to an official party of courtesy aboard the flagship. The American made a remark concerning a battle in the ongoing Second Italian War of Independence. It was September 1859 Magenta had been fought 4 June. The British, thus believed the Americans had more current information. With the memory of Pakenham's losses at New Orleans (in a battle fought after the war was ended) fresh in their minds, the British decided to wait. As it happened, the English commander was really the best informed man on the scene, as was proved by the subsequent arrival of General Winfield Scott with orders which vetoed General Harney's decision. The San Juan troops were quietly withdrawn, without bloodshed.

This incident in Puget Sound is called the Pig War.

Civil War Edit

In 1861 with the secession of a number of Southern states to form the new Confederate States of America, the regiment moved from its dispersed posts in the Department of the Pacific to Southern California to suppress any secessionist uprising. Charged with the supervision of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Santa Barbara Counties, on 14 August 1861, Major William Scott Ketchum made a rapid march on 26 August and encamped near San Bernardino, California, with Companies D and G, later reinforced at the beginning of September by a detachment of ninety First U.S. Dragoons and a howitzer. Except for frequent sniping at his camp, this move stifled a secessionist uprising and prevented secessionist political demonstrations during the September California gubernatorial elections in San Bernardino County. [13] [14]

In late October 1861 the regiment was relieved by California Volunteer units and marched to San Pedro harbor where they waited for the balance of the regiment to gather before being transported to Washington D.C. to become part of the garrison in defense of the capital. The regiment was organized with other Regular Army units in the Volunteer Army as the First Brigade of George Sykes's "Regular Division" of the V Corps. The regiment's first Civil War engagement was in April and May 1862 during the Siege of Yorktown. By quick action at the Battle of Gaines Mill in June 1862, the Regulars saved Wood's and Tidball's artillery batteries from capture by Confederate infantry.

It participated as a part of the Army of the Potomac in the Second Battle of Bull Run and then the subsequent Maryland Campaign. At the Battle of Antietam, the regulars held the Middle Bridge over Antietam Creek, guarding the vital passage. They advanced towards the Confederate-held town of Sharpsburg, Maryland, late in the afternoon of 17 September 1862, before being recalled to their lines.

After seeing limited action at the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862, the regiment went into winter camp and saw no further combat for months. It formed part of Joseph Hooker's rear guard at Chancellorsville. Throughout the Gettysburg Campaign, the regiment served in the Regular Division under its newly promoted commander, Romeyn B. Ayres. During the Battle of Gettysburg, it was part of the fighting on the Second Day, helping push back Confederate infantry near Devil's Den and the Wheatfield.

Heavily depleted by battle casualties, the much-reduced regiment nevertheless continued to participate in the major campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, by 1864 under the command of Ulysses S. Grant during the Overland Campaign. The remaining men participated in the battles of Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, and the Siege of Petersburg. By the time the regiment manned the breastworks around Petersburg, a lieutenant, George Randall, was in command as the senior officer still present for duty.

On 22 June 1864, with less than 150 men left, the 4th Infantry reported to City Point, Virginia, to become Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's headquarters guard. The greatly reduced regiment was present at Appomattox Courthouse for Robert E. Lee's surrender. Grant, then commanding the armies of the Union, never forgot the 4th Infantry, with which he had served as a lieutenant in Mexico and on the frontier. As recognition of its valor during the Civil War, he designated it as the guard unit during the formal surrender ceremony.

Survivors of the 4th U.S. Infantry marched in the grand review of troops in Washington D.C. in May 1865, immediately following the war.

Post–Civil War Edit

After the Civil War, the regiment returned to the West, now to Fort Laramie, Wyoming Territory in 1866. In 1867 the 4th Infantry built Fort Fetterman near present-day Douglas, Wyoming, completing it in July, garrisoning it, and making the new fort the regiment's headquarters. On 31 March 1869 the 4th Infantry was consolidated with the original 30th United States Infantry Regiment, and the resulting consolidation retained the 4th Infantry's designation. Companies A and B of each organization were carefully blended together to retain their original status.

On 9 December 1869, Private Jonathan Schewen of the regiment was killed in an Indian attack at the Horse River, in Wyoming Territory, and in 1871, a detachment of the 4th Infantry was sent to Louisville, Kentucky and split into small groups to chivvy moonshiners in Kentucky until 1872. On 4 March 1876, Sergeant Patrick Sullivan of the 4th was ambushed and murdered by outlaws at Fort Fetterman. In March 1876, Companies C, and I of the 4th Infantry accompanied Brigadier General George R. Crook's Big Horn Expedition, and on 5 March 1876, participated in the Fort Reno Skirmish near the abandoned Fort Reno, in Wyoming Territory.

In May and June 1876, Companies D, and F of the 4th Infantry Regiment were with General Crook's southern column and fought at the Battle of Prairie Dog Creek on 10 June 1876, and at the Battle of the Rosebud on 17 June 1876, where Crook ordered the five Infantry companies that were present to advance to bluffs overlooking Rosebud Creek in support of his Indian scouts. The men of Company D, 4th Infantry, under Captain Avery B. Cain, were first to reach the crest of the ridge north of the Rosebud, where they opened fire. Company F, of the 4th Infantry, and Companies C, G, and H, of the 9th United States Infantry Regiment, supported Company D's charge. The success of these five Infantry companies was critical to the outcome of the Battle of the Rosebud. Their enhanced firepower kept the Sioux and Cheyenne warriors at bay, while soldiers of the 2nd United States Cavalry Regiment, and 3rd United States Cavalry Regiment fought in support.

On 29 September 1879, Major Thomas T. Thornburgh [15] of the 4th Infantry, and 12 other soldiers were killed by Indians in the Meeker massacre at the Milk River, in Colorado.

In 1892 and 1893, the 4th Infantry under the command of Colonel Robert Hall escorted Coxey's Army through Washington and Idaho to guard the Northern Pacific Railway from Coxey's men.

Spanish–American War, Philippine–American War years Edit

In 1898, the Fourth went east and embarked from Tampa to Cuba on the steamer "Concho". Landing at Daiquiri, the regiment participated in the Battle of El Caney and the occupation of Santiago. Fever decimated the command and the campaign ended.

The Fourth returned to New York in August 1898. Quickly recruited at Fort Sheridan, the regiment sailed in January 1899 for Manila via the Suez Canal.

In March 1899 the Infantry regiments were reorganized with twelve, rather than the traditional ten, line companies. The twelve companies were organized into three four company battalions, each commanded by a major.

The Fourth Infantry, or units of it, participated in fights of La Loma church, Wariquima, Dismarinias, Imus, Puento Julien, and elsewhere in the Philippines, finally capturing Lt. General Trias, second in command to Aquinaldo. On 20 November 1899, Private John C. Wetherby, Co. L, 4th Infantry, was near Imus, Luzon, Philippines when he was wounded carrying important orders on the battlefield, unable to walk, he crawled a great distance in order to deliver his orders. Private Wetherby received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

On 2 July 1901, 2Lt Allen J. Greer of the 4th Infantry was near Majada, Laguna Province, Philippines when he charged alone an insurgent outpost with his pistol, killing one, wounding two, and capturing three insurgents with their rifles and equipment. For his actions, 2Lt. Greer received the Medal of Honor.

On 23 November 1901, 1LT. Louis J. Van Schaick, was pursuing a band of insurgents, near Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippines, and was the first to emerge from a canyon, and seeing a column of insurgents and fearing they might turn and attack his men as they emerged one by one from the canyon, galloped forward and closed with the insurgents, thereby throwing them into confusion until the arrival of others of the detachment. 1Lt. Van Schaick received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

In 1902, the regiment returned to San Francisco, having circled the globe.

The regiment returned to the Philippines for another tour from 1903 until 1906.

In October 1906 the regiment moved to Wyoming in time to stop the Ute uprising, its last campaign against hostile Indians.

In 1908, the regiment was ordered to the Philippines for a third time, remaining until 1910.

Trouble with Mexico caused the regiment to be stationed on the Texas border in 1913. On 1 January 1914 the regiment was at Galveston, Texas, as part of the 5th Brigade, 2nd Division where it had been since February 1913. [16] The regiment was in Houston for 21 April parade commemorating the Battle of San Jacinto when it received orders on 20 April to return to Galveston where it embarked on the Army transport USAT Sumner on 24 April bound for Veracruz arriving 28 April to relieve Navy occupation forces. [16] The regiment camped at Los Cocos Station, practically the same ground it had occupied in the U.S.-Mexican War of 1847, sixty-seven years before. [16] Pvt. Herman C. Moore, 4th Infantry Regiment was killed during this conflict in October 1915.

World War I Edit

In 1917, the United States entered World War I. On 1 October 1917, the Fourth was assigned to the 3rd Infantry Division. Stationed at Fort Brown, Texas, the regiment recruited and trained up to strength and on the first anniversary of the American entry into the war, left for France. The Fourth Infantry disembarked at Brest, France in 1918 and participated in the defensive actions of Aisne, Château-Thierry, Second Battle of the Marne, and in the Third Battle of the Aisne, Saint-Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne offensives under the command of Colonel Halstead Dorey. The entire regiment was decorated with the French Croix de Guerre, having lost eighty percent of its men, under constant and grueling fire during thirty days on the line the regiment was relieved by the 60th Infantry.

On 7 October 1918 near Cunel, France, PFC John L. Barkley, Co. K, 4th Infantry was stationed in an observation post half a kilometer from the German line, on his own initiative repaired a captured enemy machinegun and mounted it in a disabled French tank near his post. Shortly afterward, when the enemy launched a counterattack against American forces, PFC Barkley got into the tank, waited under the hostile barrage until the enemy line was abreast of him and then opened fire, completely breaking up the counterattack and killing and wounding a large number of the enemy. Five minutes later an enemy 77-millimeter gun opened fire on the tank pointblank. One shell struck the drive wheel of the tank, but this soldier nevertheless remained in the tank and after the barrage ceased broke up a second enemy counterattack, thereby enabling American forces to gain and hold Hill 25. PFC Barkley received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

After a rest which the organization received six hundred replacements, it was marched to a position in the Forest De Passe, and on 9 November 1918, received orders to be ready on a moments notice. The men knew they were to take part in the final drive to encircle Metz in the event the Germans did not accept terms of the proposed armistice. Preparations were being made for the departure on the morning of 11 November, when the end of the war was heralded by the French villagers. The Fourth Infantry served as part of the Army of Occupation in France, until 1919.

After returning to the United States, the Fourth Infantry was stationed at Camp Pike, Arkansas, and then moved to Camp Lewis, Washington, the site of which was part of the tribal grounds of Chief Leschi, the regiment's enemy in 1855–56. In June 1922, the regimental headquarters, headquarters and service companies and second battalion of the regiment were sent to Fort George Wright, Washington, while the other two battalions occupied Fort Missoula, Montana and Fort Lawton, Washington. On 19 February 1925 the unit was permitted to wear the red-green-red distinctive unit insignia.

Alaska defense Edit

In 1927, the Third Battalion at Fort Lawton moved to Fort Lincoln, Maryland. After maneuvers in California in 1940, the 3rd battalion was redesigned as part of the 15th Infantry. Cadre made up a new 3rd Battalion from the remainder of the regiment and the transfer of two companies of the 32nd Infantry at Chilkoot Barracks, Alaska. The 1st battalion, 4th Infantry pioneered military development of the strategic Alaskan territory. The rest of the regiment arrived at Anchorage shortly after and started clearing ground for what became Fort Richardson. It was the first organization of such size to arrive in Alaska.

The Fourth formed the nucleus for the Alaska Defense Command, to deter a Japanese invasion of Alaska. The Japanese began to build up forces on the southernmost Alaskan Islands and the Fourth's major battle of the war was the Battle of Attu, a Japanese held island. On 8 May 1943 soldiers of the Fourth climbed over the sides of their transport ships to land on Massacre Bay. Major John D. O'Reilly of Seattle, battalion commander, who was later to receive a battlefield promotion to lieutenant colonel, reported to Major General Landrem. Carrying extra rations and ammunition, the troops marched to engage the enemy less than 24 hours after landing. On Attu Island, the First Battalion fought the Japanese at altitudes of 2000 feet on snow-covered mountains. Moving north along the high west ridge of Chichagof Valley on 21 May 1943 the battalion came up against strong enemy opposition from machine gun and sniper positions. Later that day, the battalion moved along the ridge to a point where visual contact was established with other American forces that had proceeded inland from the Holtz Bay area, on the opposite side of the island.

After five straight days of strong enemy opposition, the First Battalion was pulled to the rear for rest and to prepare for their next mission. After a day's rest, the First Battalion was given the task of clearing entrenched Japanese defenders from the high peaks of Fish Hook Ridge. Covered only by mortar and machine gun fire, troops of Company A scaled steep cliffs while facing heavy enemy fire. Small groups of soldiers were clearly visible as they slowly inched their way up to the enemy held peaks. Many were wounded or killed, but the battalion on 27 May 1943 finally took a portion of a high rock on the northeast end of the ridge, giving them a commanding position overlooking the main ridge running east toward the Chichagof Valley.

The fighting continued into the night and by 1900 hours on the next day, the 4th Infantry had accomplished its mission. The Presidential Unit Citation was awarded to the 1st Battalion for its heroism during the attack on the peaks. [17] The next day, the American invasion force engaged and defeated 1,000 Japanese in a suicide counter-attack near Sarana Valley. The Fourth was given the task of combing the area of Chichagof Valley by active patrolling, hunting out and capturing or killing Japanese stragglers. This was the last engagement with the Japanese for the regiment. The Japanese had been driven from Alaska's Aleutian Islands. In the fighting the regiment lost approximately five officers and sixty enlisted men.

2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry participated in a large troop movements by air. Early on the morning of 19 June 1942 the battalion was ordered to move to Nome, Alaska, near the edge of the Arctic Circle, where unidentified planes were flying threatening an invasion. Only a small number of army transport planes were available. The situation was critical and orders required that the vanguard of the force, 20 anti-aircraft guns and their crews, be in Nome within 24 hours. All civilian air traffic in Alaska was stopped that day and every suitable airplane in the vicinity was requisitioned for the movement. The fleet of planes included Stinsons, Bellancas, and two old Ford Tri-motors. By midnight of the same day, after 39 individual trips, the anti-aircraft units had been moved to Nome and the big shuttle movement was under way. Despite weather that kept the planes on the ground part of the time, the entire force and all its equipment, with the exception of big field guns and similar heavy equipment, was transported to Nome in a period of 18 days. The movement would have been completed in a week had it not been for the unfavorable weather conditions. Cargo-carrying commercial planes coming in from China were used to supplement the air armada. The midnight sun, providing almost full 24 hours of daylight, made it possible for some of the planes to make two trips in a single day. Ammunition, rations, tents, even 37 millimeter guns and field kitchens, everything necessary to make the force self-sufficient were moved by air without one accident. Heavy weapons were brought up later by boat. The troops stepped out of the planes in Nome, equipped and ready to fight. The total flights came to 218. The troops maneuvered in weather from 20 to 35 degrees below zero. They found that none of the elaborate footgear provided by the army protected their feet as well as the native Mukluk, made by the Eskimos from deer and the hide of sealskins. The 2nd Battalion remained in Nome for a year, later moving to the Aleutians. First to Dutch Harbor then to Adak, where they experienced other types of bad weather.

The 3rd Battalion, which included two companies that were stationed at Chikoot Barracks for many years before the war, helped to establish two big bases, Fort Richardson and Ladd Field.

On 2 December 1943, the 4th returned to the Lower 48, and after consolidating the regiment at Fort Lewis, Washington, it moved on 23 January 1944 to Fort Benning, Georgia, where it was assigned to the United States Army Replacement and School Command. On 1 November 1945, the 4th Infantry was assigned to the 25th Infantry Division. The incumbent personnel and equipment were reassigned to the 4th Infantry Division, which was at Camp Butner, North Carolina, while the regimental records and accouterments were forwarded to Japan to establish a unit for occupation duty. This iteration of the 4th Infantry Regiment was inactivated on 31 January 1947, at Osaka, Japan. The records and accouterments were returned to the United States and the 4th Infantry Regiment was relieved from assignment to the 25th Division on 1 February 1947.

NATO mission Edit

The 4th was again activated on 1 October 1948 at Fort Lewis, Washington, as the 4th Regimental Combat Team. It served in this assignment for six years with, the 1st Battalion being sent to Ft. Richardson, Alaska, and participating in Operation Sweetbrier, an exercise to determine if Alaska could be defended if an attack from the Soviet Union came from over the pole. It was then was assigned as an organic element of the 71st Infantry Division on 10 October 1954. On 15 September 1956, the 4th Infantry was assigned to the 4th Regimental Combat Team for the second time in this capacity and served for nearly a year. On 1 July 1957, the colors of Company B were relieved from assignment to the 4th Regimental Combat Team, reorganized and redesigned Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 4th Infantry, and assigned as an organic element of the 3d Infantry Division with duty station at Fort Benning, Georgia. The remaining companies and a mortar battery to comprise the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry were organized for the 1st and 2d Battalions, 15th Infantry which were already stationed at Fort Benning.

On 22 July 1957, Colonel Seymore B. Satterwhite assumed command of the 2nd Battle Group, 4th Infantry and by 20 July all personnel of the battle group were thoroughly oriented on the ROCID concept. By 15 September 1957 the battle group had completed its organization under ROCID TO&E 7-11T, 1956, thus cadre training commenced in preparation for receiving 1,189 new soldiers straight from civilian life that would bring the unit to combat strength. The 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry received the first 26 men on 12 November 1957. The remainder of the men arrived shortly after, and all of the men completed their basic training in time to go on leave for Christmas. When they returned in January, training was resumed, and training of all phases was completed by 3 April 1958. On 15 February 1958, it officially was reorganized and redesignated Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 4th Infantry and assigned to the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division.

On that same date, the 1st Battle Group, 4th Infantry was assigned to the separate 2d Infantry Brigade.

Embarkation leaves were held during April, and on 13 May 1958, the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry boarded the USNS Rose for Bremerhaven, Germany. The unit arrived in Bremerhaven on 22 May 1958 and reached Bamberg on 24 May 1958.

On 2 April 1962, the 1st Battle Group, 4th Infantry was inactivated at Fort Devens, Massachusetts.

On 18 April 1963 the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry was relieved from assignment to the 3d Infantry Division and the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was redesignated and assigned to the 3d Infantry Division. On 3 June 1963, the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry was inactivated in Germany and on 5 June 1963 the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was activated. The 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry would later be activated (21 July 1969) as the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. The 3d Battle Group, 4th Infantry (Army Reserve) would become the 3d Battalion, 4th Infantry and be inactivated at Fairfield, Illinois, on 31 December 1965.

In 1965, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry joined the 3d Brigade, 3d Infantry Division in Aschaffenburg, Germany. Taking part in the many REFORGER training exercises in Germany. The battalion was named "Warrior" Battalion in 1966 to commemorate the long service by the regiment between fighting wars and later protecting Indians in Florida, the Pacific Northwest, and the Great Plains.

In May 1983, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry began to reorganize to the Division 86 concept in the Army of Excellence program by President Ronald Reagan, with the expectation of stopping a Soviet invasion of West Germany at the "Hofsburg Throat." This caused the battalion to expand to four rifle companies, an anti-armor company and a very large headquarters and headquarters company.

In May 1984, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry began to transition to the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle. The transition was completed in August 1984. In the late 1980s the government again began to reduce the armed forces and the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was listed for inactivation, which took place on 16 December 1987 and the unit was relieved from assignment to the 3d Infantry Division. However, the battalion until then known as 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry (Warrior Battalion), then stationed in Aschaffenburg Germany, was reflagged as the 4th Battalion, 7th Infantry (Fighting Fourth), and remained in place as part of the 3d Brigade, 3d Infantry Division.

In the summer of 1990, Company C moved from its Pershing II mission and provided security for Operation Steel Box/Golden Python (chemical weapons retrograde from Germany) at Miesau Army Depot. The unit deployed to secure the temporary storage area at the Miesau rail head, guarding over 100,000 toxic chemical artillery projectiles in steel shipping containers. Company C received the Army Superior Unit Award for flawless execution of this security mission. [18] In November 1990, Company C was the first of the 2nd Battalion units to move to the CMTC – Hohenfels, Germany to reactivate as Company C, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry and assume role as OPFOR.

The 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry was inactive until 2004 when it was reactivated at Fort Polk, Louisiana, as part of the 4th Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division. The 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in 2006.

The 3d Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment was reactivated on 16 October 2009 in Germany as part of the 170th Infantry Brigade [19]

Pershing Edit

2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment Edit

Reorganized and redesignated 15 February 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 4th Infantry, and assigned to the 3rd Infantry Division (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated),Battle Group relieved 18 April 1963 from assignment to the 3rd Infantry Division, Inactivated 3 June 1963 in West Germany. Redesignated 21 July 1969 as the 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry, and activated at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. On 18 September 1970 the battalion was assigned to the 56th Field Artillery Brigade headquartered in Schwäbisch Gmünd, West Germany.

Headquarters and Headquarters Company (HHC) and Company A were garrisoned at Flak Kaserne in Ludwigsburg. Company B was at Nelson Barracks in Neu Ulm and Company C was at Artillery Kaserne in Heilbronn. HHC moved to Nelson Barracks in Neu Ulm in 1971. Company A moved to Wilkins Barracks in Kornwestheim, then to Nelson Barracks in Neu Ulm in 1986. Company C moved to Wharton Barracks in Heilbronn in 1971. By 1974 HHC was at Wilkins Barracks in Kornwestheim, as was battalion headquarters.

The unit defended the missile battalions from intruding protesters of the Nationalist Green Party and other elements. The mission of the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry was to provide armed security, including patrols, of the Pershing nuclear missiles and missile storage sites Muetlangen was the Missile Storage Site, and Inneringen (Company A), Von Steuben (Company B), and Red Leg (Company C) were the 3 Combat Alert Sites (CAS). Additional duties included protecting Pershing nuclear systems during field operations and dealing with numerous anti-nuclear protests, as well as a rigorous infantry training schedule. Initially, HHC (Hurons) and Company A (Apaches or Alpha) were stationed at Wilkins Barracks in Kornwestheim, outside of Stuttgart Company B (Blackfeet) was stationed at Nelson Kaserne in Neu Ulm and, Company C (Cherokees) was stationed at Wharton Barracks and ultimately moved to Badenerhof Kaserne, both in Heilbronn. HHC and Company A were relocated to Nelson Kaserne in Neu Ulm at some point.

The 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry participated in major exercises each winter at training areas such as Baumholder, Hohenfels, Wildflecken, and Grafenwoehr. This helped to prepare the unit for encounters with Warsaw Pact military forces in the event of an assault on the missile sites. This was considered a very real possibility during the years of the Cold War. In addition each of the line companies rotated each year to Doughboy City, Berlin to train in military operations in an urban terrain (MOUT).

On 18 August 1971, soldiers from the heavy mortar platoon from battalion headquarters were being transported from Ludwigsburg to Grafenwoehr for live fire training exercises aboard a CH-47A helicopter. The helicopter crashed and exploded, killing all 38 on board, including four members of the 4th Aviation Company.

On 17 January 1986 the battalion was withdrawn from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System.

The signing of the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987), the fall of the Berlin Wall 1989, and the demise of the Soviet Union (1991) signaled the end of the Cold War and resulted in the eventual inactivation of the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry. On 15 May 1991, the 56th Field Artillery Command and all its subordinate units were inactivated.

OPFOR role Edit

On 16 November 1990, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was assigned as the Opposing Force (OPFOR) at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany. The battalion consists of three rifle companies, a tank company, a Combat Support Company, and a headquarters and headquarters company. The combat support company was disbanded in 1995 and the platoons reassigned to the HHC. In order to support the USAREUR commander's training strategy the battalion portrays a brigade tactical group or an insurgency that challenges all the battlefield operating systems of rotational units in force-on-force situations.

The battalion has trained units deploying to Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraqi, and Afghanistan during high intensity conflict rotations, and mission readiness exercises. Additionally, the battalion has deployed forces to other countries to take part in training exercises to include the training of security forces for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece.

In addition to its OPFOR mission, the battalion has the same training requirements as other infantry battalions in the army. The battalion conducts squad external evaluations, tank gunnery, antitank gunnery, training for urban operations, marksmanship, and live fire exercises.

Afghanistan Edit

In August 2004 the battalion deployed Company A to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Team Apache was awarded the Meritorious Unit Commendation (MUC) for its service as the only US force in the International Security Assistance Force from August to December 2004.

The MUC citation reads: During the period of 31 August to 12 December 2004, Company A, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry distinguished themselves while in support of the International Security Assistance Force operations led by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Afghanistan. They provided superb support to coalition forces supporting a safe and successful Afghanistan National Presidential Election. Throughout the operation the company performed as a lethal, responsive, and relevant combat force directly responsible for supporting security and stabilization forces in theater. Their ability to respond to crisis was superb. Company A, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry's efforts reflect great credit upon themselves, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United States Army.

In August 2005 the battalion deployed Company D to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Team Dragon was used as a force protection company for the newly formed Afghanistan elections. Team Dragon was awarded the Joint Meritorious Unit Commendation for its service. Most of Team Dragon returned November 2006.

During 2006, the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry formed the core of a task force that deployed to Zabol Province in eastern Afghanistan for Operation Enduring Freedom. Along with other elements of the 4th Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, 2–4 Infantry and TF Boar conducted combat operations in support of Combined Forces Command Afghanistan and the International Security Assistance Force.

Starting in July 2006 and ended in January 2011, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry relieved its sister battalion in Zabol Province, Afghanistan, as part of ISAF's assumption of responsibility for the province. As part of TF Zabul, nominally under Romanian command, 1–4 maintained a reinforced infantry company in the mountainous northern regions of the province, responsible for all combat operations in that area. The battalion rotated companies every 7 to 8 months, starting with C Company, followed in turn by B, A, and D companies. While each task force was deployed, the remaining companies of 1–4 continued their OPFOR mission in Hohenfels, Germany as well as training for their next combat mission in Afghanistan.

2–4 Infantry deployed again in late 2007 to Iraq with 4th Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, this time for 15 months as part of the "surge" strategy. Their deployment ended January 2009.

2–4 Infantry once again deployed to Afghanistan in 2010 under 4th Brigade, 10th Mountain Division in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.

As of 7 January 2011 the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry has halted all deployments to Afghanistan after Company C's return, and it now serves only as the OPFOR unit for Hohenfels, Germany.

Company C, 2-4 conducted combat operations in support of Operation Enduring Freedom XX in 3 different provinces including Logar, Wardak and Kabul. They were spread out into 7 different village stability outposts while directly supporting 7 different ODAs and 3 separate Navy SEAL teams. They completed a 9-month deployment in spring of 2014.

Operations in Germany Edit

An article in the edition of 23 February 2012 of the Stars & Stripes reported the removal of 17 officers and NCOs from 3d Squadron (Recon & Surveillance), 108th Cavalry Regiment of the 560th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade (Georgia ARNG) during a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo "following an Army investigation into allegations about harsh tactics used to initiate junior troops." The article also stated that "Because so many of the Georgian company's leaders were pulled from their positions, USAREUR recently deployed two Army platoons and a command team from the Hohenfels-based 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry to support the company, [Lieutenant General] Hertling said." [20]

An article in the edition of 27 June 2014 of the Stars & Stripes noted the inactivation of Company D, the armored element of the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment at a ceremony conducted in Hohenfels.2 Bavarian units deactivate in dual ceremonies

Operation Inherent Resolve Edit

First Battalion Edit

  • Constituted 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army as the 4th Infantry
  • Organized May–June 1808 in New England.
  • Consolidated May–October 1815 with the 9th and 13th Infantry (both constituted 11 January 1812), the 21st Infantry (constituted 26 June 1812), the 40th Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813), and the 46th Infantry (constituted 30 March 1814) to form the 5th Infantry Regiment. Thereafter separate lineage.

Second Battalion Edit

  • Constituted 11 January 1812 in the Regular Army as the 14th Infantry Regiment
  • Organized in March 1812 in Virginia (recruited from eastern and western counties), Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania.
  • Consolidated May–October 1815 with the 18th and 20th Infantry (both constituted 11 January 1812) and the 36th and 38th Infantry (both constituted 29 January 1813) to form the 4th Infantry Regiment.
  • 21 August 1816 Unspecified 4th Infantry Regiment companies redesignated as Companies A and B, 4th Infantry Regiment.
  • Consolidated in March 1869 with the 30th Infantry (see 30th Infantry Regiment below) and consolidated unit designated as the 4th Infantry Regiment as follows:
  • Assigned 1 October 1917 to the 3d Division, and reorganized as follows:
  • Regiment Stationed at the start of World War II at Fort George Wright Walsh, Washington.
  • Regiment moved to Fort Ord, California, on 22 January 1940 to join the 3rd Division.
  • Relieved 15 May 1940 from assignment to the 3d Division, and participated in World War II as a separate infantry regiment.
  • Regiment returned to Fort George Wright Walsh on 23 May 1940, and the location remained the regimental garrison while its units rotated in and out of Fort Lewis, Washington, between 1 August 1940 and 26 August 1940.
  • Regiment Deployed from the Seattle Port of Embarkation on 24 December 1940.
  • Regiment arrived at Anchorage, Alaska, on 3 January 1941, where it was assigned to the Alaska Defense Command.
  • Regiment arrived on Kodiak Island on 23 November 1942.
  • Regiment arrived on Unalaska Island on 30 November 1942.
  • Regiment posted to Adak Island on 8 December 1942.
  • Regiment Assaulted Attu Island on 11 May 1943, and participated in the Battle For Fish Hook Ridge.
  • Regiment relieved from assignment to Alaskan Defense Command, and returned to Seattle Port of Embarkation on 2 December 1943, and was stationed at Fort Lewis the same date.
  • Regiment reassigned to the US Army Replacement and School Command at Fort Benning, Georgia, on 23 January 1944, where it conducted infantry training to prepare for the expected invasion of the Japanese Home Islands late in 1944.
  • Regiment was at Fort Benning on 14 August 1945, which is when the surrender of the Japanese was announced.
  • Assigned 1 November 1945 to the 25th Infantry Division. The incumbent personnel and equipment were reassigned to the 4th Infantry Division at Camp Butner, North Carolina, while the regimental records and accoutrements were forwarded to Japan for occupation duty.
  • Inactivated 31 January 1947 in Japan
  • Relieved 1 February 1947 from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division
  • Activated 1 October 1948 at Fort Lewis, Washington, as a separate regiment.
  • Assigned 10 October 1954 to the 71st Infantry Division
  • Relieved 15 September 1956 from assignment to the 71st Infantry Division
  • Reorganized 15 February 1958 as a parent regiment under the U.S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System, and assigned as follows:
  • 1st Battle Group inactivated 2 April 1962 at Fort Devens, Massachusetts.
  • 1st Battle Group relieved from assignment to the 2d Infantry Brigade, redesignated as the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry, and assigned to the 3d Infantry Division on 18 April 1963.
  • On 3 June 1963, 2d Battle Group's personnel and equipment were reassigned to the 1st Battalion, still with 3d Infantry Division.
  • 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry activated on 5 June 1963.
  • 2d Battle Group redesignated at 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry on 21 July 1969 and activated at Fort Campbell, Kentucky.
  • Withdrawn 17 January 1986 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System
  • 1st Battalion inactivated on 16 December 1987 in Germany, and relieved from assignment to 3d Infantry Division.
  • 1st Battalion activated on 16 November 1990 in Germany.
  • 2d Battalion inactivated on 15 May 1991 in Germany.
  • 2d Battalion redesignated as 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment on 1 October 2005.

Third Battalion Edit

Re-activated on 15 July 2009, at Baumholder, Germany (assigned to the 170th Infantry Brigade Combat Team). [21] Inactivated in October 2012.

30th Infantry Regiment Edit

  • Constituted 3 June 1861 in the Regular Army as the 3d Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, with Companies A and B Constituted 3 May 1861.
  • Organized 23 December 1865 at Fort Hamilton, New York
  • Redesignated 7 December 1866 as the 30th Infantry Regiment
  • Consolidated in March 1869 with the 4th Infantry and consolidated unit designated as the 4th Infantry Regiment. Companies A and B consolidated with identically designated companies in the 4th Infantry Regiment.

Campaign participation credit Edit

  • War of 1812:
    • Mexican–American War:
      • American Civil War:
        • Indian Wars:
        1. Oregon 1856
        2. Washington 1856
        • War with Spain (Cuba):
        • Philippine–American War (Philippines):
          • World War I (France):
            • World War II:

            Decorations Edit

              (Army) for CHICHAGOF VALLEY (1st Battalion)
            • French Croix de guerre with Gilt Star, World War I for CHAMPAGNE-MARNE AISNE-MARNE , streamer embroidered 1983–1986 (2nd Battalion) [22][23] , Streamer embroidered 1990 (Company C, 2nd Battalion) [24] , Streamer embroidered OIF 07-09 (2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment)
            1. ^ ab"Special Unit Designations". United States Army Center of Military History. 26 March 2015.
            2. ^ Museum of the Welch Regiment (41st / 69th Foot) of The Royal Regiment of Wales (24th / 41st Foot) at Cardiff Castle, Cardiff, Wales.
            3. ^
            4. Godfrey, Walter H., ed. (1927). Survey of London: volume 11: Chelsea, part IV: The Royal Hospital. pp. 32–36 . Retrieved 23 July 2012 .
            5. ^For a photograph of the replica, see napoleon-series.org
            6. ^
            7. Horn, Bernd (2008). Show no Fear: Daring Actions in Canadian Military History. Dundurn. p. 164. ISBN978-1-55002-816-4 .
            8. ^
            9. Matt, Ubique (18 December 2011). "Ubique: National & Regimental Colours, 4th American Regiment of Infantry, 1812".
            10. ^
            11. Eggleston, Michael (21 March 2013). President Lincoln's Recruiter: General Lorenzo Thomas and the United States Colored Troops in the Civil War. McFarland. ISBN9781476601908 .
            12. ^
            13. "General Scott and Temperance". 5 (20). East Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sacred Heart Review. 11 April 1891. p. 12 . Retrieved 14 March 2021 .
            14. ^
            15. Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Complete. Project Gutenberg.
            16. ^
            17. "Fort Lane - FortWiki Historic U.S. and Canadian Forts". fortwiki.com.
            18. ^
            19. "Fort Reading - FortWiki Historic U.S. and Canadian Forts". fortwiki.com.
            20. ^
            21. Meeker, Ezra (1905). Pioneer Reminiscences of Puget Sound. Lowman & Hanford Stationary and Print. Company. p. 306.
            22. ^
            23. Hart, Herbert M. "Historic California Posts: Posts at San Bernardino". The California State Military Museum . Retrieved 28 May 2013 .
            24. ^
            25. "Sykes' Regulars - 2nd & 4th US Infantry". 30 January 2005. Archived from the original on 30 January 2005.
            26. ^http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/soldier/sitec3.htm
            27. ^ abc
            28. "Fourth Infantry in Vera Cruz". Army and Navy Register. Washington: Army and Navy Publishing Company. LVII (6 February 1915): 161. 1915 . Retrieved 17 February 2015 .
            29. ^
            30. "Lineage and Honors, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment". U.S. Army Center of Military History . Retrieved 18 March 2011 .
            31. ^
            32. "U.S. Army Center of Military History - Lineage and Honors Information". history.army.mil.
            33. ^
            34. "2d Battalion, 4th InfantryRegiment". history.army.mil.
            35. ^
            36. Vandiver, John (23 February 2012). "17 leaders from Guard company in Kosovo removed amid investigation of abuses". Stars and Stripes . Retrieved 29 May 2013 .
            37. ^ See webpage for 3–4 Infantry at
            38. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 July 2011 . Retrieved 14 July 2011 . CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) .
            39. ^
            40. "General Orders Number 9" (PDF) . Department of the Army. 1 April 1987. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2009 . Retrieved 13 November 2010 . Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
            41. ^
            42. "General Orders Number 30" (PDF) . Department of the Army. 1 July 1987. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2009 . Retrieved 13 November 2010 . Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
            43. ^
            44. "Archived copy" (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 September 2015 . Retrieved 7 August 2015 . CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

            Media related to 4th Infantry Regiment (United States) at Wikimedia Commons


            DECAEN, Charles-Mathieu-Isidore

            Born Caen, 13 April, 1769, died of cholera, La Barre (near Montmorency, Seine-et-Oise), 9 September, 1832
            Cannonier de 2e classe in the Corps de Cannoniers, Brest, 27 July, 1787
            Sergeant-major in the 4e Bataillon du Calvados, 14 September, 1792
            Served in the Armée du Nord and then the Armée du Rhin, 1793, notably as Kléber's sous-lieutenant provisoire adjoint, Mainz, 1 May 1793
            Distinguished himself at the combat of Saint-Michel, 3 April, 1794
            Adjudant général chef de brigade, 12 September, 1795
            Taken prisoner at Frankenthal, 12 November, 1795 (released in an exchange, 1 April, 1796, to return to his service)
            Took part in the crossing of the Rhine at Strasbourg, 23-24 June, 1796
            Fought at Appenwihr, 27 June, 1796
            Named provisional Général de brigade, 3 July, 1796
            Fought at Rastadt (5 July) and Ettlingen (9 July)
            Confirmed Général de brigade, 2 August, 1796
            Served under Desaix at Neresheim (11 August) and Biberach (2 October)
            Wounded in a fall from a horse at Emmendingen (19 October)
            Fought with the Division Ambert in the defence of Kehl, November 1796
            Stormed Sundheim, 22 November, for which he won a sabre d'honneur
            Stripped of his rank after requisitioning money from the funds of the receiver in Neustadt, 22 February, 1798
            Recalled 26 March, 1798
            Head of a brigade in the Division Souham, March, 1799
            Wounded in the leg at Stockach, 25 March, 1799
            Summoned before a council of war, 28 April, 1799, but exculpated by the Directory, 18 July, 1799
            Taken back into the army to join the 2e division of the Armée du Rhin, 9 November, 1799
            Served under Lecourbe at the combat of 16 November
            Chef of the 1re Brigade, division Souham, 25 April 1800
            Appointed provisionally Général de division by the general en chef of the Armée du Rhin, 16 May, 1800
            Joined the reserve in place of Richepance, 4 June, 1800
            Served at Hochstädt, 18 June, 1800, entered Munich 28 June
            Confirmed Général de division, 7 August, 1800
            Chief of the 3e division du centre under Moreau, 12 November, 1800
            Fought at Hohenlinden, 3 December, 1800, and at Salzburg, 14 December, 1800
            Inspecteur général d'infanterie, 8e division militaire, 24 July, 1804
            Capitaine général des établissements français in India, 18 June, 1802
            After a brief period in Pondicherry (he set sail 6 March, 1803, arrived 11 July, 1803), he came back to Ile de France (Mauritius) off the East coast of Africa, 16 August, 1803
            Wounded in the defence of the island, November 1810, capitulated to the British, 2 December, 1810
            Returned to France and appointed commander in chief (in place of Macdonald ) of the Armée de Catalonia under Suchet , 3 October, 1811
            Victor at Altafulla, Saint-Feliu and Vich, 2 November, 1811
            Comte de l'Empire, 25 February, 1813
            Served at the liberation of Tarragona, 15 August, 1813
            Recalled to France, 2 November, 1813

            Honest, perhaps a little naive (during a heated discussion between Decaen and Bonaparte on the subject of Moreau Bonaparte remarked “Vous êtes bon, vous, et vous croyez que tout le monde vous ressemble”) and not one of the First Consul's favourites, Decaen was nevertheless perceived as useful in terms of the First Consul's oriental ambitions. During his time on Mauritius, Decaen eased the situation of slaves, organised national education, introduced an adapted version of the Code Civil which became known as the Code Decaen.


            Ulysses Grant and the Civil War

            Now a civilian, Ulysses Grant was reunited with his family at White Haven, the Missouri plantation where Julia had grown up. There he made an unsuccessful attempt at farming, followed by a failed stint in a St. Louis real estate office. In 1860, the Grants moved to Galena, Illinois, where Ulysses worked in his father’s leather goods business.

            After the Civil War began in April 1861, Grant became a colonel of the 21st Illinois Volunteers. Later that summer, President Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) made Grant a brigadier general. Grant’s first major victory came in February 1862, when his troops captured Fort Donelson in Tennessee. When the Confederate general in charge of the fort asked about terms of surrender for the Battle of Fort Donelson, Grant famously replied, “No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.”

            In July 1863, Grant’s forces captured Vicksburg, Mississippi, a Confederate stronghold. Grant, who was earning a reputation as a tenacious and determined leader, was appointed lieutenant general by Lincoln on March 10, 1864 and given command of all U.S. armies. He led a series of campaigns that ultimately wore down the Confederate army and helped bring the deadliest conflict in U.S. history to a close. On April 9, 1865, Confederate General Robert Lee (1807-1870) surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia, effectively ending the Civil War.

            Five days later, on April 14, Lincoln was assassinated by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth (1838-1865) while attending a play at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. Grant and his wife had been invited to accompany the president that night but declined in order to visit family.


            Battle of Sobral

            From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

            The Battle of Sobral (13–14 October 1810) saw an Imperial French army led by Marshal André Masséna probe the Lines of Torres Vedras defended by Arthur Wellesley, Viscount Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese Army. The clash occurred during the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Sobral de Monte Agraço Municipality is located about 13 kilometres (8 mi) southeast of Torres Vedras and 33 kilometres (21 mi) north of Lisbon, Portugal.

            Jean-Andoche Junot's VIII Corps was engaged in the fighting on both days. On 13 October, the French drove back the skirmish line of Lowry Cole's 4th Infantry Division. The following day, Junot's troops seized an outpost belonging to Brent Spencer's 1st Infantry Division, but were quickly ejected from the position by a British counterattack. Masséna soon decided that Wellington's defensive lines were too strong to crack and elected to wait for reinforcements.


            2 thoughts on &ldquo The 14th Dragoons / Hussars &rdquo

            5655 LCpl William Owen was actually attached to the Royal Horse Guards when he was posted missing, presumed killed, on The 30th of October 1914. William had arrived in theatre on the 7th of October 1914 making him an old contemptible, he was killed during the retreat from Mons. In his will He left £11. 17. 6d to his father, David in Carmarthen, who also received his war gratuity. His body was never recovered, and he was officially accepted as dead on the 9th of February 1916. He is now remembered on the Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial on panel 5.


            Bank War

            The Bank War was the name given to the campaign begun by President Andrew Jackson in 1833 to destroy the Second Bank of the United States, after his reelection convinced him that his opposition to the bank had won national support. The Second Bank had been established in 1816, as a successor to the First Bank of the United States, whose charter had been permitted to expire in 1811.

            In 1832, Jackson had vetoed a bill calling for an early renewal of the Second Bank’s charter, but renewal was still possible when the charter expired in 1836 to prevent that from happening, he set out to reduce the bank’s economic power.ꂬting against the advice of congressional committees and over the opposition of several cabinet members, and after replacing two resistant secretaries of the treasury with a more amenable appointee (Roger Taney), Jackson announced that, effective October 1, 1833, federal funds would no longer be deposited in the Bank of the United States. Instead, he began placing them in various state banks by the end of 1833, twenty-three ‘pet banks’ (as they were popularly known) had been selected.

            The president of the Bank, Nicholas Biddle, anticipating Jackson’s actions, began a countermove in August 1833 he started presenting state bank notes for redemption, calling in loans, and generally contracting credit. A financial crisis, he thought, would dramatize the need for a central bank, ensuring support for charter renewal in 1836. In fact, Biddle’s campaign appears to have had less effect than either his supporters or his detractors believed at the time, but the Bank War became a matter of intense debate in Congress, in the press, and among the public. Deputations of businessmen descended on Washington, complaining about business conditions and seeking an end to the Bank War, while administration spokesmen argued that Biddle’s capacity to disrupt the economy only highlighted the dangers of a central bank. The federal deposits were not returned to the Second Bank, and its charter expired in 1836. President Jackson had won the Bank War.


            Supreme Court rules in Hernandez v. Texas, broadening civil rights laws

            The Supreme Court issues a momentous ruling that clarified the way that the American legal system handled charges of discrimination. In Hernandez v. Texas, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment applied to all racial and ethnic groups facing discrimination, effectively broadening civil rights laws to include Hispanics and all other non-whites.

            The defendant, Peter Hernandez, was a Mexican American agricultural laborer, part of the influx of such workers that had come to Texas during and after World War II. Hernandez was convicted of killing a man in cold blood in Jackson County, Texas, but his legal team, which was drawn mostly from one of the oldest Latino civil rights groups in the nation, the League of United Latin American Citizens, appealed. They pored through the records of jury selections in Jackson County, an area with a substantial Hispanic population, and found that not one of the roughly 6,000 jurors selected over the previous 25 years had a Hispanic last name. Citing the Fourteenth Amendment, which had been passed in 1868 and guaranteed equal protection under the law to all African Americans, Hernandez&aposs lawyers claimed he had been deprived of equal protection because discrimination prevented him from being tried by a jury of his peers.

            A Texas appeals court upheld Hernandez&aposs conviction, but the case went to the Supreme Court. Lawyers for the State of Texas did not deny the charge of discrimination. Instead, they argued that such discrimination was not prohibited by the Fourteenth Amendment, stating that it applied only to African Americans. Writing on behalf of himself and the other eight justices, Chief Justice Earl Warren dismissed this notion, saying, "The Fourteenth Amendment is not directed solely against discrimination due to a &apostwo-class theory&apos—that is, based upon differences between &aposwhite&apos and Negro."


            Armed conflict [ edit | edit source ]

            The Primera Junta sent military campaigns to the viceroyalty, in order to secure support to the new authorities and retain the authority held as the capital of the viceroyalty. The victories and defeats of the military conflict delimited the areas of influence of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, the new name given by Buenos Aires to the former viceroyalty. With the non-aggression pact arranged with Paraguay early on, most of the initial conflict took place at the Upper Peru at the north and the Banda Oriental at the east. On the second half of the decade, with the capture of Montevideo and the stalemate in the Upper Peru, the conflict moved to Chile, to the west. Δ]

            First Upper Peru campaign [ edit | edit source ]

            One of the first two military campaigns sent from Buenos Aires moved to Córdoba. Santiago de Liniers organized a counter-revolution, but there was no battle: all the army deserted before it. Liniers attempted to move to the north and join Nieto and Goyeneche, but Francisco Ortiz de Ocampo captured him and the other leaders of the counter-revolution. Instead of executing them as instructed, he sent them to Buenos Aires as prisoners. He was demoted as a result, and Juan José Castelli appointed head of the military campaign instead. Castelli executed the prisoners, and the army headed then to the Upper Peru. Antonio González Balcarce moved ahead, and was defeated at the battle of Cotagaita. Castelli sent him reinforcements, and got the first victory at the battle of Suipacha, which gave control of the Upper Peru. The royalist generals Vicente Nieto, Francisco de Paula Sanz and José de Córdoba y Rojas were captured and executed.

            Castelli proposed to the Junta to cross the Desaguadero River and expand the military conflict to the Viceroyalty of Peru, but his proposal was rejected. His army and Goyeneche's stationed near the frontier, while negotiating. Goyeneche advanced and defeated Castelli at the Battle of Huaqui, whose forces dispersed and left the provinces. The resistance of Cochabamba kept the royalists at the Upper Peru, preventing them from advancing to Buenos Aires. Castelli returned to the city and died of cancer during a lengthy trial of his actions. Other trialed officers would be pardoned later.

            Paraguay campaign [ edit | edit source ]

            Paraguay campaign (1810–1811): Another militia, commanded by Manuel Belgrano, made its way up the Paraná towards the Intendency of Paraguay. A first battle was fought at Campichuelo, where the Argentines claimed victory. However, they were completely overwhelmed at the subsequent battles of Paraguarí and Tacuarí. Thus, this campaign ended in failure as well from a military point of view however, some months later, inspired on the Argentine example, Paraguay broke its links with the Spanish crown and became an independent nation.

            Violent internal disagreements and the undesired outcomes of these campaigns, led to the replacement of the Junta for a triumvirate in September 1811. The new government decided to promote another campaign to the Upper Peru with a reorganized Army of the North.

            Second Upper Peru campaign [ edit | edit source ]

            Second Alto Perú campaign (1812–1813): Facing the overwhelming invasion of a royalist army led by General Pío de Tristán, Manuel Belgrano, then commander of the Northern Army, turned to scorched-earth tactics. He ordered the evacuation of the people and the burning of anything else left behind, to prevent enemy forces from getting supplies or taking prisoners from the city of San Salvador de Jujuy. This action is commonly known as the Jujuy Exodus.

            General Belgrano led the Northern Army to victory in the Battles of Tucumán and Salta, in the northwest of present-day Argentina, forcing the bulk of the royalist army to surrender their weapons. Tristán (a former fellow student with Belgrano at Salamanca University) and his men were granted amnesty and released. The cities of Tucumán and Salta have remained under the Argentine government ever since. But, then again the patriot army was defeated into the Upper Peru at the battles of Vilcapugio and Ayohuma.

            Campaigns of José de San Martín [ edit | edit source ]

            Meanwhile, the Triumvirate named a recently arrived from Spain José de San Martín Lieutenant Colonel, and ordered him to create the professional and disciplined cavalry unit Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers (Spanish language: Granaderos a caballo ). By late 1812, this same division helped a revolution that deposed the government and promoted the creation of a new Trimuvirate

            On January 31, 1813, a Spanish army company coming from Montevideo landed near the town of San Lorenzo, Santa Fe Province. The Second Triumvirate urged San Martín to stop further raids on the west bank of the Parana river. The Granaderos division met the Spanish on a field near the town's convent and made it an easy victory on February 3. After the Battle of San Lorenzo, the Triumvirate awarded San Martín the rank of General.

            Fearing a major Spanish attack, a general assembly known as Asamblea del Año XIII was summoned in Buenos Aires on February 27, 1813, to discuss future military campaigns and with provisions for a Constitution. It was decided there to dissolve the Triumvirate and to create a new unipersonal office for an effective executive action. The assembly elected Gervasio Antonio de Posadas as the first Supreme Director on January 31, 1814. Posadas decided to create a naval fleet with the funding of Juan Larrea, and appointed William Brown as Lieutenant Colonel and Chief Commander of it, on March 1, 1814. This tiny fleet engaged in combat with the Spanish ships off the Montevideo coast, this action known as the Action of 14 May 1814, and defeated the Spanish three days later. This action secured the coasts of Buenos Aires and allowed the subsequent fall of Montevideo, executed by Carlos María de Alvear. All of this meant the end of the royalist menace from the Eastern Bank of the Uruguay river.

            William Brown was awarded the rank of Admiral and Carlos María de Alvear succeeded his uncle Posadas as the Supreme Director, on January 11, 1815. However, he was resisted by the troops, so he was quickly replaced, on April 21, by Ignacio Álvarez Thomas. Álvarez Thomas appointed Alvear as General of the Northern Army, in replacement of José Rondeau, but the officiality would not recognize this and instead remained loyal to Rondeau.

              (1815): The Northern Army, unofficially commanded by José Rondeau, started another campaign, but this time without the formal authorization of Supreme Director Álvarez Thomas. Lacking official support, the army was faced with anarchy. Moreover, soon after it would lose as well the aid of the Provincial Army of Salta, commanded by Martín Miguel de Güemes. After the defeats of Venta y Media (October 21) and Sipe-Sipe (November 28), the northern territories of the Upper Peru were definitively lost. They were then reannexed by the Viceroyalty of Peru, and it later would became the modern nation of Bolivia. This unsuccessful outcome to the campaign would spread rumors in Europe that the May Revolution was over. However, the Spanish Army could not advance further south as they were successfully stopped at Salta by the Güemesguerrillas from this moment on.

            By 1815, King Ferdinand VII was restored in his throne, so an urgent decision was needed regarding independence. On July 9, 1816, an assembly of representatives from all of the Provinces (except for Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, Corrientes and the Eastern Province, which formed a Federal League) met at the Congress of Tucumán, and declared the Independence of Argentina from the Spanish Crown with provisions for a national Constitution. Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Corrientes later joined the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.

            The following year, San Martín took command of the Northern Army, to prepare a new invasion of the Upper Peru. However, he quickly resigned as he foresaw yet another defeat. Instead, he developed a new strategy to attack the Viceroyalty of Perú through the Captaincy of Chile, inspired on the writings of Sir Thomas Maitland, who was quoted as saying that the only way to defeat the Spanish at Quito and Lima was attacking Chile first. San Martín asked to became Governor of the Province of Cuyo, where he prepared the Chilean campaign. From here on, the Argentine War of Independence gets mixed with the Chilean War of Independence, as patriots from both countries joined their forces.

              (1817): Installed in the city of Mendoza, San Martín reorganized the Granaderos cavalry unit along with the Army of Cuyo and crossed the Andes Mountains to attack the Royalists in Chile at the beginning of 1817 in the Battle of Chacabuco. With the aid of Chilean patriot Bernardo O'Higgins he made a triumphant entry in the liberated city of Santiago de Chile. Argentine and Chilean armies merged in the unofficial South American Patriot Army and continued the campaign together against the Spanish division commanded by Osorio. However, their forces were surprised and very badly beaten at the Battle of Cancha Rayada on March 18, 1818. In the confusion, a false rumor spread that O'Higgins had died, and a panic seized the patriot troops, many of whom agitated for a full retreat back across the Andes to Mendoza. Crippled after his defeat at Cancha Rayada, O'Higgins delegated the command of the troops entirely to San Martín in a meeting on the plains of Maipú. Then, on April 5, 1818, San Martín inflicted a decisive defeat on Osorio in the Battle of Maipú, after which the depleted royalists retreated to Concepcion, never again to launch a major offensive against Santiago.

            This is considered to be the conclusion of the Argentine War of Independence, but battles continued by land and sea into Peru until 1824, when the last decisive battle was fought in Ayacucho. These events were part of San Martín's own campaigning with O'Higgins and Simón Bolívar, and Buenos Aires no longer recognized his authority.


            Suffrage Movement, 19th Amendment

            May 15, 1869: Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton found the National Woman Suffrage Association, which coordinated the national suffrage movement. In 1890, the group teamed with the American Woman Suffrage Association to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association.

            October 16, 1916: Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States. Located in Brownsville, Brooklyn, her clinic was deemed illegal under the 𠇌omstock Laws” forbidding birth control, and the clinic was raided on October 26, 1916. When she had to close two additional times due to legal threats, she closed the clinic and eventually founded the American Birth Control League in 1921—the precursor to today’s Planned Parenthood.

            April 2, 1917: Jeannette Rankin of Montana, a longtime activist with the National Woman Suffrage Association, is sworn in as the first woman elected to Congress as a member of the House of Representatives.

            Aug. 18, 1920: Ratification of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is completed, declaring “the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.” It is nicknamed “The Susan B. Anthony Amendment” in honor of her work on behalf of women’s suffrage.

            May 20-21, 1932: Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman, and second pilot ever (Charles Lindbergh was first) to fly solo nonstop across the Atlantic.


            Royal Guard [ edit | edit source ]

            Cavalry [ edit | edit source ]

            English Name Italian Name Formation Date Disbanded Major Nationality (other than Neapolitan) — if applicable Notes
            Regiment of Lancers Reggimento Lancieri 1 October 1814 May 1815 Formerlly the Regiment of Guards of the Corps.
            Company of Bodyguards Compagnia delle Guardie del Corpo 1 October 1814 May 1815 Formed from the old Regiment of Guards of the Corps.
            Regiment of Guards of the Corps Reggimento Guardie del Corpo 10 March 1813 1 October 1814 Formerly the Honour Guard Regiment. On 1 October 1814 was split, most of the regiment forming the new Lancer Regiment, and a small detachment forming the company of bodyguards.
            Honour Guard Regiment Reggimento Guardie d'Onore 15 February 1809 10 March 1813
            Regiment of Cuirassiers Reggimento Corazzieri 18 March 1813 May 1815
            Regiment of Cavalry Reggimento Cavalleggeri 30 July 1806 10 July 1808 French
            Squadron (later Regiment) Guard Cavalry Regiment Squadrone (poi Reggimento) Cavallegeri 6 September 1808 May 1815 Berg (German) Raised as the Regiment of Berg Lancers, later transferred to the Neapolitan Guard.
            Regiment of Hussars Reggimento Ussari 11 April 1813 May 1815 Raised from the Mounted Velites.
            Corps, later Regiment of Mounted Velites Corpor, poi Reggimento Veliti a Cavallo 22 September 1808 11 April 1813
            Company of Mounted Velites of Clary Compagnia Veliti a Cavallo Clary 22 November 1806 September 1808 Raised as an independent bodyguard for Marie Julie Clary, King Joseph Bonaparte's wife. Later merged with the Tascher Cavalry to form the Corps of Mounted Velites.
            Tascher Volunteer Cavalry Company Compagnia Cavalleggeri Volontari Tascher 19 February 1807 September 1808 Raised as an independent bodyguard for Marcelle Tascher de la Pagerie. Later merged with the Tascher Cavalry to form the Corps of Mounted Velites.
            Selected Squadron of Gendarmerie Squadrone Gendarmeria Scelta 30 September 1806 18 March 1813

            Infantry [ edit | edit source ]

            English Name Italian Name Formation Date Disbanded Major Nationality (other than Neapolitan) — if applicable Notes
            Regiment of Foot Grenadiers Reggimento di Granatieri a Piedi 11 July 1806 20 May 1815 French
            1st Regiment of Vélités [Note 1] of Foot 1° Reggimento Veliti a Piedi 15 July 1811 May 1815 Originally formed as the Vélité Hunters, converted 15 July 1811 as Foot Velites, thereby becoming the 1st Velites.
            2nd Regiment of Vélités [Note 1] of Foot 2° Reggimento Veliti a Piedi 15 July 1811 May 1815
            Regiment of Velite [Note 1] Hunters Reggimento Veliti Cacciatori 22 September 1808 15 July 1815 Originally formed as the Company of Chosen Civic Hunters in 1806, and expanded to a regiment in 1808 after their conversion. Became the 1st Regiment of Velites of Foot on 15 July 1811.
            Voltigeur Battalion [Note 2] Battaglione Volteggiatori 30 May 1806 15 July 1811 French Disbanded in 1811 following the reorganisation of the guard. Re-raised in 1814, but the lineage wasn't transfered (see 12th Line below under Infantry and Voltigeur Regiment)
            Regiment of Voltigeurs Reggimento Volteggiatori 29 September 1814 May 1815 Formed as the 12th Infantry Regiment, later converted to the Guard Voltigeurs. See 12th Infantry under "Line Infantry" for more information.
            Company of Chosen Civilian Hunters Compagnia Caccciatori Civici Scelti 1806 22 September 1808 Formed as a civilian unit, then transferred to the Guard, and finally expanded in 1808 into the Regiment of Velite Hunters.

            Supporting Arms [ edit | edit source ]

            English Name Italian Name Formation Date Disbanded Notes
            Royal Halderbiers of Naples Alabardieri Reali di Napoli
            Company, later Battalion of Veterans of the Royal Guard Compagnia, poi Battaglione Veterani della Guardia Reale 21 April 1809 May 1815
            Company, later Royal Guard Sailors Battalion Compagnia, poi Battaglione Mariani della Guardia Reale 30 September 1806 10 July 1808
            Horse Artillery of the Royal Guard Artiglieria a Cavallo della Guardia 22 September 1809 May 1815 Regiment sized
            Foot Artillery of the Royal Guard Artiglieria della Guardia Reale 30 September 1806 10 July 1809 Later expanded into two separate artillery regiments.
            Artillery Train of the Royal Guard Treno della Guardia Relae 30 September 1806 May 1815

            Cavalry of the Line [ edit | edit source ]

            During the 1813 reorganisation of the Neapolitan Army, the light cavalry were converted to line cavalry.


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