1801-Tripolitan War - History

1801-Tripolitan War - History


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

The United States fought the pirates of the Barbary coast, in a war that continued on and off for four years. The pirates demanded that tribute be paid in order to ensure safe passage for American ships. When Jefferson refused, the pirates declared war. Ultimately, the American fleet defeated the pirates.

Nine days after the Thomas Jefferson took office, his administration received a demand from the Pasha of Tripoli to increase the amount of tribute that was paid him, or else he would declare war. Jefferson's inclination, despite his party's policy of dismantling the Navy, was to respond with force. This inclination was further supported when a ship, the "George Washington," under the command of Captain William Bainbridge, was forced to convey the yearly tribute to Constantinople, after having brought it to Tripoli.

America’s first step was to send a small squadron, three frigates and a schooner, to show the American flag off the coast of Tripoli. Then, the American squadron instituted a loose blockade of Tripoli. One squadron was commanded by Commodore Dale, and was relieved by a squadron led by Commodore Richard Morris. Neither squadron did much more than show the flag. Morris was relieved, and replaced by Commodore Edward Prebble, who was on board the flag ship "Constitution”. For the first time, the squadron included shallow draft ships, which had the capacity to provide inshore bombardment.

Prebble was determined to take a more active approach than his predecessors. He made a show of force off the coast of Tangiers, and sent the "Philadelphia”, under the command of Captain Bainbridge, to blockade Tripoli. On November 1, the "Philadelphia" pursued a Tripolitan ship toward the harbor. While pursuing her, the "Philadelphia" ran aground. All attempts at refloating her failed, and her crew of 307 was forced to surrender. The Tripolitans later managed to refloat the frigate.

Prebble then faced a major dilemma: what should he do about the captured ship and its crew? He developed a plan to destroy the ship as she lay anchored in Tripoli Harbor. He had earlier captured the "Mastico”, a Tripolitan ketch. The "Mastico" was renamed the "Intrepid”, and, on February 16, 1804, Lt. Stephen Decatur led the ship straight into Tripoli Harbor. He and the crew managed to overpower the guard on the "Philadelphia”, and succeeded in setting it on fire without any casualties.

Prebble then began an intensive blockade on Tripoli, as well as successive bombardments of the harbor. Prebble was replaced with Samuel Barron, who was quite ill. Barron was in turn replaced by William Eaton, who hired a mercenary Arab army in Egypt. They crossed the desert and successfully captured the Tripolitan coastal town of Derna. The war was then brought to a negotiated end.


How World War I Fueled the Russian Revolution

World War I saw the crumbling of empires, and among those to collapse was the Russian empire of Czar Nicholas II. When Nicholas declared war against Germany and Austria-Hungary in July 1914, he was absolute ruler of a realm of nearly 150 million people that stretched from Central Europe to the Pacific and the edge of Afghanistan to the Arctic.

Less than three years later, in March 1917, after soldiers in Petrograd joined striking workers in protest against Nicholas’ rule, the czar was forced to abdicate. The following July, he and his family were herded into a cellar by Bolshevik revolutionaries and shot and stabbed to death, ending the Romanov dynasty’s three centuries of rule. Soon, amid the ruins of the Russian empire, the Soviet Union arose to become a world power.

Whether World War I was a game-changer that caused the Russian Revolution, or only hastened the inevitable collapse of an outdated monarchy unsuitable to compete in the modern world, is a question that historians continue to debate.

“Russia was more unstable, and had more serious internal dilemmas than many other great powers, and so the degree to which the shock of war resulted in chaos was correspondingly more intense,” explains Steven Miner, a history professor at Ohio University who specializes in Russia, the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. 𠇌ollapse minus war was possible, but in my view not certain. Involvement in the cataclysm of war made it nearly inevitable.”


Timeline of some historical events

DATE EVENT
30KBC (or earlier) Probable crossing of Bering Straits by Indian ancestors
61 Spinden date for the Leyden Plate, a carved jade plaque in Mexico
68 Spinden date for oldest stone monument or stela, in Mexico
217 Year of oldest Pueblo roofbeam that can be carbon-14 dated
400 Heyday of the Moundbuilders in Mississippi and Ohio valleys
725 Casa Grande, an Indian fort and large irrigation works built - Arizona
850 Norsemen defeat Irishmen, eject them from Iceland
985 Eric the Red colonizes Greenland
1000 Leif, Eric's son, builds dwelling on NE coast of Newfoundland
1000 Tiahuanaco civilization in Peru, widespread planting of potatoes, corn
1056 Beginning of the democratic Pataria movement in Milan
1100 Mayan civilization reaches it's height in Central America
1215 King John seals Magna Carta at Runnymede. But not made law until 1297
1225 Magna Carta reissued for third time in definitive form
1254 Birth of Marco Polo, explorer who will bring pasta to Italy from China
1265 First English Parliament, January 20
1297 Magna Carta confirmed by Edward I, enters English statute rolls as law
1325 Toltec empire defeated by Aztecs in Mexico
1327 Aztecs establish Mexico City
1332 Parliament divides into two houses
1347 Bubonic plague in Europe originated in India, 1332. 75 million deaths
1350 The League of Nations established at Onondaga, NY. 1st true democracy
1364 Aztecs build their capital at Tenochtitlan, Mexico
1438 Inca rule begins in Peru
1441 Portugese sailors enter slave trade with African Negroes at Cape Blanc
1451 Birth of Cristoforo Columbo dies 1506
1454 Birth of Amerigo Vespucci dies 1512
1492 Columbus departs Palos, Spain, in Santa Maria. Hopes to find gold/Indies
1494 Spain and Portugal divide New World in Treaty of Tordesillas
1497 John Cabot makes landfall in Newfoundland, claims it for England
1498 Cabots explore as far south as Hatteras claim continent for England
1499 Ojeda explores Venezuelan coastline
1500 Fernandes explores Labrador
1500 Pedro Alvarez Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal
1501 Gaspar Corte-Real kidnaps 57 Indians in Newfoundland
1501 Rodrigo de Bastidas explores Central American coast & Caribbean
1507 Lands of the New World named for Amerigo Vespucci by Waldseemuller
1510 Spain begins settlements in Jamaica two years later in Cuba
1512 Juan Ponce de Leon names discovery after Easter Sunday Pascua Florida
1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa names large body of water as "Pacific"
1519 Hernando Cortes begins assault on Mexico, defeats the Aztecs
1519 Cortes brings Arabian horses to Americas from Spain
1519 Domenico de Pineda explores Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Vera Cruz
1520 Magellan navigates through the straits from Atlantic to Pacific
1521 Martin Luther excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church, Jan 3
1521 Guam, where America's day begins, explored by Magellan
1524 Giovanni da Verrazano explores Hudson River and New York harbor waters
1526 Spanish attempt colonization of Cape Fear it lasts only a few months
1528 Panfilo de Narvaez invades Florida from Cuba, wars with Indians
1531 Spain invades Peru end of Inca civilization
1534 Jacques Cartier explores coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland
1535 Jacques Cartier explores St. Lawrence River, trades with Huron Indians
1536 Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aries
1536 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca reaches Culiacan after roaming all over south
1538 Bogota settled by Quesada
1539 Hernando de Soto leaves Havana to find Seven Cities finds Indian war
1539 First printing press set up in the New World - at Mexico City
1540 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado treks north from Mexico to Zuni territory
1540 Coronado's troops discover the Grand Canyon
1541 Hernando de Soto explores Mississipi River valley and Gulf Coast
1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrilho explores in area of San Diego for Spain
1544 Sebastian Cabot publishes map of the world with remarkable detail
1555 First tobacco taken from America to Spain
1555 Rio de Janeiro colony established by the French
1558 Reign of Elizabeth I begins ends in 1603
1562 French establish trading post in South Carolina, erect monument in FL
1562 John Hawkins begins slave trade between Guinea and West Indies
1564 French Huguenots try to start colony at Jacksonville are killed by Spain
1564 French found Fort Caroline, FL. First European colony on the mainland
1565 Spanish attack Fort Caroline, and find St. Augustine in the process
1572 Francis Drake attacks Spanish harbors in the Americas
1576 Martin Frobisher puts his name on Frobisher's Bay, Canada
1577 Sir Francis Drake begins explorations on west coast of North America
1581 Franciscan friars begin missionary work in "New Mexico"
1584 Walter Raleigh knighted by Virgin Queen for naming new colony for her
1585 English attempt colony at Roanoke Island, NC, but have Indian trouble
1586 Potatoes from Columbia introduced to England by Herriot
1587 New colony established at Pamlico Sound. It disappeared within 2 yrs
1587 Virginia Dare was first child born in the colonies fate unknown
1588 English defeat Spanish armada of King Philip II
1590 Galileo describes the law of falling bodies
1592 Alleged date of Juan de Fuca discovery of inland passage
1598 Colonists landed on Sable Island
1598 Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes to quiet religious wars
1598 Don Juan de Onate claims all of New Mexico for Spain
1601 Colony of Tadoussac founded
1602 Cape Cod named by Bartholemew Gosnold, English navigator who found it
1602 Vizcaino explores west coast from Gosnold to Buzzards Bay
1603 Martin Pring explores New England coast
1605 French trading post established at Port Royal, Nova Scotia
1605 Weymouth explores New England coast
1606 First charter granted to the Virginia Company, named after Virgin Queen
1607 Captain John Smith first encounters Iroquois in Chesapeake Bay
1607 Jamestown founded. First permanent English colony in New World
1607 English colony begun at Fort St. George, on Kennebec River, Maine
1608 Samuel de Champlain founds village of Quebec
1609 Champlain makes war against the Iroquois, 1st use of guns on Indians
1609 Hendrik "Henry" Hudson explores river valley named for him
1609 East Anglia Puritans leave England for Leiden, Holland for 10 year stay
1609 Dutch establish Fort Orange, now known as Albany, NY, as fur trading post
1609 Henry Hudson explores east coast of North America for Netherlands
1609 Santa Fe, New Mexico settled
1609 Kepler describes planetary motions and laws
1610 Henry Hudson discovers Hudson's Bay
1610 Thomas West, 3rd Lord de la Warr rescues Jamestown colony from starvation
1612 England colonizes Bermuda
1612 French explorers discover Lake Huron
1613 John Rolfe, husband of Pocahontas, cross-breeds tobacco successfully
1614 Thomas Hunt kidnaps 24 Indians from Cape Cod area, sells them as slaves
1615 French under Champlain trade with local Indians on Georgian Bay
1616 Captain John Smith publishes "A Description of New England"
1616 Pocahontas visits England, poses for portrait dies there
1616 White settlers introduce small pox to New England. Many Indians die
1619 Black slavery introduced at Jamestown by Dutch traders
1619 First legislative assembly in America, in Virginia, July 30
1620 Slide rule invented by Oughtred, in England
1620 Puritan Pilgrims write Mayflower Compact, land at Plymouth Colony
1621 Pilgrims have first contact with Indian, who greets them in English!
1621 The Indian, Squanto, learned English in England after fleeing Spain
1622 Maine granted to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason
1623 Champlain's expedition trades for furs with Indians on Lake Superior
1623 Settlements begin in New Hampshire
1624 Indians barter away Manhattan for about $24.00 Dutch begin settlements
1624 Virginia becomes a royal colony
1628 English Parliament enacts Petition of Right
1629 Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions for New Netherland granted
1629 Puritans settle Boston area, call themselves The Massachusetts-Bay Co.
1630 Puritans hang John Billington, a murderer a first for the colony
1632 Mariland named for Queen Henrietta Maria by English King Charles I
1632 "Oyster War" begins between VA and MD continues today
1634 Jean Nicolet explores Lake Michigan shore and Wisconsin
1635 Roger Williams banished from Massachusetts for espousing democracy
1635 First settlements in Connecticut include Hartford and Windsor
1636 First college in the colonies, later named after Rev. John Harvard
1636 Providence Plantations founded in Rhode Island by Roger Williams
1637 Pequot War in Connecticut and Rhode Island
1638 Swedish colony, near Wilmington, DE, introduces log-cabin building
1639 The Fundamental Orders unite three communities in "Connectecotte"
1639 Harvard College sets up first printing press in colonies
1640 First English book published in colonies is Bay Psalm Book Cambridge
1641 "Body of Liberties" adopted in Massachusetts precurses Bill of Rights
1642 Pascal invents an adding machine
1642 Massachusetts School Law requires schoolmaster in towns of 50 families
1642 French develop new trading post at Montreal
1643 Invention of the barometer
1643 New England Confederation founded. These are first 4 colonies to unite
1644 First bicameral legislature formed in Massachusetts
1644 Roger Williams publishes The Bloody Tenet of Persecution
1645 First ironworks, at Saugus, MA
1648 Iroquois defeat the Hurons, drive them into Canada, north of the Lakes
1649 Charles I executed Oliver Cromwell establishes Commonwealth
1649 First Assembly in Maryland. Enacts Toleration Act, freeing religion
1651 Navigation Acts require English ships and crews for all imports
1653 Iroquois defeat the Erie Nation, extend influence into o-he-you. (Ohio)
1656 New Netherland Council passes ordinance restricting religion
1657 Rhode Island Assembly adopts freedom of religion it doesn't last
1657 John Washington jumps ship in Virginia, buys land
1658 Birth of Antoine de la Mothe, sieur de Cadillac he dies in 1730
1661 William Penn deceives Delaware Indians, effectively steals Pennsylvania
1663 John Eliot translates Bible into an Indian tongue
1664 Dutch give up control of New Amsterdam
1665 Duke's Law established by Duke of York, who renames area for himself
1668 Sault Ste. Marie established by French missionaries
1669 Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle explores Ohio River valley
1669 Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina inaugurated
1670 Newton gives the world The Calculus
1670 Grant from Charles II leads to settlement of Charleston, SC
1670 Hudson's Bay Company founded to compete with French fur traders
1673 Iroquois drive Mosopelea Indians from Southwestern Ohio
1673 Marquette and Joliet explore northern parts of Mississippi valley
1675 Indian "King Phillip" begins retaliatory war against white invaders
1676 Bacon's Rebellion wages vigilante war in Virginia
1676 First formally declared "Day of Thanksgiving" June 20, Charlestown, MA
1679 Settlements in what is now New Hampshire proclaimed a royal colony
1679 Habeas Corpus Amendment Act in England
1680 Pueblo Indians get horses from Spanish first Plains Indians to do so
1681 Province of Pennsylvania (Penn's Woodlands) chartered
1682 Philadelphia founded. Penn publishes Frame of Government
1682 LaSalle explores Mississippi River, claims river valley for France
1684 Charles II annuls 1629 charter of Massachusetts colony
1684 Cotton Mather coins the term "Americans" for colonists
1684 A patent is granted for the thimble
1685 Louis XIV cancels Edict of Nantes, thousands flee to the colonies
1688 First written protest against slavery, by Mennonites in Germantown, PA
1688 The Glorious Revolution establishes Parliamentary supremacy
1689 English Parliament enacts Bill of Rights, provides religious freedom
1689 Pensacola founded (again). (Spanish had tried there in 1559)
1690 First newspaper banned in the colonies is Publick Occurences, in Boston
1691 Plymouth becomes part of royal colony of Massachusetts
1692 Witch hunts in Salem, MA 19 die
1693 William and Mary becomes second college in the colonies, Feb 6
1693 Champagne is invented by Dom Perignon, August 4
1695 Freedom of the press comes to England. Censorship abolished
1696 Habeas Corpus Act suspended in England
1696 Board of Trade takes over administration of the colonies
1697 Penn proposes a Plan of Union for the English Colonies in America
1699 Woolens Act.
1699 Cahokia and Biloxi founded
1701 Cadillac establishes new trading post call it "Ponchartrain" on de Troit
1701 Elihu Yale donates 800 Pounds to the third college in the colonies
1701 Delaware gets government separate from Pennsylvania
1702 East Jersey and West Jersey unite to form royal province of New Jersey
1702 Queen Anne begins reign dies 1714. Annapolis is named for her
1703 Benjamin Franklin born in Boston
1704 First organ built in the colonies, in Philadelphia
1707 Scotland and England join to become Great Britain
1709 First Copyright Act, in Britain
1711 War with Tuscarora Indians in Carolinas, they head north
1712 North Carolina gets own governor, separates from South Carolina
1713 Treaty of Utrecht French Acadians (Cajuns) driven from Nova Scotia to LA
1714 Shawnee establish themselves in western Ohio, driven there from MD
1715 Tuscarora Indians join League of Five Nations, making it Six Nations
1716 First theater in the colonies is at Williamsburg
1717 Mother Goose appears in print, in Boston
1718 New Orleans founded by Le Page du Pratz, for Bienville
1720 Birth of Ottawa Indian war chief Pontiac, near Detroit
1720 First settlements in Vermont
1721 Dr. Zabdiel Boylston imports smallpox vaccine, in Boston
1723 Benjamin Franklin leaves Boston for Philadelphia
1727 First British fort on Great Lakes is Fort Oswego, NY
1728 Vitus J. Bering, a Dane, explores strait which now bears his name
1728 First American steel made in Hartford, CT
1732 Benjamin Franklin begins to publish Poor Richard's Almanac
1732 George Washington born in Virginia on February 22 dies in 1799
1732 Hat Act forbade manufacture in colonies of hats made with local fur
1732 First stagecoach route connects Burlington to Perth Amboy, NJ
1733 Sugar Act, aka Molasses Act, a revenue enhancement scheme for Britain
1733 Georgia becomes 13th colony founded by James Oglethorpe
1734 Hamilton defends Zenger in freedom of the press landmark case
1735 John Adams, 2nd President, born October 30 dies July 4, 1826
1736 Patrick Henry born May 29
1736 Franklin begins Fire Department in Philadelphia
1737 John Hancock born January 23
1738 The Great Awakening in full swing reshaping religious policies everywhere
1738 British traders begin working shores of Lake Erie, compete with French
1738 Future King George III born. Declaration of Independence mentions him
1739 In North Carolina, there is large insurrection by blacks
1739 War of Jenkin's Ear begins
1740 English Parliament allows naturalization of colonists after 7 years
1740 Invention of the Franklin stove, his most famous invention
1740 Philadelphia is largest city in America. Population 13,000
1741 Vitus Bering claims Alaska for his (now) homeland Russia
1743 Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President, born April 13 dies July 4, 1826
1743 American Philosophical Society founded by Benjamin Franklin
1744 King George's War begins. France joins war effort against England
1746 College of New Jersey, now called Princeton Univ., founded
1747 New York State Bar Association is first in this continent
1748 "Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep" appears in New England Primer
1748 Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle ends King George's War
1749 England recognizes slavery and plantation system in the south
1749 George Washington becomes land surveyor at age 17, for an Ohio company
1749 Halifax, Nova Scotia founded
1750 Cumberland Gap discovered, named by Thomas Walker. Westward ho begins
1750 First American coal mine opens in Virginia
1750 Iron Act encourages colonial pig iron, forbids colonial steel tools
1751 James Madison, father of our Constitution & 4th President, born. d.1836
1751 Liberty Bell ordered from England. 50th anniversary Charter of Privs
1752 Benjamin Franklin goes out to "fly a kite". A shocking experience!
1752 Franklin invents the lightning rod based on his electrical experiments
1752 First general hospital opens in Philadelphia
1753 George Washington explores western Pa delivers ultimatum to French
1754 Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of Union remarks on Iroquoian League
1754 French and Indian War begins ends formally in 1763 in Treaty of Paris
1754 King's College, now Columbia University, founded
1754 Major Washington loses battle of Fort Necessity
1755 Braddock's defeat at Pittsburgh Washington makes Lt Colonel
1755 Irish immigrant, Jackson, born at sea, will become 7th President
1757 Franklin goes to London for 17 year mission for the colonies
1757 D. P. Custis dies, leaves his "The White House" plantation to wife Martha
1758 James Monroe, 5th President, born in Virginia dies in 1831
1759 George Washington weds Martha Custis, honeymoons at The White House
1759 General Wolfe v. Marquis de Montcalm on Plains of Abraham both die
1760 Final subjugation of Canada by England
1760 George III becomes King of England. Colonial population 1.6 million
1761 Writs of Assistance case tried in Boston
1762 Benjamin Franklin re-designs the harmonica, makes it a musical instrument
1762 Spain acquires Louisiana from France
1763 Pontiac begins seige of Detroit, now a British fort incites other wars
1763 French and Indian War ends with Treaty of Paris signed Sept 3
1763 Treaty of Paris important because borders of United States established
1763 Also in Treaty of Paris, England gains Canada and French land east of MS
1763 Vigilantes known as Paxton Boys massacre peaceful Conestoga village
1763 John Jacob Astor born in Waldorf, Germany
1764 Mozart writes his first symphony, at age eight
1764 Saint Louis founded
1764 Molasses Act modified to produce revenue, in concert with Revenue Act
1764 Revenue Act. Taxation without representation introduced in Boston
1764 Committee of Correspondence formed in Boston
1765 Britain tries to raise funds with The Stamp Act Bostonians riot
1765 Stamp Act Congress meets in Albany, NY first inter-colony Congress
1765 Quartering Act requires housing British troops in private homes
1765 Non-importation agreements arranged in principal colonies
1766 Stamp Act repealed by England in response to Colonial boycotts
1766 Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon draw the line at MD & PA border
1767 John Quincy Adams, 6th President, born July 11 dies 1848
1767 Daniel Boone crosses Appalachians, keeps heading west
1767 Townshend Duties pile it on higher and deeper, create Customs Office
1768 Colonies circulate letter complaining of taxation Assemblies dissolved
1768 Birth of Tecumseh, near Dayton, OH
1768 New York Chamber of Commerce established
1768 British troops begin occupation of Boston
1769 David Rittenhouse begins astronomy studies
1769 Pontiac murdered by another Indian, near St. Louis
1770 Francisco de Ortega names discovery on west coast for his patron saint
1770 Ludwig van Beethoven born dies in 1827
1770 Boston Massacre. Five dead, six wounded on March 5
1770 Townshend Acts repealed, except for that on tea
1771 Battle of Alamance fought in North Carolina
1772 Samuel Adams at Boston Town Hall Meeting publishes list of rights
1772 Customs schooner "Gaspee" burned off Namquit Point in Rhode Island
1772 John Sevier organizes independent republic of Watauga in Tennessee
1773 To save nearly bankrupt East India Company, Parliament tries a Tea Act
1773 Boston Tea Party. 342 chests of tea go into the drink December 16
1773 Wm. H. Harrison, 9th President, born Dec 5 in VA, moves to OH d. 1841
1773 Perez at Nootka Sound, on Vancouver Island as we now know it
1774 Birth of John Chapman, to be known as Johnny Appleseed dies 1845
1774 Intolerable Acts include the Coercive Acts
1774 British close the port of Boston in retaliation for tea party
1774 Virginia Conventions begin. Lead to First Continental Congress
1774 First Continental Congress convenes, in Philadelphia, Sept 5
1774 Declaration and Resolves of First Continental Congress Oct 14
1774 The Quebec Act nullifies all colonial rights west of Ohio River
1775 Of the 3,500 pysicians in the colonies, only 400 are MD by degree
1775 Patrick Henry says "Give me liberty or give me death!"
1775 Fights at Lexington and Concord follow "the 18th of April, in '75"
1775 Battle of Breed's Hill mistakenly named after nearby Bunker Hill
1775 Postal system created. Benjamin Franklin is first Director
1775 Second Continental Congress, again in Philadelphia
1775 Washington accepts promotion to General & Commander In Chief June 16
1775 Declaration on Taking Up of Arms issued by Continental Congress, July 6
1775 Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, declares Martial Law November 7
1775 Virginians defeat British at Great Bridge British bombard Norfolk
1776 General Court of Massachusetts fires Governor, requests he leave
1776 Common Sense written by Thomas Paine
1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights on June 12 written by George Mason
1776 Virginia State Constitution adopted June 29, will be model for all states
1776 Declaration of Independence drafted by Tom Jefferson, with John Adams
1776 Nathan Hale regrets having "but one life to lose", September 22
1776 Christmas present for Washington at Trenton: 918 German prisoners
1777 General Gates defeats General Burgoyne at Saratoga, NY
1777 Congress adopts the American flag with thirteen stars and stripes
1777 Washington's Continental Army winters at Valley Forge
1778 France declares war on England, becomes ally of America
1778 Englishman Capt. James Cook explores west coast of North America
1779 Captain Cook explores Sandwich Islands until Hawaiians murder him
1779 British surrender to Americans at Vincennes
1779 John Paul Jones, in Bon Homme Richard, defeats Pearson, in Serapis
1780 Death of John Logan, Cayuga Indian Chief. Who will mourn for Logan?
1780 Benedict Arnold attempts to betray West Point
1781 Articles of Confederation go into effect were drafted in 1777
1781 Cornwallis surrenders to Washington and the allies at Yorktown, VA
1782 Ninety-six Moravian Christian Indians massacred at Gnaddenhutton, OH
1782 First U. S. President born in "The United States" is Van Buren, Dec 5
1783 First daily newspaper is Pennsylvania Evening Post
1784 Benjamin Franklin invents bifocals
1784 Treaty of Ft. Stanwix Iroquois cede rights north and west of Ohio R.
1784 Taylor, 12th President, born dies 1850
1786 Shays's Rebellion in Massachusetts forcibly closes court systems
1786 Annapolis Convention concludes September 14, suggests Phila convention
1787 Constitutional Convention opens May 25 concludes business Sept 17
1787 Northwest Ordinance adopted July 13 by Continental Congress
1787 United States Constitution framed, sent to Congress and states
1787 Federalist Papers begin publication in newspapers
1788 New Hampshire is 9th state to ratify Constitution. It is now the law
1788 First settlement in Ohio is Marietta, named for Marie Antoinette
1789 Mackenzie reaches Arctic Ocean via Mackenzie River in W. Canada
1789 French Revolution. Bastille falls Jul 14. Declaration of Rights Aug 26th
1789 George Washington & John Adams elected as first President & VP
1789 The Judiciary Act specifies numbers of Federal courts and judges
1789 Mutiny on the H.M.S. Bounty survivors establish Pitcairn Is. colony
1790 Tyler, 10th President, born dies 1862
1790 Death of Benjamin Franklin April 17
1790 First national census finds 3,929,214 persons eligible to be counted
1790 Supreme Court meets for the first time John Jay is Chief Justice
1791 John Carroll of Baltimore made first Roman Catholic Bishop in U.S.A.
1791 Federal capital to be established in swamplands on the Potomac
1791 First ten Amendments are Bill of Rights that go into effect this year
1791 NWT Governor Arthur St. Clair soundly defeated by Indians near Ft. Wayne
1792 Captain Robert Gray names newly found river for his ship, Columbia
1792 Congress names the Dollar as our unit of currency proposer: Jefferson
1792 Post Office established by Congress as a separate entity
1792 New York Stock Exchange organized
1792 Political parties formed Republicans (to be Democrats) & Federalists
1793 Cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney
1793 General Anthony Wayne begins campaign against Indians in SW Ohio
1793 John Hancock dies October 8
1793 War between England and France. U.S.A. declares neutrality
1793 Mackenzie reaches Pacific via Fraser River in western Canada
1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers, near Toledo, OH. General Wayne v. Indians
1794 Jay's Treaty requires withdrawal of British troops from U.S.A.
1794 Whiskey Rebellion over excise tax in western Pennsylvania
1795 11th Amendment limits some Federal Judicial power somewhat
1795 Pinckney's Treaty with Spain opens navigation on Mississippi River
1795 Treaty of Greenville, OH opens up much of Ohio to settlement by whites
1795 Washington poses for Stuart's portrait, which is now on our dollar bill
1795 Polk, 11th President, born dies 1849
1796 Washington retires, gives Farewell Address to the nation
1796 John Adams President, Tom Jefferson Vice President, 71-68 vote margin
1796 Moses Cleaveland reaches mouth of Cuyahoga River on July 22
1796 E Pluribus Unum: "Out of Many, One" added to American coins
1798 Alien and Sedition Acts. Soon to be repealed
1798 Department of the Navy established after 4 years of having a Navy
1798 Washington comes out of retirement to be Commander In Chief of Army
1798 XYZ Affair, so named after three anonymous French trouble makers
1799 French Revolution ends. Napolean becomes ruler of France
1799 Patrick Henry dies June 6
1799 George Washington dies in Mount Vernon December 14, from quinsy
1800 House elects President Jefferson after electoral college tie with Burr
1800 Spain returns Louisiana to France
1800 Congress establishes Library of Congress
1800 Fillmore, 13th President, born dies 1874
1801 John Marshall appointed as Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court
1801 First stone building in Northwest Territory is Ohio capitol, Chillicothe
1801 Tripolitan War begins ends in 1805 with USMC on the shores of Tripoli
1802 Treaty of Amiens, in March
1803 Louisiana Purchased April 30. Lewis & Clark to begin exploration
1803 Ohio enters the Union. Paperwork completed 1953
1803 Atomic theory first published
1804 Ohio University at Athens is first institute of higher learning in NWT
1804 12th Amendment changes Presidential election rules
1804 Osceola born in Tallassee village in Alabama will lead 2nd Seminole War
1804 Vice President Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton in duel July 11
1804 Pierce, 14th President, born dies 1869
1805 Lewis & Clark discover mouth of Columbia River, just in time, on Nov 7
1807 Robert Fulton, in "Clermont", steams up Hudson River to Albany, Aug 17
1807 Congress outlaws importing slaves from Africa, March 2
1807 Treaty of Detroit Wyandot Indians lose most of their real estate
1807 Embargo Act, Dec 22, forbids American ships to leave American waters
1808 Andrew Johnson, 17th President, born dies 1875
1808 Slave importation outlawed. Yet, another 1/4 million brought in by 1860
1809 Abraham Lincoln, 16th President, born in Kentucky February 12 dies 1865
1809 Non-Intercourse Act, Mar 1, repeals the Embargo Act, which didn't work
1810 Census counts 7,239,881 persons in United States
1811 Madison allows 20-year charter of Bank of the United States to lapse
1811 Wm. H. Harrison fights Indians at Tippecanoe, near Indianapolis, Nov 7
1811 New Madrid, MO earthquake Dec 16 forecast months before by Tecumseh
1812 War declared on England June 18, days after England repealed the cause
1812 John O'Mic hanged on Cleveland Public Square for killing 2 fur trappers
1812 Russians build Fort Rossiia (Ross) 90 miles north of San Francisco
1813 Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry "meets" British in Lake Erie Sept 10
1813 Tecumseh defeated in battle near Detroit, in Thames, Ontario
1814 City of Washington captured and burned by British, August 24
1814 Francis Scott Key observes flag over Fort McHenry at Baltimore, Sept 14
1814 Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812 on December 24, but fighting goes on
1815 Andrew Jackson defeats British at New Orleans Jan 8, after war ends
1815 USS Constitution defeats two British ships off African coast 20 Feb
1815 Napolean meets his "Waterloo" on June 18
1815 Village of Cleaveland officially incorporated in Ohio
1816 Capitol of Ohio moves to Columbus
1816 Second Bank of the United States chartered, Apr 10
1817 Work begins on Erie Canal
1817 First American school for the deaf, Hartford, CT, Apr 14
1817 Secretary of State Rush and British Minister Bagot agree on Great Lakes
1818 Congress fixes stripes in flag at 13 to honor original colonies, Apr 4
1818 Anglo-American Convention fixes 49th parallel as border with Canada
1819 SS Savanah makes transatlantic crossing under steam propulsion, a first
1819 Florida ceded by Spain to the United States, Feb 22
1819 Treaty of Saginaw Indians give up one sixth of Michigan
1820 Missouri Compromise forbids slavery above 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude
1820 Federalist Party dissolves without opposition, Jefferson Dems disband
1822 Grant, 18th President, born in Ohio dies 1885
1822 Hayes, 19th President, born in Ohio dies 1893
1823 Monroe Doctrine given to Congress December 2
1824 House of Representatives elects John Q. Adams president
1825 Erie Canal completed
1826 Jefferson, then Adams, die on 50th anniversary of Declaration, July 4
1827 Ohio Canal opened for business
1828 Noah Webster publishes "American Dictionary of English Language", Apr 14
1828 George Worthington Co. founded in village of Cleaveland
1828 Baltimore & Ohio railroad, the first designed for passengers & freight
1829 Arthur, 21st President, born dies 1886
1829 Estate of James Smithson funds Smithsonian Institution
1831 Samuel F. Smith writes "My Country, 'tis of Thee"
1831 Nat Turner leads slave revolt at Southhampton
1831 Garfield, 20th President (and 3rd in a row from Ohio), born dies 1881
1832 Abe Lincoln enlists in Illinois militia to help fight Sauk & Fox Indians
1832 Jackson vetoes rechartering of 2nd Bank, causes birth of Whig Party
1832 Jackson supporters counter with rebirth of Jefferson Democratic Party
1833 Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President, born dies 1901
1833 First tax-supported public library, at Peterborough, NH, Apr 9
1833 Oberlin College, in Ohio, is first coed college in U.S.A.
1833 City of Cleveland buys its first fire engine for $285
1834 Death of Lafayette, Revolutionary War hero on two continents
1834 Charles Babbage demonstrates "analytic engine", a computer
1835 U.S.A. becomes debt free (briefly) for only time in history
1836 The Alamo. 6000 Mexicans defeat 190 Americans in 12 days on March 6
1837 Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President, born dies 1908
1837 Sitting Bull born, dies in 1890
1837 Concord Hymn, by Emerson, commemorates battle of Concord NH in 1775
1838 Osceola dies in prison after being tricked by false white flag
1838 Trail of Tears. Thousands of Indians forced from their homes & die
1838 Black Hawk, famous Sauk warrior, dies of old age
1839 Abner Doubleday invents baseball at Cooperstown, NY
1839 Railway Express Co. founded in Boston
1840 Chief Joseph born near Wallowa, OR. Becomes great chief of Nez Perce'
1841 Wm. H. Harrison catches cold at Inauguration, dies a month later
1841 Russia sells their Fort Ross in California to John Sutter
1842 Crazy Horse born in South Dakota
1842 Plain Dealer Publishing Co. founded in Cleveland
1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty defines Canadian-U.S. frontier, Aug 9
1843 McKinley, 25th President (5th from Ohio), born dies 1901
1844 Samuel F. B. Morse opens telegraphic link between Baltimore and D.C.
1845 U. S. Naval Academy opens at Annapolis, MD
1845 Texas is annexed war with Mexico follows
1846 Large crack in Liberty Bell gets too bad to permit ringing any more
1846 Potato famine in Ireland. Many flee to America for survival
1847 Brigham Young leads his followers into Salt Lake City, UT area
1847 Thomas Alva Edison born in Milan, OH February 11 dies in 1931
1847 American troops fight their way into the Halls of Montezuma in Mexico
1848 Treaty of 1848 gets CA, NM, AZ, NV UT, parts of CO and WY for the Union
1848 Cornerstone laid for the Washington Monument
1849 There's G O L D in them thar hills! Invasion of California begins
1849 Eastern Michigan University founded.
1850 Fugitive Slave Act, Sept. 18
1851 Isaac Singer granted a patent for his sewing machine
1853 Gadsden Purchase brings some Mexican territory into U.S.A.
1853 Commodore Matthew Perry opens trade routes with Japan, July 14
1853 Cincinnati is first city to pay firefighters a salary
1854 War between Cleveland and Ohio City settled by annexation of latter
1854 Kansas - Nebraska Act. Provides springboard for Abe Lincoln
1854 Republican Party formed in Ripon, WI 28 February, under John Fremont
1854 George Boole writes on theories of logic and probabilities
1855 Soo Canal opens upper Great Lakes to commercial navigation
1855 Longfellow uses name of real Six Nation's hero Hiawatha in mythical poem
1856 Wilson, 28th President, born dies 1924
1856 Western Union Telegraph Co. established in Cleveland
1856 Cocaine extracted from cocoa leaves, but has no legitimate use (ever!)
1857 Dred Scott decision handed down by Supreme Court, March 6
1857 Transatlantic cable begins used briefly in 1858. Replaced in 1866
1857 Taft, 27th President (7th from Ohio), born dies 1930
1858 Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President, born dies 1919
1859 Abolitionist John Brown leads assault on armory at Harper's Ferry
1859 Colonel Robert E. Lee, U. S. Army, commands troops at Harpers Ferry
1859 Drake puts down first oil well in U.S.A., Titusville, PA
1860 Annie Oakley born in Darke County, Ohio, log cabin, August 13
1860 Pony Express riders leave Sacramento, CA and St. Joseph, MO on 1st ride
1860 Edwin C. Higbee opens store on Cleveland Public Square
1860 South Carolina becomes first state to secede from Union, December 20
1861 Confederate States adopt Provisional Constitution, February 8
1861 Civil War begins at Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC, April 12
1861 Ohioan Generals Grant, Sherman and Sheridan ride off to war
1861 Congress enacts first income tax August 2, on incomes more than $800
1861 U. S. Navy's first aircraft carrier launches hot air balloon Aug 3
1861 First Congressional Medals of Honor awarded, to Union Navymen
1861 First transcontinental telegraph kills need for Pony Express
1862 The Homestead Act, May 20, contributes to development in ND, SD, and OK
1862 Duel between Merrimac and Monitor March 8 CSS Merrimac withdrew
1862 Battle of Shiloh, Apr 6
1862 Ohioans LTC R. B. Hayes and Sgt Wm. McKinley saw action at Antietam
1863 The Emancipation Proclamation
1863 The Gettysburg Address dedicated to more than two score thousand dead
1864 Lincoln posed for photograph which appears on $5 bill, Feb 9
1864 "In God We Trust" put on American coins for the first time April 22
1864 Massacre of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians at Sand Creek, CO, Nov 29
1864 Lincoln proclaims last Thursday in November to be Thanksgiving Day
1865 13th amendment abolishes slavery
1865 Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox on Palm Sunday, April 9
1865 Lincoln shot by Boothe April 14, dies next day
1865 Confederate Army surrenders at Shreveport, LA Civil War ends May 26
1865 Last shot of Civil War fired by CSS Shenandoah in Bering Sea, June 22
1865 Harding, 29th President (8th from Ohio), born dies in 1923
1866 Ohio briefly adopts state motto: "Imperium in Imperio"
1866 Congress recognizes the Metric system of measurements
1866 Alfred Nobel invents something that is "dynamite"
1866 ASPCA organized, Apr 10
1866 First roller rink in the world opens at Newport, RI
1867 British North American Act creates the Dominion of Canada
1867 US buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million
1868 14th amendment prohibits voting discrimination, among other things
1868 House impeaches President Johnson. Senate acquits him by one vote
1869 Transcontinental railroad completed Ogden, UT wins the golden spike
1869 Cleveland's first professional baseball team is The Forest City's
1869 Suez Canal completed
1870 "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea", in a nuclear submarine
1870 15th Amendment gives blacks the right to vote
1870 John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil Company, in Cleveland, OH
1870 Robert E. Lee dies, October 12
1871 Dr. B. F. Goodrich opens rubber factory in Akron, OH
1871 Mrs. O'Leary's cow blamed for Chicago fire, Oct 8-11
1872 Coolidge, 30th President, born dies 1933
1872 Susan B. Anthony leads protest for women at polling place
1872 Yellowstone National Park created our first of many (but too few)
1873 Bellevue Hospital in NYC starts first school of nursing
1874 Hoover, 31st President, born dies 1964
1874 Guglielmo Marconi, radio pioneer, born April 25
1875 Gold discovered in the Sioux holy grounds, the Black Hills of SD
1875 First running of the Kentucky Derby at Churchhill Downs, May 17
1876 Custer makes his way into the history books at Little Big Horn in Montana
1876 Liberty statue presented by France, construction requires ten years
1876 Internal combustion engine invented by N. A. Otto (pronounced "auto")
1876 Does the name "Alexander Graham" ring a Bell? Telephone invented
1877 Crazy Horse dies in a Nebraska prison from stab wounds
1878 First electric street lighting anywhere is on Cleveland Public Square
1878 First commercial telephone exchange is at New Haven, CT, Jan 28
1879 John D. Rockefeller organizes the Standard Oil Trust
1879 Charles McGill is last felon publicly hanged on Cleveland Public Square
1880 Case School of Applied Science established in Cleveland
1881 Booker T. Washington opens Tuskegee Institute for blacks
1881 Garfield assassinated. Arthur moves into the presidency
1882 F. D. Roosevelt, 32nd President, born dies 1945
1883 Indonesian volcano Krakatau blows it's top 35,000 die
1883 Brooklyn Bridge completed May 24. No, it is not for sale!
1884 Truman, 33rd President, born dies 1972
1884 First "World Series" played
1886 Geronimo surrenders all Apache nations, September 4
1887 Susan Salter, Argonia, KS, is first woman mayor in U.S.A., Apr 4
1888 Electric streetcars introduced, in Richmond, VA
1889 Indian Territory becomes Oklahoma Territory, thrown open to landrushers
1889 First American skyscraper soars into Chicago skies, 10 stories
1889 Jefferson Davis dies at age 81 on December 6
1890 Eisenhower, 34th President, born dies 1969
1890 First skyscraper in New York City is the World Building, 26 stories
1890 Massacre at Wounded Knee, SD, December 29
1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act, July 2
1890 Leonidas Merritt discovers iron ore lode at Mesabi, MN
1892 First bridge to span the lower Mississippi river is at Memphis
1892 Rudolf Diesel invents internal combustion engine that runs on oil
1892 Pledge of Allegiance published. Changes made in 1954
1893 "America the Beautiful" written by Katherine Lee Bates
1896 Plessy v. Ferguson establishes hated "separate but equal" provision
1898 USS Maine blown up in harbor at Havana, Cuba, February 15
1898 Spanish - American War. Teddy Roosevelt rough-rides his way into Cuba
1898 Independent republic of Hawaii annexed
1900 Boxer Rebellion against foreigners in China begins
1901 McKinley assassinated, Theodore Roosevelt moves into presidency Sept 14
1902 State of Ohio authorizes a state flag on May 9
1902 First 4-H Club anywhere is in Springfield, OH
1903 Wright brothers prove they are right for aviation, Kitty Hawk, NC Dec 17
1903 Great automobile race from New York City to Pittsburgh takes eight days
1904 Chief Joseph dies in exile in Washington state, fighting no more, forever
1904 Ohio adopts Scarlet Carnation as state flower to honor McKinley
1906 Great San Francisco earthquake April 18 kills over 500 people
1908 First Model T rolls off the Ford assembly line
1908 U.S. Governors issue Declaration on Conservation, May 15
1908 L. B. Johnson, 36th President, born dies 1973
1909 Great White Fleet of 16 battleships completes trip around the world
1909 Robert E. Peary (a white) & Matthew A. Henson (a black) reach North Pole
1909 NAACP founded by W. E. B. DuBois
1910 Boy Scouts of America founded, Feb 8
1911 First transcontinental flight takes 82 hours, over nearly 2 months
1911 Reagan, 40th President, born
1912 Girl Guides (Girl Scouts) founded March 12
1912 Garrett Morgan of Cleveland invents the gas mask
1912 Titanic hits iceberg, April 15. 1503 lives lost
1913 Harriet Tubman, heroine of underground railroad, dies buried in Ohio
1913 Nixon, 37th President, born
1913 Ford, 38th President (1st non-elected), born
1913 16th Amendment establishes income tax
1913 17th Amendment changed election rules for Senators
1914 Panama Canal completed
1914 American Radio Relay League (ARRL) founded in Newington, CT by W1AW
1914 World War I begins in Europe President Wilson declares neutrality
1915 SS Lusitania sunk May 7 1100 lives lost
1916 General John "Blackjack" Pershing chases Pancho Villa deep into Mexico
1917 After scores of U-boat incidents over last 3 years, U. S. enters WW I
1917 Kennedy, 35th President, born dies 1963
1917 Russian Revolution they enjoy brief democracy for only time in history
1917 Father Edward Flanagan founds Boy's Town, December 1
1918 The American's Creed adopted April 3
1918 Armistice ends WW I on 11th hour of 11th day of 11th month
1919 18th Amendment introduces prohibition of intoxicating liquors
1920 19th Amendment brings women the vote, Aug 26
1921 Man O' War retires to 26 years at stud
1923 Garrett Morgan of Cleveland invents traffic signals
1923 Teapot Dome scandal involves illegal lease on Navy oil reserves
1924 Carter, 39th President, born
1924 Bush, 41st President, born
1924 Congress confers citizenship on (some) Native Americans, June 15
1925 First municipal airport in the world is Hopkins, at Cleveland, OH
1925 First female as a state governor is Nellie Taylor Ross, in Wyoming
1925 John T. Scopes convicted of teaching evolution in Dayton, TN, July 24
1926 Richard E. Byrd flies over North Pole May 9
1927 Lucky Lindy lands in Paris May 21 after non-stop flight from New York
1928 Richard E. Byrd flies over South Pole November 28
1929 St. Valentine's Day massacre in Chicago rival bootleggers shoot it out
1929 Great Depression begins after bank and stock failures in October
1930 DuMont's television broadcast in NYC to private homes, August 20
1931 The National Anthem finally adopted by Congress March 3
1931 Empire State Building opens May 1
1932 20th Amendment established starting date for Presidency & Congress
1932 Welland Canal bypasses Niagara Falls for shipping
1933 First woman in Presidential Cabinet is Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins
1933 Emergency Banking Act, March 9
1933 Civilian Conservation Corps, March 31
1933 Federal Emergency Relief Act, Agriculture Adjustment Act, May 12
1933 Tennessee Valley Authority Act, May 18
1933 Farm Credit Act, June 16
1933 21st Amendment repeals prohibition amendment
1933 Ohio adopts the Cardinal as the "Official Bird"
1934 Securities and Exchange Commission created June 6
1935 Works Progress Administration approved by Congress, April 8
1935 Wagner-Connery Act establishes National Labor Relations Board, July 5
1935 Social Security Act, August 14
1937 Amelia Earhart Putnam disappears during attempt to fly around the world
1937 Adolph Hitler tells his generals of his plan to take over Europe, Nov 5
1939 Geological Surv. final report on cost of Louisiana Purchase $23.2 million
1939 After attacking other nations, Hitler starts WW II by attacking Poland
1939 Bill of Rights finally ratified by Massachusetts, Georgia & Connecticut
1941 Lend-Lease Act became law March 11
1941 Churchill & Roosvelt develop The Atlantic Charter, Aug 14 in Argentia
1941 December 7, the Day of Infamy, Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, HI
1942 Executive Order 9066 imprisons many thousands of Nisei for three years
1942 Jimmy Doolittle bombs Tokyo, flying B-25's from USS Hornet, April 18
1942 The Battle of the Coral Sea, May 7-8
1942 The Battle of Midway, June 4
1942 The Battles of Guadalcanal: ashore, August 7 at sea, Nov 12-15
1942 First self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, by Fermi, December 2
1944 Landing at Anzio Beach by the Allies, January 22
1944 D-Day at Normandy! The Longest Day begins, June 6
1944 The Battle of the Philippine Sea, June 19
1945 Marines raise the flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima, February 23
1945 First atomic bomb exploded anywhere is at Los Alamos, NM, July 16
1945 B-29 'Enola Gay' drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Aug 6
1945 Last atomic bomb then in existence dropped at Nagasaki, August 9
1945 World War II ends: first in Europe, May 7 then in Japan, Sept 2
1945 United Nations chartered in San Francisco in 1950 moves to NYC
1946 Taft-Hartley Act outlaws certain practices of trade unions
1947 Truman Doctrine opposes Communism in Greece and elsewhere, Mar 12
1947 Marshall Plan helps rebuild Europe, June 5
1947 Transistor invented at Bell Labs, in New Jersey, Dec 23
1948 Foreign Assistance Act funds the Marshall Plan, April 3
1948 Organization of American States (OAS) formed, April 30
1948 United Nations creates Republic of Israel out of Palestine
1948 Berlin airlift begins nearly a year of relief to overcome blockade
1948 Native Americans allowed to vote (finally) in New Mexico and Arizona
1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization born, April 4
1950 North Korea invades South Korea, June 25
1951 22nd Amendment limits president to two terms. 1st proposer: Jefferson
1953 Most "declared" hostilities end in Korea, 38th parallel becomes DMZ
1953 Ohio adopts the Buckeye as the "Official Tree"
1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka overturns Plessy v. Ferguson
1954 Remington Rand sells a UNIVAC system to General Motors
1955 Dr. Jonas Salk proves his vaccine against polio virus is safe
1957 Sputnik
1959 Ohio adopts new Official Motto: "With God, All Things Are Possible"
1959 St. Lawrence Seaway opens the Great Lakes to foreign shipping, Apr 25
1960 23rd Amendment granted Electoral College representation to DC
1962 Ohioan John Glenn is first U. S. astronaut to orbit earth, Feb 20
1962 Military aid begins in South Vietnam
1963 Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. announces "I Have A Dream" on August 28
1963 John F. Kennedy assassinated, Johnson moves into presidency
1964 24th Amendment killed "poll taxes"
1964 Civil Rights Act put teeth in Federal enforcement of anti-discrimination
1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Aug 24 repealed in 1970
1965 Ohio Flint adopted as the Official Gem Stone of the state
1967 25th Amendment allows President to step aside temporarily, then resume
1967 Thurgood Marshall is first black to become a justice on Supreme Court
1968 Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. murdered in Memphis
1969 Ohioan Neil Armstrong took one small step for a man, onto the moon
1971 26th amendment gives 18 year olds the vote
1972 Equal Rights Amendment proposed by Congress never ratified by states
1973 Vice President Agnew forced to resign, Ford becomes 1st non-elected VP
1973 Roe et al v. Wade decision starts bitter abortion/anti-abortion debates
1974 Nixon resigns in disgrace, Ford moves into the presidency
1975 The fall of Saigon, South Vietnam
1980 Mount St. Helens volcano erupts
1981 First female Supreme Court Justice is Sandra Day O'Connor
1984 Geraldine Ferraro is first serious female Vice Presidential candidate
1986 First true community computer system goes online in Cleveland, Ohio
1986 Rutan and Yeager took a one-tank-trip around the world
1986 Shuttle "Challenger" exploded on takeoff, 7 astronauts perished
1987 Second Community computer goes online in Youngstown, Ohio
1989 Ohio adopts new words to official State Song
1989 Cleveland Free-Net II goes on line with 1.2 Gigabytes of storage
Adds this Freedom Shrine to a long list of accomplishments
1990 More community computers in: Cincinnati, Peoria, Ill, and Medina Ohio
1990 Communist dominoes fall -- backwards! World rejoices!

Prepared by Gerald Murphy (The Cleveland Free-Net - aa300)
Distributed by the Cybercasting Services Division of the
National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN).

Permission is hereby granted to download, reprint, and/or otherwise
redistribute this file, provided appropriate point of origin
credit is given to the preparer(s) and the National Public
Telecomputing Network.

Web site link: http://history.eserver.org

Google key word : history timeline file type: txt

Prepared by Gerald Murphy (The Cleveland Free-Net - aa300)
Distributed by the Cybercasting Services Division of the
National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN).

Permission is hereby granted to download, reprint, and/or otherwise
redistribute this file, provided appropriate point of origin
credit is given to the preparer(s) and the National Public
Telecomputing Network.


Jan 1 AT&T officially divests its local Bell companies (1984)
Jan 1 Anniversary of the Triumph of the Revolution in Cuba
Jan 1 Castro expells Cuban President Batista (1959)
Jan 1 Churchill delivers his the "Iron Curtain" speech (1947)
Jan 1 Country Joe McDonald is born in El Monte, California, 1942
Jan 1 Independence Day in Haiti, Sudan
Jan 1 New Year's Day
Jan 1 Paul Revere born in Boston (1735)
Jan 1 The Epoch (Time 0 for UNIX systems), 1970 (Midnight GMT)
Jan 1 Universal Fraternity Day in Mozambique
Jan 2 Ancestry Day in Haiti
Jan 2 Isaac Asimov born in Petrovichi, Russian SFSR (now part of USSR) (1920)
Jan 2 St. Berchtold's Day in Switzerland
Jan 3 Apple Computer founded, 1977
Jan 3 New Year's Holiday in Scotland
Jan 3 Revolution Day in Upper Volta
Jan 3 Steven Stills is born in Dallas, 1945
Jan 4 George Washington Carver born in Missouri (1864)
Jan 4 Independence Day in Burma
Jan 4 Jakob Grimm born, 1785
Jan 4 Jazz great Charlie Mingus dies at 57 in Cuernavaca, Mexico, 1979
Jan 4 Martyrs Day in Zaire
Jan 4 Quadrantid meteor shower (look north)
Jan 4 Wilhelm Beer born, 1797, first astronomer to map Mars
Jan 5 -50 degrees F, Strawberry UT, 1913
Jan 5 DeWitt B. Brace born, 1859, inventor of spectrophotometer
Jan 5 Fellowship enters Moria (LOTR)
Jan 5 The FCC hears the first demonstration of FM radio, 1940
Jan 5 Twelfth night
Jan 6 Children's Day in Uruguay
Jan 6 Epiphany
Jan 6 Millard Fillmore's birthday
Jan 6 Three Kings' Day in Puerto Rico
Jan 7 Christmas in Ethiopia
Jan 7 Pioneer's Day in Liberia
Jan 8 American Telephone and Telegraph loses antitrust case (1982)
Jan 8 Battle of New Orleans
Jan 8 David Bowie (then David Robert Jones) is born in London, 1947
Jan 8 Herman Hollerith patents first data processing computer (1889)
Jan 8 Justice Dept. drops IBM suit, 1982
Jan 9 Day of the Martyrs in Panama
Jan 9 Fellowship reaches Lorien (LOTR)
Jan 9 James Patrick Page (Led Zeppelin) is born in Middlesex, England, 1945
Jan 10 Blues guitarist Howlin' Wolf dies in Chicago, 1976
Jan 10 Ethan Allen born, 1738
Jan 10 First CDC 1604 delivered to Navy, 1960
Jan 10 First meeting of United Nations General Assembly in London (1946)
Jan 10 Jim Croce is born in Phildelphia, 1943
Jan 10 Pat Benatar is born in Long Island, 1952
Jan 10 Rod Stewart is born in Glasgow, Scotland, 1945
Jan 11 Alexander Hamilton born in Nevis, British West Indies (1757?)
Jan 11 Anniversary of the Peoples Republic of Albania
Jan 11 Armed Forces Day in Liberia
Jan 11 De Hostos' Birthday in Puerto Rico
Jan 11 Prithvi Jayanti in Nepal
Jan 11 Surgeon General condemned cigarettes, 1964
Jan 11 The Whiskey-A-Go-Go opens on Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles, 1963
Jan 12 "Long" John Baldry is born in London, 1941
Jan 12 Zanzibar Revolution Day in Tanzania
Jan 13 Eric Clapton plays the "Rainbow Concert" in London, 1973
Jan 13 National Liberation Day in Togo
Jan 13 Sophie Tucker born, 1884
Jan 13 Wilhelm Wien born, 1864, Nobel prize for blackbody radiation laws
Jan 14 Albert Schweitzer born, 1875
Jan 14 Julian Calendar New Year's Day
Jan 14 The first "Be-In" is held in Golden Gate Park, 1967
Jan 15 Adults Day in Japan
Jan 15 Arbor Day in Jordan
Jan 16 Martyrs Day in Benin
Jan 16 Prohibition begins, 1920
Jan 16 Set uid bit patent issued, 1979
Jan 17 Benjamin Franklin born in Boston (1706)
Jan 17 Justice Dept. begins IBM suit, 1969
Jan 17 Led Zeppelin's first album is released, 1969
Jan 17 Passing of Gandalf (LOTR)
Jan 18 Grey whale migration, CA
Jan 18 Revolution Day in Tunisia
Jan 19 Confederate Heroes Day in Texas
Jan 19 Edgar Allan Poe born in Boston (1809)
Jan 19 Ethopian Epiphany in Ethiopia
Jan 19 Janis Joplin is born in Port Arthur, Texas, 1943
Jan 19 Nameday of Archbishop Makarios in Cyprus
Jan 19 Robert E(dward) Lee born in Stratford Estate, Virginia (1807)
Jan 20 Army Day in Mali
Jan 20 Geo. Burns born, 1898
Jan 20 National Heroes Day in Guinea-Bissau
Jan 20 St. Agnes Eve (Ah, bitter chill it was. )
Jan 20* Martin Luther King Day in New York (3rd Sunday)
Jan 21 Lenin died, 1924
Jan 21 Our Lady of Altagracia in Dominican Republic
Jan 21 Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson born in Clarksburg, VA (1824)
Jan 21* Lee-Jackson Day in Virginia (3rd Monday)
Jan 21* Robert E. Lee's Birthday in Alabama & Mississippi (3rd Monday)
Jan 22 Sam Cooke is born in Chicago, 1935
Jan 22 Sir Francis Bacon born, 1561
Jan 23 Ernst Abbe born, 1840, formulated diffraction theory
Jan 23 Feast of St. Ildefonsus
Jan 23 Humphrey Bogart born in New York City (1899)
Jan 23 John Hancock born, 1737
Jan 23 Joseph Hewes born, 1730
Jan 23 National Handwriting Day
Jan 23 Saml. Barber died, 1981
Jan 24 DG Nova introduced, 1969
Jan 24 Economic Liberation Day in Togo
Jan 24 Gold discovered in California at Sutter's Mill (1848)
Jan 24 John Belushi is born in Chicago, 1949
Jan 24 Warren Zevon is born, 1947
Jan 25 Bob Dylan plays the second "Hurricane" benefit, in the Astrodome, 1978
Jan 25 First U.S. meeting of ALGOL definition committee, 1958
Jan 25 Robert Burns born, 1759
Jan 25 Virginia Woolf born, 1882
Jan 25 W. Somerset Maugham born, 1874
Jan 26 EDVAC demonstrated, 1952
Jan 26 Republic Day in India
Jan 26 Sydney Aust. settled, 1778
Jan 27 Bobby "Blue" Bland (Robert Calvin Bland) is born in Tennessee, 1930
Jan 27 Samuel Gompers born, 1850
Jan 27 Vietnam War cease-fire signed, 1973
Jan 27 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born in Salzburg (1756)
Jan 28 First ski tow, Woodstock VT, 1914
Jan 28 Jimi Hendrix headlines Madison Square Garden, 1970
Jan 30 Australia Day in Australia
Jan 30 Franklin Delano Roosevelt born in Hyde Park, New York (1882)
Jan 30 Lightnin' Hopkins, the most-recorded blues artist ever, dies, 1982
Jan 30 Mohandas Gandhi assassinated in New Delhi by Hindu fanatic (1948)
Jan 30 Tet Offensive, 1968
Jan 31 Explorer I launched, 1958. Van Allen Belt discovered
Jan 31 Hewlett-Packard founded, 1939
Jan 31 Irving Langmuir, 1881, invented tungsten filament lamp
Jan 31 The Grateful Dead are busted in New Orleans, 1970
Feb 1 Chinese New Year Holiday (3 days) in Taiwan
Feb 1 First TV soap: Secret Storm, 1954
Feb 1 Forces lead by Khomeini take over Iran (1979)
Feb 1 RCA Victor unveils the 45 rpm record playing system, 1949
Feb 2 Candlemas
Feb 2 Graham Nash is born in Lancashire, England, 1942
Feb 3 Gertrude Stein born, 1874
Feb 3 The Day The Music Died Buddy Holly, Richie Valens, and the Big Bopper are killed in a plane crash outside Mason City, Iowa, 1959
Feb 4 Cybernet inaugurated, 1969
Feb 4 Independence Commemoration Day in Sri Lanka
Feb 5 Alex Harvey (SAHB) is born in Glasgow, Scotland, 1935
Feb 5 Constitution Day in Mexico
Feb 5 Patricia Hearst kidnapped by Symbionese Liberation Army (1974)
Feb 6 King George VI of UK dies his daughter becomes Elizabeth II (1952)
Feb 6 New Zealand Day
Feb 7 Fellowship leaves Lorien (LOTR)
Feb 7 Independence Day in Grenada
Feb 7 Steven Stills makes the first digitally recorded rock album, 1979
Feb 7 The Beatles arrive in America for the first time, 1964
Feb 8 1963 Revolution Anniversary in Iraq
Feb 8 Friedleib F. Runge born, 1795, father of paper chromatography
Feb 8 Jules Verne born in Nantes, France (1828)
Feb 9 -51 degrees F, Vanderbilt MI, 1934
Feb 9 Carole King (Carole Klein) is born in Brooklyn, 1941
Feb 9 George Hartmann born, 1489, designed astrolabes, timepieces, etc.
Feb 9 St. Maron's Day in Lebanon
Feb 10 Charles Lamb born, 1775
Feb 10 Feast of St. Paul's Shipwreck (AD 60)
Feb 10 William Allen White born, 1868
Feb 11 Last day of JOSS service at RAND Corp., 1966
Feb 11 National Foundation Day in Japan
Feb 11 Thos. Edison born, 1847
Feb 11 William Henry Fox Talbot born, 1489, photographic pioneer
Feb 12 Abraham Lincoln born, 1809
Feb 12 Charles Darwin born (1809) not created
Feb 12 Charles Darwin born in Shrewsbury, England (1809)
Feb 12 Pyidaungsa Day in Burma
Feb 12 Santa Barbara oil leak, 1969
Feb 12 The Beatles play Carnegie Hall in New York City, 1964
Feb 14 Bombing of Dresden, 1945
Feb 14 First micro-on-a-chip patented (TI), 1978
Feb 14 St. Valentine's day
Feb 15 Chicago Seven convicted, 1970
Feb 15 ENIAC demonstrated, 1946
Feb 15 Galileo Galilei born in Pisa, Italy (1564)
Feb 15 Susan B. Anthony born, 1820
Feb 16 Makha Bucha Day in Thailand
Feb 16 Nylon patented, 1937
Feb 16 Pierre Bouguer born, 1698, founder of photometry
Feb 16 Stephen Decatur burns US frigate in Tripoli, 1804
Feb 17 Death of Boromir (LOTR)
Feb 17 Federick Eugene Ives born, 1856, pioneer of halftone
Feb 17 Jazz great Thelonius Monk dies in Englewood, New Jersey, 1982
Feb 17 Marion Anderson born, 1902
Feb 17 T. J. Watson, Sr. born, 1874
Feb 18 Democracy Day in Nepal
Feb 18 Ernst Mach born, 1838, philosopher & optics pioneer
Feb 18 Independence Day in The Gambia
Feb 18 Yoko Ono Lennon is born in Tokyo, 1933
Feb 18* "President's Day"
Feb 19 Nicolas Copernicus born in Thorn, Poland (1473)
Feb 19 Paul McCartney's "Give Ireland Back to the Irish" is banned in Britain, 1972
Feb 19 William "Smokey" Robinson is born in Detroit, 1940
Feb 19* Shrove Tuesday / Mardi Gras (day before Ash Wednesday)
Feb 20 J. Geils (J. Geils Band) is born, 1946
Feb 20 Ludwig Boltzmann born, 1838, atomic physics pioneer
Feb 20 Meriadoc & Pippin meet Treebeard (LOTR)
Feb 20 Yes sells out Madison Square Garden. without advertising, 1974
Feb 20* Ash Wednesday - first day of Lent
Feb 21 Alexis De Rochon born, 1838, developed the spyglass
Feb 21 Battle of Verdun begins, 1916 1M casualties
Feb 21 Malcom X shot to death in Harlem (1965)
Feb 22 George Washington born, 1732
Feb 22 Passing of King Ellesar (LOTR)
Feb 22 Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen born, 1838, found hydrogen in the sun
Feb 23 Handel born, 1685
Feb 23 Johnny Winter is born in Leland, Mississippi, 1944
Feb 23 Lt Calley confesses, implicates Cpt Medina, 1971
Feb 23 Republic Day in Guyana
Feb 23 W.E.B.DuBois born, 1868
Feb 24 Ents destroy Isengard (LOTR)
Feb 24 Gregorian Calendar Day
Feb 24 Winslow Homer born, 1836
Feb 25 George Harrison born in Liverpool, England (1943)
Feb 25 National Day in Kuwait
Feb 25 Renoir born, 1841
Feb 26 Aragorn takes the Paths of the Dead (LOTR)
Feb 26 Dominique Francois Jean Arago born, 1786, observed "Poisson's spot" cf June 21
Feb 27 Independence Day in Dominican Republic
Feb 27 The Lionheart crowned, 1189
Feb 28 Michel de Mantaigne born, 1533
Feb 28 The "French Connection" drug bust occurs in Marseilles, 1972
Feb 29 French and Indian raid on Deerfield MA, 1704
Feb 29 Herman Hollerith born (1860)
Feb 29 Jimmy Dorsey born, 1904
Mar 1 David Niven born, 1910
Mar 1 First NPL (later PL/I) report published, 1964
Mar 1 Jim Morrison is busted for obscenity in Miami, 1969
Mar 1 Samil Independence Movement Day in South Korea
Mar 1 Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba arrested for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts (1692)
Mar 1 Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba arrested for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, 1692
Mar 2 Blues guitarist Rory Gallagher is born in Ballyshannon, Ireland, 1949
Mar 2 Peasants Day in Burma
Mar 2 Texas Independence day
Mar 2 Victory of Adowa in Ethiopia
Mar 3 Buffalo Springfield is formed in Los Angeles, 1966
Mar 3 Throne Day in Morocco
Mar 4 Antonio Vivaldi born in Venice, Italy (1678)
Mar 4 Casimir Pulaski born, 1747
Mar 4 First Cray-1 shipped to Los Alamos
Mar 4 First meeting of Congress, 1789, in N.Y.C.
Mar 4 Vermont Admission Day (admitted as 14th state in 1791)
Mar 5 Frodo & Samwise encounter Shelob (LOTR)
Mar 5 Independence Day in Equatorial Guinea
Mar 5 John Belushi dies in Los Angeles, 1982
Mar 6 Independence Day in Ghana
Mar 7 Aristotle died, 322BC
Mar 7 Last Gilbert & Sullivan opera produced, 1896
Mar 7 Sir John Frederick William Herschel born, 1792, astronomer
Mar 7* Purim - Feast of Lots
Mar 8 Alvan Clark born, 1804, astronomer & lens manufacturer
Mar 8 Deaths of Denethor & Theoden (LOTR)
Mar 8 First annual International Women's Day (1909)
Mar 8 Howard Aiken born, 1900
Mar 8 International Women's Day in U.S.S.R.
Mar 8 Ron "Pigpen" McKernan (Grateful Dead) dies in California, 1973
Mar 8 Syrian National Day in Libyan Arab Republic
Mar 8 Women's Day in Guinea-Bissau, Taiwan, Yemen Democratic Republic
Mar 8 Youth Day in Zambia
Mar 9 "GOTO considered harmful" published in CACM, 1968
Mar 9 Decoration Day in Liberia
Mar 9 Falgun Purnima Day in Nepal
Mar 9 Robin Trower is born in London, 1945
Mar 10 Labor Day in South Korea
Mar 11 Johnny Appleseed Day anniversary of the death of John Chapman
Mar 11 Robert Treat Paine born, 1737
Mar 11 Vannevar Bush born, 1890
Mar 12 Commonwealth Day in Swaziland
Mar 12 Gustav Robert Kirchhoff born, 1824, physicist
Mar 12 Independence Day in Mauritius
Mar 12 Moshoeshoe's Birthday in Lesotho
Mar 12 Renovation Day in Gabon
Mar 13 "Striptease" introduced, Paris, 1894
Mar 13 National Day in Grenada
Mar 13 The Allman Brothers record their live album at the Fillmore East, 1971
Mar 14 Albert Einstein born, 1879
Mar 14 Casey Jones born, 1864
Mar 14 Giovanni Virginia Schiaparelli born, 1835, astronomer named Mars "canals"
Mar 14 Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier born, 1768, mathematician & physicist
Mar 14 LISP introduced, 1960
Mar 14 Teddy Roosevelt excludes Japanese laborers from continental US, 1907
Mar 15 Buzzards return to Hinckley OH
Mar 15 Ides of March Julius Caesar assassinated (44 B.C.)
Mar 15 J.J. Robert's Birthday in Liberia
Mar 15 Julius Caesar assassinated by Brutus Ides of March (44BC)
Mar 15 Sly Stone born, 1944
Mar 15 Watts, Los Angeles, riots kill two, injure 25 (1966)
Mar 16 Black Press Day first Black newspaper founded in 1827
Mar 16 First liquid-fuel-powered rocket flight, 1926
Mar 16 George Clymer born, 1739
Mar 16 James Madison born, 1751
Mar 16 MyLai Massacre 300 non-combatant villagers killed by U.S. infantrymen
Mar 16 Robert Goddard launches first liquid-fueled rocket (1926)
Mar 17 Evacuation Day in Suffolk County, Massachusetts
Mar 17 Paul Kantner (Jefferson Airplane) is born in San Francisco, 1942
Mar 17 St. Patrick's Day
Mar 17 Vanguard I launched, 1958. Earth proved pear-shaped
Mar 18 Destruction of the Ring (LOTR)
Mar 19 St. Joseph's Day in Colombia, Costa Rica, Holy See, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Spain, Venezuela
Mar 19 Tree Planting Day in Lestho
Mar 20 Independence Day in Tunsia
Mar 20 Radio Caroline, the original British pirate radio station, sinks, 1980
Mar 20 Youth Day in Oklahoma
Mar 20* Vernal Equinox, 0525 EST
Mar 21 Afghan New Year in Afghanistan
Mar 21 Bach born, 1685
Mar 21 Juarez' Birthday in Mexico
Mar 22 Abolition Day in Puerto Rico
Mar 22 Ten Years After plays their last concert, 1974
Mar 23 Pakistan Day in Pakistan
Mar 24 Construction of New York subway system begins (1900)
Mar 24 Harry Houdini born, 1874
Mar 25 Aretha Franklin is born in Detroit, 1943
Mar 25 Greek Independence Day in Cyprus
Mar 25 Lady Day (a.k.a. the Feast of the Annunciation)
Mar 25 Maryland Day in Maryland
Mar 25 National Holiday in Greece
Mar 25 Triangle Shirt Waist Fire, 1911
Mar 25* Seward's Day in Alaska (last Monday)
Mar 26 Benjamin Thompson born, 1753, Count Rumford physicist
Mar 26 Emerson, Lake, and Palmer record "Pictures at an Exhibition" live, 1971
Mar 26 Independence Day in Bangladesh
Mar 26 Popeye statue unveiled, Crystal City TX Spinach Festival, 1937
Mar 26 Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole Day in Hawaii
Mar 27 Armed Forces Day in Burma
Mar 27 Khrushchev becomes Premier of Soviet Union (1958)
Mar 27 Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen born, 1845, discoverer of X-rays
Mar 28 DEC announces PDP-11, 1970
Mar 28 Pierre Simon de Laplace born, 1749, mathematician & astronomer
Mar 28 Three Mile Island releases radioactive gas (1979)
Mar 29 Death of President Barthelemy Boganda in Central African Republic
Mar 29 Dr. Hook gets a group picture on the cover of "Rolling Stone", 1973
Mar 29 Flowering of the Mallorn (LOTR)
Mar 29 Memorial Day in Madagascar
Mar 29 Swedish settled Christiana (Wilmington) DE, 1638
Mar 30 Eric Clapton is born in Surrey, England, 1945
Mar 30 Five rings around Uranus discovered (1977)
Mar 30 Francisco Jose de Goya born, 1746
Mar 30 Pencil with eraser patented (1858)
Mar 30 Sean O'Casey born, 1880
Mar 30 Vincent Van Gogh born, 1853
Mar 31 Descartes born, 1596
Mar 31 Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corp. founded, Phila, 1946
Mar 31 National Day in Malta
Mar 31 Rene Descartes born, 1596, mathematician & philosopher
Mar 31* Palm Sunday (7 days before Easter)
Apr 1 April Fool's Day
Apr 1 People of superb intelligence, savoir-faire, etc born this day.
Apr 1 Yourdon, Inc. founded, 1974 (It figures.)
Apr 1 Youth Day in Benin
Apr 2 Malvinas Day in Argentina
Apr 2 Marvin Gaye is born in Washington, D.C., 1939
Apr 2 Pascua Florida Day in Florida
Apr 3 IBM 701 introduced, 1953
Apr 3 Washington Irving born, 1783
Apr 4 Ching Ming Festival in Hong Kong
Apr 4 Gandalf visits Bilbo (LOTR)
Apr 4 Liberation Day in Hungary
Apr 4 Martin Luther King assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee (1968)
Apr 4 Muddy Waters (McKinley Morganfield) is born in Rolling Fork, Mississippi, 1915
Apr 4 Muddy Waters born, 1915
Apr 4 NATO Established (1949)
Apr 4 National Day in Senegal
Apr 4 Tandy Corp. acquires Radio Shack, 1963 (9 stores)
Apr 4* Maundy Thursday (3 days before Easter)
Apr 5 Arbor Day in South Korea
Apr 5 Thomas Hobbes born, 1588, philosopher
Apr 5 Tomb Sweeping Day in Taiwan
Apr 5* Good Friday (2 days before Easter)
Apr 6 Chakri Memorial Day in Thailand
Apr 6 Joseph Smith founds Mormon Church, 1830
Apr 6 Victory Day in Ethiopia
Apr 6* Pesach - First Day of Passover
Apr 7 Albert Hofmann synthesizes LSD in Switzerland, 1943
Apr 7 Alewives run, Cape Cod
Apr 7 IBM announces System/360, 1964
Apr 7* Easter
Apr 8 David Rittenhouse born, 1732, astronomer & mathematician
Apr 8 Fast and Prayer Day in Liberia
Apr 9 ENIAC Project begun, 1943
Apr 9 Edward Muybridge born, 1830, motion-picture pioneer
Apr 9 J. Presper Eckert born, 1919
Apr 9 Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, 1865
Apr 9 Martyrs Day in Tunisia
Apr 9 Paul Robeson born, 1898
Apr 10 Commodore Matthew calbraith Perry born, 1854
Apr 10 Paul McCartney announces that he's quitting the Beatles, 1970
Apr 10 William Booth born, 1829, founder of the Salvation Army
Apr 11 National Heroes Day in Costa Rica
Apr 12 Columbia launched, 1981
Apr 12 Confederate troops fire first shots of Civil War at Ft Sumter, 1861
Apr 12 Gurgarin first man in space, 1961
Apr 12 Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space (1961)
Apr 13 Laotian New Year (3 days) in Laos
Apr 13 National Day in Chad
Apr 13 Songkron Day in Thailand
Apr 13 Thomas Jefferson born, 1743
Apr 13* Last day of Passover
Apr 14 Christian Huygen born, 1629, physicist & astronomer discovered Saturn's rings
Apr 14 Day of the Americas in Honduras
Apr 14 Lincoln shot, 1865
Apr 14 Ritchie Blackmore (Deep Purple, Rainbow) is born, 1945
Apr 14 Titanic hits iceberg and sinks, 1912
Apr 15 Bengali New Year in Bangladesh
Apr 15 Leonardo da Vinci born, 1452
Apr 15* Patriot's Day in Maine & Massachusetts (3rd Monday)
Apr 16 Charles (Charlie) Chaplin (Sir) born in London (1889)
Apr 16 De Diego's Birthday (celebrated in Puerto Rico)
Apr 16 Holy Week (5 days) in Venezuela
Apr 16 Lincoln shot in Ford's Theatre by John Wilkes Booth (1865)
Apr 16 Tourist Week (5 days) in Uruguay
Apr 17 An unexpected party (LOTR)
Apr 17 Bay of Pigs invasion crushed by Castro forces (1961)
Apr 17 Bay of Pigs, 1961
Apr 17 Burmese New Year in Burma
Apr 18 Einstein's Death, 1955
Apr 18 Independence Day in Chile, Zimbabwe
Apr 18 San Francisco earthquake, 1906
Apr 18 Yes breaks up after 13 years, 1981
Apr 19 Declaration of Independence in Venezuela
Apr 19 Landing of the "33" in Uruguay
Apr 19 Republic Day in Sierra Leone
Apr 19 Warsaw Ghetto uprising, 1943
Apr 20 Supreme Court unanimously rules in favor of busing (1971)
Apr 21 Lyrid meteor shower
Apr 21 San Jacinto Day in Texas
Apr 21 Tiradentes in Brazil
Apr 22 Arbor Day in Nebraska & Delaware
Apr 22 Kant born, 1724
Apr 22 Oklahoma Day in Oklahoma
Apr 23 Crowning of King Ellesar (LOTR)
Apr 23 Hank Aaron hits his first home run, 1954
Apr 24 Victory Day in Togo
Apr 25 Anniversary of the Revolution in Portugal
Apr 25 Anzac Day in Australia, New Zealand, Tonga, Western Samoa
Apr 25 Blues guitarist Albert King is born, 1925
Apr 25 Ella Fitzgerald born, 1918
Apr 25 Liberation Day in Italy
Apr 25 National Flag Day in Swaziland
Apr 26 Carol Burnett born in San Antonio, Texas (1933)
Apr 26 Confederate Memorial Day in Florida & Georgia
Apr 26 Union Day in Tanzania
Apr 26 William Shakespeare baptised in Stratford-on-Avon, England (1564)
Apr 26 William Shakespeare's baptism (birthdate unknown) (1564)
Apr 27 Independence Day in Togo
Apr 27 Louis Victor de Broglie born, 1774, physicist
Apr 27 Magellan killed in Philippines, 1521
Apr 28 James Monroe born, 1758
Apr 28 Zilog Z-80 introduced
Apr 28* Daylight Savint time begins
Apr 29 "Hair" premiers on Broadway, 1968
Apr 29 Emperor's Birthday in Japan
Apr 29 Jules Henri Poincare born, 1854, founder of topology
Apr 29 William Randolph Hearst born (1863)
Apr 29 William Randolph Hearst born in San Francisco (1863)
Apr 29* Arbor Day in Wyoming (last Monday)
Apr 29* Confederate Memorial Day in Alabama & Mississippi (last Monday)
Apr 30 Karl Friedrich Gauss born, 1777, mathematician & astronomer
Apr 30 Queen's Biorthday in Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles
Apr 30 The Workers Day in Uruguay
May 1 Beltaine Feast of the god Bel, sun god
May 1 First BASIC program run at Dartmouth, 1964
May 1 Kate Smith born, 1909
May 1 Labor Day in many places
May 1 Law Day (decl. by Eisenhower)
May 1 Little Walter (Marion Walter Jacobs) is born in Alexandria, Louisiana, 1930
May 1 May Day in many places
May 2 Constitution Day in Japan
May 2 Dr. Benj. Spock born, 1903
May 2 King's Birthday in Lesotho
May 3 Anti-war protest disrupts business in Washington (1971)
May 3 Bob Seger is born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1945
May 4 4 Kent students demonstrating against Cambodia incursion are shot (1970)
May 4 Four Kent State students are shot down by the National Guard, 1970
May 4 Rhode Island Independence Day
May 5 Battle of Puebla in Mexico
May 5 Children's Day in Japan, South Korea
May 5 Coronatin Day in Thailand
May 5 Liberation Day in Netherlands
May 6 Bataan Day in Philippines
May 6 EDSAC demonstrated, 1949
May 6* Bank Holiday in UK
May 7 Brahms born, 1833
May 7 Germany Surrenders after WWII, 1945
May 7 Johannes Brahms born in Hamburg (1833)
May 7 May Day in United Kingdom
May 7 Tchaikowsky born, 1840
May 8 Buddha's Birthday in South Korea
May 8 Elections for the National Assembly in Philippines
May 8 Truman Day in Missouri
May 8 US institutes mining of Haiphong Harbor, 1972
May 9 94 degrees, New York, 1979
May 9 Liberation Day in Czechoslovakia
May 9 Pinza died, 1957
May 9 Victory Day in Poland, U.S.S.R.
May 10 Confederate Memorial Day in South Carolina
May 10 Dave Mason is born in Worcester, England, 1945
May 10 Fred Astaire (Frederick Austerlitz) born in Omaha, Nebraska (1899)
May 10 Germany invades Low Countries, 1940
May 10 Mothers Day in Guatamala
May 10 Nazi bookburning (1933)
May 11 Bob Marley dies in his sleep in Miami, 1981
May 11 Minnesota Day in Minnesota
May 12 Florence Nightingale born in Florence, Italy (1820)
May 12 Pink Floyd performs the first quadrophonic concert, 1977
May 12* Mother's Day (2nd Sunday)
May 13 Arthur S. Sullivan born, 1842
May 14 Anniversary of the Founding of Guinean Deomcratic Party in Guinea
May 14 Beginning of Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804
May 14 Buddhist Holiday (Waisak 2528) in Indonesia
May 14 Independence Day (2 days) in Paraguay
May 14 Nation of Israel proclaimed (1948)
May 14 Unification Day in Liberia
May 15 Kamuzu Day in Malawi
May 15 Mike Oldfield is born in Essex, England, 1953
May 15 Vesak Day in Singapore, Malaysia
May 15 Visakha Bucha Day in Thailand
May 16 Armed Forces Day
May 16 Discovery Day in Cayman Islands
May 16 First report on SNOBOL distributed (within BTL), 1963
May 16* Ascension Day (10 days before Pentecost)
May 17 24" rain in 11 hours, Pearl River, S. China, 1982
May 17 Constitution Day in Nauru, Norway
May 17 Six SLA members killed in televised gun fight, 1974
May 18 Battle of Las Piedras in Uruguay
May 18 Flag Day in Haiti
May 18 Napoleon crowned Emperor, 1804
May 18 Prayer Day in Denmark
May 18 Rick Wakeman is born in West London, England, 1949
May 19 Armed Forces Day
May 19 Arwen leaves Lorian to wed King Ellesar (LOTR)
May 19 Ho Chi Minh born, 1890
May 19 Pete Townshend is born in London, 1945
May 19 Youth and Sports Day in Turkey
May 20 Mecklenburg Independence Day in North Carolina
May 20 National Day in Cameroon
May 20 The Jimi Hendrix Experience is signed by Reprise Records, 1967
May 20 Victoria Day in Canada
May 20* Memorial Day in Michigan (3rd Monday)
May 21 Battle of Iquique in Chile
May 21 DEC announces PDP-8
May 21 Plato (Aristocles) born in Athens(?) (427BC)
May 22 Johann Sebastian Bach born in Eisenach, Germany (1665)
May 22 National Heroes Day in Sri Lanka
May 22 US Civil War ends (1865)
May 23 Blues great Elmore James dies, 1963
May 23 Commonwealth Day in Jamaica, Belize
May 23 Israeli raid into Argentina to capture Adolf Eichmann (1960)
May 23 National Labor Day in Jamaica
May 23 Two Yetis sighted, Mt. Everest, 1953
May 24 Battle of Pinchincha in Ecuador
May 24 Bermuda Day in Bermuda
May 24 Bob Dylan (Robert Zimmerman) is born in Duluth, 1941
May 24 Day of Slav Letters in Bulgaria
May 25 African Freedom Day in Zimbabwe
May 25 African Liberation Day in Chad, Mauritania, Zambia
May 25 Anniversary of the Revolution of 1810 in Argentina
May 25 Independence Day in Jordan
May 25 Memorial Day in New Mexico & Puerto Rico
May 25 Oral Roberts sees 900 foot tall Jesus Christ, Tulsa OK, 1980
May 25 Revolution in the Sudan in Libyan Arab Republic
May 25 Successful test of the limelight in Purfleet, England (1830)
May 25 Successful test of the limelight in Purfleet, England, 1830
May 26 Al Jolson born, 1886
May 26 Congress sets first immigration quotas, 1924
May 26* First Day of Shavuot
May 26* Pentecost - Whitsunday
May 27 Afghanistan attains sovereignty, 1921
May 27 First joint meeting of U.S. and European ALGOL definition cte., 1958
May 27 Golden Gate Bridge opens (1937)
May 27 Hubert H. Humphrey born, 1911
May 27* Bank Holiday in UK
May 27* Memorial Day in various places (last Monday)
May 27* Whitmonday
May 28 Dionne quintuplets born, 1934
May 28 First meeting of COBOL definition cte. (eventually CODASYL), 1959
May 28 Mothers Day in Central African Republic
May 29 Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norkay climb Mt. Everest (1953)
May 29 Gilbert Keith Chesterton born, 1874
May 29 John Fitzgerald Kennedy born, 1917
May 29 Patrick Henry born, 1736
May 30 Colossus Mark II, 1944
May 30 Mel (Melvin Jerome) Blanc born in San Francisco (1908)
May 30 US Marines sent to Nicaragua, 1912
May 31 Memorial Day
May 31 Pya Martyrs Day in Togo
May 31 Republic Day in South Africa
May 31 The Who perform the loudest concert ever--76,000 watts of PA, 1976
Jun 1 Brigham Young born, 1801
Jun 1 Independence Days (3 days) in Western Samoa
Jun 1 Madaraka Day in Kenya
Jun 1 Marilyn Monroe born, 1928
Jun 1 The Beatles release "Sgt. Pepper", 1967
Jun 1 Victory Day in Tunisia
Jun 2 Corpus Christi in Paraguay
Jun 2 Edward Elgar (Sir) born in Worcester, England (1857)
Jun 2 First issue of Computerworld, 1967
Jun 2 Native Americans "granted" citizenship, 1924
Jun 2* Trinity Sunday (7 days after Pentecost)
Jun 3 Confederate Memorial Day in Kentucky & Louisiana
Jun 3 Henry James born, 1811
Jun 3 Jefferson Davis's Birthday in Alabama & Mississippi (1st Monday)
Jun 3 Jefferson Davis's Birthday in Florida, Georgia, & S. Carolina
Jun 3 Labor Day in Bahamas
Jun 3* Bank Holiday in Rep. of Ireland
Jun 4 Dragon Boat Festival in Hong Kong, Taiwan
Jun 4 Emancipation Day in Tonga
Jun 4 Queen's Birthday in New Zealand
Jun 4 Roquefort cheese developed (1070)
Jun 5 Constitution Day in Denmark
Jun 5 Liberation Day in Seychelles
Jun 5 Robert Kennedy Assasinated (1968)
Jun 6 "Rock Around The Clock" makes Billboard's #1 slot, 1955
Jun 6 His Majesty, Yang Di-Pertuan Agong's Birthday in Malaysia
Jun 6 Memorial Day in South Korea
Jun 6 Normandy landing, 1944
Jun 6* Corpus Christi (11 days after Pentecost)
Jun 7 (Eugene Henri) Paul Gaugin born, 1848
Jun 7 Blind Faith debuts in concert at London's Hyde Park, 1969
Jun 7 George Bryan "Beau" Brummel born, 1778
Jun 8 Frank Lloyd Wright born in Richland Center, Wisconsin (1869)
Jun 9 Les Paul (Lester Polfus) is born in Waukesha, Wisconsin, 1923
Jun 9 Senior Citizen's Day in Oklahoma
Jun 10 Camoes Day in Portugal
Jun 10 Death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.)
Jun 10 Denver police tear gas Jethro Tull and 2000 fans at Red Rocks, 1971
Jun 10 First Apple II shipped, 1977
Jun 10 Howlin' Wolf (Chester Burnett) is born in West Point, Mississippi, 1910
Jun 11 Greeks seize Troy (1184BC)
Jun 11 King Kamehameha I Day in Hawaii
Jun 11 Queen's Birthday
Jun 11 Sauron attacks Osgilliath (LOTR)
Jun 12 Independence Day in Philippines
Jun 12 Peace with Bolivia in Paraguay
Jun 13 Alexander the Great dies (323BC)
Jun 13 Bilbo returns to Bag End (LOTR)
Jun 13 Corrective Movement in Yemen Arab Republic
Jun 13 Pioneer flies past Neptune, and therefore out of the Solar System
Jun 14 Flag Day
Jun 14 Sandpaper invented by I. Fischer, Jr., 1834
Jun 15 Ben Franklin's kite experiment (1752)
Jun 15 Edward (Edvard Hagerup) Grieg born in Bergen, Norway (1843)
Jun 15 Harry Nilsson is born in Brooklyn, 1941
Jun 15 Magna Carta signed (1215)
Jun 15 Series of photographs by Edward Muggeridge prove to Leland Stanford that all the hooves of a horse are off the ground during the gallop (1878)
Jun 15 UNIVAC I delivered to the Census Bureau, 1951
Jun 16 "The Blues Brothers" premieres in Chicago, 1980
Jun 16 Bloomsday - Anniversary of Dublin events, 1904, in "Ulysses"
Jun 16 Hammurabi the Great dies, Babylon, 1686 bc
Jun 16 The Monterey Pop festival opens, 1967
Jun 16* Father's Day
Jun 17 Bunker Hill Day in Suffolk County, Massachusetts
Jun 17 China explodes its first Hydrogen bomb (1967)
Jun 17 Independence Day in Iceland
Jun 17 National Day in Federal Republic of Germany
Jun 17 Watergate Democratic National Committee Break-In (1972)
Jun 18 Evacuation Day in Egypt
Jun 18 M C Escher born (1898)
Jun 18 Paul McCartney born in Liverpool, England (1942)
Jun 18 Paul McCartney is born in Liverpool, England, 1942
Jun 18 Queen's Birthday in Fiji
Jun 19 Artigas Birthday in Uruguay
Jun 19 Emancipation Day in Texas
Jun 19 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed in Sing-Sing prison (1953)
Jun 19 Labor Day in Trinidad, Tobago
Jun 19 Lizzie Borden acquitted, 1893
Jun 19 Revolution Day in Algeria
Jun 20 Flag Day in Argentina
Jun 20 Victoria crowned, 1837
Jun 20 West Virginia Day in West Virginia
Jun 21 Berlin airlift begins (1948)
Jun 21 Columbia records announces the first mass production of LP's, 1948
Jun 21 Summer solstice, 12:02 am, EST
Jun 21 Sun rises over Heelstone at Stonehenge
Jun 22 Carl Hubbell born, 1903
Jun 22 Civil rights workers disappear in Mississippi, 1964
Jun 22 Corrective Movement in Yermen Democratic Republic
Jun 22 Meryl Streep born in Summit, New Jersey (1949)
Jun 22 Midsummer Eve in Finland, Sweden
Jun 22 National Sovereignty Day in Haiti
Jun 22 Todd Rundgren is born in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, 1948
Jun 23 IBM unbundles software, 1969
Jun 23 National Holiday in Luxembourg
Jun 23 Slavery abolished in England (1772)
Jun 23 Turing's Birthday, 1912
Jun 23 Wedding of Ellesar & Arwen (LOTR)
Jun 24 Battle of Carabobob in Venezuela
Jun 24 Fisherman's Day in Madagascar, Mozambique, Somalia
Jun 24 Jeff Beck is born in Surrey, England, 1944
Jun 24 Kings Day in Spain
Jun 24 Peasants Day in Peru
Jun 24 Senate repeals Gulf of Tonkin resolution (1970)
Jun 24 St. Jean-Baptiste Day in Quebec
Jun 25 Custer's Last Stand, 1876
Jun 25 Eric Arthur Blair (a.k.a. George Orwell) born, 1903
Jun 25 N. Korea invades S. Korea, 1950
Jun 26 Battle of Gettysburg, 1863
Jun 26 St. Lawrence Seaway dedicated by Eisenhower & Queen Elizabeth II, 1959
Jun 26 Toothbrush invented, 1498
Jun 27 100 degrees, Fort Yukon, 1915
Jun 27 Bill Graham closes the Fillmore East, 1971
Jun 27 Helen Keller born, 1880
Jun 28 Mothers Day in Central African Republic
Jun 28 Supreme Court decides in favor of Alan Bakke (1978)
Jun 29 Independence Day in Seychelles
Jun 29 Last Day of Ramadan* in Algeria, Oman
Jun 30 "That" explosion in Siberia, 1908
Jun 30 China and Soviet Union announce split over ideology (1960)
Jun 30 Day of the Army in Guatemala
Jun 30 First advanced degree on computer related topic: to H. Karamanian, Temple Univ., Phila, 1948, for symbolic diffentiation on the ENIAC
Jul 1 Battle of Gettysburg begins, 1863
Jul 1 Dominion Day in Canada
Jul 1 Eid-Ul-Fitr* (2 days) in Pakistan
Jul 1 Freedom Day in Suriname
Jul 1 Independence Day in Burundi
Jul 1 National Day in Rwamda
Jul 1 Republic Day in Ghana
Jul 1 Union of the Somalia Republic in Somalia
Jul 2 Felix Pappalardi and Leslie West form Mountain, 1969
Jul 2 National Day in Kiribati
Jul 3 Dog days begin
Jul 3 Franz Kafka born, 1883
Jul 3 Jim Morrison dies in Paris, 1971
Jul 3 Kafka's Birthday (1883)
Jul 4 Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg won by Union forces (1863)
Jul 4 Caribbean Day in Guyana
Jul 4 Cloudy, 76 degrees, Philadelphia PA, 1776
Jul 4 Constitution Day in Cayman Islands
Jul 4 Family Day in Lesotho
Jul 4 Gandalf imprisoned by Suruman (LOTR)
Jul 4 Heroes Day in Zambia
Jul 4 Independence Day in United States
Jul 4 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson die (1826)
Jul 4 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson die on same day (1826)
Jul 4 Kadooment Day in Barbados
Jul 4 Nathaniel Hawthorne born in Salem, Massachusetts (1804)
Jul 4 New York abstains on Declaration of Independence vote, 1776
Jul 4 Philippine-American Friendship Day in the Philippines
Jul 4 Warriors Day (2 days) in Yugoslavia
Jul 5 Day of Peace and Unity in Rwanda
Jul 5 Independence Day in Algeria, Venezuela
Jul 6 (Helen) Beatrix Potter born, 1866
Jul 6 First `talkie' (talking motion picture) premiere in New York (1928)
Jul 6 John Paul Jones born, 1747
Jul 6 Lawrence of Arabia captures Aqaba, 1917
Jul 6 The Jefferson Airplane is formed in San Francisco, 1965
Jul 7 Anniversary of the P.U.N. in Equatorial Guinea
Jul 7 First radio broadcast of "Dragnet", 1949
Jul 7 National Day in Malawi
Jul 7 Ringo Starr (Richard Starkey) born in Liverpool, England (1940)
Jul 7 Ringo Starr is born in Liverpool, England, 1940
Jul 7 Saba Saba Day in Tanzania
Jul 8 Bell Telephone Co. formed (predecessor of AT&T) (1877)
Jul 8 CDC incorporated, 1957
Jul 8 Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin born, 1838
Jul 8 First public reading of the Declaration of Independence, 1776
Jul 9 10-hour working day set by law, NH, 1847
Jul 9 Independence Day in Argentina
Jul 10 Independence Day in Bahamas
Jul 10 John Calvin born, 1509
Jul 11 John Quincy Adams born, 1767
Jul 11 National Holiday in the Mongolian People's Republic
Jul 12 Battle of Boyne celebrated in Northern Ireland
Jul 12 Chicago DJ Steve Dahl holds "Disco Demolition" at Kamisky Park, 1979
Jul 12 Henry David Thoreau born, 1817
Jul 12 The Twelfth in Northern Ireland
Jul 12 Thoreau's Birthday (1817)
Jul 13 Buddhist Lent in Thailand
Jul 13 Women first compete in Olympic games, 1908
Jul 14 Anniversary of the Revolution in Iraq
Jul 14 Bastille Day
Jul 14 National Holiday in Monaco
Jul 14 Woody Guthrie born, 1912
Jul 15 Clement Clarke Moore born, 1779, author of "A Visit from Saint Nicholas"
Jul 15 St. Swithin's Day
Jul 16 Cream forms in the U.K., 1966
Jul 16 Detonation of the first atomic bomb at Alamagordo, NM, 1945
Jul 16 Harry Chapin dies on Long Island Expressway, 1981
Jul 16 Presidents Day in Botswanna
Jul 17 "Yellow Submarine" premieres at the London Pavilon, 1968
Jul 17 Constitution Day in South Korea
Jul 17 Disneyland opens, 1955
Jul 17 July Revolution in Iraq
Jul 17 Munoz Rivera's Birthday (celebrated in Puerto Rico)
Jul 17 Public Holiday in Botswanna
Jul 18 Brian Auger is born in London, 1939
Jul 18 Constitution Day in Uruguay
Jul 18 Liberation Day in Nicaragua
Jul 18 Ty Cobb gets 4000th base hit, 1927
Jul 19 Five Massachusetts women executed for witchcraft, 1692
Jul 19 Martyrs Day in Burma
Jul 20 Armstrong and Aldrin land on moon, 1969 (Will be looked back upon as the high point of American civilization 100 years hence)
Jul 20 Carlos Santana is born in Autlan, Mexico, 1947
Jul 20 Independence Day in Colombia
Jul 21 National Holiday in Belgium
Jul 21 Vietnam divided at 17th parallel, 1954
Jul 22 King's Birthday in Swaziland
Jul 22 National Day in Poland
Jul 23 Anniversary of the Revolution Egypt
Jul 23 Eqyptian National Day in Syrian Arab Republic
Jul 23 Ice cream cone introduced, St. Louis MO, 1904
Jul 23 Remembrance Day in Papua, New Guinea
Jul 24 Pioneer Day in Utah
Jul 24 Scopes Monkey Trial, 1925
Jul 24 Simon Bolivar's Day in Ecuador, Venezuela
Jul 24 The ring comes to Bilbo (LOTR)
Jul 25 Bob Dylan goes electric at the Newport Folk Festival, 1965
Jul 25 Constitution Day in Puerto Rico
Jul 25 Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young debut at the Fillmore East, 1969
Jul 25 National Rebellion Day (3 days) in Cuba
Jul 25 Republic Day in Tunisia
Jul 25 St. James, Patron Saint in Spain
Jul 25 Steve Goodman is born in Chicago, 1948
Jul 26 Bilbo rescued from Wargs by Eagles (LOTR)
Jul 26 Independence Day in Liberia
Jul 26 Mick Jagger is born in Kent, England, 1943
Jul 26 National Day in Maldives
Jul 27 Barbosa's Birthday (celebrated in Puerto Rico)
Jul 28 Bach dies, 1750
Jul 28 Independence Days (2 days) in Peru
Jul 28 The Watkins Glen "Summer Jam" opens, 1973
Jul 29 Mussolini born, 1883
Jul 29 Olsok Eve in Norway to commemorate Norway's Viking King St. Olav
Jul 29 Rain Day in Waynesburg, PA
Jul 30 "In God We Trust" made U.S. motto, 1956
Jul 30 Emily Bronte born, 1818
Jul 30 Henry Ford born, 1863
Jul 31 Harry S. Truman dedicates N.Y. Int'l Airport @ Idlewild Field, 1948, later JFK
Jul 31 Revolution Day in Congo
Aug 1 Discovery Day in Trinidad, Tobogo
Aug 1 Emancipation Day in Granada
Aug 1 Founding of Asuncion in Paraguay
Aug 1 Freedom Day in Guyana
Aug 1 Herman Melville born, 1819
Aug 1 Lughnasa Feast of the god Lugh, a 30 day Celtic feast centers on this day
Aug 1 National Day in Switzerland
Aug 1 National Holidays (5 days) in El Salvador
Aug 1 Parent's Day in Zaire
Aug 1 The Concert for Bangla Desh takes place at Madison Square Garden, 1971
Aug 2 Our Lady of Los Angeles in Costa Rica
Aug 3 Funeral of King Theoden (LOTR)
Aug 3 Independence Day in Jamaica, Niger
Aug 3 Lenny Bruce dies of a morphine overdose, 1966
Aug 3 Massacre du Pidjiguiti in Buinea-bissau
Aug 3 Memorial Day of Archbishop Makarios in Cyprus
Aug 3 USS Nautilus crosses under north polar ice cap, 1958
Aug 4 Bombing of N. Vietnam begins, 1964
Aug 4 Britain declares war on Germany starting World War I (1914)
Aug 4 Freedom Day in Guyana
Aug 4 John Lennon points out that "the Beatles are more popular than Jesus", 1966
Aug 5* Bank Holiday in Scotland and Northern Ireland
Aug 6 Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima (1945)
Aug 6 Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, 1945
Aug 6 Bank Holiday in Australia, Fiji, Iceland, Ireland
Aug 6 Bank Holiday in Ontario, British Columbia
Aug 6 Caricom in Barbados
Aug 6 Cy Young pitches first game, 1890
Aug 6 Emancipation Day in Bahamas
Aug 6 Independence Day in Bolivia
Aug 7 Battle of Boyaca in Colombia
Aug 8 Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki (1945)
Aug 8 Dustin Hoffman born in Los Angeles (1937)
Aug 8 Montenegro declares war on Germany, 1914
Aug 8 Nixon announces resignation (1973)
Aug 8 The Great Train Robbery $7,368,000 (1963)
Aug 9 Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki (1945)
Aug 9 Helter Skelter. the Charles Manson murders take place, 1969
Aug 9 National Day in Singapore
Aug 9 Persia defeats Spartan King Leonidas at Thermopylae (480 BC)
Aug 9 Richard Nixon resigns the US presidency (1974)
Aug 9 US/Canada border defined in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)
Aug 10 Chicago incorporated as a village of 300 people (1833)
Aug 10 Ian Anderson (Jethro Tull) is born in Edinburgh, Scotland, 1947
Aug 10 Independence Day in Ecuador
Aug 10 US and Panama agree to transfer the canal in the year 2000 (1977)
Aug 11 Dog days end
Aug 11 France Ends War in Indochina (1954)
Aug 11 Heroes Day (2 days) in Zimbabwe
Aug 11 Independence Day in Chad
Aug 11 King Hussein's Accession to the Throne in Jordan
Aug 11 Perseid meteor shower (look north three days)
Aug 12 Last U.S. ground troops out of Vietnam, 1972
Aug 12 Queen's Birthday in Thailand
Aug 12 Thomas Mann's Death (1955)
Aug 13 Annie Oakley born, 1860
Aug 13 Berlin wall erected (1961)
Aug 13 Dan Fogelberg is born in Peoria, Illinois, 1951
Aug 13 Fidel Castro born, 1927
Aug 13 Li'l Abner debut, 1934
Aug 13 Proclamation of Independence in Central African Republic
Aug 13 Women's Day in Tunisia
Aug 14 David Crosby is born in Los Angeles, 1941
Aug 14 First Unix-based mallet created, 1954
Aug 14 IBM PC announced, 1981
Aug 14 Independence Day in Pakistan
Aug 14 Social Security begins in U.S., 1935
Aug 14 VJ Day (1945)
Aug 14 Waddi Dhahab in Morocco
Aug 15 Founding of Ascuncion in Paraguay
Aug 15 Gandhi's movement obtains independence for Pakistan and India (1947)
Aug 15 Hurricane hits Plimoth Plantation, 1635
Aug 15 Independence Day in India
Aug 15 Liberation Day in South Korea
Aug 15 National Day in Congo
Aug 15 Santa Maria in Malta
Aug 15 The Beatles play Shea Stadium in New York, 1965
Aug 15 The Woodstock Music and Arts Fair begins, 1969
Aug 15 Woodstock Festival, Max Yasgur's farm, 1969
Aug 16 Bennington Battle Day in Vermont
Aug 16 Independence Days (3 days) in Gabon
Aug 16 Restoration Day in Dominican Republic
Aug 16 Roller Coaster patented, 1898
Aug 16 Woodstock Begins, 1969
Aug 17 Admission Day in Hawaii <1984>(3rd Friday)
Aug 17 Anniversary of the Death of General San Martin in Argentina
Aug 17 First public bath opened in N.Y., 1891
Aug 17 Independence Day in Indonesia
Aug 17 Mae West born, 1892
Aug 18 Meriwether Lewis born, 1927
Aug 19 Gail Borden patents condensed milk, 1856
Aug 19 Independence Day in Afghanistan
Aug 20 Constitution Day in Hungary
Aug 20 Leon Trotsky assassinated, 1940
Aug 20 Robert Plant (Led Zeppelin) is born in Worcestershire, England, 1948
Aug 22 CDC 6600 introduced, 1963
Aug 22 Claude Debussy born, 1862
Aug 22 Death of King Richard III, 1485, Last of the Plantagenets
Aug 22 St. Columba reports seeing monster in Loch Ness, 565
Aug 23 DEC founded, 1957
Aug 23 Gene Kelly born, 1912
Aug 23 Keith Moon (The Who) is born in London, 1947
Aug 23 Liberation Days (2 days) in Romania
Aug 23 Sacco and Vanzetti executed, 1927
Aug 24 "Alice's Restaurant" premieres in New York and Los Angeles, 1969
Aug 24 -126.9 F at Vostok, Antarctica (1960)
Aug 24 British troops burn Washington, 1814
Aug 24 National Flag Day in Liberia
Aug 25 Constitution Day in Paragual
Aug 25 Gen. DeGaulle leads French forces into Paris, 1944
Aug 25 Independence Day in Uruguay
Aug 26 Jimi Hendrix gives his last performance at the Isle of Wight, 1970
Aug 26 Jimi Hendrix's Electric Ladyland Studios opens in New York, 1970
Aug 26 Susan B. Anthony Day in Massachussetts
Aug 26* Bank Holiday in England and Wales
Aug 27 "Tarzan of the Apes" published, 1912
Aug 27 Krakatoa, Java explodes with a force of 1,300 megatons (1883)
Aug 27 Liberation Day in Hong Kong
Aug 27 Lyndon B. Johnson born, 1908
Aug 28 Heroes Day in Philippines
Aug 28 King leads over 200K in civil rights rally in Washington, DC (1963)
Aug 29 Oliver Wendell Holmes born, 1809, physician & father of the jurist
Aug 29 Star in Cygnus goes nova & becomes 4th brightest in sky, 1975 Nova Cygni 1975.
Aug 29 Suruman enters the Shire (LOTR)
Aug 30 75 cents a pound tariff set on opium, 1842
Aug 30 Huey P. Long Day in Louisiana
Aug 30 Japan Stationery Co. sells first felt-tipped pen, 1960
Aug 30 John W. Mauchly born, 1907
Aug 30 St. Rose of Lima in Peru
Aug 30 Victory Day in Turkey
Aug 30 Washington-to-Moscow hot line connected (1963)
Aug 31 269 people killed after Korean Airlines 747 shot down by USSR (1983)
Aug 31 Independence Day in Trinidad, Tobago
Aug 31 National Day in Malaysia
Aug 31 Non-aggression pact signed by USSR and Afghanistan, 1926
Aug 31 Pashtoonian Day in Afghanistan
Sep 1 Army Day in Chile
Sep 1 Bobby Fischer defeats Boris Spassky in World Chess Match (1972)
Sep 1 Joshua A. Norton proclaims himself 'Emperor Norton I' (1859)
Sep 2 Great Britain adopts Gregorian Calendar (1752)
Sep 2 Japan signs unconditional surrender aboard US battleship `Missouri' (1945)
Sep 2* Labor Day (1st Monday)
Sep 3 Anniversary of the Founding of the Republic in San Marino
Sep 3 Independence Day in Qatar
Sep 3 Memorial Day in Tunisia
Sep 5 First Continental Congress, Phila, 1774
Sep 5 Kennedy orders resumption of underground nuclear tests, 1961
Sep 5 King Louis XIV of France born (1638)
Sep 5 Raquel Welch born, 1942
Sep 5 The first Continental Congress was convened in Philadelphia (1774)
Sep 6 149 Pilgrims set forth from Eng3and aboard the Mayflower (1620)
Sep 6 Defense of Pakistan Day in Pakistan
Sep 6 Pres. McKinley shot, 1901
Sep 6 Settlers Day in South Africa
Sep 6 Somhlolo in Swaziland
Sep 6 Word is received that Perry has reached the North Pole and died (1909)
Sep 7 Independence Day in Brazil
Sep 7 James Fenimore Cooper born in Burlington, NJ (1789)
Sep 7 Keith Moon (The Who) dies in London of a drug overdose, 1978
Sep 7 Queen Elizabeth I of England born (1533)
Sep 8 "Star Trek" debuts on NBC (1966)
Sep 8 Anton Dvorak born in Nelahozeves, Czechoslovakia (1841)
Sep 8 Gerald R. Ford pardons Richard M. Nixon (the slime!), 1974
Sep 8 King Richard I of England born (1157)
Sep 8 Peter Sellers born in Southsea, England (1925)
Sep 8 President Ford grants pardon to Nixon (1974)
Sep 8 Ron "Pigpen" McKernan (Grateful Dead) is born in San Bruno, California, 1945
Sep 9 Admission Day in California
Sep 9 Anniversary of the Socialist Revolution (2 days) in Bulgaria
Sep 9 California becomes the 31st state (1850)
Sep 9 Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-Tung dies at age of 82 (1976)
Sep 9 National Day in North Korea
Sep 9 United Colonies is renamed the United States (1776)
Sep 10 Gandalf escapes from Orthanc (LOTR)
Sep 10 Korean Thanksgiving Day (Chusuk) in South Korea
Sep 10 Moon Festival in Taiwan
Sep 10 Mountain Meadows Massacre. Mormons kill Gentile wagon train, 1857
Sep 10 National Day in Belize
Sep 11 Ethiopian New Year in Ethiopia
Sep 11 Grandparent's Day
Sep 11 National Holiday in Chile
Sep 12 Amilcar Cabral's Birthday in Guinea-Bissau
Sep 12 Defender's Day in Maryland
Sep 12 German paratroopers rescue Mussolini from captivity in Rome (1943)
Sep 12 Germany annexes Sudentenland, 1938
Sep 12 Jesse Owens born, 1913
Sep 12 Revolution Day in Ethiopia
Sep 13 136.4 F at el Azizia, Libya (1922)
Sep 13 Barry Day commemorates the death of Commodore John Barry
Sep 13 British defeat the French at Abraham near Quebec City (1788)
Sep 13 Building of Hadrian's Wall begun, 122
Sep 13 Chiang Kai-Shek becomes president of China (1943)
Sep 13 Walter Reed born, 1851
Sep 14 Battle of San Jacinto in Nicaragua
Sep 14 Benjamin Franklin is sent to France as an American minister (1778)
Sep 14 Francis Scott Key writes words to "Star Spangled Banner" (1814)
Sep 14 Frodo & Bilbo's birthday (LOTR)
Sep 14 Salem, Massachusetts, is founded (1629)
Sep 14 The Selective Service Act establishes the first peacetime draft (1940)
Sep 15 ACM founded, 1947
Sep 15 Agatha Christie born in Torquay, England (1890)
Sep 15 Black riders enter the Shire (LOTR)
Sep 15 Foundation of Panama in Panama
Sep 15 Independence Day
Sep 15 Respect for the Aged Day in Japan
Sep 15 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev begins his 13 day tour of the US (1959)
Sep 15 The U.S. Foreign Affairs Dept. becomes the U.S. State Department (1789)
Sep 16 Allen Funt born in Brooklyn, NY (1914)
Sep 16 B.B. King is born in Itta Bena, Mississippi, 1925
Sep 16 Cherokee Strip Day in Oklahoma
Sep 16 Independence Day in Mexico, Papua, New Guinea
Sep 16 The village of Shawmut, Massachusetts, becomes the city of Boston (1630)
Sep 16* First Day of Rosh Hashana
Sep 17 Battle of Antietam, 1862
Sep 17 National Heroes Day in Angola
Sep 18 Frodo and company rescued by Bombadil (LOTR)
Sep 18 Greta Garbo born, 1905
Sep 18 Independence Day in Chile
Sep 18 Jimi Hendrix dies from an overdose, 1970
Sep 18 Victory of Uprona in Burundi
Sep 19 Army Day in Chile
Sep 19 Simon & Garfunkel reunite to play New York's Central Park, 1981
Sep 20 Equal Rights Party nominates Belva Lockwood for President, 1884
Sep 20 First meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1848
Sep 20 First meeting of the National Research Council, 1916
Sep 20 Harlan Herrick runs first FORTRAN program, 1954
Sep 20 Jim Croce dies in a plane crash, 1973
Sep 20 Magellan leaves Spain on the first Round the World passage (1519)
Sep 20 The Roxy Theater opens in Hollywood, 1973
Sep 20 Upton (Beall) Sinclair born, 1878
Sep 21 H. G. (Herbert George) Wells born in Bromley, England (1866)
Sep 21 Independence Day in Belize
Sep 21 Louis Joliet born, 1645
Sep 22 Alied forces form the independent nation West Germany (1953)
Sep 22 Autumnal equinox, 3:33 pm, EST
Sep 22 Independence Day in Mali
Sep 22 National Sovereignty Day in Haiti
Sep 22 President Garfield dies of wounds in Baltimore (1881)
Sep 22 President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation (1862)
Sep 22 Special prosecutor Leon Jeworski subpoenaes President Nixon (1974)
Sep 22 The first Soviet atomic bomb explodes (1949)
Sep 23 "Paul is dead" rumors sweep the country, 1969
Sep 23 Augustus (Gaius Octavius) Caesar born in Rome (63 BC)
Sep 23 Bruce "The Boss" Springsteen is born in Freehold, New Jersey, 1949
Sep 23 Euripides born in Salamis, Greece (480 BC)
Sep 23 Grito de Lares in Puerto Rico
Sep 23 Phillippine President Ferdinand Marcos declares martial law (1972)
Sep 23 The New York Knickerbockers becomes the first U.S. Baseball club (1845)
Sep 23 V.P. Nixon denies campaign fund fraud with his "Checkers" speech. (1952)
Sep 24 Anniversary of the Third Republic in Ghana
Sep 24 F. Scott Fitzgerald born, 1896
Sep 24 Independence Day in Guinea-Bissau
Sep 24 National Day in Saudi Arabia
Sep 24 Our Lady of Mercedes in Dominican Republic
Sep 24 Republic Day in Trinidad, Tobago
Sep 25 Army Day in Mozambique
Sep 25 John Bonham (Led Zeppelin) dies of alcohol poisoning, 1980
Sep 25 Referendum Day in Rwanda
Sep 25 Sandra Day O'Connor becomes first woman on US Supreme Court (1981)
Sep 25* Yom Kippur
Sep 26 George Gershwin born in Brooklyn, NY (1989)
Sep 26 Johnny Appleseed born, 1774
Sep 26 National Day in Maldives, Yemem Deomcratic Republic
Sep 26 Revoluation Anniversary Day in Yemen Arab
Sep 26 T.S. (Thomas Stearns) Eliot born in St. Louis (1888)
Sep 27 Feast of Finding the True Cross in Ethiopia
Sep 27 The first passenger was hauled in a locomotive in England (1825)
Sep 27 Thomas Nast born, 1840
Sep 28 "Pilgrim's Progress" published, 1678
Sep 28 A greek soldier runs 26+ miles to the Persian defeat at Marathon (490BC)
Sep 28 Confucious' Day in Taiwan
Sep 28 Frodo wounded at Weathertop (LOTR)
Sep 28 Michelangelo Buanarroti born in Caprese, Italy (1573)
Sep 28 Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) born in Rome (106BC)
Sep 28 Seymour Cray born, 1925
Sep 29 Battle of Boqueron in Paraquay
Sep 29 Gene Autry born, 1907
Sep 30 Botswanna Day in Botswanna
Sep 30 First Day of Sukkot
Sep 30 The first tooth is extracted under anesthesia in Charleston, Mass (1846)
Sep 30 The verdicts of the Nuremberg trials are announced (1946)
Oct 1 Armed Forces Day in South Korea
Oct 1 Independence Day in Nigeria
Oct 1 Jimmy Carter born, 1924
Oct 1 Labor Day in Australia
Oct 1 National Liberation Day (2 days) in China
Oct 1 Public Holiday in Botswanna
Oct 2 Anniversary of Guinean Independence in Guinea
Oct 2 Aristotle dies of indigestion (322 BC)
Oct 2 First robotics-based CAM, 1939
Oct 2 Mohandas K. Gandhi born at Porbandar, Kathiawad, India (1869)
Oct 2 Thurgood Marshall sworn as the first black Supreme Court Justice (1967)
Oct 3 Chung Yeung Festival in Hong Kong
Oct 3 Francisco Morazan's Birthday in Honduras
Oct 3 National Foundation Day in South Korea
Oct 3 U.N. Day in Varbados
Oct 4 Crimean war begins, 1853
Oct 4 First space vehicle, Sputnik I, launched (1957)
Oct 4 Independence Day in Lesotho
Oct 4 Janis Joplin dies of a heroin overdose in Hollywood, 1970
Oct 4 John V. Atanasoff born, 1903
Oct 4 Sputnik I launched, 1957
Oct 5 Anniversary of Proclamation of the Republic in Portugal
Oct 5 Frodo crosses bridge of Mitheithel
Oct 5 Pablo Picasso born in Malaga, Spain (1881)
Oct 5 Ray Kroc (founder of McDonald's) born (1902)
Oct 5 Ray Kroc (owner of McDonald's) born (1902)
Oct 5 Steve Miller is born in Dallas, 1943
Oct 6 Antioch College is the first public school to admit men and women (1853)
Oct 6 Anwar Sadat assassinated, 1981
Oct 6 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated in Cairo (1981)
Oct 6 First GPSS manual published, 1961
Oct 6 Israel is attacked by the alliance of Egypt and Syria (1973)
Oct 6 National Sports Day in Lesotho
Oct 7 First Bandstand (later, American Bandstand) broadcast, 1957
Oct 7 Foundation of the GDR in 1949 in German Democratic Republic
Oct 7 Maryland Governor Marvin Mandel sent to prison on fraud charges (1977)
Oct 7 Mother Teresa of Calcutta awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1979)
Oct 7 National Heroes Day in Jamaica
Oct 7 Police stop Wilbur Mills car, Fanne Fox jumps into water, 1974
Oct 8 Battle of Agamos in Peru
Oct 8 Constitution Day in U.S.S.R
Oct 8 Fiji Day in Fiji
Oct 8 First VisiCalc prototype, 1978
Oct 8 Great Chicago Fire, 1871
Oct 8 Thanksgiving Day in Canada
Oct 8* Simhat Torah
Oct 9 First two-way telephone conversation (1876)
Oct 9 Independence Day in Uganda
Oct 9 Independence of Guayaquil in Ecuador
Oct 9 John Lennon born in Liverpool, England (1940)
Oct 9 John Lennon is born in Liverpool, England, 1940
Oct 9 Korean Alphabet Day in South Korea
Oct 9 Leif Erikson Day commemorates the discovery of North America in AD 1000
Oct 9 Republic Day in Khmer Republic
Oct 10 Agnew resigns, 1973
Oct 10 Beginning of the Wars for Independence in Cuba
Oct 10 Fiji Day in Fiji
Oct 10 Foundation of the Workers Party in North Korea
Oct 10 Health-Sports Day in Japan
Oct 10 John Prine is born in Maywood, Illinois, 1946
Oct 10 Mercury at Superior Conjunction with Sun. Moves into night sky. <1984>
Oct 10 National Day in Taiwan
Oct 10 Oklahoma Historical Day in Oklahoma
Oct 10 Spiro T. Agnew resigns as Vice-President due to income tax fraud (1973)
Oct 11 "Saturday Night Live" premiers on NBC-TV, 1975
Oct 11 Day of the Revolution in Panama
Oct 11 Druger Day in South Africa
Oct 11 The Gang of Four are arrested in Peking (1976)
Oct 11 The first steam powered ferry ran between New York and Hoboken (1811)
Oct 11 The second Vatican Eccumenical Council opens in Rome (1962)
Oct 12 Columbus lands in Bahamas, 1492
Oct 12 Day of the Race in Argentina
Oct 12 Discovery Day in Gahamas
Oct 12 Khrushchev pounds his desk with shoe during a speech to the UN (1960)
Oct 12 Man O'War's last race, 1920
Oct 12 National Day in Equatorial Guinea, Spain
Oct 12 Native Americans discover Columbus of Europe lost on their shores (1492)
Oct 12 Our Lady Aparecida Day in Brazil
Oct 12 Pan American Day in Belize
Oct 12 The Jimi Hendrix Experience is formed in London, 1966
Oct 12 Univac gives contract for SIMULA compiler to Nygaard and Dahl, 1962
Oct 13 Italy declares war on Germany (1943)
Oct 13 Lenny Bruce is born in New York City, 1925
Oct 13 St. Edward's Day - patron saint of England
Oct 13 U.S. Navy born, 1775, authorized by the Second Continental Congress
Oct 13 Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro) born near Mantua, Italy (70 BC)
Oct 14 Battle of Hastings (and England) won by William the Conqueror and the Normans (1066)
Oct 14 Battle of Hastings won by William the Conqueror and the Normans (1066)
Oct 14 British Computer Society founded, 1957
Oct 14 Chuck Yeager breaks sound barrier, 1947
Oct 14 Columbus Day
Oct 14 Dwight David Eisenhower born, 1890
Oct 14 National Day in Yemen Arab Repyblic
Oct 14 William Penn born in London (1644)
Oct 14 Young People's Day in Zaire
Oct 14* Thanksgiving Day in Canada
Oct 15 Evacuation Day in Tunisia
Oct 15 First FORTRAN Programmer's Reference Manual published
Oct 15 First draft card burned (1965)
Oct 15 Pelham Grenville Wodehouse born, 1881
Oct 16 Bob Weir (Grateful Dead) is born in San Francisco, 1947
Oct 16 Boromir reaches Rivendell
Oct 16 National Boss Day
Oct 16 Noah Webster born, 1758
Oct 16 Oscar (Fingal O'Flahertie Wills) Wilde born in Dublin (1854)
Oct 17 "Hair" opens at New York's Public Theater, 1967
Oct 17 Council of Elrond
Oct 17 Dessaline's Death Anniversary in Haiti
Oct 17 Heroes Day in Jamaica
Oct 17 Mother's Day in Malawi
Oct 17 Richard Mentor Johnson born, 1780, 9th V.P. of U.S.
Oct 18 Boston Shoemakers form first U.S. labor org., 1648
Oct 18 Chuck Berry is born in San Jose, California, 1926
Oct 18 Feast Day of St. Luke
Oct 18 Soviets anounce their probe took photos of the Moon's far side (1959)
Oct 19 Mao Tse-tung establishes the People's Republic of China (1949)
Oct 19 Napoleon's beaten army beings a long retreat from Moscow (1812)
Oct 20 "Saturday Night Massacre", 1973
Oct 20 Anniversary of the 1944 Revolution in Guatemala
Oct 20 Kenyatta Day in Kenya
Oct 20 OPEC embargo, 1973
Oct 20 Three members of Lynyrd Skynyrd dies in a plane crash, 1977
Oct 20 Zurich ALGOL report published, 1958
Oct 21 Alfred Nobel born in Stockholm (1833)
Oct 21 Armed Forces Day in Honduras
Oct 21 Edison makes the first practical incandescent lamp (1879)
Oct 21 Guggenheim Museum opens, 1959
Oct 21 Revolution Days (2 days) in Somalia
Oct 22 Franz Liszt born, 1811
Oct 22 Mothers-in-Law Day
Oct 23 Battle of Leyte Gulf begins, 1944
Oct 23 Chulalongkron's Day in Thsailand
Oct 24 Independence Day in Zambia
Oct 24 United Nations Day
Oct 25 DEC announces VAX-Nov 780
Oct 25 End of War of the Ring
Oct 25 Jon Anderson (Yes) is born in Lancashire, England, 1944
Oct 25 Labor Day in New Zealand
Oct 25 Taiwan Restoration Day inb Taiwan
Oct 25 The Rolling Stones appear on The Ed Sullivan Show, 1964
Oct 25 The UN removes Taiwan and admits the People's Republic of China (1971)
Oct 26 Agam Day in Nauru
Oct 26 Armed Forces Day in Benin, Rwanda
Oct 26 National Day in Austria
Oct 26 UN's World Health Organization declares smallpox eradicated (1978)
Oct 27 Gerald M. Weinberg born, 1933
Oct 27 James Cook is born (1466)
Oct 27 New York's Boss Tweed is arrested on fraud charges (1871)
Oct 27 The first New York Subway is opened (1904)
Oct 27* Daylight Savings Time Ends Turn Clocks Back 1hr.
Oct 28 Columbus discovers Cuba (1492)
Oct 28 Constantine's army defeats forces of Maxentius at Mulvian Bridge (312)
Oct 28 Harvard was founded in Massachusetts (1636)
Oct 28 National Holiday in Greece
Oct 28 OHI Day in Cyprus
Oct 28 Statue of Liberty was dedicated on Bedloe's Island (1886)
Oct 28* Bank Holiday in Rep. of Ireland
Oct 29 Duane Allman dies in motorcycle crash near Macon, Georgia, 1971
Oct 29 Republic Day in Turkey
Oct 29 Stock Market Crash, 1929
Oct 30 Grace Slick is born in Chicago, 1939
Oct 30 Orson Welles' "War of the Worlds" broadcast, 1938
Oct 31 Chiang Kai-Shek born (1887)
Oct 31 Dale Evans born, 1912
Oct 31 Halloween
Oct 31 Luther nails 95 Theses to door of Castle Church, Wittenberg (1517)
Oct 31 Nevada Day in Nevada
Nov 1 All Saints Day
Nov 1 Austria-Hungary become two seperate nations (1918)
Nov 1 Feast of All Saints in Portugal
Nov 1 Puerto Rican nationalists tried to kill Truman at the Blair House (1950)
Nov 1 Samhain Beginning of the Celtic year and most important holiday.
Nov 2 All Souls Day in Bolivia, Brazil, El Salvador, Uruguay
Nov 2 Daniel Boone born near Reading, PA (1734)
Nov 2 Jimi Hendrix's "Electric Ladyland" enters US charts at #1, 1968
Nov 2 Keith Emerson is born, 1944
Nov 2 Luftwaffe completes 57 consecutive nights of bombing of London, 1940
Nov 2 Memorial Day in Ecuador
Nov 2 Two Frenchmen make the first free hot air balloon flight (1783)
Nov 3 Beef rises to 3 cents a pound, IL, 1837
Nov 3 Culture Day in Japan
Nov 3 Independence from Columbia in Panama
Nov 3 Independence of Cuenca in Ecuador
Nov 3 James Taylor and Carly Simon are married in Manhattan, 1972
Nov 3 Linus Pauling wins Nobel Chemistry Prize, 1954
Nov 3 Sputnik II launched, 1957, bearing spacedog Laika
Nov 3 Thanksgiving Day in Liberia
Nov 4 Flag Day in Panama
Nov 4 Iranian militants seize US embassy personnel in Teheran (1979)
Nov 4 King William III of Orange born (1650)
Nov 4 Soviet forces crush the anti-communist revolt in Hungary (1956)
Nov 4 UNIVAC I program predicts Eisenhower victory based on 7% of votes, 1952
Nov 4 Will Rogers Day
Nov 5 Guy Fawkes' Plot, 1605
Nov 5 Roy Rogers born, 1912
Nov 5* Election Day
Nov 6 Anniversary of the October Socialist Revolution (2 days) in U.S.S.R.
Nov 6 Green March Day in Morocco
Nov 6 Prophet Mohammed's Birthday in Malaysia
Nov 7 Abolitionist newspaperman Elijah P Lovejoy murdered by mob, 1837
Nov 7 Anniversary of Great October Revolution in Bulgaria
Nov 7 Joni Mitchell (Roberta Joan Anderson) is born in Alberta, Canada, 1943
Nov 7 Lewis and Clark Expedition in sight of the Pacific Ocean (1805)
Nov 7 National Revolution Day
Nov 7 October Revolution Day in Hungary
Nov 8 Her Majesty, the Queen's Birthday in Nepal
Nov 8 Patti Page born, 1927
Nov 9 Blackout of New York, New England, and Eastern Canada (1965)
Nov 9 Carl Sagan born, 1934
Nov 9 Giant panda discovered (?!), China, 1927
Nov 9 Margaret Sanger forms American Birth Control League (1921)
Nov 9 Roosevelt establishes the Civil Works Administration (1933)
Nov 9 The first issue of "Rolling Stone" is published, 1967
Nov 10 41 Women arrested in suffragette demonstartions near White House (1917)
Nov 10 Cpt Wirz, commandant of Andersonville Prison hanged, 1865
Nov 10 Greg Lake is born in Bournemouth, England, 1948
Nov 10 Henry Stanley asks David Livingston, "Dr. Livingston, I presume?" (1871)
Nov 10 King's Birthday in Bhutan
Nov 10 Martin Luther born in Eisleben, Germany (1483)
Nov 10 Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev dies at age 75 (1982)
Nov 11 Angola gains independence from Portugal (1975)
Nov 11 Armistice Day
Nov 11 Independence Day in Angola
Nov 11 Independence of Cartagena in Colombia
Nov 11 Kurt Vonnegut, Jr, born in Indianapolis (1922)
Nov 11 Rememberance Day in Canada
Nov 11 Republic Day in Maldives
Nov 11 Veterans' Day
Nov 11 Washington becomes the 42nd state (1889)
Nov 12 Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Birthday in Taiwan
Nov 12 Neil Young is born in Toronto, 1945
Nov 12 Prince Charles' Birthday in Fiji
Nov 12 U.S. first exports oil to Europe, 1861
Nov 13 Paul Simon born, 1942
Nov 13 Robert Louis Stevenson born, 1850
Nov 13 St. Augustine of Hippo born (354)
Nov 13 St. Augustine of Hippo born in Numidia, Algeria (354)
Nov 14 King Hussein's Birthday in Jordan
Nov 14 Quarter Pounder price raised from .53 to .55 in violation of Nixon price controls (but okayed by Price Commission after formal request from McDonald's) (1971)
Nov 15 Dynasty Day in Belgium
Nov 15 Niagara Falls power plant startup, 1896
Nov 15 Proclamation of the Republic in Brazil
Nov 15 Thatlouang Festival in Laos
Nov 16 Bilbo reaches the Lonely Mountain
Nov 16 Bill Ham first demonstrates his psychedelic "Light Show", 1965
Nov 16 Oklahoma Heritage Week in Oklahoma
Nov 16 Opening of the Suez Canal (1869)
Nov 17 46,000 meteoroids fall over AZ in 20 minutes, 1966
Nov 17 Army Day in Zaire
Nov 17 Corrective Movement in Syrian Arab Republic
Nov 18 Battle of Viertieres in Haiti
Nov 18 First hydrogen bomb blasts Enewetok (1952)
Nov 18 Imogene Coca born, 1908
Nov 18 Independence Day in Morocco
Nov 18 Local standard time zones established for US (1883)
Nov 18 National Days (4 days) in Oman
Nov 18 William S. Gilbert born, 1836
Nov 19 Anniversary of the 1968 Coup by the Army in Mali
Nov 19 Discovery Day in Puerto Rico
Nov 19 Feast Day of S.A.S. Prince Rainier in Monaco
Nov 19 Garifuna Settlement in Belize
Nov 19 Gettysburg Address delivered, 1863
Nov 19 Prince of Wales Birthday in Fiji
Nov 20 Duane Allman is born in Nashville, Tennessee, 1946
Nov 20 Joe Walsh is born in Cleveland, 1947
Nov 20 RFK born, 1925
Nov 20 Revolution Day in Mexico
Nov 21 Announcement of 18 1/2 minute gap on Watergate tape (1973)
Nov 21 Announcement of 18 1/2 minute gap on Watergate tape, 1973
Nov 21 Day of Prayer and Repentance in Federal Republic of Germany
Nov 22 Anniversary of Portuguese Aggression in Guinea
Nov 22 Independence Day in Lebanon
Nov 22 Kennedy shot in Dallas, Texas by Lee Harvey Oswald (1963)
Nov 22 Kennedy shot, 1963
Nov 23 Labor Thanksgiving Day in Japan
Nov 24 Anniversary of the New Regime in Zaire
Nov 24 Lee Harvey Oswald killed by Jack Ruby (1963)
Nov 24 Scott Joplin born, 1868
Nov 25 "The Last Waltz" concert is played by The Band at Winterland, 1976
Nov 25 Alfred Nobel invents dynamite (1867)
Nov 25 Independence Day in Suriname
Nov 25 Johann Strauss, Jr., writes `On the Beautiful Blue Danube' (1867)
Nov 26 Charles Schulz born in Minneapolis (1922)
Nov 26 Cream performs their farewell concert at Royal Albert Hall, 1968
Nov 26 Norbert Weiner born, 1894
Nov 27 Alfred Nobel establishes Nobel Prize (1895)
Nov 27 Friction match invented, England, 1826
Nov 27 Hoosac Railroad Tunnel completed, 1873, in NW Massachusetts
Nov 27 Jimi Hendrix (Johnny Allen Hendrix) is born in Seattle, 1942
Nov 28 Independence Day in Albania, Mauritania
Nov 28 Independence from Spain in Panama
Nov 28 Proclamation of the Republic in Chad
Nov 28 Thanksgiving Day in United States (4th Thursday)
Nov 29 Day of the Republic (2 days) in Yugoslavia
Nov 29 Goodwill Day in Liberia
Nov 29 John Mayall is born in Cheshire, England, 1933
Nov 29 King Tut's tomb opened, 1922
Nov 29 Liberation Day in Albania
Nov 29 National Day in Burma
Nov 30 Cleopatra died, 30 bc
Nov 30 Independence Day in Barbados, Yemen Deomcratic Republic
Nov 30 Mark Twain (Samuel Clemmens) born in Florida, Missouri (1835)
Nov 30 National Day in Benin
Nov 30 National Heroes Day in Philippines
Nov 30 Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) born (1835)
Nov 30 St. Andrew's Day
Dec 1 Anniversary of the Restoration of Independence in Portugal
Dec 1 First national corn-husking championship, Alleman IA, 1924
Dec 1 Independence Day in Central African Republic
Dec 1 Martin Luther King Jr., leads black boycott of Montgomery buses (1955)
Dec 1 Rosa Parks refuses to move to back of the bus (Montgomery, AL) (1953)
Dec 1 Woody Allen (Allen Stuart Konigsberg) born in Brooklyn, NY (1935)
Dec 1* First Sunday of Advent (4th Sunday before Christmas)
Dec 2 National Holiday in United Arab Emirates
Dec 3 First neon light display, Paris, 1910
Dec 3 First successful human heart transplant lead by Dr. Barnard (1967)
Dec 3 National Holiday in Laos
Dec 3 The Montreux Casino burns down during a Frank Zappa concert, 1971
Dec 4 Tommy Bolin dies of a heroin overdose in Miami, 1976
Dec 4 Washington takes leave of his officers at Fraunce's Tavern, NYC, 1783
Dec 5 Death of Smaug (LOTR)
Dec 5 End of Prohibition, 1933 (at least the alcohol part)
Dec 5 Mozart dies, 1791
Dec 5 Phi Beta Kappa founded, 1776
Dec 5 St. Nicholas' Day
Dec 5 The Eighteenth Amendment repealed, ending Prohibition (1933)
Dec 5 Walt (Walter Elias) Disney born in Chicago (1901)
Dec 6 First sound recording made by Thomas Edison (1877)
Dec 6 Independence Day in Finland
Dec 6 The Rolling Stones play Altamont Speedway near San Francisco, 1969
Dec 7 Attack on Pearl Harbor, 1941
Dec 7 Delaware Day in Delaware
Dec 7 Harry Chapin is born in New York City, 1942
Dec 7 Independence Day in Ivory Coast, Panama
Dec 7 Japan bombs Pearl Harbor (1941)
Dec 7 Pearl Harbor, 1941
Dec 7 Prophet Mohammed's Birthday in Fiji
Dec 8 Blessing of the Water in Uruguay
Dec 8 First Ph.D. awarded by Computer Science Dept, Univ. of Penna, 1965
Dec 8 Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) born in Venosa (Italy) (65BC)
Dec 8 James (Grover) Thurber born in Columbus, Ohio (1894)
Dec 8 Jim Morrison is born in Melbourne, Florida, 1943
Dec 8 John Lennon assassinated, 1980
Dec 8 John Lennon is shot and killed in New York City, 1980
Dec 8 Mother's Day in Panama
Dec 8 Our Lady of the Cacupe in Paraguay
Dec 8* First Day of Hanukkah
Dec 9 Ball-bearing roller skates patented, 1884
Dec 9 Independence Day in Tanzania
Dec 9 The Who's "Tommy" premieres in London, 1973
Dec 10 Emily Dickenson born, 1830
Dec 10 Foundation of Worker's Party in Angola
Dec 10 Human Rights Day
Dec 10 Metric system established in France (1799)
Dec 10 Nobel Peace Prize awarded each year
Dec 10 Thai Constitution Day in Thailand
Dec 10 Wyoming Day in Wyoming
Dec 11 Independence Day in Upper Volta
Dec 12 E. G. Robinson born, 1893
Dec 12 First wireless message sent across Atlantic by Marconi (1901)
Dec 12 Independence Day in Kenya
Dec 13 Dartmouth College chartered, 1769
Dec 13 Geminid meteor shower (look south)
Dec 13 Republic Day in Malta
Dec 13 Ted Nugent, the motor city madman, is born in Detroit, 1949
Dec 14 George Washington dies, 1799
Dec 15 Argo Merchant oil spill, 1976
Dec 15 Bill of Rights adopted (1791)
Dec 15 James Naismith invents basketball, Canada, 1891
Dec 15 Sitting Bull shot in head while submitting to arrest, 1890
Dec 15 Statue Day in Netherlands Antilles
Dec 15 Thomas Edison receives patent on the phonograph (1877)
Dec 16 Constitution Day in Nepal
Dec 16 Day of the Covenant in South Africa
Dec 16 Don McLean's "American Pie" is released, 1971
Dec 16 Fellowship begins Quest
Dec 16 Ludwig von Beethoven christened in Bonn, Germany (1770)
Dec 16 National Day in Bahrain
Dec 16 Victry Day in Bangladesh
Dec 17 National Day in Bhutan
Dec 17 William Safire (Safir) born (1929)
Dec 18 Republic Day in Niger
Dec 20 U.S. Buys

1,000,000 sq. miles of Louisiana for

$20/sq.mi.
Dec 21 Benjamin Disraeli born, 1804
Dec 21 First day of winter, Winter Solstice, 11:23 am EST
Dec 21 Frank Zappa is born in Baltimore, 1940
Dec 21 Phileas Fogg completes his trip around the world in <80 days
Dec 22 Giacomo Puccini born, 1858
Dec 23 First G&S collaboration, Thespis, 1871
Dec 23 Joseph Smith born (1805)
Dec 23 Victory Day in Egypt
Dec 24 Christmas Eve
Dec 24 KKK formed in Pulaski, Tenn, 1865
Dec 25 Birthday of Quaid-i-Azam in Pakistan
Dec 25 Children's Day in Congo
Dec 25 Christmas
Dec 25 Isaac Newton (Sir) born in Grantham, England (1642)
Dec 25 Isaac Newton born (1642)
Dec 26 Bank Holiday in Canada, Rep. of Ireland, and UK
Dec 26 Boxing Day
Dec 26 Chas. Babbage born, 1791
Dec 26 DPMA founded, 1951
Dec 26 Family Day in South Africa
Dec 26 Feast of Our Theotokos in Greece
Dec 26 St. Stephen's Day
Dec 27 APT report published, 1956
Dec 27 Bank Holiday in Cayman Islands
Dec 27 Constitution Day in North Korea
Dec 27 Ether first used as anesthetic in childbirth, 1845
Dec 27 Public Holiday in Lesotho, Zimbabwe
Dec 28 Comet Kohoutek at perihelion, 1973
Dec 28 Edgar Winter is born in Beaumont, Texas, 1946
Dec 28 John von Neumann born, 1903
Dec 29 Battle of Wounded knee, 1890
Dec 29 Civic Holidays (3 days) in Costa Rica
Dec 29 His Majesty, the King's Birthday in Nepal
Dec 30 Anniversary of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar in Madagascar
Dec 30 First Los Angeles freeway dedicated (1940)
Dec 31 Bank Holiday in El Salvador, Honduras, Pakistan
Dec 31 Feed Yourself Day in Benin
Dec 31 Jimi Hendrix introduces the Band of Gypsies at the Fillmore East, 1969
Dec 31 New Year's Eve
Dec 31 Proclamation of the Republic in Congo
Dec 31 St. Sylvester in Switzerland
Dec 31 Winterland closes its doors, 1978

source: http://history.eserver.org/historical-events.txt
Web site link: http://history.eserver.org

Google key word : history timeline file type: txt

Author: not indicated on the source document of the above text

If you are the author of the text above and you not agree to share your knowledge for teaching, research, scholarship (for fair use as indicated in the United States copyrigh low) please send us an e-mail and we will remove your text quickly.


First Barbary War

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

First Barbary War, also called Tripolitan War, (1801–05), conflict between the United States and Tripoli (now in Libya), incited by American refusal to continue payment of tribute to the piratical rulers of the North African Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis, Morocco, and Tripoli. This practice had been customary among European nations and the nascent United States in exchange for immunity from attack on merchant vessels in the Mediterranean.

A demand from the pasha of Tripoli for greater tribute and his dramatic declaration of war on the United States (May 14, 1801) coincided with a decision by U.S. Pres. Thomas Jefferson’s administration to demonstrate American resolve. Despite his opposition to the expense of maintaining a navy, Jefferson dispatched an American naval squadron to Tripolitan waters. By means of a special “Mediterranean Fund,” the navy—which had been partially dismantled and was perhaps nearing extinction—actually increased in size.

During the following years, American warships fought in the waters around Tripoli, and, in 1803, when Commodore Edward Preble became commander of the Mediterranean squadron, greater successes ensued. The intrepid Preble sailed into Tangiers to rescue a number of American prisoners, and, on February 16, 1804, he ordered his young lieutenant, Stephen Decatur, to undertake the spectacular raid in which the captured U.S. frigate Philadelphia was destroyed in the harbour of Tripoli.

The combination of a strong American naval blockade and an overland expedition from Egypt finally brought the war to a close, with a treaty of peace (June 4, 1805) favourable to the United States. The other Barbary rulers, though considerably chastened, continued to receive some tribute until 1816.


1801-Tripolitan War - History

TIMELINE Some historical events, chosen at random:

DATE EVENT
======================================================================
30KBC (or earlier) Probable crossing of Bering Straits by Indian ancestors
61 Spinden date for the Leyden Plate, a carved jade plaque in Mexico
68 Spinden date for oldest stone monument or stela, in Mexico
217 Year of oldest Pueblo roofbeam that can be carbon-14 dated
400 Heyday of the Moundbuilders in Mississippi and Ohio valleys
725 Casa Grande, an Indian fort and large irrigation works built - Arizona
850 Norsemen defeat Irishmen, eject them from Iceland
985 Eric the Red colonizes Greenland
1000 Leif, Eric's son, builds dwelling on NE coast of Newfoundland
1000 Tiahuanaco civilization in Peru, widespread planting of potatoes, corn
1056 Beginning of the democratic Pataria movement in Milan
1100 Mayan civilization reaches it's height in Central America
1215 King John seals Magna Carta at Runnymede. But not made law until 1297
1225 Magna Carta reissued for third time in definitive form
1254 Birth of Marco Polo, explorer who will bring pasta to Italy from China
1265 First English Parliament, January 20
1297 Magna Carta confirmed by Edward I, enters English statute rolls as law
1325 Toltec empire defeated by Aztecs in Mexico
1327 Aztecs establish Mexico City
1332 Parliament divides into two houses
1347 Bubonic plague in Europe originated in India, 1332. 75 million deaths
1350 The League of Nations established at Onondaga, NY. 1st true democracy
1364 Aztecs build their capital at Tenochtitlan, Mexico
1438 Inca rule begins in Peru
1441 Portugese sailors enter slave trade with African Negroes at Cape Blanc
1451 Birth of Cristoforo Columbo dies 1506
1454 Birth of Amerigo Vespucci dies 1512
1492 Columbus departs Palos, Spain, in Santa Maria. Hopes to find gold/Indies
1494 Spain and Portugal divide New World in Treaty of Tordesillas
1497 John Cabot makes landfall in Newfoundland, claims it for England
1498 Cabots explore as far south as Hatteras claim continent for England
1499 Ojeda explores Venezuelan coastline
1500 Fernandes explores Labrador
1500 Pedro Alvarez Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal
1501 Gaspar Corte-Real kidnaps 57 Indians in Newfoundland
1501 Rodrigo de Bastidas explores Central American coast & Caribbean
1507 Lands of the New World named for Amerigo Vespucci by Waldseemuller
1510 Spain begins settlements in Jamaica two years later in Cuba
1512 Juan Ponce de Leon names discovery after Easter Sunday Pascua Florida
1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa names large body of water as "Pacific"
1519 Hernando Cortes begins assault on Mexico, defeats the Aztecs
1519 Cortes brings Arabian horses to Americas from Spain
1519 Domenico de Pineda explores Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Vera Cruz
1520 Magellan navigates through the straits from Atlantic to Pacific
1521 Martin Luther excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church, Jan 3
1521 Guam, where America's day begins, explored by Magellan
1524 Giovanni da Verrazano explores Hudson River and New York harbor waters
1526 Spanish attempt colonization of Cape Fear it lasts only a few months
1528 Panfilo de Narvaez invades Florida from Cuba, wars with Indians
1531 Spain invades Peru end of Inca civilization
1534 Jacques Cartier explores coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland
1535 Jacques Cartier explores St. Lawrence River, trades with Huron Indians
1536 Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aries
1536 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca reaches Culiacan after roaming all over south
1538 Bogota settled by Quesada
1539 Hernando de Soto leaves Havana to find Seven Cities finds Indian war
1539 First printing press set up in the New World - at Mexico City
1540 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado treks north from Mexico to Zuni territory
1540 Coronado's troops discover the Grand Canyon
1541 Hernando de Soto explores Mississipi River valley and Gulf Coast
1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrilho explores in area of San Diego for Spain
1544 Sebastian Cabot publishes map of the world with remarkable detail
1555 First tobacco taken from America to Spain
1555 Rio de Janeiro colony established by the French
1558 Reign of Elizabeth I begins ends in 1603
1562 French establish trading post in South Carolina, erect monument in FL
1562 John Hawkins begins slave trade between Guinea and West Indies
1564 French Huguenots try to start colony at Jacksonville are killed by Spain
1564 French found Fort Caroline, FL. First European colony on the mainland
1565 Spanish attack Fort Caroline, and find St. Augustine in the process
1572 Francis Drake attacks Spanish harbors in the Americas
1576 Martin Frobisher puts his name on Frobisher's Bay, Canada
1577 Sir Francis Drake begins explorations on west coast of North America
1581 Franciscan friars begin missionary work in "New Mexico"
1584 Walter Raleigh knighted by Virgin Queen for naming new colony for her
1585 English attempt colony at Roanoke Island, NC, but have Indian trouble
1586 Potatoes from Columbia introduced to England by Herriot
1587 New colony established at Pamlico Sound. It disappeared within 2 yrs
1587 Virginia Dare was first child born in the colonies fate unknown
1588 English defeat Spanish armada of King Philip II
1590 Galileo describes the law of falling bodies
1592 Alleged date of Juan de Fuca discovery of inland passage
1598 Colonists landed on Sable Island
1598 Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes to quiet religious wars
1598 Don Juan de Onate claims all of New Mexico for Spain
1601 Colony of Tadoussac founded
1602 Cape Cod named by Bartholemew Gosnold, English navigator who found it
1602 Vizcaino explores west coast from Gosnold to Buzzards Bay
1603 Martin Pring explores New England coast
1605 French trading post established at Port Royal, Nova Scotia
1605 Weymouth explores New England coast
1606 First charter granted to the Virginia Company, named after Virgin Queen
1607 Captain John Smith first encounters Iroquois in Chesapeake Bay
1607 Jamestown founded. First permanent English colony in New World
1607 English colony begun at Fort St. George, on Kennebec River, Maine
1608 Samuel de Champlain founds village of Quebec
1609 Champlain makes war against the Iroquois, 1st use of guns on Indians
1609 Hendrik "Henry" Hudson explores river valley named for him
1609 East Anglia Puritans leave England for Leiden, Holland for 10 year stay
1609 Dutch establish Fort Orange, now known as Albany, NY, as fur trading post
1609 Henry Hudson explores east coast of North America for Netherlands
1609 Santa Fe, New Mexico settled
1609 Kepler describes planetary motions and laws
1610 Henry Hudson discovers Hudson's Bay
1610 Thomas West, 3rd Lord de la Warr rescues Jamestown colony from starvation
1612 England colonizes Bermuda
1612 French explorers discover Lake Huron
1613 John Rolfe, husband of Pocahontas, cross-breeds tobacco successfully
1614 Thomas Hunt kidnaps 24 Indians from Cape Cod area, sells them as slaves
1615 French under Champlain trade with local Indians on Georgian Bay
1616 Captain John Smith publishes "A Description of New England"
1616 Pocahontas visits England, poses for portrait dies there
1616 White settlers introduce small pox to New England. Many Indians die
1619 Black slavery introduced at Jamestown by Dutch traders
1619 First legislative assembly in America, in Virginia, July 30
1620 Slide rule invented by Oughtred, in England
1620 Puritan Pilgrims write Mayflower Compact, land at Plymouth Colony
1621 Pilgrims have first contact with Indian, who greets them in English!
1621 The Indian, Squanto, learned English in England after fleeing Spain
1622 Maine granted to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason
1623 Champlain's expedition trades for furs with Indians on Lake Superior
1623 Settlements begin in New Hampshire
1624 Indians barter away Manhattan for about $24.00 Dutch begin settlements
1624 Virginia becomes a royal colony
1628 English Parliament enacts Petition of Right
1629 Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions for New Netherland granted
1629 Puritans settle Boston area, call themselves The Massachusetts-Bay Co.
1630 Puritans hang John Billington, a murderer a first for the colony
1632 Mariland named for Queen Henrietta Maria by English King Charles I
1632 "Oyster War" begins between VA and MD continues today
1634 Jean Nicolet explores Lake Michigan shore and Wisconsin
1635 Roger Williams banished from Massachusetts for espousing democracy
1635 First settlements in Connecticut include Hartford and Windsor
1636 First college in the colonies, later named after Rev. John Harvard
1636 Providence Plantations founded in Rhode Island by Roger Williams
1637 Pequot War in Connecticut and Rhode Island
1638 Swedish colony, near Wilmington, DE, introduces log-cabin building
1639 The Fundamental Orders unite three communities in "Connectecotte"
1639 Harvard College sets up first printing press in colonies
1640 First English book published in colonies is Bay Psalm Book Cambridge
1641 "Body of Liberties" adopted in Massachusetts precurses Bill of Rights
1642 Pascal invents an adding machine
1642 Massachusetts School Law requires schoolmaster in towns of 50 families
1642 French develop new trading post at Montreal
1643 Invention of the barometer
1643 New England Confederation founded. These are first 4 colonies to unite
1644 First bicameral legislature formed in Massachusetts
1644 Roger Williams publishes The Bloody Tenet of Persecution
1645 First ironworks, at Saugus, MA
1648 Iroquois defeat the Hurons, drive them into Canada, north of the Lakes
1649 Charles I executed Oliver Cromwell establishes Commonwealth
1649 First Assembly in Maryland. Enacts Toleration Act, freeing religion
1651 Navigation Acts require English ships and crews for all imports
1653 Iroquois defeat the Erie Nation, extend influence into o-he-you. (Ohio)
1656 New Netherland Council passes ordinance restricting religion
1657 Rhode Island Assembly adopts freedom of religion it doesn't last
1657 John Washington jumps ship in Virginia, buys land
1658 Birth of Antoine de la Mothe, sieur de Cadillac he dies in 1730
1661 William Penn deceives Delaware Indians, effectively steals Pennsylvania
1663 John Eliot translates Bible into an Indian tongue
1664 Dutch give up control of New Amsterdam
1665 Duke's Law established by Duke of York, who renames area for himself
1668 Sault Ste. Marie established by French missionaries
1669 Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle explores Ohio River valley
1669 Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina inaugurated
1670 Newton gives the world The Calculus
1670 Grant from Charles II leads to settlement of Charleston, SC
1670 Hudson's Bay Company founded to compete with French fur traders
1673 Iroquois drive Mosopelea Indians from Southwestern Ohio
1673 Marquette and Joliet explore northern parts of Mississippi valley
1675 Indian "King Phillip" begins retaliatory war against white invaders
1676 Bacon's Rebellion wages vigilante war in Virginia
1676 First formally declared "Day of Thanksgiving" June 20, Charlestown, MA
1679 Settlements in what is now New Hampshire proclaimed a royal colony
1679 Habeas Corpus Amendment Act in England
1680 Pueblo Indians get horses from Spanish first Plains Indians to do so
1681 Province of Pennsylvania (Penn's Woodlands) chartered
1682 Philadelphia founded. Penn publishes Frame of Government
1682 LaSalle explores Mississippi River, claims river valley for France
1684 Charles II annuls 1629 charter of Massachusetts colony
1684 Cotton Mather coins the term "Americans" for colonists
1684 A patent is granted for the thimble
1685 Louis XIV cancels Edict of Nantes, thousands flee to the colonies
1688 First written protest against slavery, by Mennonites in Germantown, PA
1688 The Glorious Revolution establishes Parliamentary supremacy
1689 English Parliament enacts Bill of Rights, provides religious freedom
1689 Pensacola founded (again). (Spanish had tried there in 1559)
1690 First newspaper banned in the colonies is Publick Occurences, in Boston
1691 Plymouth becomes part of royal colony of Massachusetts
1692 Witch hunts in Salem, MA 19 die
1693 William and Mary becomes second college in the colonies, Feb 6
1693 Champagne is invented by Dom Perignon, August 4
1695 Freedom of the press comes to England. Censorship abolished
1696 Habeas Corpus Act suspended in England
1696 Board of Trade takes over administration of the colonies
1697 Penn proposes a Plan of Union for the English Colonies in America
1699 Woolens Act.
1699 Cahokia and Biloxi founded
1701 Cadillac establishes new trading post call it "Ponchartrain" on de Troit
1701 Elihu Yale donates 800 Pounds to the third college in the colonies
1701 Delaware gets government separate from Pennsylvania
1702 East Jersey and West Jersey unite to form royal province of New Jersey
1702 Queen Anne begins reign dies 1714. Annapolis is named for her
1703 Benjamin Franklin born in Boston
1704 First organ built in the colonies, in Philadelphia
1707 Scotland and England join to become Great Britain
1709 First Copyright Act, in Britain
1711 War with Tuscarora Indians in Carolinas, they head north
1712 North Carolina gets own governor, separates from South Carolina
1713 Treaty of Utrecht French Acadians (Cajuns) driven from Nova Scotia to LA
1714 Shawnee establish themselves in western Ohio, driven there from MD
1715 Tuscarora Indians join League of Five Nations, making it Six Nations
1716 First theater in the colonies is at Williamsburg
1717 Mother Goose appears in print, in Boston
1718 New Orleans founded by Le Page du Pratz, for Bienville
1720 Birth of Ottawa Indian war chief Pontiac, near Detroit
1720 First settlements in Vermont
1721 Dr. Zabdiel Boylston imports smallpox vaccine, in Boston
1723 Benjamin Franklin leaves Boston for Philadelphia
1727 First British fort on Great Lakes is Fort Oswego, NY
1728 Vitus J. Bering, a Dane, explores strait which now bears his name
1728 First American steel made in Hartford, CT
1732 Benjamin Franklin begins to publish Poor Richard's Almanac
1732 George Washington born in Virginia on February 22 dies in 1799
1732 Hat Act forbade manufacture in colonies of hats made with local fur
1732 First stagecoach route connects Burlington to Perth Amboy, NJ
1733 Sugar Act, aka Molasses Act, a revenue enhancement scheme for Britain
1733 Georgia becomes 13th colony founded by James Oglethorpe
1734 Hamilton defends Zenger in freedom of the press landmark case
1735 John Adams, 2nd President, born October 30 dies July 4, 1826
1736 Patrick Henry born May 29
1736 Franklin begins Fire Department in Philadelphia
1737 John Hancock born January 23
1738 The Great Awakening in full swing reshaping religious policies everywhere
1738 British traders begin working shores of Lake Erie, compete with French
1738 Future King George III born. Declaration of Independence mentions him
1739 In North Carolina, there is large insurrection by blacks
1739 War of Jenkin's Ear begins
1740 English Parliament allows naturalization of colonists after 7 years
1740 Invention of the Franklin stove, his most famous invention
1740 Philadelphia is largest city in America. Population 13,000
1741 Vitus Bering claims Alaska for his (now) homeland Russia
1743 Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President, born April 13 dies July 4, 1826
1743 American Philosophical Society founded by Benjamin Franklin
1744 King George's War begins. France joins war effort against England
1746 College of New Jersey, now called Princeton Univ., founded
1747 New York State Bar Association is first in this continent
1748 "Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep" appears in New England Primer
1748 Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle ends King George's War
1749 England recognizes slavery and plantation system in the south
1749 George Washington becomes land surveyor at age 17, for an Ohio company
1749 Halifax, Nova Scotia founded
1750 Cumberland Gap discovered, named by Thomas Walker. Westward ho begins
1750 First American coal mine opens in Virginia
1750 Iron Act encourages colonial pig iron, forbids colonial steel tools
1751 James Madison, father of our Constitution & 4th President, born. d.1836
1751 Liberty Bell ordered from England. 50th anniversary Charter of Privs
1752 Benjamin Franklin goes out to "fly a kite". A shocking experience!
1752 Franklin invents the lightning rod based on his electrical experiments
1752 First general hospital opens in Philadelphia
1753 George Washington explores western Pa delivers ultimatum to French
1754 Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of Union remarks on Iroquoian League
1754 French and Indian War begins ends formally in 1763 in Treaty of Paris
1754 King's College, now Columbia University, founded
1754 Major Washington loses battle of Fort Necessity
1755 Braddock's defeat at Pittsburgh Washington makes Lt Colonel
1755 Irish immigrant, Jackson, born at sea, will become 7th President
1757 Franklin goes to London for 17 year mission for the colonies
1757 D. P. Custis dies, leaves his "The White House" plantation to wife Martha
1758 James Monroe, 5th President, born in Virginia dies in 1831
1759 George Washington weds Martha Custis, honeymoons at The White House
1759 General Wolfe v. Marquis de Montcalm on Plains of Abraham both die
1760 Final subjugation of Canada by England
1760 George III becomes King of England. Colonial population 1.6 million
1761 Writs of Assistance case tried in Boston
1762 Benjamin Franklin re-designs the harmonica, makes it a musical instrument
1762 Spain acquires Louisiana from France
1763 Pontiac begins seige of Detroit, now a British fort incites other wars
1763 French and Indian War ends with Treaty of Paris signed Sept 3
1763 Treaty of Paris important because borders of United States established
1763 Also in Treaty of Paris, England gains Canada and French land east of MS
1763 Vigilantes known as Paxton Boys massacre peaceful Conestoga village
1763 John Jacob Astor born in Waldorf, Germany
1764 Mozart writes his first symphony, at age eight
1764 Saint Louis founded
1764 Molasses Act modified to produce revenue, in concert with Revenue Act
1764 Revenue Act. Taxation without representation introduced in Boston
1764 Committee of Correspondence formed in Boston
1765 Britain tries to raise funds with The Stamp Act Bostonians riot
1765 Stamp Act Congress meets in Albany, NY first inter-colony Congress
1765 Quartering Act requires housing British troops in private homes
1765 Non-importation agreements arranged in principal colonies
1766 Stamp Act repealed by England in response to Colonial boycotts
1766 Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon draw the line at MD & PA border
1767 John Quincy Adams, 6th President, born July 11 dies 1848
1767 Daniel Boone crosses Appalachians, keeps heading west
1767 Townshend Duties pile it on higher and deeper, create Customs Office
1768 Colonies circulate letter complaining of taxation Assemblies dissolved
1768 Birth of Tecumseh, near Dayton, OH
1768 New York Chamber of Commerce established
1768 British troops begin occupation of Boston
1769 David Rittenhouse begins astronomy studies
1769 Pontiac murdered by another Indian, near St. Louis
1770 Francisco de Ortega names discovery on west coast for his patron saint
1770 Ludwig van Beethoven born dies in 1827
1770 Boston Massacre. Five dead, six wounded on March 5
1770 Townshend Acts repealed, except for that on tea
1771 Battle of Alamance fought in North Carolina
1772 Samuel Adams at Boston Town Hall Meeting publishes list of rights
1772 Customs schooner "Gaspee" burned off Namquit Point in Rhode Island
1772 John Sevier organizes independent republic of Watauga in Tennessee
1773 To save nearly bankrupt East India Company, Parliament tries a Tea Act
1773 Boston Tea Party. 342 chests of tea go into the drink December 16
1773 Wm. H. Harrison, 9th President, born Dec 5 in VA, moves to OH d. 1841
1773 Perez at Nootka Sound, on Vancouver Island as we now know it
1774 Birth of John Chapman, to be known as Johnny Appleseed dies 1845
1774 Intolerable Acts include the Coercive Acts
1774 British close the port of Boston in retaliation for tea party
1774 Virginia Conventions begin. Lead to First Continental Congress
1774 First Continental Congress convenes, in Philadelphia, Sept 5
1774 Declaration and Resolves of First Continental Congress Oct 14
1774 The Quebec Act nullifies all colonial rights west of Ohio River
1775 Of the 3,500 pysicians in the colonies, only 400 are MD by degree
1775 Patrick Henry says "Give me liberty or give me death!"
1775 Fights at Lexington and Concord follow "the 18th of April, in '75"
1775 Battle of Breed's Hill mistakenly named after nearby Bunker Hill
1775 Postal system created. Benjamin Franklin is first Director
1775 Second Continental Congress, again in Philadelphia
1775 Washington accepts promotion to General & Commander In Chief June 16
1775 Declaration on Taking Up of Arms issued by Continental Congress, July 6
1775 Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, declares Martial Law November 7
1775 Virginians defeat British at Great Bridge British bombard Norfolk
1776 General Court of Massachusetts fires Governor, requests he leave
1776 Common Sense written by Thomas Paine
1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights on June 12 written by George Mason
1776 Virginia State Constitution adopted June 29, will be model for all states
1776 Declaration of Independence drafted by Tom Jefferson, with John Adams
1776 Nathan Hale regrets having "but one life to lose", September 22
1776 Christmas present for Washington at Trenton: 918 German prisoners
1777 General Gates defeats General Burgoyne at Saratoga, NY
1777 Congress adopts the American flag with thirteen stars and stripes
1777 Washington's Continental Army winters at Valley Forge
1778 France declares war on England, becomes ally of America
1778 Englishman Capt. James Cook explores west coast of North America
1779 Captain Cook explores Sandwich Islands until Hawaiians murder him
1779 British surrender to Americans at Vincennes
1779 John Paul Jones, in Bon Homme Richard, defeats Pearson, in Serapis
1780 Death of John Logan, Cayuga Indian Chief. Who will mourn for Logan?
1780 Benedict Arnold attempts to betray West Point
1781 Articles of Confederation go into effect were drafted in 1777
1781 Cornwallis surrenders to Washington and the allies at Yorktown, VA
1782 Ninety-six Moravian Christian Indians massacred at Gnaddenhutton, OH
1782 First U. S. President born in "The United States" is Van Buren, Dec 5
1783 First daily newspaper is Pennsylvania Evening Post
1784 Benjamin Franklin invents bifocals
1784 Treaty of Ft. Stanwix Iroquois cede rights north and west of Ohio R.
1784 Taylor, 12th President, born dies 1850
1786 Shays's Rebellion in Massachusetts forcibly closes court systems
1786 Annapolis Convention concludes September 14, suggests Phila convention
1787 Constitutional Convention opens May 25 concludes business Sept 17
1787 Northwest Ordinance adopted July 13 by Continental Congress
1787 United States Constitution framed, sent to Congress and states
1787 Federalist Papers begin publication in newspapers
1788 New Hampshire is 9th state to ratify Constitution. It is now the law
1788 First settlement in Ohio is Marietta, named for Marie Antoinette
1789 Mackenzie reaches Arctic Ocean via Mackenzie River in W. Canada
1789 French Revolution. Bastille falls Jul 14. Declaration of Rights Aug 26th
1789 George Washington & John Adams elected as first President & VP
1789 The Judiciary Act specifies numbers of Federal courts and judges
1789 Mutiny on the H.M.S. Bounty survivors establish Pitcairn Is. colony
1790 Tyler, 10th President, born dies 1862
1790 Death of Benjamin Franklin April 17
1790 First national census finds 3,929,214 persons eligible to be counted
1790 Supreme Court meets for the first time John Jay is Chief Justice
1791 John Carroll of Baltimore made first Roman Catholic Bishop in U.S.A.
1791 Federal capital to be established in swamplands on the Potomac
1791 First ten Amendments are Bill of Rights that go into effect this year
1791 NWT Governor Arthur St. Clair soundly defeated by Indians near Ft. Wayne
1792 Captain Robert Gray names newly found river for his ship, Columbia
1792 Congress names the Dollar as our unit of currency proposer: Jefferson
1792 Post Office established by Congress as a separate entity
1792 New York Stock Exchange organized
1792 Political parties formed Republicans (to be Democrats) & Federalists
1793 Cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney
1793 General Anthony Wayne begins campaign against Indians in SW Ohio
1793 John Hancock dies October 8
1793 War between England and France. U.S.A. declares neutrality
1793 Mackenzie reaches Pacific via Fraser River in western Canada
1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers, near Toledo, OH. General Wayne v. Indians
1794 Jay's Treaty requires withdrawal of British troops from U.S.A.
1794 Whiskey Rebellion over excise tax in western Pennsylvania
1795 11th Amendment limits some Federal Judicial power somewhat
1795 Pinckney's Treaty with Spain opens navigation on Mississippi River
1795 Treaty of Greenville, OH opens up much of Ohio to settlement by whites
1795 Washington poses for Stuart's portrait, which is now on our dollar bill
1795 Polk, 11th President, born dies 1849
1796 Washington retires, gives Farewell Address to the nation
1796 John Adams President, Tom Jefferson Vice President, 71-68 vote margin
1796 Moses Cleaveland reaches mouth of Cuyahoga River on July 22
1796 E Pluribus Unum: "Out of Many, One" added to American coins
1798 Alien and Sedition Acts. Soon to be repealed
1798 Department of the Navy established after 4 years of having a Navy
1798 Washington comes out of retirement to be Commander In Chief of Army
1798 XYZ Affair, so named after three anonymous French trouble makers
1799 French Revolution ends. Napolean becomes ruler of France
1799 Patrick Henry dies June 6
1799 George Washington dies in Mount Vernon December 14, from quinsy
1800 House elects President Jefferson after electoral college tie with Burr
1800 Spain returns Louisiana to France
1800 Congress establishes Library of Congress
1800 Fillmore, 13th President, born dies 1874
1801 John Marshall appointed as Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court
1801 First stone building in Northwest Territory is Ohio capitol, Chillicothe
1801 Tripolitan War begins ends in 1805 with USMC on the shores of Tripoli
1802 Treaty of Amiens, in March
1803 Louisiana Purchased April 30. Lewis & Clark to begin exploration
1803 Ohio enters the Union. Paperwork completed 1953
1803 Atomic theory first published
1804 Ohio University at Athens is first institute of higher learning in NWT
1804 12th Amendment changes Presidential election rules
1804 Osceola born in Tallassee village in Alabama will lead 2nd Seminole War
1804 Vice President Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton in duel July 11
1804 Pierce, 14th President, born dies 1869
1805 Lewis & Clark discover mouth of Columbia River, just in time, on Nov 7
1807 Robert Fulton, in "Clermont", steams up Hudson River to Albany, Aug 17
1807 Congress outlaws importing slaves from Africa, March 2
1807 Treaty of Detroit Wyandot Indians lose most of their real estate
1807 Embargo Act, Dec 22, forbids American ships to leave American waters
1808 Andrew Johnson, 17th President, born dies 1875
1808 Slave importation outlawed. Yet, another 1/4 million brought in by 1860
1809 Abraham Lincoln, 16th President, born in Kentucky February 12 dies 1865
1809 Non-Intercourse Act, Mar 1, repeals the Embargo Act, which didn't work
1810 Census counts 7,239,881 persons in United States
1811 Madison allows 20-year charter of Bank of the United States to lapse
1811 Wm. H. Harrison fights Indians at Tippecanoe, near Indianapolis, Nov 7
1811 New Madrid, MO earthquake Dec 16 forecast months before by Tecumseh
1812 War declared on England June 18, days after England repealed the cause
1812 John O'Mic hanged on Cleveland Public Square for killing 2 fur trappers
1812 Russians build Fort Rossiia (Ross) 90 miles north of San Francisco
1813 Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry "meets" British in Lake Erie Sept 10
1813 Tecumseh defeated in battle near Detroit, in Thames, Ontario
1814 City of Washington captured and burned by British, August 24
1814 Francis Scott Key observes flag over Fort McHenry at Baltimore, Sept 14
1814 Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812 on December 24, but fighting goes on
1815 Andrew Jackson defeats British at New Orleans Jan 8, after war ends
1815 USS Constitution defeats two British ships off African coast 20 Feb
1815 Napolean meets his "Waterloo" on June 18
1815 Village of Cleaveland officially incorporated in Ohio
1816 Capitol of Ohio moves to Columbus
1816 Second Bank of the United States chartered, Apr 10
1817 Work begins on Erie Canal
1817 First American school for the deaf, Hartford, CT, Apr 14
1817 Secretary of State Rush and British Minister Bagot agree on Great Lakes
1818 Congress fixes stripes in flag at 13 to honor original colonies, Apr 4
1818 Anglo-American Convention fixes 49th parallel as border with Canada
1819 SS Savanah makes transatlantic crossing under steam propulsion, a first
1819 Florida ceded by Spain to the United States, Feb 22
1819 Treaty of Saginaw Indians give up one sixth of Michigan
1820 Missouri Compromise forbids slavery above 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude
1820 Federalist Party dissolves without opposition, Jefferson Dems disband
1822 Grant, 18th President, born in Ohio dies 1885
1822 Hayes, 19th President, born in Ohio dies 1893
1823 Monroe Doctrine given to Congress December 2
1824 House of Representatives elects John Q. Adams president
1825 Erie Canal completed
1826 Jefferson, then Adams, die on 50th anniversary of Declaration, July 4
1827 Ohio Canal opened for business
1828 Noah Webster publishes "American Dictionary of English Language", Apr 14
1828 George Worthington Co. founded in village of Cleaveland
1828 Baltimore & Ohio railroad, the first designed for passengers & freight
1829 Arthur, 21st President, born dies 1886
1829 Estate of James Smithson funds Smithsonian Institution
1831 Samuel F. Smith writes "My Country, 'tis of Thee"
1831 Nat Turner leads slave revolt at Southhampton
1831 Garfield, 20th President (and 3rd in a row from Ohio), born dies 1881
1832 Abe Lincoln enlists in Illinois militia to help fight Sauk & Fox Indians
1832 Jackson vetoes rechartering of 2nd Bank, causes birth of Whig Party
1832 Jackson supporters counter with rebirth of Jefferson Democratic Party
1833 Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President, born dies 1901
1833 First tax-supported public library, at Peterborough, NH, Apr 9
1833 Oberlin College, in Ohio, is first coed college in U.S.A.
1833 City of Cleveland buys its first fire engine for $285
1834 Death of Lafayette, Revolutionary War hero on two continents
1834 Charles Babbage demonstrates "analytic engine", a computer
1835 U.S.A. becomes debt free (briefly) for only time in history
1836 The Alamo. 6000 Mexicans defeat 190 Americans in 12 days on March 6
1837 Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President, born dies 1908
1837 Sitting Bull born, dies in 1890
1837 Concord Hymn, by Emerson, commemorates battle of Concord NH in 1775
1838 Osceola dies in prison after being tricked by false white flag
1838 Trail of Tears. Thousands of Indians forced from their homes & die (see more)
1838 Black Hawk, famous Sauk warrior, dies of old age
1839 Abner Doubleday invents baseball at Cooperstown, NY
1839 Railway Express Co. founded in Boston
1840 Chief Joseph born near Wallowa, OR. Becomes great chief of Nez Perce'
1841 Wm. H. Harrison catches cold at Inauguration, dies a month later
1841 Russia sells their Fort Ross in California to John Sutter
1842 Crazy Horse born in South Dakota
1842 Plain Dealer Publishing Co. founded in Cleveland
1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty defines Canadian-U.S. frontier, Aug 9
1843 McKinley, 25th President (5th from Ohio), born dies 1901
1844 Samuel F. B. Morse opens telegraphic link between Baltimore and D.C.
1845 U. S. Naval Academy opens at Annapolis, MD
1845 Texas is annexed war with Mexico follows
1846 Large crack in Liberty Bell gets too bad to permit ringing any more
1846 Potato famine in Ireland. Many flee to America for survival
1847 Brigham Young leads his followers into Salt Lake City, UT area
1847 Thomas Alva Edison born in Milan, OH February 11 dies in 1931
1847 American troops fight their way into the Halls of Montezuma in Mexico
1848 Treaty of 1848 gets CA, NM, AZ, NV UT, parts of CO and WY for the Union
1848 Cornerstone laid for the Washington Monument
1849 There's G O L D in them thar hills! Invasion of California begins
1849 Eastern Michigan University founded.
1850 Fugitive Slave Act, Sept. 18
1851 Isaac Singer granted a patent for his sewing machine
1853 Gadsden Purchase brings some Mexican territory into U.S.A.
1853 Commodore Matthew Perry opens trade routes with Japan, July 14
1853 Cincinnati is first city to pay firefighters a salary
1854 War between Cleveland and Ohio City settled by annexation of latter
1854 Kansas - Nebraska Act. Provides springboard for Abe Lincoln
1854 Republican Party formed in Ripon, WI 28 February, under John Fremont
1854 George Boole writes on theories of logic and probabilities
1855 Soo Canal opens upper Great Lakes to commercial navigation
1855 Longfellow uses name of real Six Nation's hero Hiawatha in mythical poem
1856 Wilson, 28th President, born dies 1924
1856 Western Union Telegraph Co. established in Cleveland
1856 Cocaine extracted from cocoa leaves, but has no legitimate use (ever!)
1857 Dred Scott decision handed down by Supreme Court, March 6
1857 Transatlantic cable begins used briefly in 1858. Replaced in 1866
1857 Taft, 27th President (7th from Ohio), born dies 1930
1858 Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President, born dies 1919
1859 Abolitionist John Brown leads assault on armory at Harper's Ferry
1859 Colonel Robert E. Lee, U. S. Army, commands troops at Harpers Ferry
1859 Drake puts down first oil well in U.S.A., Titusville, PA
1860 Annie Oakley born in Darke County, Ohio, log cabin, August 13
1860 Pony Express riders leave Sacramento, CA and St. Joseph, MO on 1st ride
1860 Edwin C. Higbee opens store on Cleveland Public Square
1860 South Carolina becomes first state to secede from Union, December 20
1861 Confederate States adopt Provisional Constitution, February 8
1861 Civil War begins at Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC, April 12
1861 Ohioan Generals Grant, Sherman and Sheridan ride off to war
1861 Congress enacts first income tax August 2, on incomes more than $800
1861 U. S. Navy's first aircraft carrier launches hot air balloon Aug 3
1861 First Congressional Medals of Honor awarded, to Union Navymen
1861 First transcontinental telegraph kills need for Pony Express
1862 The Homestead Act, May 20, contributes to development in ND, SD, and OK
1862 Duel between Merrimac and Monitor March 8 CSS Merrimac withdrew
1862 Battle of Shiloh, Apr 6
1862 Ohioans LTC R. B. Hayes and Sgt Wm. McKinley saw action at Antietam
1863 The Emancipation Proclamation
1863 The Gettysburg Address dedicated to more than two score thousand dead
1864 Lincoln posed for photograph which appears on $5 bill, Feb 9
1864 "In God We Trust" put on American coins for the first time April 22
1864 Massacre of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians at Sand Creek, CO, Nov 29
1864 Lincoln proclaims last Thursday in November to be Thanksgiving Day
1865 13th amendment abolishes slavery
1865 Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox on Palm Sunday, April 9
1865 Lincoln shot by Boothe April 14, dies next day
1865 Confederate Army surrenders at Shreveport, LA Civil War ends May 26
1865 Last shot of Civil War fired by CSS Shenandoah in Bering Sea, June 22
1865 Harding, 29th President (8th from Ohio), born dies in 1923
1866 Ohio briefly adopts state motto: "Imperium in Imperio"
1866 Congress recognizes the Metric system of measurements
1866 Alfred Nobel invents something that is "dynamite"
1866 ASPCA organized, Apr 10
1866 First roller rink in the world opens at Newport, RI
1867 British North American Act creates the Dominion of Canada
1867 US buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million
1868 14th amendment prohibits voting discrimination, among other things
1868 House impeaches President Johnson. Senate acquits him by one vote
1869 Transcontinental railroad completed Ogden, UT wins the golden spike
1869 Cleveland's first professional baseball team is The Forest City's
1869 Suez Canal completed
1870 "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea", in a nuclear submarine
1870 15th Amendment gives blacks the right to vote
1870 John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil Company, in Cleveland, OH
1870 Robert E. Lee dies, October 12
1871 Dr. B. F. Goodrich opens rubber factory in Akron, OH
1871 Mrs. O'Leary's cow blamed for Chicago fire, Oct 8-11
1872 Coolidge, 30th President, born dies 1933
1872 Susan B. Anthony leads protest for women at polling place
1872 Yellowstone National Park created our first of many (but too few)
1873 Bellevue Hospital in NYC starts first school of nursing
1874 Hoover, 31st President, born dies 1964
1874 Guglielmo Marconi, radio pioneer, born April 25
1875 Gold discovered in the Sioux holy grounds, the Black Hills of SD
1875 First running of the Kentucky Derby at Churchhill Downs, May 17
1876 Custer makes his way into the history books at Little Big Horn in Montana
1876 Liberty statue presented by France, construction requires ten years
1876 Internal combustion engine invented by N. A. Otto (pronounced "auto")
1876 Does the name "Alexander Graham" ring a Bell? Telephone invented
1877 Crazy Horse dies in a Nebraska prison from stab wounds
1878 First electric street lighting anywhere is on Cleveland Public Square
1878 First commercial telephone exchange is at New Haven, CT, Jan 28
1879 John D. Rockefeller organizes the Standard Oil Trust
1879 Charles McGill is last felon publicly hanged on Cleveland Public Square
1880 Case School of Applied Science established in Cleveland
1881 Booker T. Washington opens Tuskegee Institute for blacks
1881 Garfield assassinated. Arthur moves into the presidency
1882 F. D. Roosevelt, 32nd President, born dies 1945
1883 Indonesian volcano Krakatau blows it's top 35,000 die
1883 Brooklyn Bridge completed May 24. No, it is not for sale!
1884 Truman, 33rd President, born dies 1972
1884 First "World Series" played
1886 Geronimo surrenders all Apache nations, September 4
1887 Susan Salter, Argonia, KS, is first woman mayor in U.S.A., Apr 4
1888 Electric streetcars introduced, in Richmond, VA
1889 Indian Territory becomes Oklahoma Territory, thrown open to landrushers
1889 First American skyscraper soars into Chicago skies, 10 stories
1889 Jefferson Davis dies at age 81 on December 6
1890 Eisenhower, 34th President, born dies 1969
1890 First skyscraper in New York City is the World Building, 26 stories
1890 Massacre at Wounded Knee, SD, December 29
1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act, July 2
1890 Leonidas Merritt discovers iron ore lode at Mesabi, MN
1892 First bridge to span the lower Mississippi river is at Memphis
1892 Rudolf Diesel invents internal combustion engine that runs on oil
1892 Pledge of Allegiance published. Changes made in 1954
1893 "America the Beautiful" written by Katherine Lee Bates
1896 Plessy v. Ferguson establishes hated "separate but equal" provision
1898 USS Maine blown up in harbor at Havana, Cuba, February 15
1898 Spanish - American War. Teddy Roosevelt rough-rides his way into Cuba
1898 Independent republic of Hawaii annexed
1900 Boxer Rebellion against foreigners in China begins
1901 McKinley assassinated, Theodore Roosevelt moves into presidency Sept 14
1902 State of Ohio authorizes a state flag on May 9
1902 First 4-H Club anywhere is in Springfield, OH
1903 Wright brothers prove they are right for aviation, Kitty Hawk, NC Dec 17
1903 Great automobile race from New York City to Pittsburgh takes eight days
1904 Chief Joseph dies in exile in Washington state, fighting no more, forever
1904 Ohio adopts Scarlet Carnation as state flower to honor McKinley
1906 Great San Francisco earthquake April 18 kills over 500 people
1908 First Model T rolls off the Ford assembly line
1908 U.S. Governors issue Declaration on Conservation, May 15
1908 L. B. Johnson, 36th President, born dies 1973
1909 Great White Fleet of 16 battleships completes trip around the world
1909 Robert E. Peary (a white) & Matthew A. Henson (a black) reach North Pole
1909 NAACP founded by W. E. B. DuBois
1910 Boy Scouts of America founded, Feb 8
1911 First transcontinental flight takes 82 hours, over nearly 2 months
1911 Reagan, 40th President, born
1912 Girl Guides (Girl Scouts) founded March 12
1912 Garrett Morgan of Cleveland invents the gas mask
1912 Titanic hits iceberg, April 15. 1503 lives lost
1913 Harriet Tubman, heroine of underground railroad, dies buried in Ohio
1913 Nixon, 37th President, born
1913 Ford, 38th President (1st non-elected), born
1913 16th Amendment establishes income tax
1913 17th Amendment changed election rules for Senators
1914 Panama Canal completed
1914 American Radio Relay League (ARRL) founded in Newington, CT by W1AW
1914 World War I begins in Europe President Wilson declares neutrality
1915 SS Lusitania sunk May 7 1100 lives lost
1916 General John "Blackjack" Pershing chases Pancho Villa deep into Mexico
1917 After scores of U-boat incidents over last 3 years, U. S. enters WW I
1917 Kennedy, 35th President, born dies 1963
1917 Russian Revolution they enjoy brief democracy for only time in history
1917 Father Edward Flanagan founds Boy's Town, December 1
1918 The American's Creed adopted April 3
1918 Armistice ends WW I on 11th hour of 11th day of 11th month
1919 18th Amendment introduces prohibition of intoxicating liquors
1920 19th Amendment brings women the vote, Aug 26
1921 Man O' War retires to 26 years at stud
1923 Garrett Morgan of Cleveland invents traffic signals
1923 Teapot Dome scandal involves illegal lease on Navy oil reserves
1924 Carter, 39th President, born
1924 Bush, 41st President, born
1924 Congress confers citizenship on (some) Native Americans, June 15
1925 First municipal airport in the world is Hopkins, at Cleveland, OH
1925 First female as a state governor is Nellie Taylor Ross, in Wyoming
1925 John T. Scopes convicted of teaching evolution in Dayton, TN, July 24
1926 Richard E. Byrd flies over North Pole May 9
1927 Lucky Lindy lands in Paris May 21 after non-stop flight from New York
1928 Richard E. Byrd flies over South Pole November 28
1929 St. Valentine's Day massacre in Chicago rival bootleggers shoot it out
1929 Great Depression begins after bank and stock failures in October
1930 DuMont's television broadcast in NYC to private homes, August 20
1931 The National Anthem finally adopted by Congress March 3
1931 Empire State Building opens May 1
1932 20th Amendment established starting date for Presidency & Congress
1932 Welland Canal bypasses Niagara Falls for shipping
1933 First woman in Presidential Cabinet is Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins
1933 Emergency Banking Act, March 9
1933 Civilian Conservation Corps, March 31
1933 Federal Emergency Relief Act, Agriculture Adjustment Act, May 12
1933 Tennessee Valley Authority Act, May 18
1933 Farm Credit Act, June 16
1933 21st Amendment repeals prohibition amendment
1933 Ohio adopts the Cardinal as the "Official Bird"
1934 Securities and Exchange Commission created June 6
1935 Works Progress Administration approved by Congress, April 8
1935 Wagner-Connery Act establishes National Labor Relations Board, July 5
1935 Social Security Act, August 14
1937 Amelia Earhart Putnam disappears during attempt to fly around the world
1937 Adolph Hitler tells his generals of his plan to take over Europe, Nov 5
1939 Geological Surv. final report on cost of Louisiana Purchase $23.2 million
1939 After attacking other nations, Hitler starts WW II by attacking Poland
1939 Bill of Rights finally ratified by Massachusetts, Georgia & Connecticut
1941 Lend-Lease Act became law March 11
1941 Churchill & Roosvelt develop The Atlantic Charter, Aug 14 in Argentia
1941 December 7, the Day of Infamy, Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, HI
1942 Executive Order 9066 imprisons many thousands of Nisei for three years
1942 Jimmy Doolittle bombs Tokyo, flying B-25's from USS Hornet, April 18
1942 The Battle of the Coral Sea, May 7-8
1942 The Battle of Midway, June 4
1942 The Battles of Guadalcanal: ashore, August 7 at sea, Nov 12-15
1942 First self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, by Fermi, December 2
1944 Landing at Anzio Beach by the Allies, January 22
1944 D-Day at Normandy! The Longest Day begins, June 6
1944 The Battle of the Philippine Sea, June 19
1945 Marines raise the flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima, February 23
1945 First atomic bomb exploded anywhere is at Los Alamos, NM, July 16
1945 B-29 'Enola Gay' drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Aug 6
1945 Last atomic bomb then in existence dropped at Nagasaki, August 9
1945 World War II ends: first in Europe, May 7 then in Japan, Sept 2
1945 United Nations chartered in San Francisco in 1950 moves to NYC
1946 Taft-Hartley Act outlaws certain practices of trade unions
1947 Truman Doctrine opposes Communism in Greece and elsewhere, Mar 12
1947 Marshall Plan helps rebuild Europe, June 5
1947 Transistor invented at Bell Labs, in New Jersey, Dec 23
1948 Foreign Assistance Act funds the Marshall Plan, April 3
1948 Organization of American States (OAS) formed, April 30
1948 United Nations creates Republic of Israel out of Palestine
1948 Berlin airlift begins nearly a year of relief to overcome blockade
1948 Native Americans allowed to vote (finally) in New Mexico and Arizona
1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization born, April 4
1950 North Korea invades South Korea, June 25
1951 22nd Amendment limits president to two terms. 1st proposer: Jefferson
1953 Most "declared" hostilities end in Korea, 38th parallel becomes DMZ
1953 Ohio adopts the Buckeye as the "Official Tree"
1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka overturns Plessy v. Ferguson
1954 Remington Rand sells a UNIVAC system to General Motors
1955 Dr. Jonas Salk proves his vaccine against polio virus is safe
1957 Sputnik
1959 Ohio adopts new Official Motto: "With God, All Things Are Possible"
1959 St. Lawrence Seaway opens the Great Lakes to foreign shipping, Apr 25
1960 23rd Amendment granted Electoral College representation to DC
1962 Ohioan John Glenn is first U. S. astronaut to orbit earth, Feb 20
1962 Military aid begins in South Vietnam
1963 Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. announces "I Have A Dream" on August 28
1963 John F. Kennedy assassinated, Johnson moves into presidency
1964 24th Amendment killed "poll taxes"
1964 Civil Rights Act put teeth in Federal enforcement of anti-discrimination
1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Aug 24 repealed in 1970
1965 Ohio Flint adopted as the Official Gem Stone of the state
1967 25th Amendment allows President to step aside temporarily, then resume
1967 Thurgood Marshall is first black to become a justice on Supreme Court
1968 Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. murdered in Memphis
1969 Ohioan Neil Armstrong took one small step for a man, onto the moon
1971 26th amendment gives 18 year olds the vote
1972 Equal Rights Amendment proposed by Congress never ratified by states
1973 Vice President Agnew forced to resign, Ford becomes 1st non-elected VP
1973 Roe et al v. Wade decision starts bitter abortion/anti-abortion debates
1974 Nixon resigns in disgrace, Ford moves into the presidency
1975 The fall of Saigon, South Vietnam
1980 Mount St. Helens volcano erupts
1981 First female Supreme Court Justice is Sandra Day O'Connor
1984 Geraldine Ferraro is first serious female Vice Presidential candidate
1986 First true community computer system goes online in Cleveland, Ohio
1986 Rutan and Yeager took a one-tank-trip around the world
1986 Shuttle "Challenger" exploded on takeoff, 7 astronauts perished
1987 Second Community computer goes online in Youngstown, Ohio
1989 Ohio adopts new words to official State Song
1989 Cleveland Free-Net II goes on line with 1.2 Gigabytes of storage
Adds this Freedom Shrine to a long list of accomplishments
1990 More community computers in: Cincinnati, Peoria, Ill, and Medina Ohio
1990 Communist dominoes fall -- backwards! World rejoices!

Prepared by Gerald Murphy (The Cleveland Free-Net - aa300) Distributed by the Cybercasting Services Division of the National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN).

Permission is hereby granted to download, reprint, and/or otherwise redistribute this file, provided appropriate point of origin credit is given to the preparer(s) and the National Public Telecomputing Network.


Got a Civil War story? Fayetteville's Civil War history center wants to hear from you

Fayetteville's Civil War & Reconstruction History Center wants to be in the business of telling the whole state's Civil War story.

And yes, that means yours, too &mdash if you have one.

The history center has put out an open call for any North Carolinian with a story about their family living through the Civil War and Reconstruction eras to submit it to the history center.

The stories don't have to be directly about the military or the war, but must pertain to people who lived in North Carolina from 1830 to 1900, according to a news release. Oral stories, those documented through newspapers, letters, journal entries and genealogical research will be accepted, it said.

Marc Barnes, the center's spokesman said in an interview Thursday that the effort to collect stories is part of a continued effort to get stories from real people across the state.

Once submitted, stories may appear on the center's website or as a flag on an interactive map on The News History Observer website.

Submitted stories go to the center's Content Development Specialist Cheri Todd Molter, who fully vets stories submitted as fact and checks the dates and historical alignments of those submitted as oral tradition

All stories get approval from the submitter, and Todd Molter makes sure the center's rendition of the submission is true before publishing it on the website, she said.

So far, Barnes said the center has passed its goal of having at least one story from each of North Carolina's 100 counties.

Whether or not the stories will be used in some way inside the physical history center is still undecided, Barnes said. Plans for the building itself still hang in the balance as museum officials await the state funding they need to set everything in motion. Barnes said they have exhibit designers, an architect and the design ready to go but need funding in order to go through with construction drawings.

Barnes said in an email that the center sought $46 million from the state and hopes to receive it this year, though the budget process has fallen behind. Barnes projected the total cost of the center will be about $80 million. About $49.5 million has been raised so far.

Stories can be submitted through the center's website or can be mailed to P.O. Box 53865, Fayetteville, NC 28305. They also can be emailed to [email protected] or to Todd Molter at [email protected]

To submit a story by phone, call 910-491-0602.

Government watchdog reporter Abby Church can be reached at [email protected] Follow her on Twitter @abbschurch.

Support local journalism with a subscription to The Fayetteville Observer. Click the "subscribe'' link at the top of this article.


The Far-Right War on History, Education, and Thinking

Anyone wondering why critical race theory has prompted a mad dash among rightwing legislators and school boards to extinguish it need only look at similar obsessions that have made U.S. democracy an endangered species.

Texas, predictably, is jumping on the bandwagon with the hard right Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick claiming in a rant that Texas (yes, apparently all state residents) "rejects critical race theory and other so called &lsquowoke&rsquo philosophies that maintain one race of sex is superior to another race or sex&hellip"&mdasha contrived fantasy bearing no relation to what CRT teaches.

Hardly to be outdone, in the past few weeks, Republican dominated states have been in a frantic rush to pass bills outlawing CRT in Arkansas, Idaho, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Utah. Bills are also on the docket in Iowa, Louisiana, Missouri, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and other states.

"The fanatical drive to eradicate a deeper analysis of U.S. history and the ability to engage in critical thinking stems from the same ideology that is at the heart of a similar flurry of extremist legislation from coast to coast to restrict the right to vote, criminalize public protest, block the ability of local jurisdictions to reduce the disproportionate funding of policing, and many other public policies."

Upon signing Idaho's bill, Gov. Brad Little disingenuously said it would bar teachers from "indoctrinating" students from claiming that members of any race, sex, religion, ethnicity or national origin are inferior or superior to other groups&mdashagain a dishonest demonization of what they are attacking.

The fanatical drive to eradicate a deeper analysis of U.S. history and the ability to engage in critical thinking stems from the same ideology that is at the heart of a similar flurry of extremist legislation from coast to coast to restrict the right to vote, criminalize public protest, block the ability of local jurisdictions to reduce the disproportionate funding of policing, and many other public policies.

It's the surest sign of both the depth of structural racism that stains every segment of our society, and how much the dangerous, toxic legacy of four years of Trump and Trumpism has inflamed, abetted, and legitimized white supremacist ideology, and increasingly dominates the behavior of the Republican Party, rightwing media, and its most devoted base.

While the current obsession with CRT and this wave of legislation corresponds with Trump's push last year to ban "spending related to any training on critical race theory," the rightwing reaction has a familiar strain.

There's a direct link to the fights over ethnic studies programs that emerged across the U.S. starting in the late 1960s, inspired by the Civil Rights Movement and liberation struggles, that included the largest student strike in U.S. history of 1968-69 to establish an Ethnic Studies Department at San Francisco State University.

That movement led to the spread of programs not only in colleges and universities across the U.S, but also in many K-12 curricula, driven, as educator, activist Angela Davis notes, by Black, Indigenous People of Color students demanding education relevant to their families and communities and the "capacity to think and act critically in relation to the conditions reflecting our collective lives." A 2010 Arizona law to ban ethnic studies illustrates the extreme fear and attacks ethnic studies have stirred.

CRT, writes David Theo Goldberg in Boston Review, "functions for the right today primarily as an empty signifier for any talk of race and racism at all, a catch-all specter lumping together 'multiculturalism,' 'wokeism,' 'anti-racism,' and 'identity politics'&mdashor indeed any suggestion that racial inequities in the United States are anything but fair outcomes, the result of choices made by equally positioned individuals in a free society. They are simply against any talk, discussion, mention, analysis, or intimation of race&mdashexcept to say we shouldn&rsquot talk about it."

The goal, Goldberg added, is also "to rewrite history in its effort to neoliberalize racism: to reduce it to a matter of personal beliefs and interpersonal prejudice" rather than the ongoing legacy of centuries of structural racism.

It's a view that is also based on what racial justice, labor activist Bill Fletcher says harkens back to revanchism, a desire to return to a "white republic" of the days of slavery, the counter revolution to Reconstruction and the repression of Jim Crow laws, and a "particular form of revenge" for what they believe are lost political power and privileges in racial and gender roles, and "they want it back."

Fox News' Tucker Carlson, as usual, laid bare a key racist political goal, claiming that Democrats want to "replace" replace white, conservative voters with "more obedient voters from the Third World," to "dilute" the power of U.S. "Demographic change is the key to the Democratic Party's political ambitions. To win and maintain power, Democrats plan to change the population of the country." Subtlety is about as foreign to Carlson as it is to Trump or David Duke.

CRT as a scholarly practice can be traced to at least to the writings of W.E.B. DuBois, especially his 1935 classic "Black Reconstruction." As a formal academic theory, it dates to a movement of educators from the 1970s and beyond, including Derrick Bell, Kimberle Crenshaw, Patricia Williams Richard Delgado and many others, who sought to situate the persistence of structural racism in legal and political practice and its origins in U.S. history.

Crenshaw explained it to CNN's Faith Karimi, as "an approach to grappling with a history of white supremacy that rejects the belief that what's in the past is in the past, and that the laws and systems that grow from that past are detached from it." And how current inequities are "not simply a matter of prejudice," but "structured disadvantages that stretched across American society."

In an extensive review of what he describes as the racialized educational background of leading opponents of CRT, Michael Harriot, writes in The Root: "This is why they oppose expanding the historiography of our national story. American schools have never taught a version of history that wasn't racialized. But, apparently, it's perfectly fine if the racial narrative skews toward whiteness."

Just as there has been sustained activism by students and educators, particularly in working class communities of color, to protect multi-disciplinary ethnic studies programs that continue to be part of an overall struggle not just for knowledge but also for social, economic and political justice in a multi-racial democracy, the current debate is also about the future of this nation.

At stake is whether we can continue to have the scaffolding of a democracy, and strive to reach a more egalitarian society, not one that is premised on a white supremacist dream of entrenching dictatorial power over who can hold elected office, what is taught in schools, and what views are may be circulated in culture and media.


War of 1812–1815

As an important neutral trading nation, the United States became ensnarled in the European conflict that pitted Napoleonic France against Great Britain and her continental allies.

In 1806 France prohibited all neutral trade with Great Britain and in 1807 Great Britain banned trade between France, her allies, and the Americas. Congress passed an embargo act in 1807 in retaliation, prohibiting U.S. vessels from trading with European nations, and later the Non-Intercourse Acts, aimed solely at France and Britain. The embargo and non-intercourse act proved ineffective and in 1810 the United States reopened trade with France and Great Britain provided they ceased their blockades against neutral trading. Great Britain continued to stop American merchant ships to search for Royal Navy deserters, to impress American seamen on the high seas into the Royal Navy, and to enforce its blockade of neutral commerce. Madison made the issue of impressment from ships under the American flag a matter of national sovereignty—even after the British agreed to end the practice—and asked Congress for a declaration of War on Great Britain on June 1, 1812. Many who supported the call to arms saw British and Spanish territory in North America as potential prizes to be won by battle or negotiations after a successful war.

Pro-British Federalists in Washington were outraged by what they considered Republican favoritism toward France. The leading Republican, Thomas Jefferson responded, that “the English being equally tyrannical at sea as he [Napoleon] is on land, and that tyranny bearing on us in every point of either honor or interest, I say ‘down with England.’” The United States declared the war on Britain. After Napoleon’s disastrous Russian campaign of 1812, the British concentrated on the American continent, enacting a crippling blockading of the east coast, attacking Washington and burning the White House and other Government buildings, and acquiring territory in Maine and the Great Lakes region. American forces, however, won important naval and military victories at sea, on Lake Champlain, and at Baltimore and Detroit. Canadians defeated an American invasion of Lower Canada. By 1814 neither side could claim a clear victory and both war weary combatants looked to a peaceful settlement.

Under the mediation of the Czar of Russia, Great Britain and the United States came together in the summer of 1814 to negotiate the terms of peace. On Christmas Eve British and American negotiators signed the Treaty of Ghent, restoring the political boundaries on the North American continent to the status quo ante bellum, establishing a boundary commission to resolve further territorial disputes, and creating peace with Indian nations on the frontier. As the Ghent negotiations suggested, the real causes of the war of 1812, were not merely commerce and neutral rights, but also western expansion, relations with American Indians, and territorial control of North America.


History of the Marine Corps War Memorial

The United States Marine Corps War Memorial represents this nation's gratitude to Marines and those who have fought beside them. While the statue depicts one of the most famous incidents of World War II, the memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in defense of the United States since 1775.

Visit the Marine Corps War Memorial
Plan your visit to the Marine Corps War Memorial. Find directions and information about hours, fees, and things to do.

The Picture behind the Statue

The tiny island of Iwo Jima lies 660 miles south of Tokyo. Mount Suribachi, an extinct volcano that forms the narrow southern tip of the island, rises 550 feet to dominate the ocean around it. US troops had recaptured most of the other islands in the Pacific Ocean that the Japanese had taken in 1941 and 1942. In 1945 Iwo Jima became a primary objective in American plans to bring the Pacific campaign to a successful conclusion.

On the morning of February 19, 1945, the 4th and 5th Marine Divisions invaded Iwo Jima after an ineffective 72-hour bombardment. The 28th Regiment of the 5th Division, was ordered to capture Mount Suribachi. They reached the base of the mountain on the afternoon of February 21 and, by nightfall the next day, had almost completely surrounded it. On the morning of February 23, Marines of Company E, 2nd Battalion, started the tortuous climb up the rough terrain to the top. At about 10:30 am men all over the island were thrilled by the sight of a small American flag flying from atop Mount Suribachi. That afternoon, when the slopes were clear of enemy resistance, a second, larger flag was raised in the same location.

Joe Rosenthal of the Associated Press caught the afternoon flag-raising in an iconic photograph that eventually won a Pulitzer Prize. Sculptor Felix W. de Weldon, then on duty with the US Navy, was so moved by the image that he constructed first a scale model and then a life-size model of it. Rene Gagnon, Ira Hayes, and John Bradley posed for the sculptor as he modeled their faces in clay. These three men were believed to be the survivors of the famous flag raising (the others were killed on Iwo Jima). The US Marine Corps has since concluded that John Bradley was not in the famous image of the flag raising. To learn more about the identities of the flag raisers, please read the US Marine Corps statement on the Iwo Jima flag raisers. All available pictures and physical statistics of the three who had given their lives were collected and then used in the modeling of their faces.

Once the statue was completed in plaster, it was carefully disassembled and trucked to Brooklyn, N.Y., for casting in bronze. The casting process, which required the work of experienced artisans, took nearly 3 years. After the parts had been cast, cleaned, finished, and chased, they were reassembled into approximately a dozen pieces--the largest weighing more than 20 tons--and brought back to Washington, D.C., by a three-truck convoy. Here they were bolted and welded together, and the statue was treated with preservatives.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower dedicated the memorial in a ceremony on November 10, 1954, the 179th anniversary of the U.S. Marine Corps.

Thirty-two foot high figures are shown raising a 60-foot bronze flagpole. The flag flies 24 hours a day, 365 days a year by presidential proclamation.

The figures in the statue occupy the same positions as they were identified at the time in Rosenthal's historic photograph. Ira Hayes is the figure farthest from the flagpole with both hands reaching up. Franklin Sousley is in front of Hayes, to the right. John Bradley is in front of Sousley. Michael Strank is in front of Hayes, to the left. Rene Gagnon is in front of Strank. Harlon Block is at the foot of the flagpole. These were the men believed to have been the actual flag raisers when de Weldon created the statue. Since then, the US Marine Corps has concluded that John Bradley was not in the iconic photograph. Researchers discovered that Harold Schultz was in actually in Sousley's position and Soulsley was in Bradley's position. To learn more you can read the US Marine Corps's statement on the Iwo Jima flag raisers.

The M-l rifle and the carbine carried by two of the figures are 16 and 12 feet long, respectively. The canteen would hold 32 quarts of water.

The figures stand on a rock slope above a granite base. The entire memorial is about 78 feet tall.

Granite for the base came from Sweden. The names and dates of every principal Marine Corps engagement since the founding of the Corps form a gold ring around the base.

The entire cost of the statue ($850,000) was donated by US Marines, friends of the Marine Corps, and members of the Naval Service. No public funds were used for this memorial.

Watch two videos that briefly explain the history and significance of the US Marine Corps War Memorial. The videos are able to be downloaded and used during your visit to the memorial.


American Civil War

The life of a soldier during the civil war wasn't easy. Not only did soldiers face the possibility of getting killed in battle, their daily lives were full of hardships. They had to deal with hunger, bad weather, poor clothing, and even boredom between battles.


Engineers of the 8th New York
State Militia in front of a tent

from the National Archives

Soldiers were woken at dawn to begin their day. They had drills in the morning and afternoon where they practiced for battle. Each soldier had to know his place in the unit so the army would fight as a group. Fighting together and quickly obeying the commands of the officers was a key to victory.

Between the drills, soldiers would do chores such as cooking their meals, fixing their uniforms, or cleaning equipment. If they had some free time they might play games such as poker or dominoes. They also enjoyed singing songs and writing letters to home. At night some soldiers would have guard duty. This could make for a long and tiring day.

The soldiers of the civil war had to deal with terrible medical conditions. Doctors didn't know about infections. They didn't even bother to wash their hands! Many soldiers died from infections and disease. Even a small wound could end up infected and cause a soldier to die.

The idea of medicine during this time was very primitive. They had little knowledge of pain killers or anesthetics. During major battles there were far more wounded soldiers than doctors. There was little doctors could do for wounds to the torso, but for wounds to the arms and legs, they would often amputate.


A Regimental Fife-and-drum Corps
from the National Archives

There were soldiers of all ages that fought during the war. The average age for the Union Army was around 25 years old. The minimum age to join the army was 18 years old, however, it's thought that many young boys lied about their age and, by the end of the war, there were thousands of soldiers as young as 15 years old.

The soldiers of the Civil War were often hungry. They mostly ate hard crackers made from flour, water, and salt called hardtack. Sometimes they would get salt pork or corn meal to eat. To supplement their meals, soldiers would forage from the land around them. They would hunt game and collect fruits, berries, and nuts whenever they could. By the end of the war, many soldiers in the Confederate army were on the verge of starvation.


Winter quarters soldiers in front
of their wooden hut, "Pine Cottage"

from the National Archives

A private in the Union army made $13 a month, while a three star general made over $700 a month. Soldiers in the Confederate army made less with privates earning $11 a month. Payments were slow and irregular, however, with soldiers sometimes waiting over 6 months to get paid.