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Superalloys: A Primer and History
Superalloys are based on Group VIIIB elements and usually consist of various combinations of Fe, Ni, Co, and Cr, as well as lesser amounts of W, Mo, Ta, Nb, Ti, and Al. The three major classes of superalloys are nickel-, iron-, and cobalt-based alloys.
The major phases present in most nickel superalloys are as follows:
- Gamma ( ): The continuous matrix (called gamma) is an face-centered-cubic (fcc) nickel-based austenitic phase that usually contains a high percentage of solid-solution elements such as Co, Cr, Mo, and W.
0-1%) combined with the chemical compatability allows the ' to precipitate homogeneously throughout the matrix and have long-time stability. Interestingly, the flow stress of the ' increases with increasing temperature up to about 650 o C (1200 o F). In addition, ' is quite ductile and thus imparts strength to the matrix without lowering the fracture toughness of the alloy. Aluminum and titanium are the major constituents and are added in amounts and mutual proportions to precipitate a high volume fraction in the matrix. In some modern alloys the volume fraction of the ' precipitate is around 70%. There are many factors that contribute to the hardening imparted by the ' and include ' fault energy, ' strength, coherency strains, volume fraction of ', and ' particle size.
Extremely small ' precipitates always occur as spheres. In fact, for a given volume of precipitate, a sphere has 1.24 less surface area than a cube, and thus is the preferred shape to minimize surface energy. With a coherent particle, however, the interfacial energy can be minimized by forming cubes and allowing the crystalographic planes of the cubic matrix and precipitate to remain continuous. Thus as the ' grows, the morphology can change from spheres to cubes (as shown in this figure) or plates depending on the value of the matrix/precipitate lattice mismatch. For larger mismatch values the critical particle size where the change from spheres to cubes (or plates) occurs is reduced. Coherency can be lost by overaging. One sign of a loss of coherency is directional coarsening (aspect ratio) and rounding of the cube edges. Increasing directional coarsening for increasing (positive or negative) mismatch is also expected.
- Axel Johnson Metals
- Cannon-Muskegon Corp.
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- Haynes International
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- PCC Airfoils
- Special Metals
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- Allison Engine Company
- CFM International
- Daimler-Benz Aeorspace
- General Electric Aircraft Engines
- Pratt & Whitney (P&W Canada)
- Rolls Royce/BMW Rolls Royce
- Volvo Aero Corporation
- How a Jet Engine Works (from NASA Lewis)
- Gas Turbine Primer (from Gas-Turbines)
- General Science
- Periodic Table of Elements
- Crystal Lattice Structures
- Phase Diagrams
- Materials Science Links
- ASM's Metal Producers and Suppliers Guide
- Metal Suppliers Online
- Mechanical Testing
- Metal Forming and Forging
- Airliner Photo Index
- Aviation Week & Space Technology
About 60% of the use-temperature increases have occurred due to advanced cooling concepts 40% have resulted from material improvements. State-of-the-art turbine blade surface temperatures are near 2,100°F (1,150°C) the most severe combinations of stress and temperature corresponds to an average bulk metal temperature approaching 1,830°F (1,000°C).
Although superalloys retain significant strength to temperatures near 1800°F, they tend to be susceptible to environmental attack because of the presence of reactive alloying elements (which provide their high-temperature strength). Surface attack includes oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal fatigue. In the most demanding applications, such as turbine blade and vanes, superalloys are often coated to improve environmental resistance.
- The alignment or elimination of any weak grain boundaries oriented transverse to the eventual loading direction.
SC casting were developed during the 1970s and were a spin-off from the technological advances made in the DS casting processes. SC casting are produced in a similar fashion to DS by selecting a single grain, via a grain selector. During solidification, this single grain grows to encompass the entire part. Single crystals obtain their outstanding strength through the elimination of grain boundaries that are present in both equiaxed and directionally solidified materials. In addition, the elimination of grain boundary strengtheners such as C, B, Si, and Zr raises the single crystal's melting point. By increasing the alloy's melting point, the homogenization heat-treat temperature can be increased without fear of incipient melting, thus allowing for more complete solutioning of the ' and thereby increasing alloy strength and maximum use temperature.
Another good reference is "The Microstructure of Superalloys" by Madeleine Durand-Charre, published by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers in 1998. With more than 100 illustrations, the 140-page text explains all the transformation mechanisms involved in the formation of microstructures during solidification and heat treatments (crystallization paths, segregation, crystal orientation, precipitation, TCP, coarsening and rafting, etc.). It includes up-to-date information and data such as phase diagrams and crystallographic structures. The nearly 300 references provide a valuable resource for further investigation.
Why is there a Kansas City in both Kansas and Missouri?
The origin of modern-day Kansas City, Missouri, dates back to the 1830s, when John McCoy founded the settlement of Westport at what is now Westport Road and Pennsylvania Avenue. McCoy chose this area to open an outfitting store for pioneers on the Santa Fe Trail. He then established a river boat landing on the bluffs at the bend in the Missouri River, just two miles north of his settlement. This Westport Landing was connected to the settlement of Westport by road and sparked development in the area.
A group of 14 investors, including McCoy, formed the Town Company in 1838 to buy up property along the riverfront. This area included Westport Landing and in 1850 was incorporated as the Town of Kansas. City founders derived the name from the Kansas, or Kaw, River which was named for the Kansa Indians. The state of Missouri then incorporated the area as the City of Kansas in 1853 and renamed it Kansas City in 1889. John McCoy’s settlement, the old town of Westport, was annexed by Kansas City, Missouri, on December 2, 1897.
During this time, other settlements were developing across the river on the Kansas side in Wyandotte County. Some of these small towns incorporated as Kansas City, Kansas, in 1872. By naming this town after the growing city on the Missouri side of the state line, city leaders in Kansas were able to capitalize on the success of Kansas City, Missouri. It’s also possible that the people in Wyandotte County felt that they had more right to the name “Kansas City” than the people of Missouri had.
Today Kansas City, Kansas, and Kansas City, Missouri, remain two separately incorporated cities but together, along with a number of other cities and suburbs, as part of the Kansas City Metropolitan area.
The following table provides the basics of Missouri's marriage age requirements, with a link to the statute.
Missouri Revised Statutes, Title XXX, Chapter 451, Section 451.020 (prohibiting marriage of persons who lack capacity to enter into marriage contracts)
Missouri Revised Statutes, Title XXX, Chapter 451, Section 451.090 (requiring parental consent for issuance of marriage licenses for minors)
A person age 21 or older cannot marry someone under 18 years of age.
Note: State laws are always subject to change through the passage of new legislation, rulings in the higher courts (including federal decisions), ballot initiatives, and other means. While we strive to provide the most current information available, please consult an attorney or conduct your own legal research to verify the state law(s) you are researching.
About Cuba Missouri
Facts, Trivia and useful information
Elevation: 1,001 ft (305 m). Population 3,356 (2010).
Time zone: Central (CST): UTC minus 6 hours. Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5).
Cuba is the largest city in Crawford County, but it is not the county seat (which is Steelville). It is located on Old Route 66, in the central Missouri Ozarks foothills. (Map of Cuba).
Historic Wagon Wheel Motel, Route 66 in Cuba, Missouri
History of Cuba
Central Missouri has been inhabited for over 10,000 years, since the last Ice Age ended. The historic people in this region were an Algonquin nation known as "Illinois" (deformed from the name they called themselves: "Illiniwek" which meant "men").
French trappers and explorers from Canada claimed the area for France in the 1680s, and named it after their ruler, King Louis XIV: "Louisiana". In 1763 France ceded the upper Louisiana to Spain and recovered it in 1800. But a cash-strapped Napoleon sold it to the U.S. in 1803. Part of Louisiana became the Missouri Territory (1812). It was admitted as a state in 1821.
In the 1830s, the Illinois, who were hunter-gatherers and squash, beans and corn farmers were relocated together with all the Natives that had lived east of the Mississippi to reservations in the Indian Territories (which later became the state of Oklahoma). But by then, there were already White settlers in the area: William Harrison had arrived in 1821. James B. Simpson settled on a flat grassland named after him: Simpson's Prairie in 1837. Crawford County, was organized in 1829 and named after U.S. Senator (Georgia) William H. Crawford, George M. Jamison (1818-1873), a native Kentuckian also lived in the area by 1840, half a mile from where Cuba would be founded in 1857 by M. H. Trask and William Ferguson who platted it in Simpson's prairie, along the railroad's future course . The Frisco Railroad reached Cuba in 1858 and the town became a farming community.
The Name: Cuba
The first post office was named Amanda (after Jamison's wife), but when the post office moved in 1860 to the new town, it was renamed Cuba perhaps due to the political feelings of those days which claimed for an annexation of the island due to its status as a Spanish colony (in 1898 the US won a war against Spain and annexed Cuba and Puerto Rico. Cuba later became independent, but Puerto Rico is still part of the US). However, according to the WPA it was named "by two former gold miners from California, who wished to perpetuate the memory of a holiday they had spent on the 'Isle of Cuba'."
From 1926 to 1969, while Route 66 went through Cuba, the travelers gave the local economy a boost, and motels, cafes and gas stations were built to cater to them. In 1969, Route 66 a full fledged divided highway bypassed the town.
Where to Lodge in Cuba, Missouri
Accommodation and hotels in town..
> > Book your hotel in Cuba
More Lodging near Cuba along Route 66
More motels and Hotels close to Cuba
Hotels, Westwards in Missouri
- 13 miles Saint James
- 23 miles Rolla
- 51 miles St. Robert
- 52 miles Waynesville
- 86 miles Lebanon
- 116 miles Marshfield
- 129 miles Strafford
- 138 miles Springfield MO
- 199 miles Carthage
- 217 miles Joplin
Heading West. Hotels & Motels in Kansas.
Further West. Hotels & Motels on Route 66 in Oklahoma.
Heading East in Missouri, more accommodation
- 18 miles Sullivan
- 34 miles Saint Clair
- 45 miles Villa Ridge
- 52 miles Pacific
- 60 miles Eureka
- 88 miles St. Louis
Hotels further East, in Illinois
- 90 miles East St. Louis
- 96 miles Granite City
- 100 miles Pontoon Beach
- 106 miles Glen Carbon
- 107 miles Troy
- 116 miles Edwardsville
- 117 miles Hamel
- 126 miles Williamson
- 129 miles Staunton
- 144 miles Litchfield
- 159 miles Raymond
- 197 miles Springfield IL
- 231 miles Lincoln
- 241 miles Atlanta
Book your room in Cuba
Weather in Cuba
Location of Cuba on Route 66
Cuba has well marked seasons, which are the combination of humid continental and humid subtropical climates.
The winter (Jan), the average high is around 39°F (4°C) and the aveage low is a freezing 20°F (-7°C). The summer (Jul) average high is 89°F (32°C) with an average low of 68°F (20°C). Rainfall averages 44.5 in. (1.130 mm) yearly which ranges from 2.21 in (56 mm) in Jan. to 4.81 in (122.2 mm) in May. Snowfall is around 18.9 in. (48 cm), which falls from Dec. to Mar.
Cuba is located in Missouri's "Tornado Alley" and Crawford County is struck by 7 tornados every year.
Tornado Risk : read more about Tornado Risk along Route66.
Getting to Cuba
You can reach Cuba along historic Route 66 and Interstate I-44 that links it with Springfield, Tulsa and Oklahoma City in the west and with Sullivan, Eureka and St. Louis in the east. US 63 runs through Rolla to the west and US 50 passes through Villa Ridge to the east.
Map of Route 66 in Cuba, MO
Check out Cuba on our Route 66 Map of Missouri, with the complete alignment and all the towns along it.
Below is the color key for Route 66&rsquos alignment in Cuba:
Pale Blue is the original 1926 to 1953 Route 66. Then from 1953 to 1969 it was the eastbound lanes of the Four-Lane Route 66 built.
Blue shows the 1953 to 1969 westbound lanes from Hofflins to Fanning past Cuba. After 1969 two new lanes were added and what is now I-44's roadbed replaced old US 66 bypassing it.
Finding past weather. Fast
Climate data, including past weather conditions and long-term averages, for specific observing stations around the United States is only a few clicks away.
Certified weather data for use in litigation is available only through the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, N.C. Ordering instructions are located online at: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/about/ncdcordering.html#CERTIFICATION or by phone at (828) 271-4800.
Preliminary, and therefore unofficial, data for other purposes can be found on the Web sites belonging to one of the nation&rsquos 122 Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs).
- First, find the location you need climate data for on the following map: https://www.weather.gov/ and click on that region.
- The Web site of the local WFO will then appear. On the left side of the page there will be a section called Climate in yellow-colored text. You may have to scroll down the page.
- Several links may appear in the Climate section. Click on the one that applies to you. Some links may say: local climate past weather or list a specific segment of the state in which you&rsquore searching.
- The page that follows will feature numerous categories and links. Climate data may be arranged on a daily, monthly and annual basis. Click the links and use any pull-down menus to navigate to the information you desire.
Month-to-date data likely will appear on this climate page and is among the most popular. This table, known as the preliminary Local Climatological Data (LCD) or F-6 form, lists the weather summary on a daily basis in each row. A summary of the month&rsquos weather to date is available at the bottom. Codes used on this form are explained here: https://www.erh.noaa.gov/lwx/f6.htm
It&rsquos important to double check the station name, month, and year listed at the top of the page to ensure you have the correct location and time that you&rsquore looking for. These stations are a specific point, typically an airport, and the data listed may not reflect the extreme weather reported nearby through radar estimates, storm spotters and emergency officials of which the media may broadcast.
Car Sales Stall
By 1927 replacement demand for new cars was exceeding demand from first-time owners and multiple-car purchasers combined. Given the incomes of the day, automakers could no longer count on an expanding market. Installment sales had been initiated by the makers of moderately priced cars in 1916 to compete with the Model T, and by 1925 about three-quarters of all new cars were bought “on time” through credit.
Although a few expensive items, such as pianos and sewing machines, had been sold on time before 1920, it was installment sales of automobiles during the twenties that established the purchasing of expensive consumer goods on credit as a middle-class habit and a mainstay of the American economy.
What Do the Words of the Mardi Gras Song Mean?
If you've only heard one Mardi Gras song, it's probably "Iko Iko," the hit recorded by the Dixie Cups in 1965. An earlier version (titled "Jock-a-mo") by James "Sugar Boy" Crawford came out in 1953, and many artists, from Dr. John to the Grateful Dead to Cyndi Lauper, have covered it. It's a playful, taunting chant, that comes from the traditional call and response challenges of two battling tribes at a Mardi Gras parade. The chorus goes something like this:
Hey now! Hey now!
Iko iko wan dey
Jock-a-mo fi no wan an dey
Jock-a-mo fi na ney.
Everyone has recorded it a little differently, but no one who recorded it knew what it meant. Crawford had heard the phrases at parade battles, and the Dixie Cups said they had heard their grandmother sing it.
There are as many guesses about the meaning of this song as there are versions of it: Jock-a-mo means "brother John," or "jokester," or "Giacomo" Jock-a-mo fin a ney means "kiss my ass," or "John is dead" Iko means "I go," or "pay attention," or "gold," or "hiking around" the words come from French, or Yoruba, or Italian.
Reporter Drew Hinshaw decided to ask some experts about the origin of the song after he noticed the similarity between the Iko refrain and a stirring call-and-response chant he heard at a parade in Ghana: "Iko Iko! Aayé!" In this 2009 article in the New Orleans music magazine Offbeat, he recounts how he showed the lyrics to a local linguistics professor who thought they definitely came from a West African language. Back in the US, a professor of Creole Studies thought it came from a mixture of Yoruba and French Creole, and proposed the following breakdown:
Enòn, Enòn! Code Language!
Aiku, Aiku nde. God is watching.
Jacouman Fi na Jacouman causes it
ida-n-de We will be emancipated.
Jacouman Fi na dé Jacouman urges it we will wait.
Meanwhile, Wikipedia says some mysterious, unnamed "creole lingua specialists" endorse the following French-based Creole interpretation:
Ena! Ena! Hey now! Hey now!
Akout, Akout an deye Listen, listen at the back
Chaque amoor fi nou wa na né All the love made our king be born
Chaque amoor fi na né All the love made our king be born
Another theory making the rounds of various folk music message boards is that the "jock-a-mo" part comes from a Native American language where "chokma finha" means "very good." This at least matches up with what Crawford said about his original 1953 recording: he sang "chock-a-mo," but it was misspelled on the record label as "jock-a-mo."
We will probably never be able to pin down the origin of the words or what they once meant. But it may well be that even from the very first chanting of the phrases, the Africans, Native Americans, French, and English that made up the great language/culture mélange of New Orleans all understood it in their own way. And still had a good old time anyway.
The Urban Route Numbering proposals submitted to the American (AASHO) on July 31, 1958 outlined three numbers for the St. Louis beltway system:
- Interstate 144 for the Southwest Beltway, from I-55 north to I-70.
- Interstate 255 for the Easterly route to the Illinois state line at the Mississippi River.
- Interstate 270 for the North Beltway from I-70 east to the Chain of Rocks Bridge.
East End – Troy, IL
South End – Mehlville, MO
Total Mileage – 50.59
Missouri – 35.62
Cities – St. Louis, Florissant, Ferguson, Bridgeton, KirkwoodJunctions –
Illinois – 14.97
Cities – East St. Louis, Granite CityJunctions –
Source: December 31, 2017 Interstate Route Log and Finders List
1977 Illinois Official Highway Map showing the small portion of I-255 opened at the time designated as part of an extended Interstate 270.
With Interstate 144 changed to 244 since it formed part of a loop, AASHO approved the Interstate Route Numbering for Missouri on November 10, 1958. 1
Named the Circumferential Expressway, the quadrant of Interstate 270 between I-55 at Mehlville and I-70 at Champ remained signed as Interstate 244 until 1974. The route was renumbered as an extended I-270 to alleviate motorist confusion. 2 The final segment for I-244, Olive Boulevard (Route 340) and I-70, was dedicated on May 20, 1967. 3
The same actions approved by AASHTO on June 25, 1974 to renumber I-244 included the renumbering of I-255 to I-270 as well. The southeast loop changed back to Interstate 255 in 1979. AASHTO approved the redesignation, subject to FHWA concurrence, on June 25 of that year.
25 Best Places to Visit in Missouri
- , Photo: Courtesy of porbital - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of munst64804 - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of Henryk Sadura - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of Henryk Sadura - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of mrcmos - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of PeekCC - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of Scott Sanders - Fotolia.com , Photo: Grant's Farm , Photo: Courtesy of jon manjeot - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of VazquezPhotography - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of Marek - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of gnagel - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of gnagel - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of Scott Sanders - Fotolia.com , Photo: Joplin , Photo: Courtesy of jon manjeot - Fotolia.com , Photo: Lee's Summit , Photo: Courtesy of EvanTravels - Fotolia.com , Photo: Courtesy of natakuzmina - Fotolia.com , Photo: Rolla , Photo: Courtesy of Jomac photos - Fotolia.com , Photo: Saint Joseph , Photo: Courtesy of spiritofamerica - Fotolia.com , Photo: Talking Rocks Cavern , Photo: Courtesy of Aaron - Fotolia.com
- Cover Photo: Courtesy of Stephanie - Fotolia.com
Taum Sauk Mountain State Park
Taum Sauk Mountain State Park is a 7,500-acre park located in the Saint Francois Mountains, a few miles from Arcadia in the Ozarks. Taum Sauk Mountain is the highest point in the state and the legendary Mina Sauk Falls, dropping 132 feet in three drops, is the highest fall. The mountain slopes are richly wooded, and hiking under the shade of stately pine trees by the verdant glades is a pure delight. There are a number of well-maintained trails, including a small portion of the Ozark Trail. There are 12 rustic camping grounds and several picnic areas for those who want to enjoy the solitude and unspoiled nature a little longer.
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