Ottoman Uniforms

Ottoman Uniforms


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 29 Aug 2012, 10:59

This is the first Chapter draft of my new book, surveying the development of Ottoman Army Uniforms, from 1800 till 1918:
PAGE 1

PAGE 2

PAGE 3

PAGE 4

PAGE 5

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by Abadu » 29 Aug 2012, 21:54

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 30 Aug 2012, 23:53

Thanks for the feedback. I am still looking at how to include the Egypt and Tunisian troops, and from what period.

Chapter 2 - covers the new army uniforms 1826-39. Here is an illustration of the Band:

Here is the draft Chapter 3: Cavalry 1828-50
PAGE 1

PAGE 2

PAGE 3

PAGE 4

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 03 Sep 2012, 14:22

This is Chapter 4: The infantry between 1839, and 1850:
PAGE 1:

PAGE 2:

PAGE 3:

PAGE 4:

PAGE 5:

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 03 Sep 2012, 16:01

Draft Title page:

CHAP 2: The Infantry 1808 till 1839:
PAGE 1:

PAGE 2:

PAGE 3:

PAGE 4:

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 03 Sep 2012, 16:03

Chapter 2:PAGE 5:

PAGE 6:

PAGE 7:

PAGE 8:

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 07 Sep 2012, 00:02


New plate on the WW1 Turks

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by jwsleser » 07 Sep 2012, 16:20

I am looking foward to this book. My interest is 1GM and the Russo-Turkish War. Thanks for posting these 'samples'.

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by button_guru » 08 Sep 2012, 10:28

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 10 Sep 2012, 19:07

updated WW1 illustrations of Turks:

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by Chris Dale » 10 Sep 2012, 20:57

Great work Chris, really looking forward to the book!

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by jwsleser » 11 Sep 2012, 16:30

I am looking forward to your book. However I am a bit confused on some of the details on Plate 20.

The Onbasi is of the 27th Infantry. Your drawing has the uniform with a grey collar instead of the dark green shown in several Turkish sources. Grey is the color identified for cavalry. I will comment that Türk Askerî Kiyafetleri states that infantry worn ordinary collars in tunic color (page 40). I am not sure whether that was the plan or a wartime modification. Officers certainly wore colored collars. The photographic history tends to support enlisted with plain collars and officers with colored. The grey stripe of color down the front of the tunic is also new to me.

I assume the rifles bascavus is also 1915. The rifle units (Nişanci taburlari) were disbanded in 1913 after the Balkan Wars, so I am uncertain want type of unit this figure represents?

The use of rank stripes on the cuffs. I asked this question on the Askeri Tarih Grubu FB group. The consensus was that the use of cuff rank insignia was Jandarma, while the Ordusu used shoulder strap insignia.

Just some questions based on my limited knowledge. Are their other sources I should look at?

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 11 Sep 2012, 19:53

jwsleser wrote: Chris Flaherty

I am looking forward to your book. However I am a bit confused on some of the details on Plate 20.

The Onbasi is of the 27th Infantry. Your drawing has the uniform with a grey collar instead of the dark green shown in several Turkish sources. Grey is the color identified for cavalry. I will comment that Türk Askerî Kiyafetleri states that infantry worn ordinary collars in tunic color (page 40). I am not sure whether that was the plan or a wartime modification. Officers certainly wore colored collars. The photographic history tends to support enlisted with plain collars and officers with colored. The grey stripe of color down the front of the tunic is also new to me.

I assume the rifles bascavus is also 1915. The rifle units (Nişanci taburlari) were disbanded in 1913 after the Balkan Wars, so I am uncertain want type of unit this figure represents?

The use of rank stripes on the cuffs. I asked this question on the Askeri Tarih Grubu FB group. The consensus was that the use of cuff rank insignia was Jandarma, while the Ordusu used shoulder strap insignia.

Just some questions based on my limited knowledge. Are their other sources I should look at?

Jeff, thanks so much for these questions.

The use of 'Green', originally (since the Crimean war), was the branch color for Dragoons and the rifle BNs . However, between 1909, and 1914 this color is re-designated for the Machine Guns units. The infantry on the other hand, are designated as 'Olive Green' (British Turk Army Manual 1916) however most of the early color illustrations show this as somewhere between Brown/Dark Grey. Where as Cavalry are clearly always 'Silver Grey'.

The next change is 1916, where the Infantry now:

piyade= infantry, dark green
Makinali tufek= MG, light green
suvari= cavalry, silvery

In doing this book, I am keeping to the view that it is better to keep -in all the contradictory info, rather than loose it (just in case there is more to be discovered down the track).

The debate about the use of NCO cuff lace, very much falls into this category (and cannot confirm either way). The British Turk Army Manual (1916), and other iterations clearly identified this was for the entire army (and that would include the Jandarma - as this stage they are another branch of the Army / not a separate institution as they are now in modern Turkey). What has been found, is 'Dress gendarmerie regulations, 9 may 1909.' which describe the same system in use. The same regulations for the use of the same system for the rest of the army (in 1915/16), have not as yet been found. So you are left with, ignore a primary resource - The British Turk Army Manual (1916), or still wait to find the corresponding Turkish Army instructions. The final question is, are all the period photographs from WW1 with cuff lace, supposed to be Jandarma mixed in with army units? I think the consensus is wrong.

The 27th Regt uniform has been illustrated with contrasting collar, cuffs and fly due to a problem with the original jacket it is based-on, which is a Gallipoli relic (and I have been working with the owner helping to analysis this - this will be published eventually), which is that we/I cannot tell what color it was originally. It was made as a stop-gap Ersatz tunic, and is very crudely made, and was taken on 25 April 1915. It varies in color between light-grey, to possibly brown. So the illustrations is trying to show both possibilities.

Any more questions/info please come forward!

Re: Draft Book on Ottoman Uniforms 1800 till 1918

Post by ukturkcollector » 13 Sep 2012, 19:48

These two plates of uniforms will be covering the 1908 'Young Turk' Revolution. Inspired by a 1908 New York Times article, an eyewitness account of the day, recorded these two units, the imperial Guard, and specifically the Ist Albanian Regiment (Zouave), as being loyal to the Sultan being disarmed:

• First Albanian Regiment of the IG. These troops were dressed in uniforms based on traditional Albanian national costume, which were made to resemble the French 4th Zouave regiment uniform. Confusingly, the Albanian regiment are often referred in modern books on the O-T military has one of the four battalions of Zouave troops. The Albanians wore a distinctively tall Albanian fez (figure 2), and were equipped with a traditional Balkan weapons belt, called a “Bensilan”. This is pictured below as well in figure 2. The Bensilan allowed for the traditional "yatagan" curved sword to be carried across the waist - hence the reason for the unusual curvature of the blade. These were the last O-T troops to be equipped with this particular weapon, and trained in the traditional fighting arts associated with this sword. However, toward the mid 1880s these were increasingly replaced with US M1874 Turkish Peabody-Martini contract yataghan bayonets. In addition these troops were also armed with M1874 Peabodies, fitted with the socket type bayonets. Both bayonets were made for the same rifle. For the rest of the O-T army, the NCOs were typically issued the Yataghan bayonet while enlisted men received the socket type. However, the Albanians IG appear to have received both of these weapons.

The revolt began in mid-April, when, under Young Turk leadership, the 3rd Army Corps in Macedonia marched against Istanbul. The sultan's attempt to suppress this uprising failed due to the popularity of the movement among the troops themselves. Rebellion spread rapidly. On July 24, Abdül Hamid announced restoration of the constitution.

These are troops supporting reform: The 1st Lancers (of the Imperial Guard), were apparently in favor of the reforms (the rest of the Imperial Guard were not!), and as a result of the 3rd Army move the Imp. Guard were formally disbanded. The only modern account of the fate of the IG is actually contained in a New York newspaper account, from 1908. This is the - Foreign Correspondence’s "SOLDIERS OF TURKEY FAVOR NEW REGIME", THE NEW YORK TIMES (December 27, 1908). The NYT records, how the "Zouave of the IG were hostile to the new regime". The NYT article goes onto report how the “Young Turks brought to the capital several battalions of Macedonian troops, those who had precipitated the revolution. These troops have replaced the old IG, the members of which have gradually been sent home and mustered out of service”. The significance of this point is that up to that time it was the IG, in particular the Zouaves who were personally devoted to the service of Sultan Abdul Hamid. The article states that the 3rd Army arrived in their 'new brown uniforms', and as these are a year earlier than the actual introduction of the M1909, there are illustrations of these early (pre-1908) field brown uniforms being worn by Engineers. These early versions still used the M1876 rank insignia, and the fez.


Contents

Épaulette is a French word meaning "little shoulder" (diminutive of épaule, meaning "shoulder").

Epaulettes bear some resemblance to the shoulder pteruges of ancient Greco-Roman military costumes. However, their direct origin lies in the bunches of ribbons worn on the shoulders of military coats at the end of the 17th century, which were partially decorative and partially intended to prevent shoulder belts from slipping. These ribbons were tied into a knot that left the fringed end free. This established the basic design of the epaulette as it evolved through the 18th and 19th centuries. [5]

From the 18th century on, epaulettes were used in the French and other armies to indicate rank. The rank of an officer could be determined by whether an epaulette was worn on the left shoulder, the right shoulder, or on both. Later a "counter-epaulette" (with no fringe) was worn on the opposite shoulder of those who wore only a single epaulette. Epaulettes were made in silver or gold for officers and in cloth of various colors for the enlisted men of various arms. Certain categories of cavalry wore flexible metal epaulettes referred to as shoulder scales, rarely worn on the field.

By the early 18th century, epaulettes had become the distinguishing feature of commissioned rank. This led officers of military units still without epaulettes to petition for the right to wear epaulettes to ensure that their status would be recognized. [6] During the Napoleonic Wars and subsequently through the 19th century, grenadiers, light infantry, voltigeurs and other specialist categories of infantry in many European armies wore cloth epaulettes with wool fringes in various colors to distinguish them from ordinary line infantry. "Flying artillery" wore "wings", similar to an epaulette but with only a bit of fringe on the outside, which matched the shoulder seam. Heavy artillery wore small balls representing ammunition on their shoulders. [ citation needed ]

An intermediate form in some services, such as the Russian Army, is the shoulder board, which neither has a fringe nor extends beyond the shoulder seam. This originated during the 19th century as a simplified version for service wear of the heavy and conspicuous full dress epaulette with bullion fringes.

Today, epaulettes have mostly been replaced by a five-sided flap of cloth called a shoulder board, which is sewn into the shoulder seam and the end buttoned like an epaulette.

From the shoulder board was developed the shoulder mark, a flat cloth tube that is worn over the shoulder strap and carries embroidered or pinned-on rank insignia. The advantages of this are the ability to easily change the insignia as occasions warrant.

Airline pilot uniform shirts generally include cloth flattened tubular epaulettes having cloth or bullion braid stripes, attached by shoulder straps integral to the shirts. The rank of the wearer is designated by the number of stripes: traditionally four for a captain, three for senior first officer or first officer, and two for either a first officer or second officer. However, rank insignia are airline specific. For example, at some airlines, two stripes denote junior first officer and one stripe second officer (cruise or relief pilot). Airline captains' uniform caps usually will have a braid pattern on the bill. These uniform specifications change depending on the company's policy.

In the Belgian army, red epaulettes with white fringes are worn with the ceremonial uniforms of the Royal Escort while fully red ones are worn by the Grenadiers. Trumpeters of the Royal Escort are distinguished by all red epaulettes while officers of the two units wear silver or gold respectively.

In the Canadian Armed Forces, epaulettes are still worn on some Army Full Dress, Patrol Dress, and Mess Dress uniforms. Epaulettes in the form of shoulder boards are worn with the officer's white Naval Service Dress.

After the unification of the Forces, and prior to the issue of the Distinct Environmental Uniforms, musicians of the Band Branch wore epaulettes of braided gold cord.

Until 1914, officers of most French Army infantry regiments wore gold epaulettes in full dress, while those of mounted units wore silver. No insignia was worn on the epaulette itself, though the bullion fringe falling from the crescent differed according to rank. [7] Other ranks of most branches of the infantry, as well as cuirassiers wore detachable epaulettes of various colours (red for line infantry, green for Chasseurs, yellow for Colonial Infantry etc.) with woollen fringes, of a traditional pattern that dated back to the 18th Century. Other cavalry such as hussars, dragoons and chasseurs à cheval wore special epaulettes of a style originally intended to deflect sword blows from the shoulder.

In the modern French Army, epaulettes are still worn by those units retaining 19th-century-style full dress uniforms, notably the ESM Saint-Cyr and the Garde Républicaine. The French Foreign Legion continued to wear their green and red epaulettes, except for a break from 1915 to 1930. In recent years, the Marine Infantry and some other units have readopted their traditional fringed epaulettes in various colours for ceremonial parades. The Marine nationale and the Armée de l'Air do not use epaulettes, but non-commissioned and commissioned officers wear a gilded shoulder strap called attente [ citation needed ] , which original function was to clip the epaulette onto the shoulder. The attentes [ citation needed ] are also worn by Army generals on dress uniform.

Cadets of the ESM Saint-Cyr in full uniform. The gold epaulettes shown are those of cadet officers, while those of ordinary cadets are red.


Ottoman Uniforms

Post by Abdul Hadi Pasha » 11 Jun 2004, 17:06

Prior to WWI, the Ottoman Army began a switch from blue uniforms to khaki - and in many of Kaan's Gallipoli photos you can see troops wearing white (the summer color of the old uniforms), but there are accounts by ANZACs describing fighting troops in blue uniforms.

Does anyone have any info about this? My suspicion is that it was just troops with old uniforms sweating it out in winter dress, but I know someone who is convinced it was the Brusa Jandarma battalion, although I have no idea what color Jandarma uniforms were.

Any help greatly appreciated.

Post by VJ » 11 Jun 2004, 20:32

Abdul, what effect did the Balkan Wars have on the Ottoman Army of WWI? Sorry for asking here, but I'm just interested, as I have no other sources on the issue.

Post by Peter H » 12 Jun 2004, 16:00

If I remember correctly the Australian Official History states that the Jandarma wore a light blue uniform.Their index however mentions no 'Gendarmerie' units, making it hard to source back.

It does state that the Suvla Bay garrison under the Bavarian,Major Willmer,consisted of two Jandarma(Gendarmerie) Battalions,the Gallipoli and Broussa,and two battalions of the 33rd Infantry Regiment.



I think this photos shows a mixture of Army,the old blue and the new khaki types:


Post by Abdul Hadi Pasha » 22 Jun 2004, 22:53

VJ wrote: Abdul, what effect did the Balkan Wars have on the Ottoman Army of WWI? Sorry for asking here, but I'm just interested, as I have no other sources on the issue.

It had a huge impact the army was virtually destroyed and had to be entirely restructured. The only corps that emerged virtually intact was the III Corps, which not coincidentally ended up defending Gallipoli, being the most effective and battle-hardened unit in the empire.

The Balkan Wars occurred at the worst possible time, when the army was in the middle of a major reorganization, and the creme of the officer corps were stuck in Libya fighting the Italians. The overall operational plan was exceptionally bad, failing to concentrate the army, but also surrendering the superior defensive terrain to launch weak offensives everywhere, allowing the army to be defeated in detail. It was also difficult to reinforce from Asia due to the Greek navy.

The only positive is that defeat allowed the Ottomans to learn, and towards the end were able to effectively coordinate and concentrate artillery, smacking the Bulgarians badly at Chatalja and learning valuable lessons about defense for WWI.

If Enver had waited until spring to enter the war, the Ottoman army would have been 2-3 times more powerful, having the time to properly reorganize and recover. This would have been bad news for Russia.

Ottoman Uniforms

Post by Cristiano de S.O Campos » 30 Jun 2004, 19:14

Look these photo, i found in these website
http://www.gallipolidigger.com


In these uniforms has a badge ,black square with red stripes. This can be one rank insignia? I ask to this therefore these badges I do not seem with mine book of the Osprey and the explanation of an English friend,Chris Dale.


i wait reply, mainly of the Turks of this forum.

Cristiano Campos
Rio de Janeiro
Brazil.

Re: Re:

Post by BasilII » 24 Dec 2008, 17:18

Peter H wrote:
I think this photos shows a mixture of Army,the old blue and the new khaki types:


I think you're wrong assuming this, the above soldiers just wear various shades of drab uniforms
The ww1 era Ottoman uniforms were far from any standardisation with shades ranging from
almost white-beige to green-khaki to brown. The colour variety was deteriorated further by
the variety of materials, quality and field abuse without replacement for months and months.

Is hard to understand in B+W photos.

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by Tosun Saral » 24 Dec 2008, 20:56

My dear Turcos Compos, Merry Christmass and Happy new Year
"black square with red stripes" is a fabrication designed by a fool, an ignorant person. Such ignorants couse an error in history, directs the seachers to a wrong way. As all of you know I posted a page "Find the 7 mistakes". This error is unfortunately is made by the Historical Department of Turkish General Staff. I wrote to H.E. General Ilker Başbuğ Chief of Staff of Turkish Armed Forces on Sept. 11st 2008 and to the President of the Historical Department a Lt.General about the errors. I am still waiting for a kind reply.

TS's note: I am sure my late father Major Genaral Ahmet Hulki Saral's bones are in pain in his grave. He was the President of Historical Department during the years 1958-60

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by infantry » 29 Dec 2008, 11:55

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by Tosun Saral » 29 Mar 2012, 10:25

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by ukturkcollector » 02 Jun 2012, 17:16

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by ukturkcollector » 02 Jun 2012, 17:17

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by ukturkcollector » 02 Jun 2012, 17:18

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by ukturkcollector » 02 Jun 2012, 17:20

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by ukturkcollector » 02 Jun 2012, 17:29

Plate 18: As a postscript there is some confusion as to where/when this picture was taken. David Nicolle. (1994) The Ottoman Army 1914-18. Osprey Publishing: 21, has the same picture attributed to the Askeri Muzesi, Istanbul and carries the caption: “Colours of an unknown regiment and its colour guard during a medal-giving ceremony on the Palestine Front”.

AND THEN IN 2010, THE SAME PHOTO (USED AS A BASIS FOR ONE OF HIS 'POOR QUALITY & HIGHLY INACCURATE PAINTINGS) GETS A NEW ATTRIBUTION:

David Nicolle. (2010) Ottoman Infantryman 1914-18. Osprey Publishing: 34 Plate C, attributes this scene to Iraq, November 1915 at a medal award ceremony in relation to the battles and siege of Kut.

IF it is Kut, then the regiment represented is from this group: "Turkish forces launched several attacks during December 1915 but they were all repulsed. Meanwhile some additional reinforcements arrived in Mesopotamia from the Third Army. The year 1916 began with the Turkish XVIII Corps, composed of 45th and 51st Divisions, encircling the town and the XIII Corps with the 35th and 52nd Divisions blocking the British relief force about 30 km down the Tigris."

First Battle of Gaza, 1917
These are photographs, that are actually from the ‘American Colony (in) Jerusalem’ Collection-US LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.
Which would therefore be, the Ottoman Fourth Army's 3rd and 16th Infantry Divisions launched a counterattack by 1,000 men advancing on the right. Which were the:

3rd Infantry Division
o 31st Infantry Regiment
o 32nd Infantry Regiment
16th Infantry Division
o 47th Infantry Regiment
o 48th Infantry Regiment


History Bunker Ltd

Since 2006 the company and product range has grown rapidly and we now carry over 1000 product lines including WW1 British Army uniforms, WW1 Anzac uniforms, WW1 German uniforms, WW2 Soviet Red Army uniforms, WW2 Italian uniforms, WW2 Japanese uniforms as well as British Napoleonic, Crimean and Victorian uniforms

From our beginnings as an online trading company we have since acquired premises to store our vast array of WW1 and WW2 uniforms as well as being a tailoring and seamstress workshop, military showroom and offices. If you wish to visit us you are more than welcome, but please note we operate and appointment only viewing system so you must contact us beforehand to arrange a date.

Over the years we have supplied our military uniforms to many prestigious organisations and groups, including – Warner Brothers, Paramount Pictures, The BBC, Universal Studios, Band Apart, Channel 4, Buckingham Palace, Chelsea Football Club, The Tower of London, Madame Tussauds, The Royal Armouries, Imperial War Museum, Australian War Memorial, The National Trust and many theatre companies around the globe as well as those on Broadway and Drury Lane

As well as tailoring uniforms for sale we also provide a costume and uniform hire service for film, theatre and tv as well as the individual. We can provide hire uniforms for the Goodwood revival, Haworth 40’s weekend, Pickering war weekend and any other 40’s event. We also provide uniforms and clothing for 1940’s weddings. Should you require something we do not carry as standard then we will do our best to source it for you.

So, please peruse our website, Im sure you will find something of interest and if you have any questions or queries then please do not hesitate to contact me or a member of our team.

Mark Platts BA (Hons) History MA (RS)



Clothes make the man: a transformation of the Turkish wardrobe

As the anecdote goes, well known by Turks, Nasreddin Hoca attends a dinner in his daily clothes and does not get recognition at all. Upon changing into an expensive fur coat, he is greeted by everyone wholeheartedly. When dinner is served, he feeds his fur coat, shouting “ye kürküm, ye!” which translates as “my coat, you eat, too!” As this bizarre story highlights, clothing has been and still is a marker of social, cultural, and financial status in Turkish society.

For the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey, clothing was regulated by the state and the laws changed with each period. The first of the clothing laws were passed after Mehmet II conquered Istanbul. The legislation on clothing specifically defined the dress code for each member of the society to the point that wearing the appropriate attire was a way of realization of one’s identity. For instance, a 1580 decree stated that dark blue and black were exclusive to the non-Muslim whereas yellow and green garments were to be worn by the Muslim population.

Regardless, the style of Ottoman garments was almost the same for all members of society. The typical Ottoman dress consisted of cakşır (trousers), gömlek (shirt), belt, kaftan (a long formal robe), fur coat, plus headgear that differed according to one’s status and occupation. In addition, when going outside, women wore an overcoat called a ferace and covered their head and face with a veil called a yaşmak. These layers were preferred for their functionality for a long time but later, the number and quality of the layers began to signify wealth and higher status.

Illustration from “The Costume of Turkey”

Ottoman fashion peaked during the reign of Suleyman I as the Ottoman Empire was gaining immense economic and political power. High quality fabrics such as brocade, velvet, and cashmere were woven with gold or silver threads and made the most astonishing kaftans for the Sultan. Fabrics from China, India, Italy, and Iran entered the country and there was an immense demand for new clothing. Fearing that the demand for luxury would cause distress amongst the people, the Sultan issued a decree requiring people to continue using traditional forms and to opt for fabrics that are suitable for each respective rank. Thus, clothing fostered a modicum of control to maintain hierarchy and social structure.

Such intricate lines of law did not go by without some resistance. Liberties were taken by the people, starting in the eighteenth century. Although the Ottoman Empire struggled with economic and political stability during the Tulip Period, the court was drawing attention with their glamorous lifestyles. Trade lodges were controlling a reasonable amount of power and a group of men started to wear high quality furs to establish their power. With this emerging middle class extravagance, Abdulhamid I put certain limitations on excessive clothing by requesting more humble attire. In time, fashion also became an economic concern, encouraging Selim III to issue decrees requiring the usage of the local fabric.

  • Wedding photograph from a modern family, 1926, SALT Research
  • Clothing from Bursa region, 1872, SALT Research

Symbol of Change

Clothing symbolized and manifested the shift in society in the Ottoman Empire. During the second half of the reign of Mahmud II, the Ottoman Empire underwent a set of radical changes that deeply shook social life. In 1826, the janissary was dismissed and a new army was formed. With the new army, a new military uniform was introduced, reflecting a Western European style. Regardless of rank, state officials had to wear Istanbulin (a long black jacket and trousers). The ultimate marker of the Ottoman Empire, the fez became the official headgear in this period. A new feshane (fez factory) was founded to hasten the adaptation process. This standardization process created public confusion. Although the law required a simple fez, the social urge to express one’s own identity through clothes remained within this multinational empire. Turkish workers wore the fez with yemeni, a traditional fabric, wrapped around it while Armenian and Kurdish tradesmen opted for other colors.

With the industrial revolution and the advancement of the sewing machine, Turkish dress drifted from its traditional roots. Usually, the new models were taken from European fashion magazines. Later, the fall of the Ottoman Empire with World War I had an immense effect, particularly with women’s clothing. The inclusion of women in social and economic life impacted the clothing rules, and liberties were taken in favor of Western styles.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk with artist, 1926, Suna&İnan Kıraç Foundation

Modern Turkey

With the establishment of the Republic in 1923, Turkey underwent radical changes in every aspect of social life, as well as fashion. European standards were taken as a model for the new outlook for Turkey. To reflect the newly founded democracy, a new set of clothing laws became effective in 1925. Religious clothes like a kavuk (a religious headgear) and an abaya (the full-length gown worn by Muslim women) were prohibited for everyone, except for religious officials. The hat replaced the fez and headscarf.

Another important aspect of the hat and clothing revolution is the change in women’s attire. Women had to cover their bodies with a black abaya or ferace for a long period. However, with the adoption of European style, they were replaced by jackets and coats. Hats took the place of yaşmak. Having the new sartorial reforms played a significant role and increased inclusion of women in the workforce and social sphere. Originally founded in the nineteenth century to prepare military attire, The Girls’ Institute transformed in the Republican Era into a vocational school where the newest fashion styles were reinterpreted with Turkish. Students even traveled to Paris to follow the latest trends. Besides disseminating European fashion, the students promoted the European lifestyle, which was also endorsed by the state.

A nation which was segregated in terms of clothing for centuries, standardized attire for all ranks of society was crucially important for the new democratic regime. This was an attempt to erase the unpopular image of Ottoman attire, which had become a costume representing backwardness. Although everyone did not welcome the change, Atatürk and his supporters continued encouraging the European attire and way of life. Westernization was synonymous with the idea of prosperity for Turkey. In a short matter of time, classes about the Western lifestyle were put into the curriculum. Atatürk even traveled across the country to introduce the hat and new Turkish attire.

After the 1960s, the ready-to-wear clothing industry dominated Turkey. As the Turkish dress was European in form, traditional designs and patterns found a place in this new era of Turkish fashion with enterprises such as Sümerbank Textile Factories. Today, many factors determine Turkish attire. Still, the quality of the fabric and choice of style tell a lot about one’s cultural background, occupation, and religion. One of the unchanging trends, the fusion of Western European and Turkish fashion can be observed in some contemporary designers’ collections like Aslı Filinta, Cemil İpekçi, and Rıfat Özbek.


Ranks [ edit | edit source ]

    were commanders of the different branches of the military services, like "azap agha", "besli agha", "janissary agha", for the commanders of azaps, beslis, and janissaries, respectively. This designation was given to commanders of smaller military units, too, for instance the "bölük agha", and the "ocak agha", the commanders of a "bölük" (company) and an "ocak" (troops) respectively.
  • Bolukbashi was a commander of a "bölük", equivalent with the rank of captain. (Turkish for "soup server") was a commander of an orta (regiment), approximately corresponding to the rank of colonel (Turkish language: Albay ) today. In seafaring, the term was in use for the boss of a ship's crew, a role similar to that of boatswain.

In modern period [ edit | edit source ]

  • Nefer
  • Onbaşı
  • Çavuş
  • Mülâzım-ı Sani (Second Lieutenant)
  • Mülâzım-ı Evvel (First Lieutenant)
  • Yüzbaşı (Captain)
  • Kolağası (Senior Captain)
  • Binbaşı (Major)
  • Kaymakam (Lieutenant Colonel) is a commander of a regiment (alay) is a commander of a brigade (liva)

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by Tosun Saral » 19 Jun 2012, 10:02

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by ukturkcollector » 10 Jul 2012, 13:57

We have been discussing Ottoman Army uniform buttons on this posts. This silver button is a actually a fake silver cast, but it still attracted 7 bids and made the seller $31.00

This is what the originals are supposed to look like:

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by demir » 31 Dec 2012, 14:27

Makriköylü Dimitraki düğmeleri . Mahmudpaşa'da Yeni Çarşı'da numro 17

Ottoman Artillery and other classes tunic buttons made in Paris/France and sold by:
D. LAMBRIDIS - Mahmud Paşa - Yeni Cami - Aboud Efendi han No. 17 - STAMBOUL - CONSTANTINOPLE

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by demir » 31 Dec 2012, 14:31

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by demir » 31 Dec 2012, 14:32

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by demir » 31 Dec 2012, 14:33

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by demir » 31 Dec 2012, 14:33

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by button_guru » 31 Dec 2012, 15:20

Re: Ottoman Uniforms

Post by ukturkcollector » 01 Jan 2013, 15:09

fine example of the 1876 button, from a pre-WW1 seller.

Here are some of mine with a period illustration from Askeri Müze ve Kültür Sitesti Komutanligi. (1986) Osmanli askeri teskilat ve kiyafetleri: 1876-1908 [Ottoman military organization and uniforms] Yayinlari.


Janissary

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Janissary, also spelled Janizary, Turkish Yenıçerı (“New Soldier” or “New Troop”), member of an elite corps in the standing army of the Ottoman Empire from the late 14th century to 1826. Highly respected for their military prowess in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Janissaries became a powerful political force within the Ottoman state. During peacetime they were used to garrison frontier towns and police the capital, Istanbul. They constituted the first modern standing army in Europe.

The Janissary corps was originally staffed through devşirme, a system of tribute by which Christian youths were taken from the Balkan provinces, converted to Islam, and drafted into Ottoman service. Subject to strict rules, including celibacy, they were organized into three unequal divisions (cemaat, bölükhalkı, and segban) and commanded by an ağā. In the late 16th century the celibacy rule and other restrictions were relaxed, and by the early 18th century the original method of recruitment had been abandoned, opening the ranks to Muslim Turks. The Janissaries were known particularly for their archery, but by the 16th century they had also become a formidable firepower contingent.

The supreme prowess and discipline of the Janissaries allowed them to become increasingly powerful in the palace. From the reign of Bayezid II (1481–1512), they regularly required sultans to provide extra pay in exchange for the support of the corps. The maintenance costs of the armed forces proved increasingly unaffordable for the empire, however, and augmented the growing tensions between the Janissaries and the sultan. An attempt by Osman II (1618–22) to discipline them and cut their pay led to his execution at their hands. They frequently engineered palace coups thereafter. In one instance, they conspired with court officials and overthrew İbrahim for his sheer incompetence in governance.

In the early 19th century the Janissaries resisted the adoption of European reforms by the Ottoman army. Their end came in June 1826 in the so-called Auspicious Incident. On learning of the formation of new, Westernized troops, the Janissaries revolted. Sultan Mahmud II declared war on the rebels and, on their refusal to surrender, had cannon fire directed on their barracks. Most of the Janissaries were killed, and those who were taken prisoner were executed.


Equipment [ edit | edit source ]

Sultan Abdul Hamid II became aware of the need to renew the weapons of the army in the late 19th century. This coincides to the European arms industries were in rapid progress. The Ottoman Army had only obsolete weapons with low efficiency. Abdul Hamid II removed the old system, but only an insignificant munitions industry developed. As a consequence, Ottoman Army relied on imports and grants from its allies for its needs of weapons and equipment. The situation is only improved with decree issued on July 3, 1910 which included the budget for purchases of arms and ammunition.

Weapons [ edit | edit source ]

An Ottoman commander of the Imperial Ironclad Fleet, posing with a ships landing party four-barrel Nordenfelt gun

General Vidinli Tevfik Paşa, was sent to Germany to analyse, select, and purchase Mauser rifles. Instead of the offered rifles (Mauser M1890), the Ottomans bought the Mauser M1893 and M1903 in 7.65 mm caliber. In 1908, when constitutional rule was restored, the Ottoman Army had mostly basic rifles and only a few number of rapid-firing ones.

The Ottoman Army had no machine gun units until early 1910 (the changes implemented in July 3, 1910). The available ones were used in warships and for coastal defense. The few number of machine guns were all Maxim-Nordenfeld Maxim gun. Following years only a handful of Hotchkiss M1909, Schwarzlose MG M.07/12 added.

Heavy weapons included light artillery and howitzers.

Infantry used two different kinds of grenades. The most commonly used offensive grenade was the German stick grenade M1915 and M1917 Stielhandgranate. There were also defensive grenades used were "ball" and "egg" shaped.


Watch the video: Ottoman Uniforms of World War 1 I THE GREAT WAR Special