Congress renames the nation “United States of America”

Congress renames the nation “United States of America”

On September 9, 1776, the Continental Congress formally declares the name of the new nation to be the “United States” of America. This replaced the term “United Colonies,” which had been in general use.

In the Congressional declaration dated September 9, 1776, the delegates wrote, “That in all continental commissions, and other instruments, where, heretofore, the words ‘United Colonies’ have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the “United States.”

A resolution by Richard Henry Lee, which had been presented to Congress on June 7 and approved on July 2, 1776, issued the resolve, “That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States….” As a result, John Adams thought July 2 would be celebrated as “the most memorable epoch in the history of America.” Instead, the day has been largely forgotten in favor of July 4, when Jefferson’s edited Declaration of Independence was adopted. That document also states, “That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES.” However, Lee began with the line, while Jefferson saved it for the middle of his closing paragraph.

By September, the Declaration of Independence had been drafted, signed, printed and sent to Great Britain. What Congress had declared to be true on paper in July was clearly the case in practice, as Patriot blood was spilled against the British on the battlefields of Boston, Montreal, Quebec and New York. Congress had created a country from a cluster of colonies and the nation’s new name reflected that reality.


History of the Indian National Congress

Indian national Congress established when 72 delegates from all over country met at Bombay in 1885.The prominent among those were Dadabhai Naoroji , Surendranath Banerjee,Badruddin Tyabji ,W C Bonnerji, S.Subramanya Iyer, Romesh Chandra Dutt.Some British stood with Indians in fight and struggle for independence. A O Hume, retired British officer and servant was one of member of Indian National Congress. He realized grievances Indian were rising and feared .Until the time India gained its independence on 15 August 1947, the Indian National Congress (INC)was the central and defining influence and plateform where Indians put their grievances.


Contents

Historically the Native Americans of North America rarely joined forces across tribal lines, which were divisions related to distinct language and cultural groups. One reason was that most tribes were highly decentralized, with their people seldom united around issues.

In the 20th century, a generation of Native Americans came of age who were educated in multi-tribal boarding schools. They began to think with a broad pan-Native American vision, and they learned to form alliances across tribes. They increasingly felt the need to work together politically in order to exert their power in dealing with the United States federal government. In addition, with the efforts after 1934 to reorganize tribal governments, activists believed that Indians had to work together to strengthen their political position. Activists formed the National Congress of American Indians to find ways to organize the tribes to deal in a more unified way with the US government. They wanted to challenge the government on its failure to implement treaties, to work against the tribal termination policy, and to improve public opinion of and appreciation for Indian cultures.

The initial organization of the NCAI was done largely by Native American men who worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and represented many tribes. Among this group was D'Arcy McNickle of the BIA. [ citation needed ] At the second national convention, Indian women attended as representatives in numbers equal to the men. The convention decided that BIA employees should be excluded from serving as general officers or members of the executive committee. The first president of the NCAI was Napoleon B. Johnson, a judge in Oklahoma. Dan Madrano (Caddo) was the first secretary-treasurer he also had been serving as an elected member of the Oklahoma State Legislature. [4] From 1945 to 1952, the executive secretary of the NCAI was Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee), who established the organization's legislative news service. [5] [6] Bronson's work was largely voluntary, as the organization could not afford to pay her to act as its executive secretary. [7]

In 1950 John Rainer became the first paid executive director of NCAI. [8] He was replaced by Bronson in 1951, who resigned in 1952. Frank George, a Nez Perce from the Colville Indian Reservation, briefly held the post [6] before Helen Peterson (Cheyenne-Lakota) took over the post as the executive director of the organization in 1953. That same year, W. W. Short replaced Johnson as president of NCAI. [9] In 1954, Short was replaced by Joseph Garry (Coeur d'Alene), a veteran of both World War II and the Korean War. Garry significantly enlarged the organizational direction away from its focus on issues of Native Americans in the Great Plains and the Southwest, making it more inclusive of tribes in the Midwest and Northwest. [10]

In 1966, the NCAI mustered nearly 80 tribal leaders from 62 tribes to protest their exclusion from a US-Congress sponsored conference on reorganizing the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs). The Congressional event was organized by Morris Udall, chairman of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, to discuss the reorganization of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Udall eventually allowed the NCAI representatives to attend. He confirmed that a group composed of tribe members, called the Tribal Advisory Commission, would be created to advise him. [11]

During the late 20th century, NCAI contributed to gaining legislation to protect and preserve Indian culture, including NAGPRA. They worked with the tribes to assert their sovereignty in dealing with the federal government.

In the early 21st century, key goals of the NCAI are: [ citation needed ]

  • Enforce for Indians all rights under the Constitution and laws in the United States
  • Expand and improve educational opportunities provided for Indians
  • Improve methods for finding productive employment and developing tribal and individual resources
  • Increase number and quality of health facilities
  • Settle Indian claims equitably and
  • Preserve Indian cultural values.

In 2017, the NCAI took over the assets of the Indian Country Media Network, which were donated by the Oneida Nation of New York. In March 2021, the publication became independent from the NCAI. [12] “This is an exciting time for Indian Country Today to become fiscally independent and to continue its tradition of an autonomous free press," NCAI President Fawn Sharp said in a press release regarding the change. “This is a new day for ICT, which has a long history as a premier source of news for and about Indigenous communities, written and produced by Indigenous journalists.” The publication's current president and CEO is Karen Michel, Ho Chunk.

The NCAI Constitution says that its members seek to provide themselves and their descendants with the traditional laws, rights, and benefits. It lists the by-laws and rules of order regarding membership, powers, and dues. There are four classes of membership: tribal, Indian individual, individual associate, and organization associate. Voting right is reserved for tribal and Indian individual members. According to section B of Article III regarding membership, any tribe, band or group of American Indians and Alaska Natives shall be eligible for tribal membership provided it fulfills the following requirements [13]

  • A substantial number of its members reside upon the same reservation or (in the absence of a reservation) in the same general locality.
  • It maintain a Tribal organization, with regular officers and the means of transacting business and arriving at a reasonably accurate count of its membership
  • It is not a mere offshoot or fraction of an organized Tribe itself eligible for membership
  • It is recognized as a Tribe or other identifiable group of Native Americans by the Department of the Interior, Court of Claims, the Indian Claims Commission, or a State. An Indian or Alaska Native organization incorporated/chartered under state law is not eligible for tribal membership.

The organizational structure of the National Congress of American Indians includes a General Assembly, an Executive Council, and seven committees. The up-and-coming [ when? ] executive Board of the NCAI is as follows:

  • President: Fawn Sharp of the Quinault Indian Nation
  • First Vice President: Aaron Payment of the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe
  • Secretary: Juana Majel Dixon of the Pauma Band of Luiseno Mission Indians
  • Treasurer: Clinton Lageson Kenaitze Indian Tribe.

In addition to these four positions, the NCAI executive board also consists of twelve area vice-presidents and twelve alternative area vice-presidents.

The current chief executive officer of the National Congress of American Indians is Dante Desiderio who filled the position in 2021 after Kevin Allis, member of the Forest County Potawatomi Community in Wisconsin, exited.

Chuck Trimble was the former chief executive. [14]

Every tribe gets a number of votes allocated to them specific to the size of each tribe.

The successes of the NCAI over these years have been a policy of non-protesting. During the 1960s NCAI carried a banner with the slogan, "INDIANS DON'T DEMONSTRATE". [15]

  • In 1949, the NCAI made charges against Federal job bias towards the Indians
  • In 1950, the NCAI influenced the insertion of an anti-reservation clause to the Alaska Statehood Act. This clause removes the ban against reservations for Alaskan Natives.
  • On July 8, 1954, NCAI won their fight against legislation that would have allowed the states to take civil and criminal jurisdictions over Indians.
  • On June 19, 1952, a self-help parley was opened in Utah where 50 agents for 12 groups proposed several self-help action plans
  • Indians had conventions nationwide and dealt with various topics such as health care, employment, and safety issues [citation needed]
  • In 2015 the organization successfully lobbied the State of California to ban the term "redskins" from being used by public schools in the state of California. [16]

In the early 1960s, a shift in attitude occurred. Many young American Indians branded the older generation as sell-outs and called for harsh militancy. Two important militant groups were born: the American Indian Movement (AIM) and the National Indian Youth Council (NIYC). The two groups protested several conventions. [ citation needed ]

The NCAI is fighting for improved living conditions on reservations, arguing that 560 tribes are federally recognized but fewer than 20 tribes gain profits from casinos to turn the tribe's economy around. [ citation needed ] According to the NCAI website, other current issues and topics include: [17]

  • Protection of programs and services to benefit Indian families, specifically targeting Indian Youth and elders
  • Promotion and support of Indian education, including Head Start, elementary, post-secondary and Adult Education
  • Enhancement of Indian health care, including prevention of juvenile substance abuse, HIV-AIDS prevention and other major diseases
  • Support of environmental protection and natural resources management
  • Protection of Indian cultural resources and religious freedom rights
  • Promotion of the Rights of Indian economic opportunity both on and off reservations, including securing programs to provide incentives for economic development and the attraction of private capital to Indian Country
  • Protection of the Rights of all Indian people to decent, safe and affordable housing.

In 2001, the advertising firm of DeVito/Verdi created an advertising campaign and poster for the NCAI to highlight offensive and racist sports team images and mascots. [18] In October 2013, the NCAI published a report on sports teams using harmful and racial "Indian" mascots. [19]


Congress Renames and Dedicates ATF Headquarters the “Ariel Rios Federal Building”

On December 2, 2016, ATF will have the distinct honor of hosting a ceremony to rename and dedicate ATF Headquarters as the “Ariel Rios Federal Building.” This is a moment of great pride for the ATF family. Special Agent Rios, through his life and work, embodied ATF’s commitment to protecting the public and serving the nation. It is my honor to briefly tell you about the man and the agent.

Rios grew up in Brooklyn, New York, of Puerto Rican parents who instilled in him the values of education and service. He began his career in law enforcement serving with the D.C. Department of Corrections and later moved to the New York City Department of Corrections. His experience working out of Rikers Island prison gave him immeasurable insights into the criminal psyche. He would leave the Department of Corrections to start a new path with ATF in 1978 in the Boston Field Division working out of the New Haven, Connecticut field office. His experience working in the NYC prison system groomed Rios into an exceptional agent and wasn’t long before he and his supervisors discovered his talent for undercover work. During his time in New Haven, he made significant strides infiltrating street gangs and getting guns and drugs off the streets.

ATF Special Agent Ariel Rios

In 1982, President Ronald Reagan, in response to unprecedented levels of violence and cocaine trafficking in South Florida, formed the South Florida Drug Task Force. This task force was comprised of federal, state and local law enforcement agencies responsible for dismantling criminal networks made up of the “Cocaine Cowboys” that were plaguing communities with drugs and violence. When ATF asked for volunteers to serve on the South Florida Task Force, and despite receiving a ‘Reduction In Force’ notice, Ariel did not hesitate to raise his hand. By all accounts, the task force succeeded in doing what ATF does best - taking violent criminals off the streets of America. In the first 6 months of the South Florida Task Force, the work of Rios and his fellow agents was impressive: 388 criminal investigations, 120 cases against 208 defendants, 112 arrests, 90 indictments and 52 convictions, not to mention the $245,000 in seized weapons and drugs. But as we all know, success does not come without cost.

Unfortunately, on December 2, 1982, Rios was killed in the line of duty while conducting an undercover operation. He and another agent, Alex D'Atri, arranged to meet two suspects at the Hurricane Motel in Miami, Florida, to purchase machine guns and drugs. A confrontation ensued and in a struggle, Special Agent Rios was shot and seriously wounded. He died shortly thereafter. Posthumously, Agent Rios was awarded the Secretary of the Treasury Exceptional Service Award.

Rios was survived by his wife and high school sweetheart, Elsie, son, Francisco and daughter, Eileen. He was buried in Jayuya, Puerto Rico, a beautiful mountain village where Rios envisioned his father retiring to and where he had once told his wife he could rest forever.

While it has been an honor and privilege to facilitate the renaming and dedication of ATF Headquarters to Ariel Rios, doing so serves to remind me of the dangers that the men and women of law enforcement face every day to protect the public and serve our nation. In that spirit, I would like to extend the dedication of our headquarters to all fallen law enforcement officers who have been in killed in the line of duty.

Ariel Rios is an inspiration for so many ATF special agents, including myself. He exhibited the characteristics, the honor, integrity and personal courage, that we ask special agents to hold true. The memory of Ariel Rios will always serve as a pillar supporting the legacy of ATF far into the future. To Special Agent Ariel Rios, may he rest in peace.


H.R.1472 - To rename the Homestead National Monument of America near Beatrice, Nebraska, as the Homestead National Historical Park. 116th Congress (2019-2020)

Text available as:

Shown Here: Enrolled Bill

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Friday,
the third day of January, two thousand and twenty

To rename the Homestead National Monument of America near Beatrice, Nebraska, as the Homestead National Historical Park.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. Homestead National Historical Park .

(a) In General .—The first section of the Act of March 19, 1936 (16 U.S.C. 450u), is amended by striking “designated” and all that follows through the end and inserting “designated the ‘Homestead National Historical Park’.”.

(b) References .—Any reference in a law, map, regulation, document, paper, or other record of the United States to the unit of the National Park System known as “The Homestead National Monument of America” shall be considered to be a reference to the “Homestead National Historical Park”.


Congress renames the nation “United States of America”

SGT (Join to see)

On September 9, 1776, Congress officially renamed the country as the United States of America. From the article:

"Congress renames the nation “United States of America”
On September 9, 1776, the Continental Congress formally declares the name of the new nation to be the “United States” of America. This replaced the term “United Colonies,” which had been in general use.

In the Congressional declaration dated September 9, 1776, the delegates wrote, “That in all continental commissions, and other instruments, where, heretofore, the words ‘United Colonies’ have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the “United States.”

A resolution by Richard Henry Lee, which had been presented to Congress on June 7 and approved on July 2, 1776, issued the resolve, “That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States….” As a result, John Adams thought July 2 would be celebrated as “the most memorable epoch in the history of America.” Instead, the day has been largely forgotten in favor of July 4, when Jefferson’s edited Declaration of Independence was adopted. That document also states, “That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES.” However, Lee began with the line, while Jefferson saved it for the middle of his closing paragraph.

By September, the Declaration of Independence had been drafted, signed, printed and sent to Great Britain. What Congress had declared to be true on paper in July was clearly the case in practice, as Patriot blood was spilled against the British on the battlefields of Boston, Montreal, Quebec and New York. Congress had created a country from a cluster of colonies and the nation’s new name reflected that reality."


Transcription of the 1789 Joint Resolution of Congress Proposing 12 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution

Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.

RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution viz.

ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.

Article the first. After the first enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons.

Article the second. No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

Article the third. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Article the fourth. A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Article the fifth. No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Article the sixth. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Article the seventh. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Article the eighth. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation to be confronted with the witnesses against him to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Article the ninth. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Article the tenth. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Article the eleventh. The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Article the twelfth. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, Speaker of the House of Representatives
John Adams, Vice-President of the United States, and President of the Senate
John Beckley, Clerk of the House of Representatives.
Sam. A Otis Secretary of the Senate


The changing face of Congress in 7 charts

The 117th U.S. Congress took office in January, with Democrats holding narrow majorities in the House and Senate.

Apart from its political makeup, the new Congress differs from prior ones in other ways, including its demographics. Here are seven charts that show how the demographic profile of Congress has changed over time, using historical data from CQ Roll Call, the Congressional Research Service and other sources.

To determine the demographics of the 117th Congress, we pulled data from recently published Pew Research Center analyses and other earlier work. Because not all members of the 117th Congress were seated on Jan. 3, 2021, and because some then-filled seats are now empty or changed hands since that time, previously published data comes from several dates. For more information on the methodology of previously published posts, please visit the original links, which are in the text of this post.

Data on the educational attainment of members of Congress includes the 532 voting members of the legislature as of March 3. Data is drawn from the U.S. Congress Biographical Directory and, when relevant, other official biographies and news reports.

All data points reflect only voting members of Congress, except for the analysis of women in the legislature.

The current Congress is the most racially and ethnically diverse ever. Overall, 124 lawmakers identify as Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander or Native American – making up 23% of Congress, including 26% of the House of Representatives and 11% of the Senate. By comparison, when the 79th Congress took office in 1945, non-White lawmakers represented just 1% of the House and Senate.

Despite this growing racial and ethnic diversity, Congress remains less diverse than the nation as a whole: Non-Hispanic White Americans account for 77% of voting members in the new Congress, considerably more than their 60% share of the U.S. population.

The number of women in Congress is at an all-time high. About a century after Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first woman elected to Congress, there are 144 women in the national legislature, accounting for a record 27% of all members across both chambers. (This includes six nonvoting House members who represent the District of Columbia and U.S. territories, four of whom are women.)

A record 120 women are currently serving in the House, accounting for 27% of the chamber’s total. There are 24 women in the Senate, one fewer than the record number of seats they held in the last Congress. In four states – Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire and Washington – both senators are women, down from six states in the previous Senate.

The House has seen slow but steady growth in the number of women members since the 1920s. Growth in the Senate has been slower: The Senate did not have more than three women serving at any point until the 102nd Congress, which began in 1991. And the share of women in Congress remains far below their share in the country as a whole (27% vs. 51%).

The number of Millennials and Gen Xers in Congress has risen slightly in recent years. In the current Congress, 7% of House members, or 31 lawmakers, are Millennials (born between 1981 and 1996), up from 1% in the 115th Congress. A third of House lawmakers, or 144 members, are Gen X (born from 1965 to 1980), up from 27% two Congresses earlier.

This year saw the swearing-in of the first Millennial senator: Democrat Jon Ossoff of Georgia. The number of Gen X senators has gradually ticked up from 16 in the 115th Congress to 20 this year.

While younger generations have increased their representation in Congress in recent years, older generations still account for the majority of lawmakers across both chambers. Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) make up 53% of the House’s voting membership, in addition to 68 of the 100 senators.

The ranks of the Silent Generation (born between 1928 and 1945) have decreased in recent years, from 10%, or 42 members, at the start of the 115th Congress to 6%, or 27 members, in the current Congress.

The share of immigrants in Congress has ticked up but remains well below historical highs. There are 18 foreign-born lawmakers in the 117th Congress, including 17 in the House and just one in the Senate: Mazie Hirono, a Hawaii Democrat who was born in Japan.

These lawmakers account for 3% of legislators, slightly higher than the share in other recent Congresses but below the shares in much earlier Congresses. In the 50th Congress of 1887-89, for example, 8% of members were born abroad. The current share of foreign-born lawmakers in Congress is also far below the foreign-born share of the U.S. as a whole, which was 13.6% as of 2019.

While the number of foreign-born lawmakers in the current Congress is small, more members have at least one parent who was born in another country. Together, immigrants and the children of immigrants account for at least 14% of the new Congress, a slightly higher share than in the last Congress (13%).

Far fewer members of Congress now have direct military experience than in the past. In the current Congress, 91 members served in the military at some point in their lives – the lowest number since at least World War II, according to Military Times. There are more than twice as many Republican veterans (63) in the new Congress as Democrats (28). Equal shares of senators and representatives (17%) have served in the military.

While the number and share of veterans in Congress overall have decreased, the newly elected freshman class includes 15 such lawmakers.

Looking at the longer term, there has been a dramatic decrease in members of Congress with military experience since the late 20th century. Between 1965 and 1975, at least 70% of lawmakers in each legislative chamber had military experience. The share of members with military experience peaked at 75% in 1967 for the House and at 81% in 1975 for the Senate.

While relatively few members of Congress today have military experience, an even smaller share of Americans do. In 2018, about 7% of U.S. adults had military experience, down from 18% in 1980, not long after the end of the military draft era.

The vast majority of members of Congress have college degrees. The share of representatives and senators with a college degree has steadily increased over time. In the 117th Congress, 94% of House members and all senators have a bachelor’s degree or more education. Two-thirds of representatives and three-quarters of senators have at least one graduate degree, too. In the 79th Congress (1945-47), by comparison, 56% of House members and 75% of senators had bachelor’s degrees.

The educational attainment of Congress far outpaces that of the overall U.S. population. In 2019, around a third (36%) of American adults ages 25 and older said they had completed a bachelor’s degree or more education, according to U.S. Census Bureau data.

Congress has become slightly more religiously diverse over time. The current Congress includes the first two Muslim women ever to serve in the House and has the fewest Christians (468) in 12 Congresses analyzed by Pew Research Center dating back to 1961. Despite this decline, Christians are still overrepresented in Congress in proportion to their share of the public: Nearly nine-in-ten congressional members are Christian (88%), compared with 65% of U.S. adults overall.

By contrast, religious “nones” are underrepresented in Congress in comparison with the U.S. population. While 26% of Americans say they are atheist, agnostic or “nothing in particular,” just one lawmaker – Sen. Kyrsten Sinema, D-Ariz. – says she is religiously unaffiliated.

Note: This is an update to a post originally published on Feb. 2, 2017.


His Majesty

Photo furnished by: http://nofi.fr/2016/11/moors-sundry-act-de1790-linterdiction-de-reduire-esclavage-noirs-maroc/32117

His Majesty: Mohammed ben Abdallah al-Khatib

(1710 – 9 April 1790) (الثالث بن عبد الله الخطيب‎‎)

Notice: The writers for the U.S. have misconstrued , convoluted and confused the American Public with its writings. If you are not savvy and well versed you will be fooled by its language. NOTE: U.S./ ‘United States’ is not the same as United States of America. The trickery, forgery and deception runs deep even today. These conspirators are most likely descendants of the gun men that threatened the forefathers into submission at gun point, leading to the 14th and 15th Amendment never being ratified, therefore never being actual law, [it is color of law]. Meaning that the people have acquiesced (agreed) to these actions for so long that it is considered law under acquiescence. As the majority of the acts of the quasi-governmental agencies, in so called “power” today. IMPORTANT: This same forgery, misconstrued, deception leads us to believe that all of our Ancestors were slaves brought to the America’s and Islands on slave ships. Because the slaves during this time were dark in complexion (Asiatic) from the Continent of Africa they felt it be easier to just lump all of us into the same category. Because they could not detect who was “free” and who was not. We the Aborigine have a full and vast herstory of civilizations, technologies and sciences yet to be tapped into. Emperor of Morocco wrote these words in favor of Moors in the United States of America ( we the Indigenous Inhabitants [Aborigine Moors] ). Not a dead corp, U.S. corporation.

We stand on the statements of His Majesty Emperor of Morocco on behalf of the Moors in the America’s 1786/1787 and 1836. We the Aborigine of Amexem derived our Proclaimation/ Declaration/ Charter from the Emperor of Morocco’s Treaty of Peace and Friendship, Amity & Commerce agreements. The Treaty is one of the primary authorities we stand upon in the Proclaimation of the Aborigine Moors of Amexem – filed at the Library of Congress – 2017

From the Library of Congress

ACTS OF U.S. CONGRESS: In favor of the Moors in America

Congressional Law for Moors:

House Joint Resolution No. 75 –One of the first Resolutions of the U.S. continental Congress.

The Moors Sundry Act of 1790: the ban on slavery of the “blacks” of Morocco [Keep in mind that America/ Amurika/ Al muroc means Morocco’s “Land in the West”.

History our Teachers never taught. Instead they lumped all ‘darked skinned’ inhabitants in the “slave” category. Furthest thing from the truth. In The Library of Congress filing of the Proclaimation of the Aborigine of Amexem is a clause called, “Put our faces back where they belong”, under the ‘Aborigine Restoration Act’.

A Forgotten Power in United States of America: Emperor of Morocco 1787

Every act of Legislation had to be approved by the Emperor of Morocco. He held dominion over these lands through his lineage. Even the Negro Act of 1740, had to be approved by “His Majesty” as stated in the text. Contrary to popular belief, there were Free Negro’s in the time of slavery. This Act referred to the slaves from Sierra Leon and other parts of Africa coming to the United States of America and the deferential treatment of free Negroes. Our teachers that we relay upon for right knowledge taught us that….we all

(“Blacks” ) came to the United States of America on slave ships. This is why it is so important for us to do our own research independent of others with their own hidden agenda’s. Teach your child the truth about our herstory, legacy and power.

May 10, 1740 – South Carolina Enacts the Negro Act of 1740

Posted on May 10, 2015 by rhapsodyinbooks On this day in history, South Carolina passed an extensive list of rules regulating slavery. The justification for the legislation is provided at the outset:

WHEREAS, in his Majesty’s plantations in America, slavery has been introduced and allowed, and the people commonly called Negroes, Indians, mulattoes and mustizoes, have been deemed absolute slaves, and the subjects of property in the hands of the particular persons, the extend [sic] of whose power over such slaves ought to be settled and limited by positive laws, so that the slave may be kept in due subjection and obedience, and the owners and other persons having the care and government of slaves may be restrained from exercising too great rigour and cruelty over them, and that the public peace and order of this Province may be preserved: We pray your most sacred Majesty that it may be enacted….” Caption furnished by: https://legallegacy.wordpress.com/2015/05/10/may-10-1740-south-carolina-enacts-the-negro-act-of-1740/.

Even in the height of “slavery” the South Carolina leaders had to seek the approval and prayed that he would grant these laws to be passed. Keep in mind this is a ‘dark skinned’ Emperor of Morocco in which the ‘States’ of America were the subjects. These traditions and order of hierarchy has laid dormant for at least 230 years. NOW the Moors are out of Interregnum.