Making bread at home: daily or weekly

Making bread at home: daily or weekly

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My grandmother used to tell me about the life of field workers in her (and her grandmother's) time, going from the 1950s backwards to the 19th century (in Portugal). This often included baking bread at home in a large batch which the men would take with them as they spent a week away from home, working in the fields.

This bread would become stale and hard, but it was always edible and wouldn't get moldy in those five days [unlike modern bread, which she complained about and which brought on the memories].

My grandmother further explained that making bread was a morose task. You would never do it daily (unless you were a baker, naturally), but about two or three times a week.

While researching (online) the diet of plain farmers in Canada in the 19th century, I expected to find a similar pattern of baking bread once or twice a week. Unfortunately, I have found no reference either to daily or weekly bread baking.

Does anyone have any references concerning how often bread was baked?

Did the Early Church Observe the Lord’s Supper on a Daily Basis?

“It is becoming increasingly common to hear Christians argue that the first-century church, under the oversight of the apostles, observed the Lord’s supper on a daily basis. Hence, it is alleged that it does not matter upon which day Christians partake of the communion elements. The time and frequency are said to be optional matters.We have been asked to comment upon this.”

The “Proof-Text”

The chief “proof-text” for this new concept is Acts 2:46.

“And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat [food] with gladness and singleness of heart.”

Some are contending that this passage affords evidence that the primitive saints broke bread, i.e., partook of the Lord’s supper, on a daily basis. The exegesis underlying this view is flawed in several particulars.

  1. The expression “daily” denotes the frequency with which the disciples were meeting in the temple. Grammatically, it does not modify “breaking bread.” Thus, even if it could be established that “breaking bread,” in verse 46, is an allusion to the Lord’s supper, there still would be no proof that the communion was an everyday occurrence.
  2. The term “breaking bread” in this passage does not refer to the Lord’s supper rather, it denotes a common meal.This is evidenced by the fact that they are paralleled with “eat their food” in the same clause. The word “food” translates the Greek trophe, which essentially means nourishment (Danker, et al.,Greek-English Lexicon, 2000, p. 1017). The term (employed some sixteen times in the Greek New Testament) is never used of the communion, for such was not designed to nourish the physical body.

A comment from Presbyterian scholar, Albert Barnes, speaks to this point:

In spite of the fact that he had a journey of several hundred miles yet to make, which could involve difficult sailing conditions, he took the time to tarry seven days in Troas. Why? The most reasonable inference is so that he could meet with the saints of that city and observe the communion with them. Burton Coffman noted:

The Record of Church History

The testimony of the writings of those who lived shortly after the apostolic age bears unmistakable witness to the fact that the Lord’s supper was observed each week on Sunday, and only upon that day. In the Didache (a document written about A.D. 120), the statement is made that Christians “come together each Lord’s day of the Lord, break bread, and give thanks” (7:14). Justin Martyr (c. 152) also speaks of Christians meeting on Sunday and partaking of the communion (Apology I, 67).

In his book, Early Christians Speak, Everett Ferguson has observed that the literature of the post-apostolic age indicates that the Lord’s supper was a constant feature of the Sunday service. He declares that there is no second-century evidence for the celebration of a daily communion (p. 96).

Thus, it must be concluded that there is no biblical authority for the novel concept that one may partake of the Lord’s supper at his own discretion.

Christian Beliefs

The Way of Faith

In a 2017 World Cup qualifying match that pitted the US against Trinidad and Tobago, the Soca Warriors shocked the world when they beat the US men&rsquos national team, a team ranked fifty-six places higher. The 2-1 upset eliminated the US team from the 2018 World Cup.

Trinidad and Tobago&rsquos victory was so unexpected in part because the United States&rsquo population and resources dwarfed those of the small Caribbean nation. But those seemingly insurmountable advantages weren&rsquot enough to defeat the passionate Soca Warriors.

The story of Gideon and the Midianites features a similar upset, one between a small group of fighters and a&hellip

Our Father’s Care

Thwack! I looked up and craned my ear toward the sound. Spotting a smudge on the windowpane, I peered out onto the deck and discovered the still beating body of a bird. My heart hurt. I longed to help the fragile feathered being.

In Matthew 10, Jesus described His Father&rsquos care for sparrows in order to comfort the disciples as He warned of upcoming dangers. He offered instructions to the twelve as He &ldquogave them authority to drive out impure spirits and to heal every disease and sickness&rdquo (v. 1). While the power to do such deeds might have seemed grand&hellip

Christian Living

The Power of God

Rebecca and Russell&rsquos doctors had told them they couldn&rsquot have children. But God had other ideas, and ten years later Rebecca conceived. The pregnancy was a healthy one and when the contractions started they excitedly rushed to the hospital. The hours of labor grew long and more intense, and Rebecca&rsquos body still wasn&rsquot progressing enough for delivery. Finally, the doctor decided she needed to perform an emergency C-section. Fearful, Rebecca sobbed for her baby and herself. The doctor calmly said, &ldquoI will do my best, but we&rsquore going to pray to God because He can do more.&rdquo She prayed with&hellip

A Remarkable Life

I came to learn about Catherine Hamlin, a remarkable Australian surgeon, through reading her obituary. In Ethiopia, Catherine and her husband established the world&rsquos only hospital dedicated to curing women from the devastating physical and emotional trauma of obstetric fistulas, a common injury in the developing world that can occur during childbirth. Catherine is credited with overseeing the treatment of more than 60,000 women.

Still operating at the hospital when she was 92 years old, and still beginning each day with a cup of tea and Bible study, Hamlin told curious questioners that she was an ordinary believer in Jesus who&hellip


Luciano Calandra, an Italian immigrant, had been in America for just five years when he went into business for himself and opened a small Italian and French bakery. Mr. Calandra and his wife Ortenza worked hard day and night, and their bakery quickly developed a reputation for producing delicious bread. The business took off and soon after Mr. and Mrs. Calandra’s two sons, Anthony and Luciano Jr., began working in the family business.

Not only did Mr. Calandra teach his sons the inner workings of the bakery, but he also instilled in them his business principles: a strong work ethic, an emphasis on family, and a belief that the customer is always right. Over 50 years later, Mr. Calandra’s philosophy remains the guiding light for the family business. Today, Calandra’s Bakery in Newark is a 50,000 square foot operation and the family now has two additional bakeries, one in Fairfield and one in Caldwell.

The three bakeries deliver their products to more than 500 supermarkets, delis, and restaurants in the tri-state area. In addition to their bakeries, the Calandra family now owns and operates several hotels, restaurants, and apartment buildings in northern New Jersey. The family also produces and sells their own line of olive oil, coffee, fresh pasta, homemade sauces, and wines from their vineyard in Italy.

Although the family’s business has grown substantially since 1962, two things remain unchanged: Calandra’s Bakery is still synonymous with delicious bread, and the family remains driven by hard work, traditional family values, and a focus on customer service.


The word muffin is thought to come from the Low German muffen, meaning "little cakes". [3] Recipes for muffins appear in British cookbooks as early as 1758. Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery contains a recipe for muffins. The muffins are described as being "like a Honey-comb" inside. [4] This is similar to the "nooks and crannies" later advertised as a signature of Thomas' English muffins. Into the early nineteenth century muffins were sold door to door in England by hawkers as a snack bread before most homes had their own ovens. The traditional English nursery rhyme "The Muffin Man", which dates from 1820 at the latest, traces to that custom. [5]

United States Edit

References to English muffins appear in U.S. newspapers starting in 1859, [6] [7] [8] and detailed descriptions of them and recipes were published as early as 1870. [9] [10]

Samuel Bath Thomas emigrated from Plymouth, England, to New York City in 1875. [11] By 1880, he had opened his own bakery at 163 Ninth Avenue. Using his mother's recipe, he began making 'English' muffins there in 1880, selling them to hotels and grocery stores. They were soft and spongy before baking, like traditional muffins, pierced to be "fork-split" prior to toasting, giving a rougher surface than would be obtained by slicing. [12] They became popular as an alternative to toast Thomas opened a second bakery around the corner from the first at 337 West 20th Street in a building that remains known as "The Muffin House". [13] The Merriam-Webster dictionary dates the origin of the term English Muffin to 1902. In a 1926 trademark filing for a bakery brand by Thomas', it was claimed the term was first used in 1894.

Today the company is owned by Bimbo Bakeries USA, which also owns the Entenmann's, Boboli, Stroehmann, Oroweat, and Arnold brands. [14]

Foster's sourdough English muffins were a popular brand of English muffin originally from San Francisco. They were a signature menu item at Foster's restaurants from the 1940s to the 1970s, and continued to be produced as a packaged brand until 2008.

United Kingdom Edit

English muffins are referred to simply as muffins in Britain. The U.S.-style muffins (a sweet quickbread) are sometimes referred to as American muffins, American-style muffins, [15] or sweet muffins but usually only for clarity or branding purposes. In general, the word muffin is almost always used for both, usually without confusion or misunderstanding. [16]

Germany Edit

English muffins, known as Toastbrötchen (toast bun) are available in most major supermarkets across Germany. [17]

Dean is a global-based professional baker and patissier with an international following.

Award-winning author of twelve cookbooks & presenter and judge in multiple TV shows, Dean co-owns and is the founder of the successful artisan bakeries Baker & Cook and Plank Sourdough Pizza in Singapore. He also has bakery interests in London and in the coming year Manila, UAE and Budapest.

Cooking Classes

Ignite your passion for cooking and inspire your weekly repertoire with our creative classes led by Singapore&rsquos leading chefs and cooks.

Baking Classes

Discover the simple science behind baking beautiful breads, pastries, cakes and tarts with Global Baker Dean Brettschneider.

How it works.

Original History

By Amy Smith, Fri., Oct. 8, 2004

In the beginning, there was this sandwich as big as your head. It came with three meats, cheeses, lettuce, tomato, olives and herb dressing on a delicious and perfectly textured sourdough bun. You could down one of those and sleep like a baby the rest of the afternoon. The $2.95 Original was the first and only child of Schlotzsky's founders Don and Delores Dissman, who modeled the sandwich on the muffulettas they discovered in an Italian grocery store in the French Quarter of New Orleans. The couple introduced their own version of the muffuletta to Austin in 1971, setting up shop in a modest little space at 1301 South Congress. They came up with the name Schlotzsky's for no other reason than it seemed to fit.

Schlotzsky's became a big hit in South Austin, so the Dissmans decided to open a second store in Dobie Mall, targeting the hungry student population. In 1977, emboldened by the success of the two stores, the couple plunged into the strange new world of franchising, and before long the sandwich maker's offspring began popping up in towns well beyond Austin's borders.

Sketchy local lore recounts that Alvin Ord's Sandwich Shop, another Austin native, was born of a falling out between the Dissmans and a former business associate, which evolved into a bitter feud over who held the rights to the beloved bread recipe. Schlotzsky's won the argument, and now the early-day sandwich rivals couldn't be more different. Alvin Ord's operates a handful of sandwich shops in small towns outside of Austin, while Schlotzsky's went from a hole in the wall to Wall Street to more than 700 outlets to . bankruptcy court, where a restructuring plan is in the works that could make or break its future.

About this time, a brash young trio of Austin real estate investors had begun putting the moves on Schlotzsky's. They had just made a fortune off the Rob Roy residential development in West Austin and, with a little money to burn, followed up on a banker friend's suggestion to pursue the little sandwich chain. The partners, Gary Bradley and brothers John and Jeff Wooley, were turned down at first, but a year later, in 1981, the Dissmans accepted just under $3 million for the 100-store company. At the time, the only thing the three partners knew about Schlotzsky's was that the Original sandwich held an important place in their diets during their years at UT. "We had never operated a restaurant, but we knew about marketing," John Wooley said recently. "And from a customer perspective I thought we knew a lot."

As it happened, the new owners had walked into a real mess of a fight between the Dissmans and the franchise owners over a recently established advertising fund that the store operators were expected to help finance. "We were coming out of a different industry and didn't understand the dynamics of the franchisees," Wooley said. "What we've learned since then is that, in every franchise system, about a third of the franchisees will be happy, another third will be neutral, and another third will be so angry you can't imagine what must have gone wrong in their childhood."

The new owners' first order of business was to develop a uniform branding system. They began implementing new menu boards – an unheard of concept back then – and new signs for all of the restaurants. They also introduced whole wheat bread, and a turkey sandwich. But even as things began falling into place for Schlotzsky's, the Wooley/Bradley relationship strained to the breaking point. In 1982, they went through a nasty divorce, with Bradley taking most of the real estate holdings and the Wooleys hanging on to Schlotzsky's.

With Bradley out of the picture, the Wooley brothers invested all the sweat equity they had into learning the business, expanding the menu choices and, of course, continuing to tinker with new and existing menu items. "We moved very slowly in the first 10 years," said Wooley, "because we wanted to market a good product, and we wanted to make the food good and interesting." The brothers took the company public in 1995 and it saw rapid growth throughout the Nineties, exceeding $400 million in sales. Along the way, the deli chain extended an exceedingly generous hand to local charities and nonprofit organizations, and generally established itself as an Austin-centric institution while continuing to expand its global reach. From its one-sandwich beginning, Schlotzsky's has grown to nearly 20 menu offerings and expanded many of its hole-in-the-wall stores to spiffy "fast-casual" restaurants. But in Schlotzsky's current bankrupt state, many old-timers find themselves longing for a return to the days of "One Sandwich. It's That Good."

5. Being a mad scientist

Dave experimented with different types of bread and countless ingredients. He researched what was trending and what was not. He wasn&rsquot afraid of letting his product out in the market to receive feedback. He knew that some of his ideas would fail. He also knew that some of his ideas would hit, and when they did, they were home runs. Customers were repeatedly asked for his bread, and word got out so fast that it became famous in the community.

Your business ideas won't work if you sit and think about them all day. You have to go out, experiment and execute your ideas, no matter just how crazy they may sound.

Dave Dahl wasn&rsquot born an entrepreneur. His early life was a struggle, and he long clung to a victim mentality. But Dave&rsquos Killer Bread is a perfect example of how you can turn tragedy into triumph. It wasn&rsquot too late for Dahl, even after 15 years behind bars, and it isn&rsquot too late for you. Apply these same five strategies that he used, and go build your own multi-million dollar empire.