10 Facts About William the Marshal

10 Facts About William the Marshal


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Born in either 1146 or 1147, William Marshal – also known as ‘the Marshal’ after his family’s hereditary ceremonial role of holding responsibility for the royal stables – was among the preeminent statesmen and soldiers of the medieval period in England.

Serving five kings in various capacities throughout his life, Marshal expertly negotiated the political landscape of a tumultuous period in English history. Here are 10 facts about him.

1. He was held hostage as a child

Due to his father’s support of Empress Matilda during the period known as The Anarchy, the young Marshal was taken hostage by Matilda’s rival King Stephen. Stephen’s forces threatened to kill the boy if his father, John Marshal, did not surrender Newbury Castle, which was under siege.

John did not accept, but rather than being murdered Marshal remained a hostage for several months. He was finally released due to the cessation of hostilities with the Treaty of Wallingford in 1153.

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2. In his youth he was a tournament champion

Marshal grew up in both England and France, where his family held land. Knighted in 1166, he attended his first tournament a year later, before joining the service of Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Recalling later in life that he had bested 500 men over the course of his tournament career, Marshal became a legendary champion, competing in violent staged battles for prize money and fame.

3. He tutored the Young King, before being accused of having an affair with his wife

Eleanor’s son with Henry II was Henry the Young King, who was crowned during the reign of his father and never ruled in his own right. Marshal served as the Young King’s tutor and confidante beginning in 1170, and they fought together in several tournaments.

The effigy of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Marshal served Eleanor, her husband Henry II, and her three sons Henry the Young King, Richard I, and John.

In 1182 however, Marshal was rumoured to have had an affair with the Young King’s wife, Margaret of France. While the accusations were never proven, Marshal left the Young King’s service in early 1183

4. He went on crusade

Marshal and the Young King had reconciled by the latter’s death, and Marshal vowed to his former pupil that he would take up the cross in his honour. Little is known about the two years Marshal subsequently spent in the Holy Land on crusade, but he certainly sailed for Jerusalem in the winter of 1183.

Marshal returned to England in either 1185 or 1186, joining the court of Henry II in the final years of the latter’s reign.

5. He fought and almost killed Richard the Lionheart

Following the death of the Young King, Henry II’s younger son Richard became heir to the English throne. Henry and Richard had a turbulent relationship, including Richard opposing his father and fighting for the French king, Philip II.

In a skirmish between Henry and Philip’s forces, Marshal unseated the young Richard and had the opportunity to finish the future king. Marshal instead chose clemency, and claimed to be only man to have ever bested Richard in combat.

6. He married into money

As a younger son, Marshal had not inherited his father’s land or wealth. This was remedied in August 1189 however, when the 43 year old Marshal married the 17 year old daughter of the wealthy Earl of Pembroke.

Marshal now had the land and money to match his status as one of the most powerful and influential statesmen in the kingdom. He would subsequently be granted the title of Earl of Pembroke himself in 1199, after the death of his father in law.

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7. He later served as a loyal retainer of Richard I, despite their earlier quarrels.

When Richard became king, he spent little time in England, instead campaigning in France and the Middle East on crusade.

In the king’s absence, Marshal was named to serve on the council of regency, which governed England in place of the monarch. When Richard died in 1199, he made Marshal the custodian of the royal treasure, as well as granting him new titles in France.

8. He had a turbulent relationship with King John

Marshal then served under Richard’s brother King John, but the pair often failed to see eye to eye. Despite Marshal supporting John’s claim to the throne, a dispute over Marshal’s estates in France led to him being publicly humiliated by the king.

John was an unpopular king, and his relationship with Marshal was occasionally volatile. Credit: Dulwich Picture Gallery

Marshal nevertheless sided with John during the latter’s hostilities with his barons, and accompanied John to Runnymede to sign the Magna Carta on 15 June 1215.

9. He served five kings, ending with Henry III

John died in 1216, and Marshal’s final royal posting was to serve as the protector for John’s young son, King Henry III. In Henry’s name, Marshal fought a series of campaigns against the future Louis VIII of France, including leading the charge at the Battle of Lincoln in 1217, despite being over 70 years old.

After the successful conclusion of the conflict with Louis, Marshal negotiated a lenient peace treaty, which he saw as crucial to preserving peace. Despite facing criticism for the generous terms he offered the French, Marshal nevertheless assured stability for his young ruler, who would go on to reign for over 55 years.

10. He is buried in the heart of London

By the spring of 1219 Marshal’s health was failing, and he died at Caversham on 14 May. Having joined the order of the Knights Templar on his deathbed – a promise he allegedly made on crusade – he was buried in Temple Church in London.

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10 Wild West Lawmen Who Were More Dangerous Than The Outlaws

In the days of the frontiersmen, the line between wild and west often became blurred, with people switching and re-switching sides so frequently that it was difficult to tell who was the lawman and who was the outlaw. Outlaws often became bounty hunters to bring in extra money, and many were appointed as sheriffs by communities on the premise that it takes one to know one.

There were, perhaps, a few upstanding citizen sheriffs in white hats, but not many made it to the history books&mdashprobably because they didn&rsquot last very long. Those whose names are remembered today often weren&rsquot entirely aboveboard. Here are ten lawmen who gave the outlaws as good as they got.


10 Facts About William the Marshal - History


Justice Marshall
by Charles de Saint-Memin

John Marshall was born in Germantown, Virginia on September 24, 1755. He grew up in a small log cabin and was the oldest child from a large family that included 14 brothers and sisters. His father, Thomas Marshall, had become wealthy by the time John was a teenager and the family moved to a larger estate.

Because there were no schools near where the Marshalls lived, John received most of his education from his father. He did attend an academy for one year and was tutored by the local priest as a teenager.

The Revolutionary War between the American colonies and the British broke out in 1775 when John was 20 years old. He joined the Culpeper Minute Men as a Lieutenant. John's father was friends with George Washington and John became inspired by Washington's leadership. John soon joined the Continental Army where he fought in several battles including the Battle of Brandywine and the Battle of Germantown. He also served under Washington during the difficult winter at Valley Forge.

After the Revolutionary War, John attended the College of William and Mary where he studied law. He passed the bar and became a lawyer in 1780 opening his own law practice in Fauquier County, Virginia.

John soon became interested in politics. In 1782, John was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates. He then attended the Virginia state convention that ratified the Constitution. John strongly supported replacing the Articles of the Confederation with the new Constitution and led the fight to get the new Constitution ratified.

In 1799, Marshall was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. He only served a year before he was appointed Secretary of State by President John Adams.

In 1801, the position of Chief Justice opened up in the Supreme Court and John Adams appointed Marshall. Marshall would serve in the position for the next 34 years. He would transform the Supreme Court in many ways turning it into a strong and equal third branch of the U.S. government.

One of the first changes Marshall made was to have the Supreme Court give a single unified opinion. Before Marshall, each judge gave their own separate opinion on cases. John changed this to where the court would only give a single opinion. This cleared up any questions as to the final ruling of the court.

Under Marshall's leadership, the court made several landmark decisions. Two of the most important were Marbury v. Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.

Perhaps the most important ruling in the history of the Supreme Court was Marbury v. Madison. In this ruling, Marshall set up the process of judicial review. This allowed the Supreme Court to declare laws made by Congress as unconstitutional. This gave the Supreme Court a powerful "check" to the power of Congress and made it an equal third branch of the government.

Another important ruling of Marshall's was in the case of McCulloch v. Maryland. In this case Marshall ruled that the Constitution gave the federal government some implied powers. Meaning that not all the powers of the federal government were directly stated in the Constitution. He also ruled that the states could not stop the federal government from exercising its Constitutional power.


William’s jester rode beside him during the invasion of England, lifting the troops’ spirits by singing about heroic deeds. When they reached enemy lines, he taunted the English by juggling his sword and was promptly killed, initiating the historic skirmish.

Described as strapping and healthy in his earlier years, William apparently ballooned later in life. It is said that King Philip of France likened him to a pregnant woman about to give birth. According to some accounts, the corpulent conqueror became so dismayed with his size that he devised his own version of a fad diet, consuming only wine and spirits for a certain period of time. It didn’t work.


8 William Davis Allison

Career lawman William Davis Allison served six terms as a Texas sheriff starting at the age of 27 in 1888. In the process, he became the youngest sheriff in Texas history. After his long tenure as sheriff, Allison served as an Arizona Ranger, a Texas Ranger, and then became a detective, so it&rsquos fair to say that Dave Allison was involved in law enforcement for most of his life. His career earned him the admiration of many prominent figures, most notably future general George Patton, who said Allison was &ldquothe most noted gunman here in Texas.&rdquo

Allison was known for his fearlessness but also had a dark side, as he was quite a bad gambler. His most notable act as a lawman was probably also his most controversial. In 1915, he led the posse that tracked down and killed Pascual Orozco, the Mexican revolutionary and outlaw. Orozco still had many supporters, and there was even suspicion that he might have been gunned down in cold blood, although all involved were subsequently acquitted of all charges.

Later on in life, Allison became a detective. While working for the Texas Cattle Raisers Association, Allison built a case against two cattle rustlers in Seminole, Texas. On the night before the trial, those two outlaws barged into the hotel where Davis was staying and gunned him and his partner down.


10 Facts About William the Marshal - History

Oldest Federal Law Enforcement Agency On September 24, President George Washington appointed the first 13 U.S. Marshals following the passage of the first Judiciary Act.

The U.S. Marshal has historically conducted death sentences on those condemned by federal courts.

U.S. Marshals were required by Congress to take the national census every ten years.

August 4 - Supreme Court Justice James Wilson certified that the Whiskey Rebels were "too powerful to be suppressed by the powers vested in the Marshal of that district". President Washington called out the state militia.

September 7 - The state militia marched against the Whiskey Rebels. U.S. Marshal David Lenox rode with them and marched under the command of President Washington, the only time in American history a president has taken the field at the head of his army.

July 13 - Congress passed the Sedition Act punishing unlawful combinations against the government or publishing "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" about the government. U.S. Marshals and Attorneys enforced the infamous law.

Upon passage of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 by Congress, U.S. Marshals enforced the Act by arresting fugitive slaves and returning them to their southern masters. Marshals were required to enforce the law. Any negligence in doing so exposed Marshals and deputies to severe financial penalties.

November 14 - William Walker launched a military expedition against Nicaragua. Although arrested by U.S. Marshal William Wagner (E/LA), Walker posted bail. The expedition failed in the face of poor weather, poor organization, and British ships.

During the Civil War, U.S. Marshals confiscated property used to support the Confederacy and helped root out Confederate spies. Lincoln and His Deputy The Undefeated Rebel

October 26 - Tombstone, Arizona Territory - Marshal Virgil Earp and his deputies, brothers Wyatt and Morgan Earp, and Doctor John H. Holliday, gunned down Frank and Tom McLaury, and Billy Clanton in a vacant lot just down the street from the O.K. Corral.1881:

The Supreme Court held that the President has power, through the Attorney General, to direct a United States Marshal to accompany and protect federal judges from a threatened assault: Judicial Protection: Cunningham vs Neagle 135 U.S. 1 (1890) See also In the matter of David Neagle, Deputy U.S. Marshal

During the Pullman strike, U.S. Marshals were ordered by the federal courts and the Cleveland administration to keep the trains rolling.

July 1 - The fee system of paying Marshals was abolished. The Marshals were put on annual salary.

November 20 - Francisco Madero launched a revolution from U.S. soil against Mexican President Porfirio Diaz. The subsequent turmoil in Mexico compelled the U.S. Marshals to protect the Mexican-American border.

Marshals and World War I: While American troops fought in the trenches of Europe, United States Marshals protected the home front against enemy aliens, spies, and saboteurs.

October 27 - The Volstead Act activated the 18 th Amendment’s prohibition on liquor. During Prohibition, U.S. Marshals arrested bootleggers and seized all of their equipment - cars, trucks, breweries, and warehouses.

The 18th Amendment was ratified, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating beverages. U.S. Marshals were the principal enforcing agents.

The Twentieth Century era of specialization left the U.S. Marshals performing fewer functions related to the courts.

October 13 - U.S. Marshals were requested to run background checks on deputies.

December 17 - The Executive Office of U.S. Marshals was created.

U.S. Marshals provided security to enforce federal laws and orders related to civil rights. After riots erupted over James Meredith's enrollment at Ole Miss in 1962, teams of deputies protected him 24 hours a day for an entire year. In a similar circumstance, Ruby Bridges was also provided U.S. Marshals protection when she was one of the first students to integrate the New Orleans public schools.

The U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) was established as a headquarters organization, overseeing the district U.S. Marshals. Former agency leaders

The Witness Security Program was established as a division within the USMS after the passage of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970. The Special Operations Group (SOG) was established to provide a well trained, self-sufficient, mobile group of deputies capable of responding anywhere within the United States and its territories within a few hours of receiving an activation order.

The USMS assumed the responsibility for the apprehension of federal fugitives. The capture of Christopher Boyce was the first high profile fugitive arrested by the Marshals after their fugitive responsibilities were expanded to include escapees from federal prison facilities.

The first of the Fugitive Investigation Strike Team (FIST operations) was established to operate as a multi-agency task force to apprehend federal, state, and local fugitives.

The closing of the Panama Canal Zone Marshals Service Office. In cooperation with the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, established the Court Security Officer Program.

Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984

U.S. Marshals assumed the responsibility for managing and disposing of properties seized and forfeited by federal law enforcement agencies and U.S. Attorneys nationwide.

Marshals Service acquired its first Boeing 727 used for prisoner transportation.

U.S. Marshals celebrated 200 years of service to the United States. Official U.S. Law Enforcement entity in Antarctica

U.S. Marshals assumed the responsibility for the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System (JPATS), which merged the air fleets of the USMS and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS).

U.S. Marshals provided security for the Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols trials, convicted of bombing the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City.

Investigative Presence in Mexico - U.S. Marshals established a foreign investigative presence in the U.S. Embassy, Mexico City, Mexico.

USMS signed a Memorandum of Understanding with U.S. Customs, giving the USMS responsibility to investigate the majority of their fugitive warrants.

U.S. Marshals completed the largest fugitive apprehension operation in American history. Through Operation FALCON (“Federal And Local Cops Organized Nationally”), which was conducted April 4–10, 2005, Deputy U.S. Marshals and their law enforcement partners arrested a total of 10,340 fugitives and cleared more than 13,800 felony warrants.

Operation FALCON II April 17- 23, 2006 - U.S. Marshals coordinated with federal, state, city and county law enforcement agencies in a massive fugitive dragnet. Read More

Fugitive Safe Surrender was authorized by Congress in July 2006. The program is believed to be the first of its kind in the nation. A unique, creative, and highly successful initiative that encourages persons wanted for non-violent felony or misdemeanor crimes to voluntarily surrender to the law in a faith-based or other neutral setting.

FALCON 2007 focused on gang members and gang activity in targeted urban areas.


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Sources from William Shakespeare’s lifetime spell his last name in more than 80 different ways, ranging from “Shappere” to “Shaxberd.” In the handful of signatures that have survived, the Bard never spelled his own name “William Shakespeare,” using variations or abbreviations such as “Willm Shakp,” “Willm Shakspere” and “William Shakspeare” instead. However it’s spelled, Shakespeare is thought to derive from the Old English words “schakken” (“to brandish”) and “speer” (“spear”), and probably referred to a confrontational or argumentative person.


El Cid (Rodrigo D໚z) 

(c. 1043-1099) Rodrigo D໚z, more popularly known by his title, El Cid, is best-remembered as a hero of the Spanish Reconquista, leading Christian forces to victory over Muslim rulers in Spain. But his real story is a bit more complicated.

Rodrigo Diaz, also known as El Cid.

Born into an aristocratic Castilian family, D໚z became a prominent military leader serving two kings of Castile. Later, though, he spent more than a decade fighting mostly as a mercenary, putting himself at the service of a number of Muslim leaders and earning great wealth and fame. As a commander fighting for the taifa of Zaragoza, an Arab Muslim state in what’s now Eastern Spain, he defeated both Muslim and Christian armies.

Historian Simon Barton writes that it was only near the end of his life that El Cid fought the battles that established his place in history and legend. His forces captured the city of Valencia from the Muslim, Morocco-based Almoravid dynasty in 1094. Later that year, and again in 1097, he repelled Almoravid armies that attempted to retake the city.

For centuries after his death in 1099, biographers, poets and𠅎ventually𠅏ilmmakers, celebrated him as an honorable Spanish patriot and Christian warrior against the forces of Islam.


Facts about Marshall Plan 1: the operation

The start of the operation took place on 8th April 1948. It lasted for four years.

Facts about Marshall Plan 2: the goals

Do you know the goals of Marshall Plan? It was used to eliminate the trade barriers, make the industries modern, restore the damaged areas in Western Europe, anticipate the spread of communism and increase the prosperity of Western Europe.


10 Interesting Facts About Douglas MacArthur That You Might Not Know

Douglas MacArthur, born on 26 January 1880 was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign, which made him and his father Arthur MacArthur, Jr., the first father and son to be awarded the medal.

He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the US Army, and the only man ever to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army. He died on 5 April 1964.

Here are some interesting facts about this American hero.

MacArthur’s father, Arthur, fought for the North against the secessionist South during the American Civil War, while his mother’s family had her roots in the Confederate South.

Colonel Douglas MacArthur is decorated with the Distinguished Service Cross for Bravery by General John J. Pershing

Both Douglas MacArthur and Arthur MacArthur were recipients of the Medal of Honor. Douglas MacArthur was awarded this prestigious medal for his defense of the Philippines against the Japanese in the Second World War, while Arthur MacArthur received his award for outstanding display of courage during the Battle of Missionary Ridge in 1863.

Douglas MacArthur as a student at West Texas Military Academy in the late 1890s (Wikipedia)

MacArthur attended the same West Point military academy as the famous Confederate General Robert. E. Lee and graduated with a score of 98.14 % – a feat which equaled the achievement of Lee himself.

After a furious confrontation with President Roosevelt over proposed budget cuts to the United States military, MacArthur was so sickened by Roosevelt’s intended budget reforms that he vomited on the steps of the White House.

In 1952, MacArthur made a bid for the presidency of America but was knocked out of the running for the Republican nomination by another Second World War hero – Dwight Eisenhower!

Gen. Douglas MacArthur Jan. 20, 1945

Like his contemporary, ‘Blood and Guts’ Patton, MacArthur had a number of fashion eccentricities such as his trademark aviator sunglasses and corncob pipe.

Gen. Douglas MacArthur addressing an audience of 50,000 at Soldier’s Field, Chicago, on his first visit to the United States in 14 years, April 1951

Never one to avoid a confrontation, MacArthur did not scruple to speak out openly against what he saw as President Truman’s disastrous handling of the Korean War – his efforts to steer American involvement in the right direction resulted in several presidential warnings and ultimately his dismissal.

Macarthur’s triumphant New York City ticker-tape parade held in his honor was the largest such event to-date.

In 1952 MacArthur met with the newly elected president Dwight Eisenhower and the two discussed potential military strategies to ensure an American victory. Macarthur’s suggestion for winning the war – use nuclear bombs!

MacArthur’s sarcophagus at the MacArthur Memorial in Norfolk (Wikipedia)

Having honorably served his country on military fronts in Europe and Asia, Douglas Macrthur passed away on the 5th April 1964, at the age of 84, and was buried at the MacArthur Memorial.

General Douglas MacArthur Farewell Speech


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