Neches II AO-47 - History

Neches II AO-47 - History


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Neches II
(AO 47: dp. 6,013 (1.); 1. 520'; b. 68'; dr. 30'; s. 17.4 k.; cpl. 285; a. 1 5", 4 3", 8 40mm.;cl. Mattaponi)

The second Neches (AO 47), ex-Aekay, ex- M. C. huU 148 was laid down 12 June 1941 by Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Chester, Pa.; launched 11 October 1941, sponsored by Miss Barbara Viekery of Washington, D.C., acquired by the Navy 20 July 1941; and commissioned 16 September 1942.

After shakedown off the Atlantic Coast she steamed for San Pedro, Calif. via the Panama Canal. Her first wartime operations took her to Guadaleanal where she fueled various fleet units. From 28 November she serviced ships out of Noumea, New Caledonia. She shifted operations to Havannah Harbor, Efate Island, New Hebrides 22 January 1943, and then steamed for San Pedro, Calif. 6 March, arriving there the 21st.

Four days later she was enroute Pearl Harbor to deliver fuel arriving 30 March. The next week she was back at San Pedro and, following a ten day availability there she got underway with pennsylDania (BB-38), Nassau (CVE-16), and six sereening destroyers enroute Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Arriving 1 May she fueled thirteen ships before she steamed to the Puget Sound Navy Yard 9 May for two days of repairs. She then returned to Dutch Harbor, Alaska

The oiler operated in Alaskan waters until late December when she returned to San Pedro to take on fuel for delivery to Pearl Harbor. After a four day call at Pearl Harbor she steamed to Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, where she provided fueling Eervices for the next three months.

She was onee again enroute San Pedro when, at 1815 21 May, she struck a mine off the California coast. The explosion tore a 22' by 15' hole in her port side, necessitating a week of drydock repairs at San Pedro. Final repairs were eompleted in two months, and she was back at Pearl Harbor 27 July.

She then steamed in convoy to Eniwetok Atoll, where she anchored 10 August and commenced fueling operations. Through October she provided fueling services in the area of the Admiralty Islands. The oiler anchored at Ulithi 2 November and through that month proviAed services in the local atsea refueling areas. The month of December saw her servicing ships from her Ulithi anchorage.

By mid-January 1945 Neches was enroute Leyte Gulf and the South China Sea, where she fueled ships into February.

She returned to Leyte 18 March and fueled transports in preparation for the invasion of Okinawa. Anchoring off Kerama Retto, 6 April, she set Condition I at 1545. When Japanese air raiders eame in at 1630 her gunners opened fire, and after ten hours of intermittent air attack Neches gunners splashed a kamikaze off the starboard quarter. By mid-April Neches was again fueling ships out of her Ulithi anchorage.

When fleet units first bombarded the Japanese home islands 10 July, Neches was in waters off northern Japan. She steamed into Tokyo Bay 29 August, becoming the first oiler on the scene. Assigned duties there as station tanker, she fueled 120 ships through September. Departing for San Pedro 15 October, she arrived the 31st and underwent overhaul in the Naval Shipyard, Terminal Island, San Francisco, until the end of December.

Neches continued to operate with the Service Force, Pacific Fleet for the next two years. She was placed under administratlve control of the Naval Transport Service in July 1947 and was shifted to MSTS two years later. During the post war period she served as a point-to-point tanker, ealling at Hawaii the Philippine Islands, Japan, Southeast Asia, Arabia, Alaska, and the Canal Zone.

She decommissioned 10 July 1950 and was placed in the Pacific Reserve Fleet, San Diego Group. Recommissioned 3 January 1951 at Oakland, Calif., she operated as an MSTS tanker and served with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. She again returned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet for inaetivation at Stoekton, Calif. in June 1955.

After extensive alterations to electronic and deck equipment, including the addition of five rigs for underway replenishment, Neches recommissioned 24 November 1961 at the Naval Supply Depot, Seattle, Capt. John R. Zullinger in command. She then rejoined the Service Force, Pacific Fleet, and was homeported in San Francisco

The oiler commenced regular overhaul 6 May 1963, and through 1967 she deployed annually to WESTPAC and maintained herself in a state of readiness during training, upkeep and leave periods in home waters. Her homeport has remained Hunters Point, San Francisco.

She steamed 21 September 1967 for underway replenishment service in WESTPAC, operating on Yankee Station and servicing Market Time craft in Southeast Asia. Her deployment lasted through 30 March 1968, whe she tied up onee again at San Francisco. Neches' Yankee Station and Market Time operations had been punctuated by ealls at Subic Bay, Sasebo, Kaohsinng, and Hong Kong.

Through September 1968 Neches operated off the West Coast, with a summer eall at Portland, Oreg. for the Rose Festival. By the end of the first week of September she was underway for yet another seven month deployment to WEST

Neches received nine battle stars for World War II service.


Fleet Oiler, USS Neches (AO-47) fuels an aircraft carrier during heavy seas in World War II

U.S. Fleet Oiler, USS Neches ( AO-47) is seen refueling an aircraft carrier during heavy seas and weather in the Pacific in World War 2. At one point the rudder of the USS Neches is seen exposed as she pitches. In final part of the sequence, the number 47 can be seen clearly on the bow of the Neches as viewed from a covered deck on the carrier. Note: A crew member on the Neches added the following inforrmation: "This fueling of the fleet was just days before we sailed into an inlet off the island of Okinawa. Several days later we shot down a suicide plane while anchored there in the inlet. I was the sightsetter on the 5 inch gun that shot the plane down. We hit it on our third shot and it splashed into the water just shy of an LST, its target. The plane's original target was our Neches but, after the first shot, it turned and headed toward the LST. My memory tells me it was on April 7th."

This historic stock footage available in HD video. View pricing below video player.


Contents

1942–1945

After shakedown off the Atlantic Coast she steamed for San Pedro, California via the Panama Canal. Her first wartime operations took her to Guadalcanal, where she fueled various fleet units. From 28 November she serviced ships out of Nouméa, New Caledonia. She shifted operations to Havannah Harbor, Efate Island, New Hebrides on 22 January 1943, and then steamed for San Pedro, California on 6 March, arriving there the 21st.

Four days later she was en route to Pearl Harbor to deliver fuel, arriving on 30 March. The next week she was back at San Pedro and, following a ten-day availability there she got underway with Pennsylvania (BB-38), Nassau (CVE-16), and six screening destroyers en route to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Arriving on 1 May, she fueled thirteen ships before she steamed to the Puget Sound Navy Yard on 9 May for two days of repairs. She then returned to Dutch Harbor.

The oiler operated in Alaskan waters until late December, when she returned to San Pedro to take on fuel for delivery to Pearl Harbor. After a four-day call at Pearl Harbor she steamed to Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, where she provided fueling services for the next three months.

She was once again en route to San Pedro when, at 18:15 on 21 May 1944, she struck a mine off the California coast. The explosion tore a 22-foot (6.7 m) by 15-foot (4.6 m) hole in her port side, necessitating a week of drydock repairs at San Pedro. Final repairs were completed in two months, and she was back at Pearl Harbor on 27 July.

She then steamed in convoy to Eniwetok Atoll, where she anchored on 10 August and commenced fueling operations. Through October she provided fueling services in the area of the Admiralty Islands. The oiler anchored at Ulithi on 2 November and through that month provided services in the local at sea refueling areas. On 15 November 1944, she left Ulithi for Leyte Gulf, Luzon, and eventually, the South China Seas, passing between islands that were still held by the Japanese. [1] When she returned in December, the crew learned of the fate of the USS Mississinewa (AO-59). When the Neches left Ulithi on 15 November, the Mississinewa docked in her berth, and was hit by a Japanese Kaiten torpedo. [1]

By mid-January 1945 Neches was en route to again to Leyte Gulf and the South China Sea, where she fueled ships into February. She returned to Leyte on 18 March and fueled transports in preparation for the invasion of Okinawa. Anchoring off Kerama Retto on 6 April, she set Condition I at 15:45. When Japanese air raiders came in at 16:30 her gunners opened fire, and after ten hours of intermittent air attack Neches gunners splashed a kamikaze off the starboard quarter. By mid-April Neches was again fueling ships out of her Ulithi anchorage.

When fleet units first bombarded the Japanese home islands on 10 July, Neches was in waters off northern Japan. She steamed into Tokyo Bay on 29 August, becoming the first oiler on the scene. Assigned duties there as station tanker, she fueled 120 ships through September. Departing for San Pedro on 15 October, she arrived the 31st and underwent overhaul in the Naval Shipyard, Terminal Island, San Francisco, until the end of December.

1946–1955

Neches continued to operate with the Service Force, Pacific Fleet, for the next two years. She was placed under administrative control of the Naval Transport Service in July 1947 and was shifted to the Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) two years later. During the post-war period she served as a point-to-point tanker, calling at Hawaii, the Philippine Islands, Japan, Southeast Asia, Arabia, Alaska, and the Canal Zone.

She decommissioned on 10 July 1950 and was placed in the Pacific Reserve Fleet, San Diego Group. Recommissioned on 3 January 1951 at Oakland, California, she operated as an MSTS tanker and served with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. She again returned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet for inactivation at Stockton, California, in June 1955.

1961–1970

After extensive alterations to electronic and dock equipment, including the addition of five rigs for underway replenishment, Neches recommissioned on 24 November 1961 at the Naval Supply Depot, Seattle, Capt. John R. Zullinger in command. She then rejoined the Service Force, Pacific Fleet, and was homeported in San Francisco.

The oiler commenced regular overhaul 6 May 1963, and through 1967 she deployed annually to WESTPAC and maintained herself in a state of readiness during training, upkeep, and leave periods in home waters. Her homeport remained at Hunters Point, San Francisco.

She steamed on 21 September 1967 for underway replenishment service in WESTPAC, operating on "Yankee Station" and servicing "Operation Market Time" craft in Southeast Asia. Her deployment lasted through 30 March 1968, when she tied up once again at San Francisco. Neches’ Yankee Station and Market Time operations had been punctuated by calls at Subic Bay, Sasebo, Kaohsiung, and Hong Kong.

Through September 1968 Neches operated off the West Coast, with a summer call at Portland, Oregon, for the Rose Festival. By the end of the first week of September she was underway for yet another seven-month deployment to WESTPAC.


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Texaco

Texaco, Incorporated, known for many years as the Texas Company, was founded in 1902 at Sour Lake by oilman Joseph S. Cullinan and New York investor Arnold Schlaet. In March 1901 Cullinan, with two other promoters, incorporated the Texas Fuel Company at Beaumont. Prominent investors included the Hogg-Swayne Syndicate, John W. Gates, and the Laphams of New York. The company primarily purchased and transported oil from Beaumont's Spindletop oilfield. In April 1902 the Texas Fuel Company's major investors obtained a new charter for a corporation-to be known as the Texas Company-which authorized the company to engage in storage and transportation of mineral solutions. On May 1 the Texas Fuel Company conveyed its assets to the new company and was dissolved shortly afterward. The Texas Company was initially capitalized at $3 million and almost immediately began expanding operations. It used subsidiary companies for oil production and began acquiring barges and rail tank cars. It quickly covered new fields with leases. High production levels at two fields just outside Houston, the Sour Lake oilfield (1903) and the Humble oilfield (1905), provided the company with a secure financial base. In 1905 the Texas Company linked these two fields by pipelines to Port Arthur, ninety miles away, and built its first refinery there. That same year the company acquired an asphalt refinery at nearby Port Neches. In 1908 the company completed the ambitious venture of a pipeline from the Glenn Pool, in the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), to its Southeast Texas refineries.

As early as 1905 the Texas Company had established marketing facilities not only throughout the United States, but also in Belgium, Luxembourg, and Panama. By 1911 the company had a presence in Mexico and Africa. In 1908 it moved its general offices from Beaumont to Houston, where they remained until autumn 1913. That year Cullinan was succeeded by Elgood C. Lufkin as president, and top-level management relocated to its New York offices, established at the company's founding by financier Arnold Schlaet. After World War I, the Texas Company developed and patented the Holmes-Manley refining process, the first continuous process for refining crude oil, which significantly increased the yield of gasoline from each barrel. The company expanded operations by establishing a refinery and two topping (or distillation) plants at Tanpilo, building three asphalt plants on the East Coast, and acquiring a refinery in Casper, Wyoming. On August 26, 1926, the company chartered a holding company in Delaware, the Texas Corporation, with capital of $250 million. In January 1927 the Texas Company also was chartered in Delaware as an operating company. At this time the Texas Company operated refineries in six Texas cities. Within a few years the company had added operating plants in Illinois, Wyoming, Colorado, Kentucky, California, and Montana and refineries in Bordeaux, France Terdonck, Belgium and Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. In 1926 the pipeline system in the United States had reached 1,800 miles. With the acquisition of California Petroleum Corporation in 1928, the Texas Company became the first oil company to market refined products in then all forty-eight states. From 1929 to 1934, during the Great Depression, the company was operating at a loss and shut down some refineries. But its recovery was rapid as it expanded its international activities. In 1936 the Texas Company established exploration and production interests in the Middle East through a joint venture with Standard Oil Company of California (now Chevron). Other joint ventures consummated in 1936 included Caltex Petroleum Corporation, founded through consolidation of the Texas Company's marketing facilities east of Suez with the producing and refining interests of Chevron on Bahrain Island in the Middle East, and P. T. Caltex Pacific Indonesia, a company holding concessions in Sumatra and Java. Today, both CPC and CPI remain among the world's most successful joint ventures. In 1941 the Texas Corporation was dissolved, and thereafter all business was conducted by the Texas Company.

During World War II the company significantly aided the American war effort. It constructed defense installations for the United States government valued at nearly $100 million, including 100-octane tanks at Port Arthur and Lockport, Illinois butylene catalytic plants at Port Arthur and Los Angeles and a toluene plant in Illinois. It also aided in the construction of the Big Inch and Little Big Inch pipelines to provide a secure means of transporting oil to the East Coast. The Big Inch brought petroleum products to New York the Little Big Inch brought the valuable commodity to Philadelphia-both over land from the Gulf of Mexico, thereby avoiding submarine-infested waters. All of Texaco's ocean-going tankers were used in the war effort. In August 1942 a Texas Company tanker, the S.S. Ohio, brought much-needed aviation fuel to the British garrison at Malta. The company continued to grow worldwide throughout the postwar era, diversifying its production and marketing areas throughout the world and expanding its product lines in petroleum-based fuels and lubricants. Capitalizing on its strong brand identity, in May 1959 the Texas Company changed its name to Texaco, Incorporated. The brand-name Texaco-a shortened cable-address for the Texas Company-had been used as a lubricant product name as early as 1902. In the years after the war Texaco concentrated not only on finding oil but on innovative ways to bring it to the surface. Nowhere was this more apparent than in the Duri field of Sumatra, where by 1965 production had peaked at 65,000 barrels per day. Geologists realized that the nature of Duri's reserves-shallow formations of molasses-like heavy oil-was causing a drop in production. By 1975 the joint venture company began a pilot program at Duri using an enhanced oil recovery process called steamflooding that had been perfected in various California fields. By 1987 production levels reached 320,000 barrels per day.

Over the years Texaco has employed a forward-looking, focused investment strategy to support ongoing projects as well as acquisitions to spur its growth. Texaco completed its largest acquisition in 1984, when it purchased the Los Angeles-based Getty Oil Company. Texaco's reserves position nearly doubled with its $10 billion purchase of the nation's sixteenth largest oil and gas company, since the assets acquired through Getty were an estimated worldwide net proved reserves of 1.6 billion barrels of crude oil, condensate and natural gas liquids, along with 2.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. The Getty acquisition also spawned a lawsuit by Houston-based Pennzoil, charging that Texaco had interfered with an agreement Pennzoil claimed it had to buy a piece of Getty. The 1985 jury verdict and subsequent court judgment against Texaco were widely criticized by legal experts, numerous state attorneys general, and dozens of newspaper editorial boards. Nevertheless, in order to protect its assets and its shareholders from the risks of continuing the litigation, Texaco settled the case in April 1988, following 361 days of protection under Chapter 11. Texaco immediately launched an aggressive and far-reaching restructuring program that streamlined the organization, pared down debt, bolstered Texaco's financial strength and thrust it into a strong competitive position. But Texaco's corporate battles had not ended with the settlement of the litigation and its major restructuring program. With Texaco's stock price low during the Pennzoil litigation and Chapter 11, New York investor Carl Icahn had accumulated some 17 percent of the company's stock and launched an ultimately unsuccessful proxy contest against Texaco's management team in 1989. Included in its strategies for a $7 billion restructuring program in the late 1980s was the sale of assets such as Texaco A.G. in Germany and Texaco Canada and the formation of an innovative partnership called Star Enterprise. The joint venture, owned 50 percent by a Texaco subsidiary and 50 percent by a subsidiary of the Saudi Arabian Oil Company, began operating on January 1, 1989. The twenty-year partnership commitment provides for 600,000 barrels a day of market-priced Saudi Arabian crude oil to feed three Star Enterprise refineries in Delaware City, Delaware Convent, Louisiana and Port Arthur, Texas. Star Enterprise also distributes and markets Texaco-branded petroleum products in twenty-six Eastern and Gulf Coast states and the District of Columbia.

In the early 1990s Texaco's management team developed a series of highly focused strategic initiatives to find and produce oil and natural gas and develop products for a global market. Key to this strategy was to identify and develop new opportunities for both upstream and downstream activities in emerging markets in the Pacific Rim, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. For example, Texaco researchers developed System3 gasolines in 1989 and Clean System3 gasolines in 1993 to bolster the company's competitive position as a leader in fuels technology. On the marketing side of the business, the company began to forge franchise partnerships with major fast food chains in quick-service restaurants located right at the company's StarMart convenience stores. Research and technology applications have been critical to Texaco's growth in recent years. The development and utilization of 3-D seismic surveys and imaging technologies have allowed Texaco engineers and geologists to identify new areas of potential reserves. Technology application also has aided the company in bringing more oil to the surface. Engineers and scientists continue to evolve enhanced oil recovery technologies with the use of horizontal, directional, and quadrilateral drilling-hardly imagined by founders Cullinan and Schlaet. These types of strategic initiatives formed the cornerstone of the plan for enhanced growth, announced in July 1994. The management team committed to achieving top-quartile performance among petroleum industry competitors by taking a number of bold steps. Building on the company's demonstrated successes as a fully cost-competitive finder of oil and natural gas resources, the aggressive growth plan focused on asset redeployment, overhead reduction, and operating efficiencies through elimination of layers of supervision, cost control, and strengthened core business for greater return on shareholder investment and top performance among primary competitors. In 1995 Texaco had 25,000 employees and assets of $25 billion.


Hotel Phone: 401.732.6000 Reunion Website: vqassociation.org Comments: VQ ASSOCIATION 2020 REUNIONOctober 4-7, 2021 | Warwick/Providence, RIWelcome to Providence/Warwick, RIIt will be “Fall Foliage Season” so don’t miss the VQ Association Reunion in Southern New England, one of the most picturesque areas in America. The northeast abounds with culture, natural beauty, and incredible history. Our New&hellip

Hotel Phone Number: 844-202-3372 Reunion Website: None Comments: The hotel is in the Charleston, SC area and we have a special rate for reunion attendees. When making reservations be sure to ask for our group rate.


2015

6A Division I - Galena Park North Shore 21, Austin Westlake 14 OT
6A Division II - Katy 34, Austin Lake Travis 7
5A Division I - Richmond George Ranch 56, Mansfield Lake Ridge 0
5A Division II - Cedar Park 22, Frisco Lone Star 6
4A Division I - Waco La Vega 33, Argyle 31
4A Division II - West Orange-Stark 22, Celina 3
3A Division I - Brock 43, Cameron Yoe 33
3A Division II - Waskom 33, Franklin 21
2A Division I - Canadian 61, Refugio 20
2A Division II - Bremond 35, Albany 20
1A Division I - Abbott 40, Crowell 30
1A Division II - Richland Springs 72, Follett 26


Historical Note Return to Top

Founded in 1889, the Puget Sound Bridge and Dredging Company was destined to become one of Seattle's most important companies. Whether under the title Puget Sound Bridge and Dredging Company or Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Company, their hand can be seen in most major construction sites in the Pacific Northwest including Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon and California. In addition, they are responsible for many ships, including some of the Washington State ferries and many naval vessels during and after World War II.

Some of the highlights in the history of this company include: 1909-1910 Hydraulic Dredges construct Harbor Island, the largest man-made island for thirty-five years--second now only to Treasure Island in San Francisco. Harbor Island was the site of the company since the thirties. 1924 The Dexter Horton Building was constructed in Seattle. At fourteen stories, it was the largest reinforced concrete building in the United States west of Chicago. 1927 A steel cantilever bridge was constructed over the Snake River at Twin Falls, Idaho. 1939 Construction began on the Lake Washington Floating Bridge. WWII WWII provided a boom in contracts for the company with the Navy. In conjunction with their Canadian affiliate, the British Columbia Bridge and Dredging Company, they constructed Naval bases in Alaska at Sitka, Dutch Harbor and Kodiak. In addition the BCB & D built a Point of Embarkation at Prince Rupert for the Army.
Eighty-two ships were constructed for the Navy as well, with a record fifteen (five of three different types) ships being delivered in one day. 1959 Company purchased by Lockheed.

More recent projects include the Grand Coulee Dam, much of the Interstate 5 bridges and roadways through Seattle, and the San Fernando Tunnel in California. They have continued to build ships ranging from dredges, tugs and ferries to mine sweepers, ice breakers and guided missile frigates, mostly for the Navy, Coast Guard and the states of Washington and Alaska.

Content Description Return to Top

This collection contains photographs and publications of the Puget Sound Bridge and Dredging Company and its successor, the Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Company, and documents shipbuilding and construction projects in the Pacific Northwest, including Alaska. Building projects represented in the collection include bridges, tunnels, freeways and dams. Many photographs record individual ships in various stages of construction, and there are quite a few photos of shipyard workers during World War II. The collection also contains publications, including the World War II-era employee newsletter, Flood-Tide.

Use of the Collection Return to Top

Alternative Forms Available

View selections from the collection in digital format by clicking on the camera icons in the inventory below.

Restrictions on Use

The Museum of History & Industry is the owner of the materials in the Sophie Frye Bass Library and makes available reproductions for research, publication, and other uses. Written permission must be obtained from MOHAI before any reproduction use. The museum does not necessarily hold copyright to all of the materials in the collections. In some cases, permission for use may require seeking additional authorization from the copyright owners.

Preferred Citation

Lockheed Shipbuilding & Construction Company Photographs and Publications, Museum of History & Industry, Seattle

Administrative Information Return to Top

Arrangement

Materials are arranged in three series: photographs, publications, and oversize materials. Photographs are divided into subseries by subject (bridges, dams, people, products, etc.), with additional subseries of photo albums and miscellaneous negatives and proofs.

  • Series 1: Photographs
    • Subseries A: Bridges
    • Subseries B: Building construction projects
    • Subseries C: Dams
    • Subseries D: Facilities
    • Subseries E: People
    • Subseries F: Products
    • Subseries G: Ships
    • Subseries H: Tunnels
    • Subseries I: Photo Albums
    • Subseries J: Miscellaneous negatives and proofs

    Location of Collection

    Location of Collection

    Acquisition Information

    The collection was donated by Lockheed in 1988.

    Processing Note

    Processed by Helice Koffler. The table of contents for one of the photo albums was removed and relocated into the Oversize materials series in box 11.

    Related Materials

    Detailed Description of the Collection Return to Top

    Series 1: Photographs Return to Top

    Photographs created or received by the Puget Sound Bridge and Dredging Company and its successor, the Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Company. The majority of the photographs document various shipbuilding or construction projects. Another large set of photographs shows company employees during the World War II period. The subseries themselves are described more fully below. The photographs have been arranged in nine distinct subseries by subject. The photographs were received from Lockheed in 1988. It is not clear whether or not the subject categories that appear on the original inventory list created in 1988 by Sheila McKee reflect the original order in which the photograph files were organized or maintained by Lockheed.


    Toward Professionalization

    Under the new leadership of Captains William L. Wright, Thomas R. Hickman, and Frank Hamer, the Rangers reformed and performed as a more professional force in the 1920s. During this time they returned to their law enforcement duties, patrolling for smugglers and cattle rustlers on the border.

    In 1932, just as their star was on the rise again, the Rangers made a major political miscalculation that had devastating consequences. The Rangers backed incumbent governor Ross Sterling against Miriam &ldquoMa&rdquo Ferguson. When Ferguson was elected, she fired every Ranger on the force for supporting her opponent. The Rangers had to rebuild their ranks from scratch. The new recruits weren&rsquot yet up to the task, and Texas experienced a new era of lawlessness throughout the 1930s.

    Nevertheless, the Rangers continued to professionalize their ranks. In 1935, the Rangers moved under the Texas Department of Public Safety, making them just one part of a larger law enforcement agency. They became the detective arm of the Department of Public Safety, and uniformed law enforcement duties were assigned to Highway Patrol officers.

    At the same time the Rangers were moving away from their past as frontier lawmen, Hollywood elevated the frontier Ranger persona to new heights with The Lone Ranger television show in 1949. The series, followed by several films, created a new popular image of the Rangers as noble lawmen assisting those in need and meting out justice. This romanticized version of the Rangers came to define the Rangers and overshadow their previous misdeeds.


    Overview

    There&rsquos more innovation underway today at Boeing than at any time in our 101-year history.

    Recent examples of innovation include the first flights of the 737 MAX 9, 787-10, and T-X, among other milestones such as the launch of Boeing AnalytX and Boeing HorizonX. Teams across the global Boeing network continue to transform how we design and build our products, the systems that enable us to work more efficiently, and the work we do to improve the environmental performance of our products and internal operations.

    With more than $3 billion invested annually in research and development, Boeing drives innovation that will transform aerospace and defense as we know it. The following video series highlights the ingenuity and passion Boeing employees and global partners demonstrate when developing innovations that help solve difficult, real-world problems.


    Watch the video: Legendary Kalashnikov: Story of AK-47 Rifle RTs Documentary