Edward George Hulton

Edward George Hulton

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Edward Hulton the son of the wealthy newspaper propietor, Edward Hulton, was born in Harrogate, Yorkshire, in 1906. After being educated at Harrow and Brasenose College, Oxford, he became a lawyer.

In November 1936 he inherited £6 million from his father's estate. He used the money to establish the Farmer's Weekly and Nursing Mirror.

In 1938 Hulton purchased Lilliput for £20,000 from its founder, Stefan Lorant. Later that year Hulton agreed to a suggestion by Lorant and Tom Hopkinson to publish Picture Post, a magazine that pioneered photojournalism. The magazine was an immediate success and after four months was selling 1,350,000 copies a week.

When Stefan Lorant emigrated to the United States in 1940 Tom Hopkinson took over as editor. Hopkinson recruited a team of talented writers and photographers including Tom Winteringham, Macdonald Hastings, Maurice Edelman, Walter Greenwood, Lionel Birch, A. L. Lloyd, Anne Scott-James, James Cameron, Robert Kee, Sydney Jacobson, Ted Castle, Bert Hardy and Kurt Hutton.

Hopkinson used the Picture Post to campaign against the persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany. In the journal published on 26th November 1938, he ran a picture story entitled Back to the Middle Ages. Photographs of Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels, Herman Goeringand Julius Steicher were contrasted with the faces of those scientists, writers and actors they were persecuting.

In January 1941 Tom Hopkinson published his Plan for Britain. This included minimum wages throughout industry, full employment, child allowances, a national health service, the planned use of land and a complete overhaul of education. This document led to discussions about post-war Britain and was the forerunner of the Beveridge Report that was published in December 1943.

The sales of the Picture Post increased rapidly during the Second World War and by December 1943 the magazine was selling 950,000 copies a week. The trend continued after the war and by the end of 1949 circulation reached 1,422,000 with profits of over £2,500 a week.

Tom Hopkinson was often in conflict with Hulton, who supported the Conservative Party, and objected to Hopkinson's socialist views. In August 1945 Hulton wrote to Hopkinson telling him that "I cannot permit editors of my newspapers to become organs of Communist propaganda. Still less to make the great newspaper which I built up a laughing-stock."

In 1950 Hopkinson sent James Cameron and Bert Hardy to report on the Korean War. While in Korea the two men produced three illustrated stories for Picture Post. This included the landing of General Douglas MacArthur and his troops at Inchon. Cameron also wrote a piece about the way that the South Koreans were treating their political prisoners. Hulton considered the article to be "communist propaganda" and Hopkinson was forced to resign.

Ted Castle took over as editor but several journalists, including James Cameron, Lionel Birch and A. Lloyd, refused to continue working for the magazine.

When Tom Hopkinson left the Picture Post it was selling over 1,380,000 copies a week. By June 1952 it had fallen to 935,000. Sales continued to decline and by the time the magazine was closed in May 1957 circulation was less than 600,000 copies a week.

Edward Hulton died in 1988.

The idea of Picture Post - most British of magazines - came from abroad. Its first editor, Stefan Lorant, was a Hungarian Jew - one of a small and brilliant band who left their country after the First World War because they found its political climate oppressive, and Hungary too small to give scope to their talents; and the paper's two first cameramen, Hans Baumann (or Felix H. Man as he signed himself) and Kurt Hubschmann (K. Hutton), were both Germans who had mastered their craft on magazines in Berlin and Munich.

The original conception owed everything, to Lorant. I met him first, four years before Picture Post was launched, when he turned up at Odhams Press where I then worked, with a suggestion for starting a picture magazine. This was in June 1934, and he arrived at one of very few moments in Odhams' history when an original idea had a chance of being accepted.

It was November 7, on which Herschel Grynsban, 17-year-old Polish Jew shot Vom Rath, Counsellor at the German Embassy in Pans. Vom Rath died in Paris on the afternoon of November 9. Almost simultaneously the German government in Berlin issued the first of its decrees against the Jews, which must have been prepared before Vom Rath died. These ordered all Jewish newspapers to stop publication. All Jewish cultural and educational associations were to be dissolved

On the same day, two synagogues were burnt down in different parts of Germany, and there was a small demonstration against the Jews in Berlin.

Early in the morning of November 10, after the beer hall and cafes had closed bands of young Nazis, acting simultaneously in towns all over Germany, set fire to synagogues, desecrated Jewish religious vestments and books, smashed the windows of Jewish shops, harried, beat and stoned Jewish people in the streets, and began widespread arrests of Jews.

Later that day began the worst pogrom since the Middle Ages. Looting went on all over Germany and Austria. The houses of Jews were broken into, children were dragged from their beds, women were beaten, men arrested and taken to concentration camps. Foreign journalists were prevented, as far as possible, from gathering details, but it is known that in Berlin several Jews were stoned to death. In the provinces, the number must have been higher.

The police did not interfere. The fire brigades turned their hoses only on non-Jewish buildings. All Jews in the streets or in wrecked shops, who were not manhandled, were arrested. In Munich, 10,000 Jews were rounded up and ordered to leave within 48 hours.

Although there are no official figures, the coloured population of Great Britain is estimated by both the Colonial Office and the League of Coloured People at about 25,000, including students. This total is distributed over the whole of Britain, but there are two large concentrated communities: one of about 7000 in the dock area of Cardiff round London Square, popularly known as 'Tiger Bay', and the other of about 8000 in the shabby mid-nineteenth century residential South End of Liverpool. It is most important to remember that all colonial coloured people, of whatsoever origin or class, have been brought up to think of Britain as 'The Mother Country'. This is particularly true of the West Indians, who no longer have the tribal associations and native language which can still provide some fundamental security for the disillusioned African. The West Indian disillusioned with Britain is deprived of all sense of security. He becomes, quite understandably, the most sensitive and neurotic member of the coloured community.

For Britain's colour problem there are a few practical and remedial steps that can be taken. But it can only be solved By a true integration of white and coloured people in one society. And for that to take place there must be some sort of revolution inside every individual mind - coloured and white - where prejudices based on bitterness, ignorance or patronage have been established.

Nearly everybody is now persuaded that the Soviet Government constitutes a grave menace, not only to Peace, but to our very lives. The Soviet Government, with the Communist Party, is what Mr. Churchill would rightly call 'a relentless foe' - determined on the complete destruction of all peoples who will not obey their dictates one hundred per cent. Although it may very well be true that the Kremlin does not desire war at this particular moment, this is merely because it is waiting, crouching, for a better opportunity to spring upon us. All and every form of appeasement is worse than vain.

At this perilous moment, I am, personally speaking, appalled that the conduct of our foreign policy should be in the hands of Mr. Ernest Bevin.

The winter of 1949-50 passed quietly enough, but early in 1950 I began to be bombarded with complaints, first, the familiar ones from Edward Hulton expressing anxiety over the Communist danger and his conviction that Picture Post was "too left-wing". At the same time there started to reach me from management criticism of a different kind: that the paper had lost all vitality, readers were now finding it dull and uninspiring, out of touch with the lively new spirit of the times. Some of the photographs were too large, some too small; other ought not to have appeared in any size. I was advised to study the popular weeklies. Weekend and Reveille, and told that if I would only print similar articles and pictures we could soon double our circulation.

I answered that if we were to imitate such totally different magazines we should destroy the reputation so carefully built up and be more likely to halve our readership than double it. This uncooperative attitude was put down to my always wanting to have things my own way-a failing to which I have certainly been prone. My personal interest in social conditions, I was told, was dictating the contents of the magazine and so standing in the way of the success it would enjoy if it were made more 'bright' and entertaining.

During their time in Korea Hardy and Cameron made three picture stories, the most dramatic of these being the record of General MacArthur's landing at Inchon, the port of Seoul. Seoul was not only the capital of Korea but the key centre of communications for the invading armies - North Koreans backed by Chinese - now operating far down to the south after driving the South Koreans and their allies into what Cameron called "the toehold enclave of Pusan". The Inchon landing effectively cut the legs from under the attackers, dramatically reversing the whole military situation. This was the second most powerful seaborne invasion ever launched - only that against Normandy five years earlier having been bigger - and our two men were the only British photo-journalists present.

The Inchon landing was not the only story our two men had sent back, and one of the others posed a problem. Text and photographs showed vividly how the South Koreans, with at least the connivance of their American allies, were treating their political prisoners, suspected opponents of the tyrant Synghman Rhee. Rhee himself would in due course be ditched as the insupportable head of an intolerable regime by the American protectors who had kept him in power for so long; but that was still ten years on into the future, and in the meantime Rhee and his henchmen were our gallant allies and the upholders of our Christian democratic way of life. By the 1980s we have all seen treatment of prisoners more openly murderous than that revealed in Hardy's pictures, and Cameron's accompanying article would today be accounted mild. But in the climate of that time, with British and Australian troops involved in the fighting, any criticism of South Koreans was certain to be regarded as criticism of 'our' side. Such criticism, moreover, being anti-Western, must inevitably be 'pro-Eastern', and hence - with only a small distortion of language - 'Communist propaganda', a crime of which I was already being accused by my employer.

They have been in jail now for indeterminate periods - long enough to have reduced their frames to skeletons, their sinews to string, their faces to a translucent terrible grey, their spirit to that of cringing dogs. They are roped and manacled. They are compelled to crouch in the classic Oriental attitude of submission in pools of garbage. They clamber, the lowest common denominator of personal degradation, into trucks with the numb air of men going to their death. Many of them are. The spectacle is utterly medieval. Among the crowds drifting indifferently around, a few bystanders take snapshots, grinning.

Mr Edward Hulton states with the deepest regret that, following a dispute about the handling of material about the Korean war, he has instructed Mr Tom Hopkinson to relinquish the position of editor of Picture Post. There is no personal hostility between Mr Hulton and Mr Hopkinson. Mr Ted Castle, associate editor of Picture Post and for six years the assistant editor of the paper, is the new editor.

Kent Revises

Your Easy-access (EZA) account allows those in your organization to download content for the following uses:

  • Tests
  • Samples
  • Composites
  • Layouts
  • Rough cuts
  • Preliminary edits

It overrides the standard online composite license for still images and video on the Getty Images website. The EZA account is not a license. In order to finalize your project with the material you downloaded from your EZA account, you need to secure a license. Without a license, no further use can be made, such as:

  • focus group presentations
  • external presentations
  • final materials distributed inside your organization
  • any materials distributed outside your organization
  • any materials distributed to the public (such as advertising, marketing)

Because collections are continually updated, Getty Images cannot guarantee that any particular item will be available until time of licensing. Please carefully review any restrictions accompanying the Licensed Material on the Getty Images website, and contact your Getty Images representative if you have a question about them. Your EZA account will remain in place for a year. Your Getty Images representative will discuss a renewal with you.

By clicking the Download button, you accept the responsibility for using unreleased content (including obtaining any clearances required for your use) and agree to abide by any restrictions.

Hulton photographic archive

The photographic archive of Picture Post became an important historical documentary resource. It was set up by Hulton as a semi-independent operation, officially incorporated as the Hulton Press Library in 1947. It was bought by the BBC in 1958 and incorporated into the Radio Times photo archive, which was then sold to Brian Deutsch in 1988. In 1996 the Hulton Picture Collection was bought for £8.6m by Getty Images, who has retained the Hulton Archive as a featured resource within its large holdings. [ 7 ]

Yas, Queens (and Kings)! History’s Most Scandalous Queer Royals: Prince George

If any lesson can be gleaned from the life of Prince George, the Duke of Kent and the uncle of Queen Elizabeth II, it’s never trust anyone named Kiki. Or maybe it’s more like: Have a kiki with Kiki, but don’t make it a habit.

George was the debonair and charming younger brother of Edward, the Duke of Windsor, who infamously abdicated the throne to be with noted palace-wrecker Wallis Simpson. Before sending the House of Windsor into a tailspin, the brothers turned 1920s London all the way out, with George sleeping around with, like, half the town. After meeting American socialite Kiki Preston, George got addicted to cocaine and heroin, and that’s when shit got dark.

But first, a little background. Prince George was the fourth son of King George V and Queen Mary, and by general consensus he was the best one. He was the smartest, the most talented, and the most loved as a child.

As he got older, he grew dissatisfied with a life of no challenges and no expectations. He half-assed his way through the Royal Naval Academy since he had no affinity nor stomach for the sea. After World War I, George’s brother and best friend Edward was living it up on the social scene in London, so George joined him in hanging out with the Bright Young Things. As handsome and debaucherous princes, they were stars on the scene.

George shined especially bright, as “the most interesting, intelligent, and cultivated member of his generation.” Whereas Edward was kind of an egocentric douche-bro, George was excellent company. He could speak five languages, and was a talented mimic and a great dancer. He once joined a tango competition under an assumed name and won. But for all his social graces, George also became notorious for his sexual appetite. At the time it was said, “He is not safe in taxis with either sex.”

George reportedly had a 19-year affair with the playwright Noël Coward. According to the 2005 documentary The Queen’s Lost Uncle, George met Coward through the actress Gertrude Lawrence, who found the young prince backstage trying on her wigs. George and Coward seemed to be fond of a good hairpiece, and legend has it that they were spotted by the British security services clickity-clacking down West End streets in drag, and that they were once even arrested under suspicion of prostitution. As homosexuality was still illegal in England, George’s increasingly queer and cavalier behavior was becoming a real threat to the royal family.

Among George’s long list of alleged lovers were African-American cabaret star Florence Mills, English actress Jessie Matthews, banking heiress Poppy Baring, art historian and Soviet spy Anthony Blunt, Prince of Prussia (and his distant cousin) Louis Ferdinand, and a couple sons of various Argentine ambassadors. The Duke of Kent also apparently had a threesome with one of those sons, Jorge Ferrara, and good old Kiki Preston.

Because of her fondness for drugs, Preston was known as the “girl with the silver syringe.” (Sidenote: The 1920s sounded like a gorgeous shitshow.) Preston got George, who had only a passing acquaintance with boundaries, into cocaine and heroin, so much so that his older bother Edward had to take a rare break from thinking about himself to ween him off the junk. The Duke of Windsor locked the Duke of Kent away at a secluded country retreat where he was forced to undergo a painful rehabilitation program.

George and Kiki were eventually forced apart, though rumors abound that they had an illegitimate child together, Michael Temple Canfield, who went on to become Lee Radziwill’s first husband. After finally getting that horse off his back, George began to settle down. He fell in love and married someone his family actually approved of, unlike his brother Edward.

He and Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark married in 1934 and had three kids. George even found some direction in life when the Second World War broke out, joining the Royal Air Force. In August 1942, on a mission to Iceland, his plane crashed, killing 14 people including the 39-year-old Duke of Kent.

As for Kiki? She died four years later when she jumped out the fifth-story window of her Manhattan apartment.

Yas, Queens (and Kings)! History’s Most Scandalous Queer Royals: Edward II

How to Visit

During her Silver Jubilee in 1977, Queen Elizabeth II opened the house to the public. Today, people can come to visit the estate&rsquos 600 acres of gardens or learn more about royal life and the history of Sandringham at the estate museum.

There are some COVID-19 restrictions in place, but the estate is still welcoming visitors to take a tour of the house itself, and to see the gardens. For more ticketing and health and safety information, visit the estate website here.

Glorious Behind-the-Scenes Photos of Queen Elizabeth's 1947 Wedding

How much planning and work goes into a picture-perfect royal event? From creating a balanced guest list that won’t offend any allies to enlisting local law enforcement to control the crowds and hiring a battalion of designers and decorators, there is much to be organized.

Queen Victoria’s wedding cake weighed hundreds of pounds and was three yards wide a 25-foot train was created for Princess Diana’s wedding dress and Prince William and Kate Middleton spent $1.1 million on flowers alone.

For Queen Elizabeth, however, the 2,000-person guest list and extravagant plans for her wedding day had some people more nervous than excited. The post-war atmosphere in Britain had many observers worried about the cost of such an event. However, the global buzz surrounding the day helped stir people across the world to pitch in for what would become known as “the people’s wedding.”

Here’s an inside look at what went into pulling off one of the most elaborate weddings in history, the 1947 wedding of the future Queen Elizabeth II to Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh.

Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Then-princess Elizabeth and Prince Philip announced their engagement on July 9, 1947, giving them just four months to plan their wedding. They first met at another royal wedding, of Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark to Prince George, Duke of Kent, in 1934.

Bolton's Social history

The name Bolton comes from Bolt and Tun. le-Moors is merely a description of the land which surrounds Bolton (moorland).

The town received its first Charter to hold a market in Churchgate, and annual fair, granted by King Henry III in 1251, after the Manor of Bolton was devolved by marriage. The charter reads: The King to his Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Earls, Barons, Knights, and to all whom it may concern greeting. Know ye that we have granted, and by this Charter confirmed, to our trusty and beloved William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, that he and all his heirs shall have the lands and free warren in the Manors of Lyverpull, West Derby, Everton, Crosseby, Wavertree, Salford, Bowelton, Penelton, etc., in the County of Lancaster . . . . We grant to the said Earl also and to his heirs for ever, permission to hold a market at his aforesaid Manor of Bowelton, in the Country of Lancaster, every seventh day and also at the same place a fair once a year, extending over three days, that is to say on the eve and on the day and on the morrow of the feast of St. Margaret the Virgin.

The Earl of Derby, William de Ferrers granted a Charter to make Bolton a market town and borough on January 14th 1253.

Flemish weavers are recorded as arriving in Bolton about 1337 to work in the textile industry, bringing other skills including clog making.

This is around the time that the industrial history of Bolton starts.

1385, agreement regarding Manor of Little Bolton

The deed no 36b (The Pilkington Family of Lancashire) refers to the Manor of Little Bolton being by right the title of the descendants of Roger De Bolton through his sons marriage to Ymayne daughter of Roger De Pilkington of Rovyngton. The deed also makes a clear link between the families of Bolton of Little Bolton and Pilkington. Later a large number of the Pilkington family can be found within Little Bolton.

151k JPEG Deane Church and George Marsh Memorial Cross April 1996

Bolton was a centre of Puritanism, and in the Civil War of the 17th Century it was a Parliamentarian outpost, surrounded by Royalist areas. Prince Rupert's army of 10,000 men were joined by troops under the leadership of the Earl of Derby, and stormed the town on May 28th 1644 from Deane Moor. This was the third major assault against Bolton, of the 3000 local troops led by Colonel Rigby, 1500 were left dead, and 700 taken prisoner. It became known as the Bolton Massacre.

90k JPEG From a painting, reproduced in the Bolton Book, published 1929, courtesy of Westhoughton Library.

Prior to 1838, the area was split into "Little Bolton" with 30 trustees and "Great Bolton", who's 40 trustees were known as "The Forty Thieves". The boundary between was defined by the course of the River Croal.

52k JPEG Bolton's First Mayor, courtesy Westhoughton Town Library

In 1838 Queen Victoria granted Bolton Chartered Borough status on the 11th of October. Neighbouring districts were embraced at the turn of the century, enlarging the town.

There was considerable distress in Bolton at this time, due to the high cost of food brought about by the Corn Laws and other taxes, unemployment was severe. The Chartists, workless people who banded together to secure rights of government, rioted in the town on August 16th 1839 and the Parish Church was occupied causing considerable damage. They also went on to attack the Police Office at the former Little Bolton town hall where the mob leader was imprisoned after his arrest, using a lamp post as a battering ram forced entry to the building, and further damage stopped only when a troop of Grenadiers from the 96th Foot Regiment arrived to disperse the rioters. Conditions continued to deteriorate, and in 1842 Bolton was involved in the Plug Drawing Riots, bands of rioters pulling the plugs out of boilers causing costly and crippling damage to factory machinery. A public fast was declared on March 12th 1847 following the failure of the Irish potato harvest. In the summer of 1848 an outbreak of cholera ran until the spring of 1849.

In 1850, the Bolton Improvement Act was brought in. A Markets Committee was formed on November 9th 1850, permitting stalls for Butchers' Meat, Poultry,, Grain, Greengroceries, Fruit, Hay, Straw, Boots, Shoes, Smallware, Pedlery, Medicines, Confectionary, Seeds, Bacon, Eggs, Fish, Ironmongery, and other marketable goods. A sanitary committee was appointed, a Public Library Act made in 1852, a Fire Police Committee amalgamated with the Watch Committee in 1853. The River Croal was cleaned and paved by the Sewerage Committee in 1860. The Rhodes farm Sewerage formally opened on August 26th 1899.

Bolton Parish Church, St. Peter's of Bolton-le-Moors was consecrated in 1871. Bolton Town Hall, incorporating the Albert Hall was opened on June 5th 1873.

On August 21st 1883, Bolton New Infirmary opened on Chorley Road. It closed in 1998, with service transferred to Bolton General in Farnworth. On August 25th 1883, Bolton Borough Fever Hospital opened on Hulton Lane.

July 10th 1913 was the day King George V and Queen Mary visited the town, the first time a reigning monarch had come to Bolton.

On April 1st 1974, Bolton Metropolitan Borough was formed, part of Greater Manchester County under local government reorganisation.

Hulton Picture Library

The photographic archive of Picture Post became an important historical documentary resource, and was set up by Sir Edward Hulton as a semi-independent operation called Hulton Picture Library. It was bought by the BBC in 1958 and incorporated into the Radio Times photo archive, which was then sold to Brian Deutsch in 1988. The Hulton Deutsch Collection was bought for £8.6m by Getty Images in 1996, and Getty has retained the Hulton Picture Library as a featured resource within its large holdings.

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Edward George Warris Hulton" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License or on research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

World War II

On September 3, 1939, after Germany failed to respond to an ultimatum issued over their invasion of Poland, the United Kingdom, along with its European allies, declared war on Germany. In spite of constant air raids by the German Luftwaffe, the royal family remained in official residence in London throughout World War II, although they actually split their time between Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle.

In 1940, Winston Churchill took over as prime minister. Although he and King George VI had a rocky relationship at first, they soon developed an excellent rapport that helped bring the U.K. through the war years. The king and queen made many visits and public appearances to keep up morale, and the monarchy hit a high in popularity. The war came to an end in 1945, and the following year, London hosted the first assembly of the United Nations, with George VI making an opening address.

46 Moments That Changed the Royal Family Forever

The British royal family is used to navigating tricky situations⁠, from sudden abdications to scrutiny in the press. But through the good and the bad, they've managed to remain one of the most influential monarchies in the world. Here, we take a look back at some of the biggest moments in history that changed the royal family forever.

Queen Victoria was fifth in line for the throne, but after her father's death in 1820 when she was eight months old, she became the heir because her uncles had no direct heirs. She became Queen when she turned 18 in 1837 after King William II (the brother and successor of Victoria&rsquos grandfather) died and changed the royal lineage forever. She served as monarch for 63 years and was the longest English reign until her great-great granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II, passed her in 2015.

If you were a fan of Meghan Markle or Kate Middleton&rsquos wedding dresses, you kind of have Queen Victoria to thank. The British monarchy started the tradition of brides wearing white on their wedding day when she married Prince Albert. Before then, women didn't wear one set color.

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert married in 1839 and remained extremely loyal to one another throughout their marriage. When the prince died in 1861, Queen Victoria not only lost her devoted husband, but a strong political advisor. Following his death, the Queen entered into intense mourning&mdashsleeping with a plaster cast of his hand, wearing only black for the remainder of her life, and receding from courtier life, which led to 25 years of seclusion.

In the midst of World War I, the British royal family changed their family name from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor in order to tone down their German ancestry. Here, King George V is pictured with his cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany, in Berlin just before the start of the war.

King George V was the first monarch to deliver a speech to the entire nation by radio broadcast on Christmas. Although the King was hesitant about doing the speech, it was a big deal for people across the empire to hear his voice in their own homes. His short message, written by Rudyard Kipling, was the monarchy's first step at embracing modernization. "I take it as a good omen that wireless should have reached its present perfection at a time when the Empire has been linked in closer union. For it offers us immense possibilities to make that union closer still," the King said in 1932.

The monarchy entered into a constitutional crisis on December 11, 1936 when Edward VIII, who was set to take the throne after his father's death, announced his abdication. In the Prince's speech over radio broadcast, Edward spoke of his inability to carry out his duties without the woman he loved by his side, American divorcée Wallis Simpson. After his abdication, he took the title of Duke of Windsor, married Simpson, and the two lived in exile in France.

Prince Albert of York, who never expected to rule, was suddenly coronated and became King George VI. He and his family moved into Buckingham Palace and Princess Elizabeth II was named heir to the throne at the age of 10.

The entire nation was devoted to the war effort in 1939. While the King and Queen stayed in Buckingham Palace, the princesses were moved to Windsor Castle for safety. Later, Princess Elizabeth served as a mechanic in the war.

Royal advisors weren't too keen on the match between Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten, who was a member of the exiled Greek royal family. But the young princess advocated for him and the two were married on November 20, 1947, in which the Princess promised to "love, to cherish, and to obey" her husband&mdashwhich many thought was a bold move for a future monarch to promise.

India was one of the most valuable territories under the British empire's control, so when the country sought independence in 1947 it was a huge loss to the crown. But World War II made the monarchy realize they couldn't maintain a global empire, so they helped India form a new government, which Lord Mountbatten oversaw.

After the death of her father King George VI, Princess Elizabeth was crowned Queen Elizabeth II. The Princess heard of the news while standing in for her ailing father on a royal tour in Africa and had not packed a black dress. She had to change into one on the plane after landing in London and has since created a royal protocol that all members of the royal family must travel with a mourning outfit in case a similar situation arises.

In 1953, Queen Elizabeth&rsquos coronation in Westminster Abbey was the first to air on television. The historic moment was watched by over 27 million people around the world.

When news broke of Princess Margaret&rsquos relationship with Captain Peter Townsend, it was a royal scandal. Not only was Townsend a royal officer who worked as an equerry for the household, but he was married. Townsend divorced his wife, but parliament wouldn't approve of their marriage because the Church of England was against divorce and it was too soon after the Duke of Windsor's abdication scandal. There was nothing for Queen Elizabeth to do, but the press was heavily on the couple&rsquos side and vilified the monarchy&rsquos strict stance.

Princess Margaret&rsquos Westminster Abbey wedding to Antony Armstrong Jones was the first British royal wedding to air on television. Since then, it&rsquos become a tradition to televise royal weddings.

There hadn&rsquot been a divorced member of the royal family since King Henry VIII in the 1500s, until Princess Margaret and Lord Snowdon announced their separation in 1976.

Prince Philip&rsquos uncle and close member of the royal family's inner circle, Lord Louis Mountbatten, was assassinated by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) when they planted a bomb on his boat. Mountbatten, his grandson, and two others were killed in the explosion.

When the Queen's eldest son, and heir apparent, announced his engagement to Lady Diana Spencer, the world became captivated with the couple. Their July wedding at St. Paul&rsquos Cathedral was watched by more than 750 million people and lured a whole new generation of people&mdashincluding Americans&mdashinto the royal fairytale.

The Queen&rsquos grandson, Prince William, was born on June 21, 1982 in the Lindo Wing at St. Mary&rsquos Hospital. The birth of Prince Charles and Princess Diana's first son reordered the line of succession, with the newborn becoming second in line to the throne.

The Queen&rsquos only daughter, Princess Anne, announced her divorce from Captain Mark Phillips in 1989, which was finalized in 1992. The couple had been married since 1973 and shared two children. The Princess married Timothy Laurence shortly after her divorce was finalized.

A leaked telephone conversation between Prince Charles and his married ex-girlfriend, Camilla Parker Bowles, revealed that the Prince of Wales had been cheating on his wife, Princess Diana.

In 1992, Buckingham Palace released a statement that the Prince of Wales planned to divorce his wife, Princess Diana. The couple, who had been plagued by rumors of infidelity for years, expressed their plans to separate before formal divorce proceedings could be drawn up.

A massive fire broke out in Windsor Castle in November 1992. The fire damaged more than 119 rooms in the palace and resulted in extensive renovations.

Another one of the Queen's children, Prince Andrew, announced his separation from wife Sarah Ferguson in 1992. The Queen has since called the year of 1992 "annus horribilus," meaning horrible year in Latin.

Soon after her separation was announced, Ferguson was caught in a compromising position while on vacation with American financier, John Bryan. The images covered every newspaper and was tabloid fodder for a while, causing great embarrassment to the royal household. It resulted in Fergie being removed from the inner circle.

While separated from Prince Charles, Diana decided to give her side of the story and organized an unauthorized interview from her Kensington Palace apartment. In the unprecedented interview, Diana not only revealed the full extent of Prince Charles&rsquos infidelity (it had been going on for a long time), but also described how she struggled to cope with the pressures of royal life.

In August 1997, news broke that Princess Diana had passed away in a tragic car crash in Paris. People all around the world mourned and flooded to Kensington Palace and Buckingham Palace to pay their respects. She was dubbed "the People's Princess" and the royal family&rsquos silence following Diana's death prompted outrage from citizens. so much that Queen Elizabeth addressed the nation in a televised speech, which had never been done before.

Queen Elizabeth faced two tremendous losses within the same year. Her younger sister, Princess Margaret, and her mother passed away within months of one another.

The former Duchess of York damaged her relationship with the monarchy once again when she was exposed for exchanging money with an undercover reporter for access to her ex-husband.

Prince William made headlines when he proposed to longtime girlfriend Kate Middleton in 2010, with his late mother's engagement ring. As Middleton did not come from a noble background, she was technically considered a &ldquocommoner&rdquo in British society.

The Queen celebrated her 60-year reign in 2012 with her Diamond Jubilee. Four years later, she passed Queen Victoria as the longest-reigning monarch in British history.