Reichstag

Reichstag


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The Reichstag was the large domed building in Berlin that was the home of the German Parliament. It was burnt down on 27th February, 1933 and later Marinus van der Lubbe, a Communist from Holland was executed for the crime.

After the Reichstag Fire the German Parliament was held in the Kroll Opera House in Berlin.

Political Parties in the ReichstagJune
1920
May 1924Dec. 1924May 1928Sep. 1930July 1932Nov. 1932Mar. 1933
Communist Party (KPD)4624554778910081
Social Democratic Party (SDP)102100131153143133121120
Catholic Centre Party (BVP)6581887887979093
Nationalist Party (DNVP)71951037341375252
Nazi Party (NSDAP)---12107230196288
Other Parties989273121122223523

Reichstag - History

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Diet, Medieval Latin Dieta, German Reichstag, legislature of the German empire, or Holy Roman Empire, from the 12th century to 1806.

In the Carolingian empire, meetings of the nobility and higher clergy were held during the royal progresses, or court journeys, as occasion arose, to make decisions affecting the good of the state. After 1100, definitively, the emperor called the Diet to meet in an imperial or episcopal city within the imperial frontiers. The members of the Diet were originally the princes, including bishops of princely status, but counts and barons were included later. After 1250 the representatives of imperial and episcopal cities were recognized as members of the Diet, and at this time the electoral princes, whose duty it was to elect the emperor, began to meet separately, a division formally confirmed in the Golden Bull of Charles IV (1356), which established the number of the electoral princes as seven. (See elector.)

Beginning in the 12th century the power of the emperor gradually declined by 1489 the Diet was divided into three colleges that met separately: (1) the electoral college of seven lay and ecclesiastical princes presided over by the imperial chancellor, the archbishop of Mainz (2) the college of the princes with 33 ecclesiastical princes and 61 lay princes, presided over by the archbishop of Salzburg or the archduke of Austria (3) the college of the cities presided over by the representative of the city in which the Diet met. The college of cities was separated eventually into the Rhine and Swabian divisions, the former having 14 towns and the latter 37.

The decisions taken separately by the three colleges were combined in an agreed statement the text of which was sent to the emperor as “the resolution of the empire” ( conclusum imperii). All the decisions of the Diet forming the resolution were called the “recess of the empire” ( Reichsabschied). The emperor could ratify part of the recess or the whole of it, but he could not modify the words of the recess. Until the 17th century the Diet possessed effective legal power, including the decision of war or peace, but the Peace of Westphalia (1648) spelled the final breakdown in the conception of a single German empire united by its members’ common aims. The three-college Diet was replaced by an assembly of sovereign princes, usually represented by envoys, indifferent to the emperor’s wishes and divided in religious and political aims. The Diet of Regensburg of 1663 prolonged itself indefinitely into permanent session and thereafter was called the Regensburg Diet, or the Everlasting Diet (Immerwährender Reichstag). The emperor was now represented by a prince of the empire as his commissioner a jurist was appointed as subcommissioner and the elector of Mainz, archchancellor of the empire, had charge of the business of the meetings of the Diet. This assembly of representatives without legislative power disappeared when the Holy Roman Empire collapsed under Napoleon’s attack in 1806.

The name Reichstag was revived in 1871 for the legislature of the German Empire and retained by the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich the name was abandoned in the two Germanies after World War II.


Reichstag – The German Parliament | Foster and Partners

The German Parliament (Reichstag) by Foster and Partners was originally built to house the parliament of the German Empire. The Reichstag was controversial before its construction even began. In 1871 the competition to design the building was announced, the chosen site in Berlin was already occupied by the Prussian Count Raczynski’s Palace, he refused to sell his land during his lifetime. Another controversy over the selection of a half-Russian Architect in the Design Competition, delayed progress even more.

Later on Second Design Competition limited to German-Speaking Architects only, won by Paul Wallot, and the construction finally began in 1884. Due to Kaisers’ (German Emperor) whim of decisions, Wallot’s Neo-Classical Design was subjected to many revisions, the building was finally completed in 1894. One of the most recognizable element of Wallot’s design, the Inscription ‘Dem Deutsche Volke’ (to the German People) on the main Pediment of the building. The Kaiser viewed the Inscription as distastefully populist, and it was only added in 1916 as a Patriotic Symbol during World War I.

Wrapped Reichstag by Christo and Jean-Claude. photography by © flickr user txmx-2, licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Since its completion, the building has played many supporting roles in the World History, starting with the Fire in 1933, allegedly set by a Dutch Communist, allowed Hitler to seize Power. As World War II came to an end in Europe, the Soviets used the heavily-damaged Reichstag as a setting for propaganda photos to reenact their capture of the city. Restoration efforts were carried on slowly after the War, as the building was located on the front lines of the Cold War, just on the Western side of Berlin Wall. Finally in 1971, plans to restore the building for eventual parliamentary were stalled, when the West German Government agreed not to hold any Bundestag (federal constitutional and legislative body) sessions at the Reichstag in exchange for East Germany easing access to West Berlin. Prior to the beginning of the construction by Foster and Partners in 1995, the entire building was wrapped in an enormous strips of fabric in Art Piece by the Artists Christo and Jean Claude.

After the German reunification, two close votes in the Parliament confirmed the relocation of the Capital to Berlin. The Reichstag was the home of the German Parliament or the Bundestag (federal constitutional and legislative body). In 1992 Foster and Partners was one of the fourteen non-German Firms invited to participate in a design competition. Lord Foster was skeptical that there will be less chances for a non-German architect to win the competition. But the results were breath-taking, the last three finalists were all non-German: Lord Foster, Santiago Calatrava and Pi de Brujin. Foster’s original competition design was to cover the original structure with steel and glass, stretching it to the north to connect with the Spree River.

As Deyan Sudjic described, “resembling a giant table sitting on top of the parliament, it would have entirely transformed its meaning, rendering the project a memorial to the past, while at the same time demonstrating that the new parliament building signified a departure from history“.

photography by © Barry Plane, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

But as the illumination of the Reunification got dimmer, the financial realities of rebuilding national infrastructure began to step in, and the three finalists were asked to reduce the costs of their proposals in the Second round of the Competition. Despite this request, the competition committee refused to supply a Budget for the proposed building. While others busy in making adjustments to their designs, Lord Foster started from scratch and proposed four possible schemes with ‘a range of estimates to show how more or less work could be carried out on the building’. And one of these schemes was selected finally for the construction. But it was just the beginning of a very lengthy process, as the home of the German Parliament, nearly every major to the minute design decision was based on a political significance. Nowhere is this more evident than in the Dome, Lord Foster’s design did not include a dome, but almost immediately after the competition was concluded, some members of the Parliament began to demand the reconstruction of the original dome.

Although Lord Foster initially refused to consider adding a dome, but a separate proposal from a German Architect to add a reconstruction of the historic Dome could put Foster’s vision for the building’s interior spaces in a tragic mismatch, and he began to explore ideas for what he came to call the ‘Cupola’. After the dome, Chancellor Helmut Kohl insisted on a brighter color scheme for the interiors than the neutral palette of whites and greys that Lord Foster had originally proposed. So many things including the sculpture of the eagle in the Parliamentary chamber was the subject of a considerable debate.

photography by © flickr user oh-berlin, licensed under CC BY 2.0

Now about the building, the ‘Cupola’ is the most publically accessible portion of the building. The symbolic landmark glass dome brings natural light and ventilation down to the parliament floors and into its own entrance, reflected by its mirrored core. Helical ramps inside the Dome allows people to climb up to the top and enjoy a 360 degree view of the Berlin city. There is also a restaurant on the roof terrace. A mechanism fitted in the Dome to track the movement of the sun and blocks direct sunlight to avoid excess heat and uncomfortable glaze. At the same time, skylights at the base of the ‘Cupola’ open into the Debating chamber below, provide a transparent visual connection to the Government at work. An inverted cone of mirrored panels in the center of the dome reflects daylight down into the Debating chamber, and also supports ventilation in the building, exhausting hot air through the top of the ‘Cupola’.

Other than Cupola, Lord Foster’s other interventions in the building were no less significant. The design was able to consolidate the functional spaces of the Parliament back into a single building. It is most notably for the MPs, the ‘Faction rooms’ where the party gather to discuss new policies. Lord Foster was also intent to enrich the history of the building, through preserving the Cyrillic graffiti Soviet soldiers scribbled on the stone walls at the end of the World War II, the one of the most notable example of it. The important symbolism of the Public and the Politicians entering the building through the same entrance, under the Classical Pediment inscribed, ‘To the German People’.

One of main important aspects of the Reichstag is that it runs on renewable bio-fuel and refined vegetable oil, this system is far cleaner that burning fossil fuels. So energy requirements of the building allow it to perform as a local power station by supplying power to the nearby government buildings. Surplus heat generated by the Reichstag’s power plant is stored in a natural aquifer 300 meters below the building. In winter, stored water is used to heat the building or pump to an absorption cooling plant that produces cold water. This water also being stored below the ground and withdrawn in hot weather to provide cooling via chilled ceilings.

At the end, despite of compromises, Lord Foster gave us a fantastic outcome, moreover in situations like this, it would be really difficult for anyone to control the design outcome after an extend. And with the whips of the clients, it is more difficult to control the demand and the final product, which we can surely learn to maintain from Lord Foster!

As Sudjic describes, “Foster has an acute sense for the symbolic qualities of architecture, beyond the overt functional role that it is expected to play. Ask him which of his buildings he feels is most successful, and unhesitatingly he will name the new Reichstag“.

Courtesy of Foster + Partners

Project Information:
Architect : Foster and Partners
Location : Berlin, Germany
Project Year : 1992 – 1999
Area : 61,166 square meters
Status: Built
Client : Bundesrepulik Deutschland
Structural Engineer : Arup/ ShlaichBergermann & Partner/ LeonhardtAndrä & Partner
M+E Engineer : Kaiser Bautechnik/ Fischer- Energie and Haustech/PlanungsgruppeKarnasch-Hackstein/ Kuehn Associates
Lighting Engineer: Claude Engle


Interesting facts about the Reichstag building

The Reichstag building is one of the most famous landmarks in Berlin, Germany.

The building is located in the historic center of Berlin near the Brandenburg Gate, Potsdamer Platz and Tiergarten.

It was constructed to house the Reichstag (“Imperial Diet”) of the German Empire.

The building was designed by German architect Paul Wallot.

Construction took place between 1892 and 1894, and included a cupola of steel and glass that was heralded as a major engineering accomplishment, while the building as a whole drew criticism for its mixture of architectural styles.

It was opened in 1894 and housed the Diet until 1933, when it was severely damaged after being set on fire.

The building caught fire on 27 February 1933 in what was reported to be an arson attack by a Dutch communist, although many believe that it was orchestrated by the Nazis as a ‘false flag operation’, to enable Adolf Hitler to step up his state security operations and crack down on civil liberties.

During the 12 years of Nazi rule, the Reichstag building was not used for parliamentary sessions.

During the Second World War, the Reichstag was badly damaged and it then fell into disuse.

When the Cold War emerged, the building was physically within West Berlin, but only a few meters from the border of East Berlin, which ran around the back of the building and in 1961 was closed by the Berlin Wall.

A partial refurbishment took place in the 1960s, but it was only after German reunification in 1990 that a full-scale reconstruction was proposed and eventually got underway, led by the British architect Norman Foster. After its completion in 1999, it once again became the meeting place of the German parliament: the modern Bundestag.

Known for sleek, modern designs of steel and glass, Foster’s design focused on making the processes of
government more transparent for the German people with an innovative architectural Dome design that can be described as a sculpture of light.

Upon entering the dome one has the impression of being in a winter garden, whose effects of light and
transparency are exacerbated by the inverted cone that lies at its center and is completely covered by 360 mirrors inclined.

A mirrored cone in the center of the dome directs sunlight into the building, and so that visitors can see the working of the chamber. At night, however, there is a reverse process – thanks to the mirrors, the artificial light of the chamber is reflected externally, illuminating the dome.

The dome is open to the public and can be reached by climbing two steel, spiraling ramps that are
reminiscent of a double-helix. The Dome symbolizes that the people are above the government, as was not the case during National Socialism.

The top of the glass dome includes an open-air viewing platform with an impressive 360-degree
panoramic view of the surrounding Berlin cityscape.

The dome also plays an important role in the ventilation system, as it draws hot air upward, while the fans recycle energy from the waste air. The dome is therefore not only a distinctive element of the architectural composition, but also an important device of power and lighting.

The design of the dome was at first controversial, but has become accepted as one of Berlin’s most
important landmarks.

In the 21st century the Reichstag became a symbol of Germany’s commitment to renewable energy. The Reichstag’s iconic dome has a massive solar array on its roof further increased the building’s energy independence. Biofuel generators provided for a significant amount of the Reichstag’s power needs, and in 2008 the Bundestag approved a plan to power the building with 100 percent renewable resources.

The building became the focus of the art world in June 1995 when it was wrapped in 100,000 square meters (1,076,390 square feet) of silver fabric by the environmental sculptors Christo and Jeanne-Claude. More than five million people viewed the installation, which was regarded as one of Christo and Jeanne-Claude’s most ambitious projects. The Reichstag remained wrapped for 14 days and all materials were recycled.

Pop singer Michael Jackson performed in front of 50,000 people during his Bad World Tour on 19 June 1988.

On 2 May 1945, Yevgeny Khaldei took the photo Raising a flag over the Reichstag, which symbolized the victory of the USSR over Germany.

Today, visitors to the building can still see Soviet graffiti on smoky walls inside as well as on part
of the roof, which was preserved during the reconstructions after reunification.

The Reichstag building attracts about 3 million people per year. It is the second most visited landmark in Germany (after Cologne Cathedral).


Far-Right Germans Try to Storm Reichstag as Virus Protests Escalate

Germany has handled the pandemic well and its government enjoys high public trust. But the minority opposing coronavirus rules includes a far-right faction that worries officials.

BERLIN — It was shortly after 7 p.m. when a self-described healer got on stage outside the German Parliament and urged the jeering crowd of protesters to storm the building: “There is no more police!” she shouted. “We have won!”

What followed was a scene many Germans thought had been confined to their history books: Hundreds of far-right activists waving the black, white and red flag of the pre-1918 German Empire that once inspired the Nazis broke through a police barrier and tried to force their way into the building.

It took only a few tense minutes before the police, though vastly outnumbered, managed to push them back. But Saturday’s events marked an alarming escalation of the protests against Germany’s response to the pandemic that have grown steadily bigger and — on the fringes at least — angrier.

Strikingly, that outpouring of anger comes at a time when Chancellor Angela Merkel’s government is enjoying high levels of trust and popularity, and the great majority of Germans approve of its virus control measures. Germany has managed the pandemic well, keeping the number of deaths low, reopening schools and pumping billions of euros into welfare programs that so far have kept unemployment at bay.

Small as they are in numbers, though, the group who tried to take over the historic Parliament building, the Reichstag, prompted shocked responses and grim comparisons to Germany’s past.

“The fact that Nazis with imperial war flags try to storm the Bundestag recalls the darkest period in German history,” Robert Habeck, the co-leader of Germany’s Green party, told the Funke media group.

“It is intolerable that the Reich flag should fly again at the German Parliament,” said Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, the head of Chancellor Angela Merkel’s center-right party.

Germany’s president, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, called it “an unbearable attack on the heart of our democracy.”

Some 38,000 protesters from all over the country flocked to the German capital last weekend, the biggest number since the marches started in April. It was an eclectic crowd. There were anti-vaxxers like Robert F. Kennedy Jr., anticapitalists, esoterics, ordinary citizens angry at having to wear face masks — but also about 3,000 members of the far-right scene.

“We have everything from Hare Krishna fans to Adolf Hitler fans on the streets,” said Matthias Quent, an expert on far-right extremism and the director of an institute that studies democracy and civil society. “It’s a very disparate crowd but what unites people is an angry discontent with the establishment. It’s a mix of populist and egoist outrage.”

The far-right Alternative for Germany party, or AfD, has tried to exploit the pandemic in the same way it used the refugee crisis in 2015, when the government accepted more than one million migrants into the country, to feed a narrative of impending crisis and government failure.

The migrant wave helped propel the AfD into Parliament in the last election, but the issue has lost much of its political potency, as the resettlement has been broadly deemed a success. And with its own lawmakers and voters deeply split over the country’s coronavirus measures, the party has seen its share of the vote dip below 10 percent in recent polls.

In all, only 9 percent of Germans support the protests, polls suggest. And only one in 10 Germans say they disagree with virus-prevention measures like the requirement to wear masks on public transport, in stores and in public buildings including schools and libraries.

Almost eight in ten Germans said they would like to see greater compliance with pandemic controls, and some 28 percent said the measures were not strict enough.

“They shout ‘We are the people,’ but they’re not,” Mr. Quent said of the protesters who swarmed the Reichstag.

“In Germany, like many other European countries, we see that far-right parties are losing ground, that there is growing trust in incumbent governments,” Mr. Quent said. “In the short term the pandemic can’t be exploited by far-right parties.”

If the economy deteriorates further and unemployment rises, that equation may change, he said. Already, the AfD and more extreme far-right groups are trying to capitalize on the discontent as they begin positioning themselves for what may be a much uglier political scene some months from now.

What worries officials and extremism experts more immediately is that even if the far right is a minority at the protests, it is radicalizing. Among those calling on supporters to join the protest on Saturday were Björn Höcke, an AfD firebrand, and Martin Sellner, star of the extremist Generation Identity movement, both of whom have been classified as far-right extremists by the domestic intelligence service.

Message boards are flush with far-right conspiracy theories and prepper groups, which have long fantasized about a crisis so deep that it would lead to the collapse of Germany’s liberal order. Ahead of Saturday’s protest, which the city government had tried to block before being overruled by a court, several public groups on the messaging app Telegram had called for a “storm on Berlin.”

Some had posted photos of themselves and their weapons. “That is very unusual for Germany,” Mr. Quent said.

The authorities are on high alert. Over the past 14 months, far-right terrorists have assassinated a regional politician on his front porch near the central city of Kassel, attacked a synagogue in Halle, in the east, and in February, killed 10 people in the west, in Hanau. Even before the pandemic hit Germany, far-right extremism and far-right terrorism had been officially identified as the biggest danger to the country’s democracy.

At a same time, senior intelligence officials have expressed concern about far-right extremists infiltrating Germany’s security services. Cases of far-right extremists in the military and the police, some hoarding weapons and explosives, have multiplied alarmingly in recent years. In July, the government disbanded an entire company of the KSK, the country’s special forces, because it was infested with far-right extremists.

At the coronavirus protests on Saturday, far-right activists actively courted police officers deployed to secure the march, urging them to switch sides.

There have been several cases of police officers joining such protests, according to Robert Andreasch, a journalist who has been documenting their appearances. Two active police officers, a retired officer and one who was recently suspended were speakers at the rally on Saturday, one of them referring to a “so-called pandemic” and urging protesters to seek information outside the “mainstream media.” Another spoke of “mask slavery.”

Meanwhile, it was three police officers who stood their ground on Saturday at the entrance to the Reichstag, the historic Parliament building, and held off the angry mob. A video of the three men pushing back against the demonstrators for several minutes before reinforcements arrived has gone viral in Germany.

It also ignited an uneasy debate about how to better protect the Reichstag. It is a point of pride that the building dedicated to “The German People,” as the inscription above its portico reads, remains open to those very people.

The best-selling tabloid Bild has called the police officers who protected it “heroes” and on Monday, President Steinmeier received them at his residence to officially thank them.

“Far-right extremism has deep roots in our society,” Mr. Steinmeier said. “It is a serious danger.”


Reichstag

Reichstag the main legislature of the German state under the Second and Third Reichs the building in Berlin in which this met, which was badly damaged by fire on the Nazi accession to power in 1933, an event believed by many to have been contrived by the Nazis to justify suppression of opposition and the assumption of emergency powers.

In April 1999, the renovated Reichstag building, parliament of reunited Germany, was formally opened, its new interior having been created by the British architect Norman Foster.

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Who Started the Reichstag Fire?

I t’s a semi-mystery that’s over eight decades long: who set fire to the Reichstag, the German parliament, on Feb. 27, 1933?

As described in the Mar. 6, 1933, issue of TIME, the arson came amid “a campaign of unparalleled violence and bitterness” by then-Chancellor Adolf Hitler, in advance of an approaching German election, and it turned a building that was “as famous through Germany as is the dome of the Capitol in Washington among U. S. citizens” into “a glowing hodge-podge of incandescent girders.”

Marinus van der Lubbe, an unemployed Dutch bricklayer linked to the Communist party, was tried and executed for the crime the following year, but even then TIME questioned whether the Nazis who held him responsible were also the ones who had paid him to set the fire, “promising to save his neck by a Presidential reprieve and to reward him handsomely for hiding their identity and taking the whole blame in court.”

In 1981, a West Berlin court declared that the trial had been “a miscarriage of justice,” though they stopped short of saying that he had been innocent. In 2001, evidence emerged that the conspiracy theory had been right along, with historians announcing that the Nazis had been the ones responsible for the fire, though even then others disagreed &mdash and, as recently as 2014, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum noted that “the origins of the fire are still unclear.”

But, while van der Lubbe’s life still hung in the balance, reporting on the aftermath of the fire made clear that, whoever set the spark, the aftermath had already been determined by Nazi powers, in their own favor. Here’s how TIME summed it up just a week after the original report on the fire:

Before German Democracy could thus be downed this week, the Hitler Cabinet had to launch last week a juggernaut of super-suppressive measures & decrees for which they needed an excuse. What excuse could be better than the colossal act of arson which had just sent a $1,500,000 fire roaring through the Reichstag Building […] gutting completely the brown oak Reichstag Chamber and ruining its great dome of gilded copper and glass.

The Reichstag fire was set by Communists, police promptly charged. Over a nationwide radio hookup the Minister of Interior for Prussia, blustering Nazi Captain Hermann Wilhelm Göring, cried: “The Reichstag fire was to have been the signal for the outbreak of civil war! … The Communists had in readiness ‘terror squads’ of 200 each … These were to commit their dastardly acts disguised as units of our own Nazi Storm Troops and the Stahlhelm … The women and children of high Government officials were to have been kidnapped as hostages and used in the civil war as ‘living shields’!…

“The Communists had organized to poison food … and burn down granaries throughout the Reich … They planned to use every kind of weapon&mdasheven hot water, knives and forks and boiling oil!…

“From all these horrors we have saved the Fatherland! We want to state clearly that the measures taken are not a mere defense against Communism. Ours is a fight to the finish until Communism has been absolutely uprooted in Germany!”

The “juggernaut” of new decrees included increasing the weaponry provided to Nazi troops (despite violation of the Treaty of Versailles) and the transfer of the majority of state powers from President Paul von Hindenburg to Hitler and his cabinet. Rights ensured by the German constitution were suspended, and a gag rule was placed on foreign journalists within the country, with severe punishments for violation. The German government was moved from Berlin to Potsdam. Within the month, TIME reported that nearly all of the country’s leading Communists and Socialists were in jail. By April, Nazis were using the threat of another fire to ensure the passage of the Enabling Act, which solidified Hitler’s place as dictatorial leader for years to come.

Whether Nazi involvement in the Reichstag fire was direct or indirect or, improbably, nonexistent, the result was the same.


Reichstag

The Bundestag, the lower house of Germany’s national parliament, meets in a building called the Reichstag. It is one of Berlin’s most famous landmarks. Prior to the Nazi era, Reichstag was also the name of the lower house of parliament.

The Reichstag building was designed in a Neo-Renaissance style by Paul Wallot and was completed in 1894. A fire at the Reichstag on February 27, 1933, one month after Adolf Hitler assumed the chancellorship, triggered events that led to Hitler’s assumption of dictatorial powers in Germany. The disused building sustained additional damage from Allied bombing during World War II. Neglect in postwar years led to further deterioration. By the 1970s it had undergone partial restoration and became a museum of German history. More extensive restoration and renovation took place, under the direction of British architect Sir Norman Foster, after the reunification of West and East Germany in 1990.The building’s huge glass dome, once its most recognizable feature, was rebuilt. An interior ramp spirals to the top of the dome, affording excellent views of the surrounding city. After the restoration was completed, the Reichstag became one of Berlin’s most prominent tourist attractions, drawing hundreds of thousands of visitors each year.

On October 4, 1990, the Bundestag of the newly reunified German state had met for the first time in the Reichstag. The following year it voted to transfer the seat of government from Bonn to Berlin, with the Reichstag becoming the Bundestag’s permanent home. The Bundestag opened its inaugural session there on September 7, 1999.


Reichstag - History

Unser Guide Kai war der beste Guide, den ich je hatte! Er weiß einfach alles! Er ist auch sehr sympatisch, freundlich und höchstprofesionell! Wir haben Berlin richtig kennengelernt und uns in diese Stadt verliebt! Nochmals viiiiiieeeelen Dank an Kai. Ich kann diesen Stadtrundgang nur weiterempfehlen.

Ксавьер отлично провёл экскурсию для международной группы, в которой были люди из десятка стран. Хороший гид, с папочкой исторических картинок) Но при этом совсем не скучно. Отличная экскурсия, жаль, пришлось уйти раньше: ребёнок плохо себя чувствовал. Рекомендуем!

Прекрасная, информативная прогулка. Маршрут захватывает все основные достопримечательности. Очень обаятельная девушка-гид и внимательная к туристам. Очень во время позволила паузу на экскурсии. И, конечно, у гида прекрасные знания. Спасибо.

Предварительно я бы посоветовал путешественникам немножко вспомнить и пройтись по истории, чтобы на этой экскурсии более глубоко понять историю и почувствовать себя уверенным знатоком по историческим местам Берлина

Очень хорошо организованная экскурсия. Приветливый и актуальный гид. Хорошо и доступно подана информация с доброжелательным юмором.


The Enabling Act and the Nazi revolution

On the night of February 27, the Reichstag building was destroyed by fire. On the pretext of a Communist plot to seize power, the constitutional guarantees of individual liberty were suspended and the Reich government given emergency powers. It was in this atmosphere of fear and insecurity that the elections were held a week later. Nevertheless, the Nazis failed to secure an outright majority, capturing 288 of 647 seats, and both the Centre Party and the Social Democrats held firm. It was only with the help of his Nationalist partners, who won 52 seats, that Hitler was able to obtain a bare majority.

Hitler’s next step was to secure the passage of an Enabling Act, which would give the government the power to issue decrees independently of the Reichstag and of the president. Passage required a two-thirds majority in the Reichstag. The 81 Communist deputies were either arrested or excluded. The support of the Nationalists and of the Centre Party (73 seats) was obtained by assurances and promises, and the Social Democrats who alone opposed the bill (March 23) were outvoted 441 to 94. The Enabling Act remained the constitutional basis of Hitler’s dictatorship. No new constitution was ever introduced to replace that of the Weimar Republic, and fresh laws were promulgated as they were required. Thus was the legal foundation of the Third Reich created.

Armed with overriding powers, which he had been careful to obtain without formally infringing on the principle of legality, Hitler proceeded to carry out a revolution with the authority of the state on his side. A series of decrees culminating in the Law for the Reconstruction of the Reich (January 30, 1934) abolished the Land (state) diets and transferred the sovereign powers of the Länder to the Reich. In May 1933 the trade unions organization was suppressed and the unions merged into a German labour front under Robert Ley. This was followed in the course of the summer by the suppression or “voluntary” dissolution of the other political parties. On July 14, 1933, the Nazi Party was formally declared to be the only political party in Germany.

Opposition to these measures in the cabinet crumpled before the wave of revolutionary violence which swept over the country. Papen was shorn of his authority as Reich commissioner for Prussia and was replaced by Göring. Hugenberg was unable to prevent the dissolution of his own party and was forced to resign. The Nazi group in the cabinet was strengthened by the inclusion of Joseph Goebbels as minister of public enlightenment and propaganda (March 14, 1933), but in fact the cabinet had ceased to count, and all decisions were taken by the Nazi leaders on their own authority.

There was, however, a point beyond which the process of Gleichschaltung (“coordination”), the Nazi seizure of control, could not be carried without seriously endangering the efficiency of the state and the German economy. During the summer of 1933 Hitler began to call a halt. The plans of the radical wing of the party to replace the capitalist economy by some form of corporate organization under state control were abruptly repudiated. Hitler could not afford to quarrel with the industrialists and financiers, and from June 28, 1933, Hugenberg’s successor at the Ministry of Economy was Kurt Schmitt, director-general of the largest insurance company in Germany, while Hjalmar Schacht, the new president of the Reichsbank (appointed on March 16), set his face firmly against radical anticapitalist experiments.