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This may not be historical because it's a contemporary event. However, it's been going on for a while. Suharto said, "No to your aids" (or something like that).
For instance. Say US gives aid to Pakistan.
Does that mean: 1. US write a $1 billion check to Pakistan?
US lend $1 billion check to Pakistan at some rate?
US sells weapon to Pakistan?
Which one is correct?
The same goes to Israel, arabs, etc. If it's the number 2, why is it called aid? It looks the same as usual to me.
It depends entirely on circumstances. It can be any of the following:
Grants (You get money)
Prior loan forgiveness.
This is EXTRA big deal since when you forgive a loan, it's not just the monetary value of the loan+interest that the recipient country essentially gets for free.
The country also removes the risk of defaulting on that loan which - if it happened - would have ruined your credit rating and made it extremely more costly to borrow in the future.
Regular loans (You borrow money you have to repay later with interest).
This is mostly business as usual, EXCEPT that they frequently go to countries that wouldn't have been able to borrow money on capital markets AT ALL due to high risk of default.
Low interest loans (You borrow money you have to repay later but at ABSURDLY low interest rates compared to the rates you'd be paying had you tried to borrow the money yourself given your lack of collateral and low credit rating).
In essence, you are gifted the interest you did NOT have to pay for free, which is a very large amount.
Investment into local economy.
Equipment grant. Either civilian or military.
Also, any of the above methods may have different strings attached:
No string attached.
Some strings attached as far as how you distribute the money
Some strings attached as far as what you SPEND the money on (e.g. "no weapons" or "food only" or "weapons from US only")
Some strings attached as far as your behavior. Usually means enacting some sort of economic or political reforms (eliminate corruption, privatization etc… ).
As an example, Israeli defense industry was forced (By USA) to cancel many extremely lucrative weapons contracts with other countries (e.g. China) with US military aid being used as a leverage. The reasons ranged from US not wanting specific technologies going to China, to US wanting to get a competing military-industrial industry out of a market.
As totally unrelated example, a lot of Western aid is predicated on passing "anti-corruption" laws etc…
Quid Pro Quo. You get money, you vote for my interests in UN etc…
China seems to be doing some of that, especially in Africa.
"I mean if it's the latter 2, why it's called aid? It looks like bizs as usual to me"
As noted above, loans are usually on extremely good conditions. As in, if you count interest, you could be getting 2x-10x more money compared to obtaining that loan on capital markets.
As for weapons, it's part business as usual.
Aid takes many forms. And yes sometimes it's money, sometimes it's equipment worth $X, etc. Sometimes there are so many strings attached it's not really very beneficial (but sorta better than nothing), sometimes it's bad for the country overall, but good for some people, etc.
Sometimes it means: US lend $1 billion check to Pakistan at some rate. But Pakistan must buy US weapon for these money, must hire US consultants to use it for its own money, at prices set by US, do this-and-this on the borders, arrest such and such people and so on.
Usually the agreement is not so blatant, but they are only plans. Reality is much worse. I had once seen the ways of Humanity Help from Germany to Germans in USSR in 1990. All money went to local authorities in places where USSR Germans lived and to the civil servants from Germany. The sum was about $200 mill. Not a single normal citizen got anything. I was acquainted with one factory owner from Germany who was outraged with this situation (he gave a large sum in this help fund personally) and promised me ( I was in the counsil of the Moscow German Society then) to do something or at least to get some info or raise a scandal. Result=0.
The corruption in the world is on such level, that I am afraid, sums under 1000 mill. simply disappear in the pockets of the civil servants on both sides. While returning the Russian debt to Czechs in 2001 2/3 of it ($1200mill) disappeared. Officially.
Of course, while it is known, that all the aid will be stolen, the giver could demand something on the civil servants of the state-taker. And somethin will be get. But not much. They love to steal, but they hate to pay.
I Vow to Thee, My Country
"I Vow to Thee, My Country" is a British patriotic hymn,  created in 1921, when a poem by Sir Cecil Spring Rice was set to music by Gustav Holst.
|I Vow to Thee, My Country|
|Text||Cecil Spring Rice|
|Melody||"Thaxted" by Gustav Holst|
"The History of Fellatio"
By Annie Auguste
Published May 22, 2000 12:16PM (EDT)
According to recent press reports, Americans are having oral sex at alarmingly younger ages -- and with increasing nonchalance. (Note: Oral sex here refers exclusively to fellatio.) Oral sex precedes and often replaces sexual intercourse because it's perceived to be noncommittal, quick and safe. For some kids it's a cool thing to do for others it's a cheap thrill. Raised in a culture in which speed is valued, kids, not surprisingly, seek instant gratification through oral sex (the girl by instantly pleasing the boy, the boy by sitting back and enjoying the ride). A seemingly facile command over the sexual landscape of one's partner is achieved without the encumbrances of clothes, coitus and the rest of the messy business. The blow job is, in essence, the new joystick of teen sexuality.
In short, if we are to believe today's sociologists and culture mavens, oral sex has become ordinary. But the increased banality of the blow job is perplexing. When I was a teenager, in the bad-taste, disco-fangled '70s, fellatio was something you graduated into. Rooted in the great American sport of baseball, the sexual metaphors of my generation put fellatio somewhere after home base, way off in the distant plains of the outfield. In fact, skipping all the bases and going directly to fellatio was the sort of home run reserved only for racy, borderline delinquents, who enjoyed a host of licentious and forbidden activities that made them stars in the firmament of teen recklessness.
The first blow job I ever gave (after methodically groping my way past all the bases) was an act of faith. After finally figuring out how to manually manage my boyfriend's strange vestigial organ -- how to brandish, manipulate and handle his distended, tumescent pink love shaft -- I now had the daunting task of having to figure out how to manage it orally. Lick? Suck? Use your hands? If only the how-to books that exist today existed back then.
"Put both hands into the L position around the base of the shaft," says "Sex Tips for Straight Women From a Gay Man." "Lick the whole tip and then use your tongue to lick up and down the sides. Covering your teeth with your lips, and keeping your mouth taut, glide the head inside and lick the sensitive spot underneath with both the tip and flat part of your tongue . proceed down the shaft as far as you can go in one fell swoop." And on it goes. It includes tips on curiosities like dick whipping, hummers and tinglers, plus advice on how to breathe. (Men may fear the cavernous tunnel that leads to the primordial soup of the womb, but women risk death by gagging.)
Clearly even the most rigorous bout of coitus pales in comparison with the intimacy of fellatio, at least for the one giving it: nesting one's face in the musty, doughy pelt of your partner's loins bringing the full force of your tongue, lips, teeth (indeed, your entire face) to bear on the swollen, supplicant shaft coaxing the salty swell of seed-bearing spermatozoa burgeoning from deep within the vulnerable, fuzz-laced scrotum and, finally, partaking in the ultimate exchange of bodily fluids. (For what could be more carnal and, well, in your face than swallowing sperm?) All this is far more complex than the simple act of coitus, where the key fits in the ignition and things more or less just happen. Fellatio is hard labor, in every sense of the word.
Perhaps it's true that attitudes toward fellatio have changed. The infamous stain left on Monica Lewinsky's dress -- as coveted and totemic as it has become in the context of America's most famous blow job -- suggests a sterile, trite expediency that may reflect a general trend in America. In a recent article in the New York Times about teen sex, a source reported that kids "'had oral sex 50 or 60 times . It's like a goodnight kiss to them.' Dr. Levy-Warren refers to the recent shift in teen fellatio as 'body-part sex.'"
But generational blips -- like empires and economic upheavals -- come and go. As French writer/professor Thierry Leguay notes in his (not yet translated into English) "History of Fellatio," as long as the penis has the power to please, fellatio is not likely to be bumped off the bestseller list of all-time favorite male joys anytime in the next millennium or two.
What are the earliest traces of fellatio?
A well-known French paleontologist by the name of Yves Coppens suggested that the famous Lucy (the first prehistoric woman) practiced a sort of "paleo-fellatio." But the first clear real traces of fellatio are from ancient Egypt. Many of the more stellar examples are in the British Museum, where we find the famous myth of Osiris and Iris: Osiris was killed by his brother and cut into pieces. His sister Iris put the pieces together but, by chance, the penis was missing. An artificial penis was made out of clay, and Iris "blew" life back into Osiris by sucking it. There are explicit images of this myth.
As an aside, Egyptian women were particularly well known for their sexual prowess. Egyptian women are also purported to be the first women to use makeup.
What about other ancient cultures like China, or India, where you have the Kama Sutra?
Indeed, these are two other ancient cultures that ritualized fellatio. Ancient China was similar to India insofar as there were practically no sexual censures or taboos whatsoever. But it was in India where we find the Kama Sutra. Today the Kama Sutra has been reduced to a sort of caricature of a sex manual, but in fact it's a tome dedicated to the art of loving. An entire chapter in the Kama Sutra is devoted to an act called "auparishtaka," otherwise known as "oral congress." Oral congress involved eight highly descriptive and semicodified ways of performing fellatio. There are also detailed chapters on bites, scratches and other aspects of the aesthetic of the body.
You also cover a lot of Roman ground in your book.
Ancient Rome was a society of soldiers, of machos and rapists, and their perception of fellatio was interesting. The practice of fellatio in ancient Rome was perceived in terms of active and passive: The active one was in fact the person getting fellatio. In this case we're talking about the soldier, the virile male. The passive one -- usually a woman or a slave -- was the one giving fellatio or, to understand it more clearly, the one receiving the penis.
Today, of course, it's the other way around. We perceive the one who's giving fellatio as the active one and the one receiving it as the passive one. But in Rome to give fellatio was a passive act, a submissive act. For example -- and this is very clear in Roman texts -- to punish a person who stole potatoes from his field, a Roman might oblige the person to give him fellatio. He might stand up, drop his pants and say, "Now you're going to kneel down and take it in your mouth." The one who was required to give fellatio was the passive one, the one who went against the valor of virility. The Roman perception is interesting.
We [again] find some aspects of the Roman idea in certain cultures that are slowing disappearing, for example, in New Guinea. There are initiation rituals for young people that involve practicing fellatio on adults and ingesting the sperm -- sperm considered, of course, a vital, precious resource. These are not homosexual communities. On the contrary, the fellatio ritual is performed to make men acquire strong, active, macho values in a society where women are totally submissive and dominated.
The Incas were the same. There are traces on their pottery that suggest that, like New Guinea, fellatio was a practice modeled on domination and power.
Western European culture didn't necessarily ritualize fellatio, but there was a time when it was much more openly libertine than today.
Yes, even in Western culture going back to the 18th century. In 18th century France the upper clergy lived according to principles that were similar to Roman times. You had your chapel, your chateau, your wife and then all your mistresses. The bishops lived this way as well. The population of 18th century Paris was 600,000, with 30,000 recorded prostitutes. That's enormous. Enormous. In the Palais Royal 50,000 little booklets from the 18th century were found they were mini-directories of prostitutes and their specialties. One can assume that fellatio was a basic staple here.
Obviously the church has played a significant role in condemning fellatio.
As recently as the 19th century, sexual pleasure and any relation that didn't lead directly to procreation -- even within the structure of a traditional marriage -- were mortal sins. So fellatio was, and remains to some extent, a taboo. The only sexual activity sanctioned by the Catholic Church is coitus for the strict purpose of procreation. In the 19th century there was also a relationship between religion and medicine that came together under the general aegis of onanism. In fact everything fell under the aegis of onanism: fellatio, petting, lesbianism, masturbation. There were priests who were also doctors, and many of them wrote lengthy descriptions of apocalyptic things that could happen to anyone who practiced any form of onanism.
That's similar to notions about circumcision back in the Victorian era in America. Doctors and religious officials associated the foreskin with masturbation, which was in turn associated with horrific physical and mental aberrations. That's where we find the roots of systematic circumcision in America. There's not much difference here between the two cultures.
What about countries where women have few -- or less -- social liberties than contemporary Western women do? Islamic countries, for example.
Islam shares a common ground with Judeo-Christian societies in that fellatio is condemned in part because it is not directly linked to the act of procreation. In traditional Islamic cultures -- as in black African cultures -- there's a taboo associated with the mouth. The mouth is a "pure organ" it's an organ of the spoken word, of the truth. Fellatio, in this light, sullies the mouth.
You suggest in your book that this is why the Islamic veil covers the mouth.
Of course. There's an immediate analogy right there in the word "lips" between the vagina and the mouth. That analogy has obviously been overexploited today. Fellatio sexualizes the mouth, makes the mouth a sexual organ in and of itself. There are, after all, few things more suggestive than a highly made-up mouth. The Islamic veil can be criticized, but there's a logic behind it. What's being hidden is, in part, all that which is intimate.
There are also cultures that don't practice fellatio at all.
Yes, the Inuit culture, for example. Fellatio is something that takes away their strength, that can potentially weaken them. They have more important things to do, like hunting seal. In a culture where the mouth is not a sexual object -- we shouldn't forget that Eskimos kiss with their noses -- fellatio is a taboo. Interestingly, according to French anthropologist Jean Malaurie, Eskimos have extremely quiet sex. An Eskimo orgasm is barely audible. In a communal igloo lovemaking is rarely perceived [by others].
When did fellatio become an act unto itself?
It's hard to say, but it's safe to assume that as a contemporary phenomenon fellatio took center stage as an act unto itself when it began to figure prominently in X-rated films. "Deep Throat" and Linda Lovelace had a lot to do with making fellatio almost a cultural cliché.
You touch only lightly on Freud and his views about fellatio.
There's such an enormous amount of literature written by and about Freud -- and it is so easy to fall prey to certain platitudes -- that I've been careful here. Freud obviously spent a great deal of energy describing our oral, anal and genital stages, but it would be a gross simplification to say that people who smoke a lot or are heavily into oral sex are stuck in the oral stage. Freud doesn't speak directly much about it. He evokes it, but he passes quickly over the subject. Of course he heard about fellatio in the course of treating patients, but he never drew a specific theory as it relates to the oral stage in our development. It's somewhat of a paradox. I'm not a psychoanalyst, so I don't want to make any sweeping commentary here.
There has been some talk about teens in America having oral sex at increasingly younger ages and with increasing casualness. This seems very much the opposite of how it's perceived in France, where fellatio is considered more intimate than lovemaking. To what do you attribute these particular cultural differences?
We have to be careful not to generalize and stereotype here. But on some level Monica Lewinsky has become a symbol for us. She performed fellatio, talked about it, made money off of it. In her milieu, people engage in superficial sex they don't commit or engage themselves. It's not about lovemaking. In France we're more Mediterranean we don't take these things lightly. You'll never find a French Monica Lewinsky. She performed the most lucrative blow job in the history of humanity.
It's unlikely that Lewinsky was thinking about the historical or financial ramifications of fellating the president when she was doing it.
Maybe not, but she clearly profited from it later. If Lewinsky is a symbol of anything, she's a symbol of America's relationship to money and sex.
You cite a few polls in your book. One of them suggests that only 32 percent of women give fellatio out of pleasure the remaining roughly two-thirds do it as an obligation.
What's clear is that a certain number of women find fellatio violent. Some refuse completely to do it. They find it degrading, particularly the posture involved in performing oral sex. Certain women, on the other hand, consider it as an intimate exchange, a gift.
This reminds me of another study you cite in your book. A 1993 French report called the "Rapport Spira-Bajos" indicated that the majority of women who perform fellatio are educated women with a certain level of social status. It seemed to reveal a sort of social hierarchy around fellatio.
Yes, I think that's uncontestable. Women who have participated in certain social movements -- women's liberation, the right to abortion, the pill, etc. -- are the most inclined to explore their sexuality and hence have an impact on sexual practices on some level. And these women are usually more educated, are more aware, have a certain level of accomplishment in their lives. The idea of the lustful, country farm-girl-type bumpkin is really more a fantasy than a reality.
There's also a big perception/reality difference between what figures in a poll tell us and what images tell us. Images in, for example, pornography. There are around 15 states in America that have criminalized fellatio, and yet America is by far the biggest producer of pornography on earth. Curious for a so-called Puritan country.
Indeed. Pornographic cinema is an American business. There's very little of it going on in Europe. America produces an astronomical quantity of pornographic material, and almost all of it invariably features fellatio.
Are human beings the only mammals who practice fellatio?
There are certain male chimpanzees who lick their female mates, but that of course is called cunnilingus, and it seems as much an act of hygiene and play as it does an expression of innate sexual pleasure. It's certainly not an act in and of itself. While animals have an incredibly rich and complex sexual life, we humans are unique. As far as fellatio is concerned, at least as a sexual act unto itself, we human beings are all alone in the animal kingdom.
When is a state recognised as independent?
Although it’s not clearly laid out in law, a territory essentially becomes a sovereign state when its independence is recognised by the United Nations. As the largest and most inclusive multilateral organisation, its sanctioning of sovereign statehood makes sense.
But while procedures for admitting new members are clearly laid out in the Charter and in the rules of the UN, these rules pertain to new members that are already sovereign states. Yet again there is ambiguity in the process that aspiring states must go through in order to become sovereign.
Becoming an internationally recognised sovereign country is not a clear or straightforward process. In many ways, it is determined by power and the international political climate of the day. And a surprising number of entities exist as unrecognised states, many for decades, without recognition of sovereignty.
If Catalonia or Kurdistan declare their independence this autumn, they may get sovereign statehood if their host states agree. If not, though, they could choose to declare their independence, and to exist as an unrecognised state indefinitely.
How Communism Works
In a perfect world, everyone would have food and shelter, and a true utopian society would be devoid of sexism, racism and other forms of oppression. But for most of the world's population, this perfect society just isn't possible. Communism is one proposed solution to these problems.
Most people know what communism is at its most basic level. Simply put, communism is the idea that everyone in a given society receives equal shares of the benefits derived from labor. Communism is designed to allow the poor to rise up and attain financial and social status equal to that of the middle-class landowners. In order for everyone to achieve equality, wealth is redistributed so that the members of the upper class are brought down to the same financial and social level as the middle class. Communism also requires that all means of production be controlled by the state. In other words, no one can own his or her own business or produce his or her own goods because the state owns everything.
According to the philosopher Frederick Engels' "Principles of Communism," the plan for ultimate financial and social equality is built on the principle that the system should spread around the world until all countries are on board [source: Engels]. This central goal has caused capitalist nations to keep their guards up, fearing that communist economic practices might spread to their countries.
Who are communists, and why do non-communist cultures consider them radical? Does communism work in practice? Next, we'll take a look at the father of communism.
Who pays for the furnishings on HGTV's Hometown and do the owners get to keep them?
Back in 2017, Erin shared some "insider info." about this whole process on Instagram. "The homeowners' budget usually does allow for lots of pieces they get to keep + the custom pieces @scotsman.co builds for each home and I like to use the homeowner's own furnishings and objects as much as possible," Erin wrote.
But the budget may not include a few things, and for those items, Erin revealed that the homeowners get a book filled with photos of all the pieces, and the opportunity to purchase them if they'd like &mdash sometimes even at a discounted price. "It's a kind of 'welcome to the neighborhood!' from locals to these sweet new folks"
Best Country Love Songs of All Time
We'll be honest&mdashit was super tough to pick only a handful of songs to be deemed the best. After all, there are countless timeless tunes&mdashfrom new artists and old&mdashthat deserve a spot on this list. Our top picks feature tracks from Reba McEntire, Dolly Parton, and Johnny Cash.
Albania: former design of an entry stamp (issued in Durrës)
Albania: former design of an exit stamp (issued at Tirana Airport)
Anguilla: former entry stamp design
Armenia: old-style passport stamp (2015)
Australia: entry stamp (no longer issued)
Australia: exit stamp (no longer issued)
Australia: visa grant list
Austria: 1947 entry stamp
Austria: 1947 exit stamp
Austria: 1965 transit visa
Belgium: pre-Schengen passport stamp from Eynatten border crossing, 1986. Border crossing with Germany at Aachen.
Brazil: Old style visa of Brasil in 2013
Bulgarian transit visa, type used during 1990s.
Bulgaria: old style entry stamp from 2005
Canada: old style stamp
Chad passport stamp confirming that the passport user had registered with the police.
China: Entry stamp for visa free transit (Beijing Airport)
China: Short-use stamp (1h) for an in-transit passenger (Guangzhou Airport)
ROC (Taiwan) Entry Permit for Mainland China residents (New Version)
ROC (Taiwan) Entry Permit for Mainland China residents (Old Version)
ROC (Taiwan) multiple Entry Permit for Mainland China residents
ROC (Taiwan) entry permit
ROC (Taiwan) individual Visit Permit issued by PRC (on Mainland Travel Permit for Taiwan Residents)
ROC (Taiwan) immigration stamp
Colombia: cancellation stamp issued at El Dorado Airport
Colombia: exit tax stamp issued by the Aeronautica Civil at El Dorado Airport
Costa Rica Old style entry stamp in 2014
Croatia: pre-EU visa and the passport stamp (2000)
Cyprus: pre-EU visa and the passport stamps (1997)
Czech Republic: pre-EU exit stamp (2002)
Czech Republic: pre-EU exit stamp design issued at Prague Airport
Czechoslovakia: 1947 entry stamp
Czechoslovakia: 1947 exit stamp
Czechoslovakia: an exit permission issued by the Czechoslovak government to a Czechoslovak national allowing the individual to leave the country for traveling purposes, 1967
Czechoslovakia: 1987 entry stamp
Czechoslovakia: a railway exit stamp issued in 1988
Czechoslovakia a visa issued in 1988
Czechoslovakia: 1991 entry stamp
Czechoslovakia: entry and exit visa stamps issued in the era of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
Old style entry stamp from Denmark
Old style entry stamp from Ecuador from 2015
Old style exit stamp from Ecuador from 2016
France: visa issued in 1969
France: visa issued in 1987
France: visa issued in 1993
Georgia: old-style passport stamp (2019)
Germany: Visa specimen, type 1924
Greenland: old-style passport stamp (2002)
Guatemala: Old-style departure stamp of Guatemala
Honduras: Old-style entry stamp of Honduras
Honduras: Old-style exit stamp of Honduras
Hong Kong individual Visit Permit issued by PRC (on Chinese Two-way Permit for Hong Kong and Macau)
Hong Kong visa for residents of the People's Republic of China living overseas
Hong Kong visa for residents of the Republic of China
Entry slip for Hong Kong issued upon entry as of March 2013
Hong Kong Visit Permit for other purpose with a stay period of 14 days and single entry issued by PRC (on Chinese Two-way Permit for Hong Kong and Macau)
Hungary: visa with border stamps, issued in 1989
Hungary: old style exit stamp from 2000
Hungary stamp from 2003 before joining EU
India: e-Visa at Delhi Airport
India: Domestic Immigration stamp permitting entry into the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Indonesia: Old Style Indonesia visa
Iran: old style entry stamp
Iran: old style exit stamp
Iraq: old style exit stamp
Ireland: old style stamp
Ireland: immigration stamp issued at Dublin Airport
Israel: Entry paper at Ben Gurion Airport
Israel: Exit paper at Ben Gurion Airport
Jamaica: old style stamp
Korea (South): entry stamp (issued in some airports and ports - not Incheon)
Korea (South): exit stamp (issued in some airports and ports)
Libya: visa issued in 1930, during the period of Italian colonialism
Libya: visa issued in 1998
Macau: individual Visit Permit issued by PRC (on Chinese Two-way Permit for Hong Kong and Macau)
Macau: former exit stamp
Malaysia: Old description in entry stamp of Malaysia
Malaysia: Sabah entry stamp from other regions of Malaysia
Malta: old style passport stamp from 1999
Mexico: Old style entry stamp of Mexico
Moldova: old style entry stamp from 2005
Moldova: old style exit stamp
Old style passport stamps from Nazi Germany and Romania, issued in a Hungarian passport in 1940
Nepal: visa on arrival, issued for free, granted to nationals of certain states
Netherlands: pre-Schengen visa, issued in 1988
Nicaragua: old style stamp
Norfolk Island old stamp used before Australia abolished its self-governing status in 2016
Northern Cyprus: visa on a sheet of paper, 2005
Northern Cyprus: entry and exit stamps, 2015
Old style entry stamp from Panama from 2015
Old style exit stamp from Panama
Poland: visa issued in 1990
Poland: old style exit stamp from 2002
Romania: transit visa issued in 1994
Romania: old style entry stamp from 2004
Saudi Arabia: old style entry stamp
Saudi Arabia: exit stamp in King Khalid International Airport, Riyadh
Slovakia: old style exit stamp from 2001
South Africa: old style entry stamp. This style is still current for road entry.
South Africa: old style exit stamp. This style is still current for road travel.
Sweden: visa issued in 1987
Sweden: old style exit stamp from 2007
Switzerland: visa issued in 1931
Tanzania:Old style visa of Tanzania
Thailand Old style visa of Thailand
Turkey old style entry stamp
Turkey: old style exit stamp
Turkey: stamp issued in passport for temporary import of a vehicle
Following Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865, Andrew Johnson became president and inaugurated the period of Presidential Reconstruction (1865–67). Johnson offered a pardon to all Southern whites except Confederate leaders and wealthy planters (although most of these subsequently received individual pardons), restoring their political rights and all property except slaves. He also outlined how new state governments would be created. Apart from the requirement that they abolish slavery, repudiate secession, and abrogate the Confederate debt, these governments were granted a free hand in managing their affairs. They responded by enacting the Black codes, laws that required African Americans to sign yearly labour contracts and in other ways sought to limit the freedmen’s economic options and reestablish plantation discipline. African Americans strongly resisted the implementation of these measures, and they seriously undermined Northern support for Johnson’s policies.
When Congress assembled in December 1865, Radical Republicans such as Rep. Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Sen. Charles Sumner from Massachusetts called for the establishment of new Southern governments based on equality before the law and universal male suffrage. But the more numerous moderate Republicans hoped to work with Johnson while modifying his program. Congress refused to seat the representatives and senators elected from the Southern states and in early 1866 passed the Freedmen’s Bureau and Civil Rights Bills. The first extended the life of an agency Congress had created in 1865 to oversee the transition from slavery to freedom. The second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens, who were to enjoy equality before the law.
A combination of personal stubbornness, fervent belief in states’ rights, and racist convictions led Johnson to reject these bills, causing a permanent rupture between himself and Congress. The Civil Rights Act became the first significant legislation in American history to become law over a president’s veto. Shortly thereafter, Congress approved the Fourteenth Amendment, which put the principle of birthright citizenship into the Constitution and forbade states to deprive any citizen of the “equal protection” of the laws. Arguably the most important addition to the Constitution other than the Bill of Rights, the amendment constituted a profound change in federal-state relations. Traditionally, citizens’ rights had been delineated and protected by the states. Thereafter, the federal government would guarantee all Americans’ equality before the law against state violation.
How Does Literature Affect People?
Literature affects people by teaching them, entertaining them and inspiring them to take action in life. According to Gulf News, literature has "shaped civilisations, changed political systems and exposed injustice." Literature also helps people understand other walks of life. Narratives, in particular, inspire empathy and give people a new perspective on their lives and the lives of others.
Reading literature is rewarding in so many ways. For instance, it helps people understand the nature of society. Historic literature helps people understand what life was like in the past, and dystopian literature warns people of what life could be like in the future if bad habits are continued. Utopian literature inspires people to picture what life could be in a perfect society.
Some literature inspires emotion. Love poems are a timeless way for people to express romantic, platonic, maternal and other forms of love. Literature about social injustice inspires anger and encourages action for change. Religious literature helps people find and nurture faith. All literature helps people expand their minds. Literature also affects people by offering them a way to express themselves through writing and reading. According to The Guardian, reading for therapy is an age-old practice now known as "bibliotherapy."