Holidays in the Elizabethan Era

Holidays in the Elizabethan Era


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During the Elizabethan Era (1558-1603 CE), people of all classes greatly looked forward to the many holidays and festivals on offer throughout the year. The vast majority of public holidays were also religious commemorations, and attendance at service was required by law. Still, the feasts that accompanied many of these 'holy days' were anticipated with pleasure, and many secular traditions began to appear alongside them such as playing football on Shrove Tuesday and giving gifts to mothers on the third Sunday before Easter. Holidays were also an opportunity to visit towns for a local fair or even travel further afield. The Elizabethan period was the first time the idea of a Grand Tour of Europe caught on amongst the rich, seen as a way to broaden a young person's horizons and round off their general education.

Holy Days

The concept of an extended holiday as a period of rest from work is a relatively modern idea. Throughout the Middle Ages, the only time a worker had off work was Sundays and holy days, that is days established by the Church to celebrate a religious matter such as the life of a particular saint or such events as the birth of Jesus Christ at Christmas and his resurrection at Easter. In the 16th century CE, these holy days became known by the now more familiar and wholly secular term, 'holidays'. The Elizabethan period was also the first time that such religious holidays came to be associated less with Church services and more to do with taking a 24-hour break from everyday life and, if possible, enjoying a little better quality of food and drink than one usually consumed. However, it is to be remembered that attendance at church on the main holy days was still required of everyone by law.

Both May Day & Whitsunday were an opportunity to hold major summer festivals with feasts, dancing & plays.

In the second half of the 16th century CE, there were 17 principal holy days recognised by the Anglican Church, some of which, as today, moved particular dates depending on the lunar calendar. These holy days, and their celebratory or commemorative purposes, were:

  • New Year's Day (1 Jan) - the Circumcision of Jesus Christ.
  • Twelfth Day (6 Jan) - the Epiphany when the Magi visited Jesus.
  • Candlemas (2 Feb) - Feast of the Purification of Mary.
  • Shrovetide/Shrove Tuesday (between 3 Feb & 9 Mar) - the last day before the fasting of Lent.
  • Ash Wednesday (between 4 Feb & 10 Mar) - First day of Lent, the 40-day fast that leads up to Easter.
  • Lady Day (25 Mar) - Annunciation of Mary and considered the first day of the calendar year in England (when the year number changed).
  • Easter (between 22 Mar & 25 Apr) - the Resurrection of Christ and including nine days of celebration.
  • May Day (1 May) - commemorating St. Philip and Jacob but also considered the first day of summer.
  • Ascension Day (between 30 Apr & 3 Jun) - Ascension of Christ and a major summer festival.
  • Whitsunday (between 10 May & 13 Jun) - Pentecost when Christ visited the apostles.
  • Trinity Sunday (between 17 May & 20 Jun) - Feast day of the Trinity.
  • Midsummer Day (24 Jun) - also commemorates John the Baptist.
  • Michaelmas (29 Sep) - marks the end of the harvest season and commemorates the Archangel Michael.
  • All Hallows/Hallowtide (1 Nov) - the feast of All Saints (Hallows).
  • Accession Day (17 Nov) - commemorates Elizabeth I of England's accession.
  • Saint Andrew's Day (30 Nov) - commemorates St. Andrew.
  • Christmas (25 Dec) - the birth of Jesus Christ.

Holiday Traditions & Customs

One might also add Saint George's Day (23 Apr) to the list, which saw the feast of England's patron saint but which was not an official holiday. Besides all of the above, local churches and more traditional-Catholic-sympathetic ones would have celebrated on other days too, especially to commemorate various additional saints and the local patron saint of a town or village. The English Reformation, and especially the Puritan movement, toned down the more showy elements of Catholic celebrations. For example, the impressive procession of candles for Candlemas was largely abandoned. In contrast, various secular traditions came to be associated with these particular holy days. For example, it was customary to give gifts on New Year's Day, have a big get-together involving pancakes and football on Shrove Tuesday (the origins of Mardi Gras), or organise bonfires on Midsummer's Day. During Lent, a Jack-a-Lent effigy was put up and pelted by passers-by with stones, perhaps to ease the frustration of a more limited diet during that period (even if many no longer followed it rigorously). Also during Lent, on the third Sunday before Easter, people traditionally visited or gave gifts to their mothers (hence the modern Mother's Day). The Thursday before Easter, Maundy Thursday, was a time to give charity to those in need.

The Eves of holidays were used to prepare the marvellous dishes to be eaten on the big day itself, like the traditional goose eaten on The Day Of Michaelmas.

Both May Day and Whitsunday were an opportunity to hold major summer festivals with feasts, dancing, and plays. Feasts were a major part of holy days and, no doubt, the part most looked forward to by many people. Connected with this fact is the need for preparation time, which is why many holidays came to have their own preceding 'Eve', like Christmas Eve, today's lone survivor. The first step in the preparation was to fast on this eve (usually the evening only), typically avoiding meat. The second step was to prepare the marvellous dishes to be eaten on the big day itself, like the traditional goose eaten on the day of Michaelmas.

Another reason to look forward to holy days was the holding of fairs. Many towns held at least one fair each year, usually in the summer months but sometimes as late as November. A fair could last for one or several days. Here there were agricultural shows, travelling performers of all kinds, plays were put on, military displays were organised, and dances were held. There was, too, the chance to buy goods brought in from travelling merchants from across the country and even abroad such as the wine merchants.

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Easter

Then, as now, two holidays stood out for their particularly abundant celebrations, and these were Easter and Christmas. Easter was the most important celebration of the whole year, and by Elizabeth's reign, it had established itself on the first Sunday after the first full moon to appear on or after 21 March. By the time Easter arrived, traditionalists were absolutely ready to celebrate it because they had been fasting for the 40 days of Lent which preceded it. Religious celebrations actually began the week before Easter Sunday on Palm Sunday (the day Jesus entered Jerusalem), although after the Reformation, people no longer brought palm fronds to church on that day. School children were happy, too, as they had two weeks off for the Easter holiday.

Everyone attended church on Easter Sunday, as noted above, and it was the one sure time of the year when even the less-enthusiastic Christians took communion. Priests often kept records of who attended the service in an Easter Book (taking communion at least three times a year was another legal requirement for Elizabeth's subjects). Feasts were held which, of course, offered all kinds of dishes using much-longed-for meat and sweet things. With the reduction in Catholic traditions, there was something of a return to ancient pagan customs, the time of year being spring and so it had always been associated with fertility. Accordingly, eggs and rabbits now make their re-appearance alongside the Christian Easter traditions.

Christmas

The countdown to Christmas, advent, began on the Sunday closest to 30 November, St. Andrew's Day. Advent was originally meant to be a period of fasting but was becoming less strictly adhered to as the years went by. The holiday itself began on 25 December and lasted 12 days until 6 January. School children had another two weeks off at this time of year. In the Middle Ages, the eve of the 6th, Twelfth Night, witnessed the most important celebrations of the holiday as it was also associated with mid-winter but now the 25th was taking over as the biggest feast day of this holiday period. Homes were decorated with holly, mistletoe, and ivy, while a Yule log was burned over the entire holiday. Special dishes were prepared using more expensive than usual ingredients, especially pies and spiced fruitcakes. Nuts and oranges were other rarities to be enjoyed at this time of year, as was spiced ale known as wassail, and, of course, there was lots of dancing, music, and games.

A Rest From Social Norms

Holidays were not only a break from the usual toil but were often, too, a welcome chance to relax social rules. Such games as reversing the roles of the sexes, making a commoner 'king of the feast' or young apprentices roaming the streets enforcing the laws on their elders were the source of much hilarity. So, too, were the opportunities to drink and be merry, often to excess. However, as the historian J. Morrill points out, "Festive licence, while seemingly transgressing social boundaries, served in reality to underscore expectations about the appropriate behaviour demanded in everyday life" (199). Holidays were but a temporary and all-too-short break from normality. In addition, feasts and celebrations often only emphasised the wide gap between the haves and have-nots. Further, the rich were reinforced in their superior position by the expectation that they display their wealth and feelings of charity by giving to the poor and paying a greater share of the costs of community celebrations.

Travel & the Grand Tour

Although using holidays to travel far and wide and visit new places was hardly a common practice, the Elizabethan period did see the beginnings of this habit. Holy days had always been an opportunity for pilgrims to visit important religious sites, perhaps to see for themselves a holy relic safeguarded in a local church or monastery. There were now, though, more and more instances of travel purely for secular purposes, that is seeing new sights and generally having a good time. Noted attractions in the Elizabethan period were the Golden Hind, sailed by Sir Francis Drake around the world in 1577-80 CE and moored in London or the Tower of London with its Crown Jewels and famous armouries.

Unfortunately, there was no official road system in England in the 16th century CE, most roads were mere dirt tracks, and bridges were often a liability, assuming they had survived the last heavy rains. Consequently, Elizabethan travellers rarely moved around in comfort or at any great speed. Private horse carriages did exist and could be hired by the well-off. Most people preferred simply riding a horse, when around 80 kilometres (50 miles) could be covered in a day. Rivers provided another alternative to the bumpy country roads. For overnight stops, there were taverns (accommodation and only wine served) or inns (accommodation, food and drinks of all kinds served). Unfortunately, there were dangers on the road such as highwaymen, who might have been tipped off by staff working in the inn one had just spent the night at.

Although most travellers would have considered a trip to the annual fair in their local town a major expedition, the richer Elizabethans did begin the tradition of the Grand Tour which became so popular in later centuries. The idea of the Tour was that (especially young) people should spend some months travelling in Continental Europe, visiting the ruins of antiquity and more contemporary Renaissance highlights in order to improve their general education and broaden their outlook on life. Italy, France, and Spain were the most popular destinations. Often not just a sightseeing tour, participants learnt a language or two and spent time with noted teachers of such subjects as art, law, astrology, or even gardening. The Grand Tour was, then, considered ideal training for those interested in a career in politics and diplomacy. It is also undoubtedly true that many young men fled England because of bad debts, to escape problems with the authorities, or simply to satisfy their thirst for adventure and find a new life where every day was a holiday.


Main keywords of the article below: fact, queen, facts, got, times, virgin, elizabeth, period, regarded, 5, elizabethan, married, since.

KEY TOPICS
Another fact about Elizabethan times is Queen Elizabeth was regarded as virgin queen since she never got married. [1] They are considered so important, in fact, that the Elizabethan period is frequently called the age of Shakespeare. [2] Shakespeare became a popular playwright during the Elizabethan era, but in fact, it was very late into Elizabeth's reign. [3] Fact 18 Many of the same laws against Catholicism begun during the Elizabethan era Fact 19 Every church during the Elizabethan Era was a protestant church. [4] Here are 10 interesting facts about money in the world of Shakespeare and Elizabethan England. [5]

Fact 15 The Protestant Churches were destroyed and ragged during the time by Catholics. [4] Fact 11 Protestants referred the roman Catholics as Romanist's. [4] Salvation for Catholics is gained by faith Fact 12 Being Roman Catholic is not a crime, but there is a fine for not conforming to the established religion (protestants). [4] Fact 8 The rosary, used only by Catholics has no figure of Christ Fact 9 The Pope's of the Catholics are the heirs of St. Peter Fact 13 The catholic bible and their rituals are in Latin. [4]

Fact 1 Pews were not in churches until the reign of James the first. [4] Know more about the family, education, life, rise to power, reign and death of Queen Elizabeth I through these 10 interesting facts. [6] Fact 10 Queen Elizabeth passed Queen Mary and adhered the Protestant religion and restored it. [4] In fact she did not even attempt to have her birth legitimized as her sister, Queen Mary I had done before her. (Her father, Henry VIII, while he did put her in line for the succession had also claimed she was a bastard, as did her brother, King Edward VI after her.) [3]

Here's the thing: The average body temperature isn't actually 98.6℉--a fact that we've known for more than 25 years. [7] Fact 5 The term 'Atheist' is referred as you don't believe in the same religion as someone else, not they don't believe in any religion. [4]


Rich nobles could watch the play from a chair set on the side of the Globe stage itself, so an audience viewing a play may often have to ignore the fact that there is a noble man sitting right on the stage( Elizabethan Era ). [8] In fact the character was such a crowd pleaser that Shakespeare put him in two more plays. [8] The fact that she hardly spoke of her and saved all of her praise for her adored father, Henry VIII, has often led to the conclusion that Elizabeth was ashamed of Anne. [9] The theatre often served as a place for prostitutes and their customers, and many people did not like the fact that the theatre allowed several different social groups to mix together (Howard 75). [8]


This brings us to our last topic, the fact that Elizabeth ruled over England as an unmarried, female monarch, earning her the nickname 'the Virgin Queen.' This alone is a huge difference between Elizabethan England and most other times throughout all of history. [10] Most historians attribute the success of the Lord Chamberlain's Men to the fact that, after joining the group in 1594, Shakespeare wrote for no other company. [2] If you’re a Doctor Who fan, however, you can delight in the fact that the Tenth Doctor episode, "The Shakespeare Code" really did use Shakespeare’s Globe as a location. [11]

The most popular types of Elizabethan plays were histories of England's rulers, but revenge dramas and bawdy comedies also drew significant crowds. [12] Elizabethan drama refers to the plays produced while Queen Elizabeth reigned in England, from 1558 until 1603. [12] Before the age of Elizabethan drama, plays tended to be based on religious themes. [12]

During the Elizabethan times, there were no devices like television, electricity, computers, mobile and landline phones, radio, car, and movie cinemas. [1] Elizabethan people indulged in eggs since it was used to prepare foods like pancakes, omelets, and fritters. [1]

William Shakespeare lived in the Elizabethan Era of England. [1] Before reading about Elizabethan era, it would be a good idea to know about the origin of Tudor dynasty, of which Queen Elizabeth was the last monarh, and the infamous Henry Viii and his six wives. [1]

During the Elizabethan period, astrology was used for calendars, medical purposes, horticulture, agricultural, navigation, and many other things. [13] The most interesting part of astrology during the Elizabethan period is how it was so significantly linked with magic and alchemy, and included using charms, talismans, spells, and rituals in an attempt to produce supernatural effects and control events. [13]

The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen ElizabethI (1558-1603). [14] The phrase Elizabethan theatre is sometimes used, improperly, to mean English Renaissance theatre, although in a strict sense "Elizabethan" only refers to the period of Queen Elizabeth's reign (1558-1603). [15]

During the Elizabethan era, people looked forward to holidays because opportunities for leisure were limited, with time away from hard work being restricted to periods after church on Sundays. [14]

In Sir Thomas Elyot’s influential book The Castel of Helth (they hadn’t invented spelling in Elizabethan times), he says that spices and vegetables are bad for people, and that fresh fruit is "noyful (harmful) to man and do engender ill humours". [16]

Elizabeth I addressed the issue immediately after becoming queen through the famous Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which found a middle way between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. [6] The Queen oversaw the nation’s first attempts at poverty relief: a gradual accumulation of rulings like mandatory taxation towards this end, which culminated with the 1601 Elizabethan Poor Law. [7] Elizabethans didn't tend to waste any part of an animal, which is why you got dishes like this on the menu: a whole boiled sheep's head surrounded by its various internal organs. [16]

With William Shakespeare at his peak, as well as Christopher Marlowe and many other playwrights, actors and theatres constantly busy, the high culture of the Elizabethan Renaissance was best expressed in its theatre. [14] Elizabethan actors never played the same show on successive days and added a new play to their repertoire every other week. [15] Overall, the use of these acting styles and the doubled roles dramatic device made Elizabethan plays very popular. [15]

The reign of Elizabeth I is known as the Elizabethan era and is considered one of the golden ages in English history. [6] English Renaissance theatre --also known as early modern English theatre and Elizabethan theatre --refers to the theatre of England between 1562 and 1642. [15]

The symbol of Britannia (a female personification of Great Britain) was first used in 1572, and often thereafter, to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the Spanish - at the time, a rival kingdom much hated by the people of the land. [14]

During the Tudor period, the use of glass when building houses was first used, and became widespread. [14] Watching plays became very popular during the Tudor period. [14]

The term English Renaissance theatre encompasses the period between 1562--following a performance of Gorboduc, the first English play using blank verse, at the Inner Temple during the Christmas season of 1561--and the ban on theatrical plays enacted by the English Parliament in 1642. [15] Genres of the period included the history play, which depicted English or European history. [15] Costumes themselves were expensive, so usually players wore contemporary clothing regardless of the time period of the play. [15] Due to inflation that occurred during this time period, admission increased in some theatres from a penny to a sixpence or even higher. [15] Shakespeare and the Globe from Encyclopædia Britannica a more comprehensive resource on the theatre of this period than its name suggests. [15]

Elizabeth I ruled for a period of 44 years and 127 days from November 17, 1558 until her death on March 24, 1603. [6] On balance, it can be said that Elizabeth provided the country with a long period of general if not total peace and generally increased prosperity due in large part to stealing from Spanish treasure ships, raiding settlements with low defenses, and selling African slaves. [14]

England during this period had a centralised, well-organised, and effective government, largely a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII, as well as Elizabeth's harsh punishments for any dissenters. [14] With taxes lower than other European countries of the period, the economy expanded though the wealth was distributed with wild unevenness, there was clearly more wealth to go around at the end of Elizabeth's reign than at the beginning. [14]

It was a brief period of internal peace between the English Reformation and the religious battles between Protestants and Catholics and then the political battles between parliament and the monarchy that engulfed the remainder of the seventeenth century. [14] A little over 600 plays were published in the period as a whole, most commonly in individual quarto editions. (Larger collected editions, like those of Shakespeare's, Ben Jonson's, and Beaumont and Fletcher's plays, were a late and limited development.) [15] One must remember that sugar in the Middle Ages or Early Modern Period was often considered medicinal, and used heavily in such things. [14]

The Jacobean era is also characterized by a flourishing of the arts, architecture, and literature, with subtle changes from the previous Elizabethan period. [17] During the Elizabethan period, rouge cheeks and lips were very popular. [18] Together, they formed one of the most formidable drama groups of the Elizabethan period. [11]


She ruled England for almost 45 years, lending her name to a magnificent era in world history known as "The Elizabethan Era." [19] Education Straford School Children of Noble birth were invariably taught by tutors at home but, from the age of 7 to 14, children of a lower standing went to Grammar Schools The first year of Elizabethan education the curriculum was all about learning parts of speech together with verbs and nouns. [20]

Though we know a little bit about the behavior of theatre audiences we do not know much about the actual Elizabethan stage, however because plays of this time were written expressly for this stage, we can get an idea by looking at the stage directions in the play(Albright 38). [8] Shakespeare must have thought so too, moving his play company out of open-air theatres in 1609 to perform at Black-friars which were an indoor theatre that was supposed to produce a more refined audience ( Elizabethan Era). [8] Of course, the Elizabethan Era being the time of Shakespeare, going to the theatre was always an option. [21] Sewage was buried in pits or disposed of in the River Thames, this improper sanitation could have been responsible for outbreaks of the plague, which was the only time when then there was less of an audience at the theatres ( Elizabethan Era ). [8] Electional astrology, still used to pick auspicious times to take action, was also used during the Elizabethan Era to time ceremonies and rituals, as well as to produce astrological talismans and for invoking spirits. [13] Color coding was also used to advertise the type of play to be performed - a black flag meant a tragedy, white a comedy, and red a history ( Elizabethan Era ). [8] Titania the Queen of fairies with Bottom In the Elizabethan era fairies were thought of bad spirits who played tricks on people they also believed that fairies were the ones that caused disease, illness and misfortune this personality is almost exactly the same as the role of puck who plays a trick on Titania, the queen of fairies. [22] Men and women attended plays, but often the prosperous women would wear a mask to disguise their identity ( Elizabethan Era ). [8]

The reign of Elizabeth 1 is acknowledged as the Elizabethan era. [19] " The Elizabethan Era " refers specifically to the reign of Britain's monarch, Queen Elizabeth I, from 1558 to 1601. [13]

The game of BOWLS refers to a popular Elizabethan game in which a small "bowl," or ball (called a jack) was used as a mark at the end of a green lawn. [21] Long before the invention of modern technologies, such as radios and televisions, movies, video game systems and the ever popular internet, people in the Elizabethan age created an elaborate system of activities and events to keep themselves entertained [8] In part, however, the Elizabethan Age was a success because men had at their disposal new and exciting areas, both of mind and geography, into which to channel their energies. [23]

Elizabethan Era is the age of Renaissance, where the ideas, the technology and the science were reform. [24]

It was the height of the English Renaissance and a transitional period between the late middle ages and the early modern era. [13] The period is famous for the flourishing of English drama led by dramatists such as William Shakespeare. [19]

Alone among the playwrights of the Elizabethan period, only John Fletcher was brave enough, and creative enough, to write a critical reply to one of his colleague’s popular, but deeply flawed, works. [25] This was called the Poor Rate which was used to help the poor during the Elizabethan period. [26]

The Elizabethan era refers to the period when England was under the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. It is also famously known as the Golden Age of English history, as English literature and theater reached its peak during this period. [27] At the beginning of the Elizabethan Era, the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) that is often considered to be a golden age in English history, most English drama was based on two ancient genres: mystery plays and morality plays. [2]

The Elizabethan age, which spanned from 1558 to 1603, was a golden period in the history of English Literature. [28]

The Jacobean Era Timeline Timeline Description: The Jacobean Era refers to the period of time in English and Scottish history when James I (1603 - 1625) ruled. [17] Eight of Shakespeare's ten history plays collectively trace the period of English monarchy from the fourteenth century to the emergence of the Tudors. [2]

With his plays Shakespeare brought Elizabethan drama--and English culture in general--to unexpected new heights. [2] Despite this mystery surrounding his life, Shakespeare's plays are the supreme example of the golden era of the arts in Elizabethan times. [2] Kyd's play was the first Elizabethan example of a popular genre that became known as the revenge tragedy, a play concerned with the theme of vengeance for a past wrong--usually murder. [2] Within two decades of the building of the first major theater in the mid-1570s, however, a huge and varied body of Elizabethan comedy, tragedy, revenge plays, and history chronicles arose. [2] History gives him credit for being among the first producers of Elizabethan commercial theatre. [10] Elizabethan inn-yards were one of the first venues for English theatre. [10]

Elizabethan poetry, as the name suggests, comprises the poetry written during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. [28] Late in her reign, she addressed Parliament as such, 'there is no jewel, be it of never so high a price, which I set before this jewel I mean your love.' The Elizabethan era is remembered primarily for world-changing voyages of discovery and exploration and the flourishing of the arts in England. [29] Ruling England at a time when the arts flourished and discovery was high on the agenda, the Elizabethan era is remembered as a golden age of creativity and exploration. [29] The Elizabethan Era of English history was a remarkable time now coined England's Golden Age. [10] At the start of the Elizabethan era, men used to wear their hair short which became longer as time went on. [18]

These young men developed the signature characteristics of Elizabethan drama. [2] Rising Elizabethan dramatists like John Lyly (1554-1606), Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), and Thomas Kyd (1558-1594) surpassed the limits of known drama--European theater and the classical drama of ancient Greece and Rome--by portraying complex political, psychological, and historical themes. [2] Kyd found his model for the The Spanish Tragedy in the tragedies of the ancient Roman playwright Seneca (c. 4 bce-65 ce), whose bloody chronicles of royal family history were well known among Elizabethans. [2] Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale, and The Tempest share their conventions with the tragicomedy, a popular form of Elizabethan play that fell into both the tragedy and comedy categories. [2] Of all the arts in Elizabethan England, drama was the most popular, and left behind the most enduring legacy. [2]

Women were not permitted to act on stage until long after the Elizabethan Era, so female parts were played by boys or men dressed as women. [2] The Elizabethan age is also known as the "Age of Shakespeare". [28]

This economic recession coincided with a period of greater repression of Catholics in England. [29] It was also during this period that people began dying their hair red, which was the hair color of Queen Elizabeth I. Young women would wear their long hair down, and sweep it up once married, usually in a bun so that head coverings could easily be pinned to it. [18]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(29 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Main keywords of the article below: queen, write?, historical, era, context, england, period, social, began, shakespeare, elizabethan, time.


C O N T E N T S:

  • Historical and Social Context of the Elizabethan Era Who was the Queen of England during the time Shakespeare began to write?(More. )
  • Shakespeare wrote during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, which we call the Elizabethan period.(More. )
  • Now, we will try to shed light on the literary genres that characterised the Elizabethan period and the poets who had tremendous contributions to the richness of this era.(More. )
  • For most Elizabethan workers, the workweek was long and hard times for socializing and being entertained were eagerly anticipated.(More. )

KEY TOPICS
Historical and Social Context of the Elizabethan Era Who was the Queen of England during the time Shakespeare began to write? Who ruled after her? When Shakespeare began writing, Queen Elizabeth I ruled King James ruled after Queen Elizabeth Give the approximate dates of the Elizabethan period. 1558- 1603 Identify the social classes during Shakespeare's time. [1] Historical and Social Context During the Elizabethan period, the status of women was at an all time low. [2]

Christmas was preceded by a four-week period called Advent in which Elizabethans prayed and fasted, or refrained from eating certain foods at certain times. [3] During the Elizabethan era, people looked forward to holidays because opportunities for leisure were limited, with time away from hard work being restricted to periods after church on Sundays. [4] Historians studying the Elizabethan Era, the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) that is often considered to be a golden age in English history, have focused mainly on the lives of the era's wealthy nobles. (Nobles were the elite men and women who held social titles.) [3] The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen ElizabethI (1558-1603). [4]

Elizabethan England was not particularly successful in a military sense during the period, but it avoided major defeats and built up a powerful navy. [4]

While Shakespeare is indeed one of the great writers of the Western canon--and one of the best-known--it’s important to avoid uncritically endorsing portrayals that render him as a near-mythical kind of universal genius, without considering the particular historical contexts not only of the period in which he lived and worked, but of the nearly 400 years after his death. [5]


Shakespeare wrote during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, which we call the Elizabethan period. [6] In the context of the Elizabethan period, power was of extreme social and cultural significance as it was in direct association to the status and structure of society. [7] In Elizabethan contexts, women are often portrayed to play a peculiar and often stifled role in society. [8] When studying the Elizabethan Era, it’s important to bring to life the time period as it was, not as we perceive it. [9]

The Elizabethan period refers to the time in England when Queen Elizabeth I ruled, which was between the years 1558-1603. [10] Compare and contrast the reformation among the Anabaptists and the English in the Elizabethan period. [11] It would appear that the things that concern us today also concerned the people in the Elizabethan period. [12]

The first decisive opposing reactions by a modern and Elizabethan audience to a Shakespeare play such as Othello, is the status of women in this period. [13] Stages of the Elizabethan and Jacobean period were for the most part bare and simple. [14] The Elizabethan era in English Literature marks the period of Queen Elizabeth's reign in England (1558 - 1603). [12]

The political context of Elizabethan is jumbled and recorded in many ways, therefore you can decide which is right or read all of it.( as you can't fit every record in the Blog). [15]


Now, we will try to shed light on the literary genres that characterised the Elizabethan period and the poets who had tremendous contributions to the richness of this era. [16] These great people are recognized as the most Famous Playwrights and Authors of Elizabethan period. [16] The Jacobean era is also characterized by a flourishing of the arts, architecture, and literature, with subtle changes from the previous Elizabethan period. [17] The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabethan era and precedes the Caroline era, and specifically denotes a style of architecture, visual arts, decorative arts, and literature that is predominant of that period. [18] The Elizabethan era is the period of English history associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [16]

Almost all Elizabethans considered women to be inferior to men. [3] With William Shakespeare at his peak, as well as Christopher Marlowe and many other playwrights, actors and theatres constantly busy, the high culture of the Elizabethan Renaissance was best expressed in its theatre. [4] There were few single people in Elizabethan England--all were expected to marry. [3] In popular culture, the image of those adventurous Elizabethan seafarers was embodied in the films of Errol Flynn. [4] Historians agree, though, that daily life for the majority of Elizabethans had little to do with courtly life, and much to do with working hard to earn a meager living. [3]

The Elizabethan era was a time associated with Queen Elizabeth I's reign (1558-1603) and is often considered to be the golden age in English history The social classes in Shakespeare’s time (1564 - 1616) The monarch (king and queen) were at the top of the social class Nobility knights Gentry upper middle class or the wealthy who didn’t work "with their hands’ for a living. [2] The Elizabethan Era is known for the elaborate outfits that men and women wore to court and elite social functions. [3]

There was a great flowering in literature, classical studies, historiography, geography and philosophy, which has made the Elizabethan era practically synonymous with the English Renaissance. [5] English achievements in exploration were noteworthy in the Elizabethan era. [4]

It was during the Elizabethan era that hygiene was poor and more than 75 million people in Europe died from the disease. [2] Hygiene Hygiene in the Elizabethan era was extremely poor and the result was the Bubonic plague. [2]

The symbol of Britannia (a female personification of Great Britain) was first used in 1572, and often thereafter, to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the Spanish - at the time, a rival kingdom much hated by the people of the land. [4] The Elizabethan Age contrasts sharply with the previous and following reigns. [4] The Elizabethan Age was also an age of plots and conspiracies, frequently political in nature, and often involving the highest levels of Elizabethan society. [4]

While Elizabethan England is not thought of as an age of technological innovation, some progress did occur. [4] In Elizabethan England one's clothing provided an observer with instant knowledge of one's social status. [3]

Prior to Elizabethan times, only about 5 percent of the population lived in cities and towns, but during her reign, about 15 percent of the rapidly growing population had become urban. [3] Today there is no letter for the "th" sound, but in Elizabethan times this was represented by a letter that looks like our "y." [3]

In the 1590s, Shakespeare often dwelt on the nature of monarchy, and the history plays of the period can be read not just as historical narratives featuring kings, but also as meditations on monarchical rule. [5] As its title suggests, King Lear is a play about kingship, written during a period when the monarchy was of central importance, and the role of the monarch was under constant scrutiny and subject to endless theorization. [5]

Shakespeare was deeply involved in this theatrical world, as playwright, as actor and eventually as shareholder in one of the premier stage companies of the period, the Lord Chamberlain’s (later known as the King’s) Men. [5] That civil war broke out fewer than thirty years after Shakespeare’s death suggests the extent to which England, despite the advancements and triumphs of the Tudor-Stuart period, was still a troubled society. [5] England during this period had a centralised, well-organised, and effective government, largely a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII, as well as Elizabeth's harsh punishments for any dissenters. [4] It was also the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland. [4]

Under the feudal system of the Middle Ages (the period in European history lasting from c. 500 to c. 1500), powerful lords owned and governed local districts, which were usually made up of peasant families and ranged from fifty to a few hundred people. (Peasants were farmers who worked in the fields owned by wealthy lords.) [3] One must remember that sugar in the Middle Ages or Early Modern Period was often considered medicinal, and used heavily in such things. [4] Girl power: the European marriage pattern and labour markets in the North Sea region in the late medieval and early modern period. [4]

On balance, it can be said that Elizabeth provided the country with a long period of general if not total peace and generally increased prosperity due in large part to stealing from Spanish treasure ships, raiding settlements with low defenses, and selling African slaves. [4] It was a brief period of internal peace between the English Reformation and the religious battles between Protestants and Catholics and then the political battles between parliament and the monarchy that engulfed the remainder of the seventeenth century. [4] With taxes lower than other European countries of the period, the economy expanded though the wealth was distributed with wild unevenness, there was clearly more wealth to go around at the end of Elizabeth's reign than at the beginning. [4] Shrovetide was the period consisting of the Sunday through the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent, or the forty-day period of fasting before Easter. [3] Child mortality was low in comparison with earlier and later periods, at about 150 or fewer deaths per 1000 babies. [4]

Watching plays became very popular during the Tudor period. [4] During the Tudor period, the use of glass when building houses was first used, and became widespread. [4] In response and reaction to this hyperbole, modern historians and biographers have tended to take a more dispassionate view of the Tudor period. [4]

Prior to the Elizabeth period, England had been in a state of religious turmoil and financial decay. [6] Throughout this period, everyday life in England could be quite complicated. [19]

Many women in this period were highly educated, like the Queen herself Mildred Cecil, Lady Burghley (wife of William Cecil) Mary Dudley, Lady Sidney, and her daughter Mary Herbert, Countess of Pembroke. [20] Women who perhaps suffered most in this period were, ironically, those like the Queen who did not wish to marry. [20]

Elizabethan literature, body of works written during the reign of Elizabeth I of England (1558-1603), probably the most splendid age in the history of English literature, during which such writers as Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Roger Ascham, Richard Hooker, Christopher Marlowe, and William Shakespeare flourished. [21] Elizabeth was tutored by the famous Elizabethan scholar Roger Ascham. [20]

Though we know a little bit about the behavior of theatre audiences we do not know much about the actual Elizabethan stage, however because plays of this time were written expressly for this stage, we can get an idea by looking at the stage directions in the play(Albright 38). [22] In Elizabethan London, dramatists wrote in an extraordinary range of dramatic genres, from native comedy and farce to Senecan tragedy, from didactic morality plays to popular chronicle plays and tragicomedies, all before the advent of Shakespeare. [21] Shakespeare, along with all Elizabethans, would have been well aware of the ebbs and flows of this power struggle, and Shakespeare often referenced religion and its effects on culture and politics in his plays. [19] Shakespeare outdid them all he combined the best traits of Elizabethan drama with classical sources, enriching the admixture with his imagination and wit. [23]

The long beginning of the Elizabethan popular theatre, like that of the Greek theatre, lay in religious ceremonials, probably in the drama in the liturgy of the two greatest events in the Christian year, Christmas and Easter. [21] The Elizabethans had very clear expectations of men and women, and in general men were expected to be the breadwinners and women to be housewives and mothers. [20] Men and women attended plays, but often the prosperous women would wear a mask to disguise their identity ( Elizabethan Era ). [22] Shakespeare must have thought so too, moving his play company out of open-air theatres in 1609 to perform at Black-friars which were an indoor theatre that was supposed to produce a more refined audience ( Elizabethan Era). [22] If you’re going to study theatre history, Shakespeare and the Elizabethan Era are two of the most fascinating topics to study. [9] Sewage was buried in pits or disposed of in the River Thames, this improper sanitation could have been responsible for outbreaks of the plague, which was the only time when then there was less of an audience at the theatres ( Elizabethan Era ). [22] Theatre performances were held in the afternoon, because there was no artificial lighting, this required the imagination of the audiences during scenes that were to take place at night ( Elizabethan Era ). [22] Rich nobles could watch the play from a chair set on the side of the Globe stage itself, so an audience viewing a play may often have to ignore the fact that there is a noble man sitting right on the stage( Elizabethan Era ). [22] Special effects were a spectacular addition at the Elizabethan theaters thrilling the audiences with smoke effects, the firing of a real canon, fireworks (for dramatic battle scenes) and spectacular flying entrances from the rigging in the heavens( Elizabethan Era ).The stage also featured trap doors to serve as graves, or to allow ghosts to rise from the earth. [22]

Color coding was also used to advertise the type of play to be performed - a black flag meant a tragedy, white a comedy, and red a history ( Elizabethan Era ). [22] Compare and contrast censorship in the Elizabethan Era (and what happened to playwrights who disobeyed the rules) to what happens in your school when putting on plays. [9]

The Elizabethan age saw the flowering of poetry (the sonnet, the Spenserian stanza, dramatic blank verse ), was a golden age of drama (especially for the plays of Shakespeare), and inspired a wide variety of splendid prose (from historical chronicles, versions of the Holy Scriptures, pamphlets, and literary criticism to the first English novels). [21] The Elizabethan's Hornbook The Web version of Walter Nelson's fine handbook, this is a basic primer on the historical background that a participant in an Elizabethan Renaissance Faire should know or have at hand. [23] Elizabethan general public or people who were not nobility were referred to as groundlings. [22] Create scenes that use modern sports commentary to fit the Elizabethan sport of bear baiting. [9] Long before the invention of modern technologies, such as radios and televisions, movies, video game systems and the ever popular internet, people in the Elizabethan age created an elaborate system of activities and events to keep themselves entertained [22] At this time, London was the heart of England, reflecting all the vibrant qualities of the Elizabethan Age. [23]

What did it feel like to to have to listen for lines? Try the same exercise with a Shakespeare scene as they would have done in the Elizabethan Era. [9] Considered to be one of the greatest writers in the Elizabethan era, William Shakespeare often uses female characters to assume the roles of somewhat rebellious women in the era. [8] From this alone, the reader can tell that in the Elizabethan era women were under constant pressure to marry as soon as possible. [8]

Even though there was an unmarried woman on the throne in Elizabethan England, the roles of women in society were very limited. [20] Elizabeth I and Elizabethan life in England An article on architecture, literature, and daily life in Elizabethan England. [23] His plays, however, do give a clear picture of the religious climate in Elizabethan England and its effect on daily life. [19]

Arguably one of the best contemporary accounts of life in Elizabethan England. [23]

Elizabethan society was patriarchal, meaning that men were considered to be the leaders and women their inferiors. [20] In Elizabethan times it was expected of women for them to obey and comply with their husband completely, and for a woman to be outspoken in such a way that Katarina was, was frequently looked down upon. [8]

St. Ives Historical Society This nonprofit California association has a number of good essays on Elizabethan life. [23]

Put Shakespeare and the era in context to help students realize he was a playwright that wrote plays for the common man. [9] If you look at Shakespeare in the context of his time, there’s almost an overwhelming amount of action and sensory overload. [9] In the literary context of Taming of the Shrew, the character of Katarina is shown to originally be a head strong, determined, and at times jealous and aggressive young woman who can also be selfish when considering her younger sister, Bianca. [8]

What customs/norms/cultural codes are at play in the context (time/place) of the movie Six. [6]

The Venetian society in which the Shakespearean play, Othello is set in is a clear representation of the writer's context. [13] This lesson will provide you with an understanding of the historical context of William Shakespeare's play, Twelfth Night. [10]

Elizabethan world view played an important part in Shakespeare's text, and the Elizabethan people credited it's involvement in his plays. [7] Though a man of African or other wise indigenous heritage is typically portrayed in Elizabethan literature in a negative light it is in Othello that allows Shakespeare to make this "Moor" to be appreciated by Elizabethan audiences. [7] To Shakespeare contemporary audience this would have been the accepted attitude, and would have been a respected dominant thinking that the Elizabethan patriarchal society. [7] Popular Questions Discuss the main features of Elizabethan drama focusing on Shakespeare and Marlowe. [12] Shakespeare privileges and challenges the Elizabethan attitudes and values towards the prejudices of race and gender while also presenting his contextual theme of chaos versus order. [7] It is through Othello’s character that Shakespeare is able to challenge the stereotypical ideology of "The Moor’ by making him an Elizabethan hero. [7] The values, attitudes and beliefs that Shakespeare reveals in the opening and closing scenes of Othello, are the exact to the ones accepted by the Elizabethans of the sixteenth century. [13]

Whereas a black person would normally be used in Elizabethan literature to represent the darkness, Iago’s absolute evil takes on that role. [7] The word "gender’ describes those physical, biological, behavioural, verbal, textual, mythic and power dynamic cues that signal to others in the society, specifically the society of the Elizabethans. [7]

During the Elizabethan Era, most marriages were arranged, and some couples would be introduced to each other on their wedding day itself! (William Shakespeare info) Many of times marriages were done so that both families could "benefit" in some way, such as status or wealth ( Linda Alchin). [13] With the natural order now in place, it was evident that even Shakespeare himself, very much relied upon the beliefs and values of the Elizabethan society. [13]

In Elizabethan theater, William Shakespeare, among others, composed and staged plays in a variety of settings that broke away from England's past style of plays. [13] William Shakespeare was a famous playwright of the Elizabethan age. [10] It was common during the Elizabethan Age for people to attend masquerade balls. [10] During the Elizabethan times, people thought that rational thinking was the only factor that separated humanity from animals. [13]

The Met Museum - background on the history of Elizabethan England and specifically Elizabeth I's love of the arts and the prevalence of the visual, decorative, and performing arts. [24] The role of the female has developed from being submissive and "obedient" in the Elizabethan era to being independent and liberated within the contemporary setting. [13]

Your answer must mention a text from The Cloud of Unknowing and Other Works and an Islamic philosopher and explain his role in the development of Islamic philosophy in this period. [11] Over the Medieval period, weapons were advancing and the elegant rapier began to be obsolete as the musket became popular. [13]

These values transcend the context of both modern and contemporary audiences and it is through the BBC adaptation by Geoffrey Sax that modern audiences are able to engage with relevance of these issues. [7] Discuss the historical context of each reformation and three religious differences distinguishing them from each other. [11]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(24 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


WORDS TO KNOW

Another economic change took place in the early sixteenth century. England had developed a huge and highly profitable cloth-making industry. At first the industry relied on imported material to make cloth, but by the sixteenth century English landowners discovered that there was more profit to be made raising sheep for wool than in planting crops. Many peasants lost their livelihoods when the lands they had farmed were fenced off for sheep. They moved to the cities, which were prospering because of the new cloth industry and the other growing trades. However, the new industries provided few jobs for unskilled laborers. The peasants who were lucky enough to find work in the cities earned extremely low wages that barely fed them, and many of them were unable to find employment at all.


Elizabethan Calendar

The rhythm of the Elizabethan's life was the rhythm of the seasons. The turning of the seasons governed how he worked and how and when he played.

The Elizabethan did not concern himself much with the exact date. He looked upon the year as a series of seasons, and his signposts were the feast days. If he talked about something that happened on July 27th, he would say it occurred "two days past Lammastide".

To further muddle things, the English used the old Julian calendar long after the rest of Western Europe went over to the Gregorian calendar in 1582. Due to the Papal origin of the new calendar, it was regarded with suspicion by the Protestant English.

The Old Julian Calendar was ten days behind the Gregorian in 1582, and to most reckonings, New Year's day was not on January first, but on March 25th. In the Middle Ages, all of these feast days were excuses for a day off, Popish ceremonies, and general idleness. The thrifty Protestants, of course, disapproved, and limited the observance of many of the feast days. They remained on the calendar, but people were enjoined not to stop working. Some of these "banned" feast days are included below, and are marked with an asterisk *.

Sunday of course, remained inviolate, and was supposed to be a day of prayer and reflection. For most however, it was a chance to go to plays, bear-batings and markets, though such Sabbath breaking was, of course, frowned upon. The strictly religious in Elizabethan England had much cause to frown.

Movable Feasts (All related to Easter)


Shrove Sunday

The Sunday before Ash Wednesday
Shrovetide is a time when all of the meats forbidden during Lent are eaten

Shrove Monday
The Monday before Ash Wednesday

Shrove Tuesday
The day before Ash Wednesday

Ash Wednesday
46 days before Easter -- the beginning of Lent Lent is a time of fasting and prayer. It is forbidden to eat red meat during Lent. In addition to breads and greens, only fish, milk, butter and eggs are allowed.

Palm Sunday
The Sunday before Easter
The commemoration of Christ's entry into Jerusalem. "English Palms" (Pussy willows) are carried in processions and crosses made of these "palms" are treasured to guard the house from evil throughout the year.

Good Friday
The Friday before Easter
The commemoration of the Crucifixion

Easter Sunday
According to the Book of Common Prayer, Easter is: "always the first Sunday after the first Full Moon which happens next after the One and Twentieth day of March (the Spring Equinox) and if the Full Moon happens upon a Sunday, Easter Day is the Sunday after" This is the holiest day of the year, and commemorates the resurrection. It is also a "quartering day" upon which quarterly wages or rents are paid. It is the end of Lent.

Ascension
Also called Rogation or Holy Thursday. Falls forty days after Easter.
A time for prayers for the year's crops and a time for "beating the bounds" to teach the young the boundaries of the Parish

Whitsunday

Also called Pentecost. 50 days after Easter.
Commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit to the disciples. A popular time for "Church Ales" when ale is sold to benefit the Church.

Trinity Sunday
8 weeks after Easter

Immovable Feasts and Other Important Dates

Sewing and harrowing continues until Easter

March 25
New Year's Day and the Annunciation of the Virgin. Also called "Lady Day"

April 25
The Feast of St. Mark the Evangelist

May 1
May Day
The beginning of Summer. A time of celebrations, processions, May Poles, Morris Dances, and lewd behavior on the part of the young. A celebration of fertility.

June 2
St. Elmo's day
Sheep are washed and sheared

June 24
Nativity of St. John the Baptist or Midsummer Day
A mystical and dangerous time. St. John's fires are lit to keep away evil. This is a quartering day for those who pay quarterly rents or wages.

June 29
The Feast of Sts Peter and Paul
A time for "rushbearings", when rushes or new mown hay are born in processions and strewn about the local churches as a floor covering.

July 2
Visitation of the Virgin

July 22
St. Mary Magdalen’s Day

July 25
St. Christopher's Day or Lammastide*

August 15
Assumption of the Virgin

August 24
St. Bartholomew's Day

September 7
Harvest Home (date varies)
The completion of the harvest . A time for village festivals

Beasts are set out to graze on the harvested fields

September 29
St. Michael and All Angels or Michalmas
This is the beginning of a new accounting year and the end of the old. Not coincidentally, it is also the end of the old agricultural year and the beginning of the new. It is the time when the profits from the harvest are realized, when annual rents can be collected and bills paid. It is also a "quartering day" for those on a quarterly rent or wage system. It is, to this day, often the end of the "fiscal year".

October 25
St.s Crispin & Crispinian*
Remembered primarily as the anniversary of the battle of Agincourt.

November 1
All Saints or All Hallows
Stored fruits and grains are blessed and dead are remembered.

November 11
The Feast of St. Martin or Martinmas*
The festival of Winter's beginning.

Beasts are slaughtered for the Winter

November 17
Queen Elizabeth's Accession Day
Celebrated with bonfires and bellringing. It was celebrated well past the date of her death, often with more enthusiasm than holidays dedicated to the reigning monarchs.

November 30
The Feast of St. Andrew*

Fourth Sunday before Christmas
Advent
The beginning of the Christmas season.

December 25
Christmas Day
Time for a bit of spiritual reflection prior to the commencement of the 12 days of partying that is Christmas. It is also a quartering day for rent and wages.

December 26
St. Stephen's Day
The first day of Christmas˘

December 27
St. John's Day
The second day of Christmas

December 28
Holy Innocents' Day or Childermas
The third day of Christmas

December 29
St. Thomas of Canterbury Day
The fourth day of Christmas

January 1
The Feast of the Circumcision
The seventh day of Christmas

January 6
Twelfth Night or Epiphany
The end of Christmas ˘

January 13
The Feast of St. Hilary*
Traditionally the coldest day of the year. Marriages once again permitted after the Advent and Christmas ban.

January 25
The Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul*

February 2
Purification of the Virgin or Candlemas
Lights and candles are blessed in Churches, and candlelight processions are held. After candlemas, the fields are tilled for spring planting and the animals are no longer allowed to graze in the fields.


Elizabethan Era Traditions and Festivals

This festival was filled with jokes and jests. May Day was the festival which came in the month of May in which a queen for May was chosen and villagers used to dance around the maypole. Festival of fire was celebrated in June. There was a tradition of burning bones in this festival and this led to the term ‘bonfire’.

Swithin’s day was observed on 15th July. Lammas day was celebrated on 2nd August. Loaf mass day was the festival of the first wheat harvest of the year. Michaelmas used to be celebrated on 29th September and the traditional food of goose and chicken was cooked on this day. All souls day, or, All hallow’s day (Halloween) was enjoyed in the month of November. Christmas celebrations were made in the month of December.

Besides festivals, certain traditions were specific in case of marriage. In those days, it was considered foolish to marry for love. In fact, people of lower classes had likely more choice in who they married. Marriages were arranged and aimed at bringing prestige and wealth. Women were taught that men were more intelligent than them.

Even Elizabethan era laws gave full control to men over their wives. Women who didn’t marry were considered to be witches. Marriages were dictated by the church. Marriage was legal for girls at the age of 12 years. For boys, the age was 14 years. But the average age to marry was 20-29 years.


Elizabethan Era Events Timeline

  • In 1562, the honourable queen passed the Witchcraft law for hunting and prosecution of witches.
  • In 1570-71, an Italian conspirator (Roberto di Ridolfi) plotted against Elizabethan 1 to execute her and put Mary queen of Scots on throne but the plan was made unsuccessful by Elizabeth 1’s men.
  • In 1586, Anthony Babington tried to overthrow Elizabeth and put Mary, queen of Scots on throne again. But fortunately, Walsingham detected the plot and exposed it. Thus, he safeguarded the Elizabethan empire.
  • Elizabeth 1 and her parliament played a very clever trick in 1584 which bound all the people of her empire. The parliament forced all English men to sign a pledge according to which they agreed to hunt down the culprit in case of Elizabeth’s assassination.
  • In 1587, Sir Francis Drake raided and devastated the Spanish Armada at Cadiz. This battle became one of the most significant battles of Elizabethan era. He captured a Spanish treasure ship ‘Sao Felipe’ in the same year. Mary queen of Scots was also executed in the same year.
  • In 1596, Sir Francis Drake died due to the plague whilst at the sea. His death was a setback to the Elizabethan empire. In 1600, Queen Elizabeth 1 granted charter to East India Company. This marked the initiation of the more than two hundred years rule of English people over India.
  • There were various ghost stories related with the Elizabethan era as well. The stories about different ghosts including those of Sir Walter Raleigh and the tragic Lady Jane Grey are very famous. Besides these stories, haunted English castles were also very famous.
  • On 24th March 1603, Queen Elizabeth 1 died. Subsequently, great-great-grandson of Henry 7 was proclaimed the king. King Phillip 2 and Mary queen of Scots played an important role in the lifetime of Elizabeth 1.

Lastly, it can be concluded that there are various events related to the era of Elizabeth 1 which made her reign to be known as the Golden Age of English history.


Keeping Christmas

A note of caution: Christmas customs are hard to pin down and harder still to identify as verifiably in use during the Elizabethan era. (The past is not all the same place.) With the shifts from Catholic to protestant and back and forth again, some customs were banned or simply stopped, revived, then abandoned. Here are some of the things we're sure of.

The Christmas season or Christmastide runs the twelve days from 24 December to 6 January that is, Christmas Eve to Epiphany or Twelfth Day. The evening of that day is called Twelfth Night, and is the last party of the season.

It is a festival season with only passing reference to religion, although in Catholic reigns there are three Masses for Christmas Day, starting with Matins.

Feasting, generosity, disguisings, pageants, role-reversal, and silliness are the principal elements. Also gambling, especially card playing and tables. (Puritans do not approve.)

Hospitality

Hospitality is the rule. All who can do so furnish their tables with all the meats, marchpanes, pies, custards, and so on that they can afford, and more.

Entertainments in the season include mummer's plays of various kinds, often incorporating music and morris dancing (also performed at May Day). The story of St. George and the Dragon is especially popular. Morris dancers are regularly invited to perform at Court.

Such entertainments are meant for the whole manor or household, including tenants the whole village or the whole Court.

The Queen keeps Christmas most often at Greenwich Palace, which is relatively small. Alternate locations in certain years are Hampton Court (in 1568 and 1579) and Nonesuch Palace. Court festivities, as at other times, include dancing, gambling, and plays.

Greenery

The decorations about any house include holly, ivy, box, yew, bay, laurel, holm oak, and in fact, anything still green. Both church records and household accounts show money spent for holly and ivy to be brought in for the holiday.

In the church itself, along with the greenery, a wooden figure of the Christ Child sometimes rests on the altar. The "nativity scene" hasn't come to England from Italy yet.

Mistletoe grows only on oak and apple trees. It isn't mentioned in a Christmas context before 1622, at which time it seems a fond custom, not newly introduced, but we can't tell how far back its use in England goes, or if it was regional, or what.. If it was common, it should be easy to find.

Kissing under the mistletoe has not yet become traditional, even in 1622.

Yule or Christmas log. The young men of the household go out on Christmas Eve and dress (trim) a log or block of wood from the central trunk of a tree specially chosen for the purpose. They drag it into the fireplace in the hall, where it is lit with a bit saved from last year's log, and is expected to burn all night.

Sensible people save pieces from the Christmas log through the next year to protect the house from fire.

Hartley: Lost Country Life
Hubert: Christmas in Shakespeare's England
Hutton: Seasons of the Sun
Monson: "Elizabethan Holiday Customs"


England in 1558, Society and Government

The England that Elizabeth inherited in 1558 faced problems. Financially, Government was in crisis. Large debts had built up over the course of previous reigns. This meant that expenditure would need to be carefully managed. Society was going through a number of changes, such as the Reformation, which also impacted on Elizabeth’s rule from the off.

Government in Elizabethan England

The monarch was seen to have a right to rule by the Grace of God. That is, they had been chosen by god to rule. This commonly held view made the monarch the pivotal role in Government. It was they who made all of the main decisions. Elizabeth inherited a system of government designed to assist monarchs fulfil their duties. A small group of advisors, called the Privy Council, worked closely with the monarch. They were chosen by the monarch and had influence. However, as they were people of the monarchs choosing, along with the belief in the right of the monarch to rule, this sometimes led to the council not questioning a monarchs judgement: it could be very unwise to do so!

William Cecil, Secretary of State to Elizabeth I

There was a senior Privy Councillor with the title Secretary of State. This person was the closest confidant of the monarch and worked with them on the most important matters.

A Parliament did exist in Elizabethan times. Elections could take place but it was common for the Privy Council to choose MPs. Only landowners could be an MP. Most candidates were unopposed. Parliament had to pass things into law so whilst the monarch could make decisions, MPs had the right to debate and vote on them. Parliament was called by the monarch to vote on matters. New taxes were voted on in Parliament.

Laws that were created as a result of the Monarch, Privy Council and Parliament working in that way were then enforced across the land. Each county had a Lord Lieutenant. They acted as the monarchs representative in each region. As such they looked after governing the county, local law enforcement and defence. They were supported by Justices of the Peace.

External Link: Privy Council

Society in Elizabethan England

Elizabethan England was mainly rural. Most of the population lived in farming villages and were engaged in jobs relating to this. Towns were expanding though. Trades were becoming more established and expanding export markets encouraged growth.

Society remained deeply religious. Everybody was expected to attend church on a Sunday. England was still undergoing a period of religious change though. The Split with Rome, caused by Elizabeth’s father, Henry VIII, wanting to marry Elizabeth’s mother, Anne Boleyn, had triggered a great schism. The Church in England had previously been led by the Papacy, in Rome. Following Henry’s divorce, it operated with the monarch as head of the Church of England. Additionally there was a split in peoples views on how to worship. The Protestant Reformation was underway in England and saw different points of view causing huge problems. Mary I had been known as ‘Bloody Mary’ for the persecution of protestant worshippers. Elizabeth though was a Protestant herself. This meant another change in approach and potential for unrest.

Culture

Theatre was extremely popular during Elizabethan times. People enjoyed comedies, tragedies, mysteries and history plays. There were several very well known playwrights. William Shakespeare was at his peak during Elizabeth’s reign and his work was both popular and influential. Other famous playwrights of the period include Christopher Marlowe and Ben Johnson. It was during Elizabeth’s reign that the first purpose built theatres were constructed in England. Previously they had tended to be in open spaces like courtyards or town squares. Some plays and a large number of poems were studied in Elizabethan Schools.

Elizabeth’s reign coincided with the Renaissance and though most works of the great artists of the day were from mainland Europe, the developments certainly had an influence in England.

Holidays and Leisure

There are numerous religious festivals in a year. In Elizabethan times these were widely celebrated. Alongside these were annual festivals to celebrate the Queens accession and traditional events such as the May Day celebrations. Games and sports were played at many of these festivals. Jousting was still popular with the upper classes. Other popular sports included Animal Sports such as Bear baiting or dog fights.


Main keywords of the article below: away, church, renaissance, holidays, era, periods, hard, leisure, period, looked, limited, forward, work, being, people, opportunities, sundays, restricted, elizabethan, time.

KEY TOPICS
During the Elizabethan era, people looked forward to holidays because opportunities for leisure were limited, with time away from hard work being restricted to periods after church on Sundays. [1] English achievements in exploration were noteworthy in the Elizabethan era. [1] The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era. [1]

ELIZABETHAN AGE - A GOLDEN ERA  The Elizabethan era is the epoch in English history marked by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603)  This period saw the flowering of poetry, music and literature.  The era is most famous for drama because of William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe. [2] This era in English cultural history is sometimes referred to as "the age of Shakespeare" or "the Elizabethan era", the first period in English and British history to be named after a reigning monarch. [3]

While technically The Renaissance period began in the 14th century of Italy, for organizational purposes we begin this era of period dramas at the turn of the century. [4] The Elizabethan Age as part of the Renaissance period saw the development of Elizabethan poetry and the stability of England. [5] The Elizabethan Age also existed within the renaissance period and borrowed much of its ideals from that period. [5]

While the economy was a renaissance in itself, you certainly can not overlook the impacts that the Literature had during the Elizabethan era. [6] The renaissance during the Elizabethan era was quite significant to the country. [6] The timeline of the Elizabethan Era helped us find a good stopping point for our archives as it is rather unclear exactly when The Renaissance would have ended. [4] The difference between the Elizabethan Age and Renaissance is that while the Renaissance era is considered to be the transition from the middle Ages to modern history in Europe, the Elizabethan Age is considered the transition from the feudal times before Queen Elizabeth 1 ascended the throne to the more stable era during her reign in England. [5]

The Elizabethan Renaissance, which ended with Queen Elizabeth's death in 1601, merged into the Jacobean period, in which Shakespeare produced some of his finest work. [7] The renaissance period saw the development of art, literature, technology, invention and modern politics. [5]


The Elizabethan era was the Queen Elizabeth I's reign which was from 1558-1603. [3] Queen Elizabeth played a huge role in the Elizabethan era ("Queen"). [3] During the Elizabethan era, people were entertained by sources of entertainment, such as plays, music, and poetry. [3]

This period, known as the Elizabethan Era, took place during the European Renaissance period, which is said to have occurred from approximately 1300 to 1700. [8] The period is named after the ruler of England during the time-period, Queen Elizabeth I. The Elizabethan Era took place during the Renaissance, which was a period from the 14 th to the 17 th century in Europe. [8] The Role of Elizabethan Women - Education - The Nobility The Elizabethan era brought the Renaissance, the roles of women during the elizabethan era new thinking to England The Elizabethan era is the the roles of women during the elizabethan era epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [8] The roles of women during the elizabethan era Historians often depict it …. 18-4-2016 Shakespeare’s writing career coincided with a renaissance in English drama - a period when a performance at one of London’s new playhouses was the. [8]

The Elizabethan era is widely regarded as England’s Renaissance, and the language arts flourished. [9] The church was a huge concern for plays and players of the Elizabethan era of the Renaissance. [10] Renaissance style and ideas, however, were slow to penetrate England, and the Elizabethan era in the second half of the 16th century is usually regarded as the height of the English Renaissance. [11]

The Elizabethan era also saw England begin to play a leading role in the slave trade and saw a series of bloody English military campaigns in still Catholic Ireland --notably the Desmond Rebellions and the Nine Years' War. [12] In part because of this, but also because the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent, the centuries long conflict between France and England was suspended during the Elizabethan era. [12]

During the Elizabethan era, the years were broken up by annual holidays just as they are in the present age. [12] In the greatest work of literary criticism of the Elizabethan Era, The Defence of Poetry (1595), Philip Sidney (1554-1586) commented that, aside from the writings of Chaucer and a couple of contemporary writers, English literature had never been very good. [13] The pastoral style of the work, which was popular in the Elizabethan Era, was drawn from the works of Roman poet Virgil (70-19 bce). [13] The style of clothing and fashions of the Elizabethan era are distinctive and striking, easily recognizable today and popular with designers of historic costume. [14] The Elizabethan era is named in honor of the monarch, Queen Elizabeth I. [9]

The Elizabethan period in costume design refers to that time encompassed by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (from 1558 - 1603) during the Renaissance. [14] Queen Elizabeth I took the throne in 1558 and remained there until her death in 1603, ruling toward the end of the three-century Renaissance period -- a time of relative peace and stability, and cultural vibrancy. [9] Shakespeare was born toward the end of the Renaissance period and was one of the first to bring the Renaissance’s core values to the theater. [15] During the Renaissance period theatre went through many changes as lots of new influences and powers came into focus. [10]

The Elizabethan Era took place during the Renaissance, which was a period from the 14 th to the 17 th century in Europe. [8] Elizabethan Era Furniture • Renaissance ideas were entering Britain during this period. [8]

General Introductions to the Renaissance Overview of the 16th Century - Norton Topics Online Renaissance - The Annenberg/CPB Project The Renaissance - Michael S. The Elizabethan homework doesn t help learning era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [8] The Jacobean era refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of James VI of Scotland (1567-1625), who also inherited the crown of England in 1603 as James I. The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabethan era and precedes the Caroline era, and is often used for the distinctive styles of Jacobean architecture, visual arts, decorative arts, and literature which characterized that period. [8] During the Elizabethan Era in England, the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) that is often considered to be a golden age in English history, people were in transition between the Middle Ages and modern times. [8] The closest undoubted living relatives of English are Scots zetomarijuana essay outline sih and. 26-3-2008 Everyday life in Tudor England - The City of London in the time of Queen Elizabeth I and Shakespeare The Elizabethan Era Information a brief history of elizabethan era in england on the types and uses of plants commonly grown during the Elizabethan period. [8] Educational resource about education and the schooling of children during the elizabethan times The Childhood & Education of William education and the schooling of children during the elizabethan times Shakespeare The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the History of England during the reign of Essay hastings year of the battle Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [8] Please try again later The study of industrialization and capitalism 2-12-2013 Characteristics of the Elizabethan Age By: The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [8] The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the History of England during the reign Bullying position paper of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [8]

The Elizabethan Era lasted from 1558 to 1603, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. This period was a time of growth and expansion in the areas of poetry, music, and theatre. [8] Created by Shanell and Cashia The Era of Drama and Theatre, Poetry, and Prose Fiction During this time period was the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1 Elizabethan Era 1588-1603 London, England Included writers such as William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Francis Bacon, John Lyly, and Sir Philip Sydney. [8] The Elizabethan Era was a flourishing period in English literature, particularly drama, that coincided with the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1. [8] Historians studying the Elizabethan Era, the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) that is often considered to be a golden age in English history, have focused mainly on the lives of the era's wealthy nobles. (Nobles were the elite men and women who held social titles.) [8] KEY TOPICS Ranging from 1558 to 1603, this was during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. The Elizabethan Era, also known as the Elizabethan Age or Elizabethan Period, is said to be the golden age of English history, with a quite diversified public life, a rise in the fine arts, and numerous advancements in many technological and scientific fields. [8]

England during this period had a centralised, well-organised, and effective government, largely a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII. During Golden Age of Elizabethan Era (1558-1603), what was the resident’s life like? What made the era special actually? Historically, there were numerous facts and vital information about the customs and culture of the epoch for us to explore. [8] England during this period had a centralised, well-organised, and effective government, largely a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII. Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, the Elizabethan era was a period of flourishing English playwrights and seafaring adventurers. [8]


Linen and wool were the most common fabrics used during the Elizabethan era. [14] The Elizabethan Era is regarded as the Golden Age in British history, and is determined by the reign of one of Britain's most brilliant sovereigns, Queen Elizabeth I. During her reign, which lasted from 1558 until her death in 1603, Britain saw a renaissance enjoying international expansion, and naval success over the Spanish. [8] Often considered to be the golden age in English history, the Elizabethan Era took place during the Renaissance between 1558 and 1603. [8]

The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era, the Encyclopædia Britannica maintains that " he long reign of Elizabeth I, 1558-1603, was England's Golden Age During the Tudor period, the use of glass when building houses was first used, and became widespread, it was very expensive and difficult to make, so the panes were made small and held together with a lead lattice, in casement windows. [8] Over the period of time, it has grown to include information about logically extending to era before Elizabethan era and period after elizabethan era. [8] People in the Elizabethan era demonstrated the heavy sexism during that period in history. [8] English literature was patronised and flourished as never before during the Elizabethan era spanning over a period of forty-five years from 1558. [8] Elizabethan period The Elizabethan era (1558-1603) is generally recognized as a time of English greatness. in 1588 English was established as the lone sea power and opened up possibilities for economic development that came from international trade and, eventually, colonialism. [8]

Renaissance period began in the period 15th century, in England! as you are relating it to Elizabethan period. [8] In this period, the Renaissance, or rebirth, spread throughout Europe ("Elizabethan Age"). [8]

This time period was ruled by the esteemed Queen Elizabeth I and is also called the Elizabethan Era. [8] The Elizabethan importance and influence of the parthenon in ancient greece era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [8] Elaborate gowns, lavish parties, palaces full of gold and silver- these are just a few thoughts that come to mind when one hears the term "Elizabethan Era" however, there is more to this period than what meets the eye. [8]

Often referred to as the golden age in English history, the Renaissance brought new light to the citizens ("Elizabethan Era"). [8] Just like the burst of literary creation during the medieval era came to the end with the War of the Roses, the renaissance brought on by this period in English history would too be halted during the English Civil War until the restoration of the Monarchy heralded a new literary age. [8] The French word renaissance means Rebirth, and the era is best known for the renewed interest in the culture of classical antiquity after the period that Renaissance humanists labeled the Dark Ages. [8] Generally, the period from the 15th- to the 17th-centuries is considered the Renaissance Era. [16]

Strictly speaking, English Renaissance theatre may be said to encompass Elizabethan theatre from 1562 to 1603, Jacobean theatre from 1603 to 1625, along with the economics of the profession, the character of the drama changed towards the end of the period. [8] The Elizabethan period of literature took place during the English Renaissance during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England (1558-1603). [8] The Renaissance reached its height in England during the Elizabethan Period (1558-1603). [8]

Historic records show that "The Elizabethan Period in England had a daily life based on social order: the monarch as the highest, the nobility as the second rank, the gentry as third, merchants as fourth, yeomanry as fifth, and laborers as sixth" (Elizabethan Era). [8] Since Queen Elizabeth the first was the last ruler from Tudor era, it will be perhaps more appropriate to say that it covers era from foundation of Tudors dynasty and goes beyond the Elizabethan period right into the Jacobean era. [8]

The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era, the Encyclopædia Britannica maintains that " he long reign of Elizabeth I, 1558-1603, was England's Golden Age War, Government and Society in Tudor England, review of Poem analysis masquerade bronx essay Elizabeth’s Wars: The technology of warfare. 13-5-2014 Transcript of Weapons and Warfare in the Uk top essay obesity childhood Elizabethan Era. [8] The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era, the Encyclopædia Britannica maintains that " he long reign of Elizabeth I, 1558-1603, was England's Golden Age A central hub for information on all aspects of Tudor and Elizabethan fashion: The Golden Age of the Elizabethan Era What was their life like? Five course banquet feast, Two goblets of …. [8] The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era, the Encyclopædia Britannica maintains that " he long reign of Elizabeth I, 1558-1603, was England's Golden Age Home time of the roles of women during the elizabethan era Queen Elizabeth's reign, the gap between men and women was in the marriage process--both during and. [8] The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era, the Encyclopædia Britannica maintains that " he long reign of Elizabeth I, 1558-1603, was England's Golden Age This type of perception has been challenged more recently by modern historians, the British historian Lawrence James has argued that, during the early 20th century, the British felt increasingly threatened by rival powers such as Germany, Russia, and the United States. [8] The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era, the Encyclopædia Britannica maintains that " he long reign of Elizabeth I, 1558-1603, was England's Golden Age In 1558, Elizabeth ascended to the throne upon Mary Tudor’s death. [8]

The Elizabethan era is defined as the reign of Elizabeth I as the Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. [8] Englands defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history, Elizabeths reign is known as the Elizabethan era. [8] In terms of the entire century, the historian John Guy (1988) argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and The Elizabethan era is the epoch in English history marked by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [17] English literature from 1603 to 1625 is properly called Jacobean, after the new monarch, James I. From 1558 to 1603, England was under the rule of Queen Elizabeth I. The Elizabethan era is the epoch in English history marked by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [8] Her "Foxes head" was on display at her proclamation of accession in 1558, when Elizabeth adopted as her royal style (the ceremonial designation of a sovereign used at the beginning of official documents): by the grace of God Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. The Elizabethan era is the epoch in English history marked by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [8]

From 1558 to 1603, England was under the rule of Queen Elizabeth I. During the Elizabethan era, the gentry became England's fastest-growing social class as the new opportunities in arts, literature, science, and even exploration provided the rare opportunity for some people to develop enough wealth to enter this social class. [8] Because of this, and the peace throughout England at the time, the Elizabethan Era was often referred to as the Golden Age of history (Elizabethan England Era Life). [8] The Elizabethan era was a time associated with Queen Elizabeth I's reign (1558-1603) and is often considered to be the golden age in English history. [18] An era knows as The Elizabethan era, or The Golden Age, was named after Queen Elizabeth, and followers her reign from 1558 to 1603. [8]

Criminals during Queen Elizabeth’s reign in England, known as the Elizabethan Era, were subject to harsh, violent. [8] In England, this era was known as the Elizabethan era, after the great Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [16] A summary of a history of literature in the elizabethan era Elizabethan Literature in's Queen Elizabeth I. It spanned from 1558 to 1603. 11-7-2006 Definition of Daily Life in the Elizabethan Era - Our online dictionary has On existence of god essay Daily Life in the Elizabethan Era information from Elizabethan World. [8] English literature from 1603 to 1625 is properly called Jacobean, after the new monarch, James I. On record, a lot of Elizabethan Era maps were ceased these days that somehow projects the life of the people during that time. [8] English literature from 1603 to 1625 is properly called Jacobean, after the new monarch, James I. The Elizabethan Era is perhaps most famous for its theatre and the works of William Shakespeare. [8] English literature from 1603 to 1625 is properly called Jacobean, after the new monarch, James I. Theatre wasn't the only form of art to flourish during the Elizabethan Era. [8]

The Elizabethan era is the epoch in English history marked by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [17] Marlowe was an English dramatist and poet during the Elizabethan era. [19] More importantly, Elizabethan era is also known as the age of exploration, and, it is only because of the famous pirate ships that made this time also known as the golden age of pirates. [18] With William Shakespeare at his peak, as well as Christopher Marlowe and many other playwrights, actors and theaters were constantly busy, the high culture of the Elizabethan era was best expressed in its theater. [20]

The Elizabethan era also coincided with the height of the English Renaissance, a period when the country's artistic, cultural, and intellectual life flourished as never before. [21]

During the Renaissance period coins were minted in either gold or silver. [18] Throughout the Renaissance period, rulers of each country or region continued to determine what would be the dominant church, and its citizens were required to obey. [20]


The Elizabethan era was an important period in the history of England. [22] The Elizabethan era is the period of English history associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [23] Some argue that the Elizabethan era was England’s greatest era, while others argue that the Period of Tudor Kings and Queens, that followed, was greater. [21] For all of its triumphs, the Elizabethan era was also a savage, unhealthy, and brutal period. [21]

Our Renaissance and Elizabethan Era Jewelry Collection features outstanding examples of gemstone jewelry and other intricate metalwork pieces that typify Tudor Era jewelry. [24] You'll find a fantastic selection of Elizabethan era rings and a beautiful set of five Italian Renaissance stacking rings available in a gold or silver finish. [24]

Drama was at its heyday during the Elizabethan era, and English people developed a sense of appreciation to plays performance, and very quickly that the habit of attending the theater halls rooted in the English culture. [23] The impacts of the era are scarcely confined to this 44-year frame, for many regard Elizabeth I as England's greatest queen and the Elizabethan era as the Golden Age of English history. [21] Music and painting were also popular during the Elizabethan Era producing composers William Boyd and John Dowland, and talented painters such as Nicholas Hilliard and George Gower, who was Queen Elizabeth's personal artist. [25] Portraits and other works of art from the Tudor and Elizabethan eras. [26] At the start of the Elizabethan era, men used to wear their hair short which became longer as time went on. [27] During the Elizabethan era, women used black kohl to rim their eyes and make them look darker. [27] The wise old women of the Elizabethan era were identified as witches and their medicines as magic potions. [22] The second half of the sixteen century was significant to the English literature, and in the very particular sense of the word, to the Elizabethan era. [23] The Elizabethan Era, which is generally considered one of the golden ages in English literature, was a great boom in literature, particularly in the area of the tragedy. [23]

Now, we will try to shed light on the literary genres that characterised the Elizabethan period and the poets who had tremendous contributions to the richness of this era. [23]

The Protestant/Catholic divide was settled, for a time, by the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, and parliament was not yet strong enough to challenge royal absolutism. [1]

It was a brief period of internal peace between the English Reformation and the religious battles between Protestants and Catholics and then the political battles between parliament and the monarchy that engulfed the remainder of the seventeenth century. [1] England during this period had a centralised, well-organised, and effective government, largely a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII, as well as Elizabeth's harsh punishments for any dissenters. [1] It was also the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland. [1]

On balance, it can be said that Elizabeth provided the country with a long period of general if not total peace and generally increased prosperity due in large part to stealing from Spanish treasure ships, raiding settlements with low defenses, and selling African slaves. [1] With taxes lower than other European countries of the period, the economy expanded though the wealth was distributed with wild unevenness, there was clearly more wealth to go around at the end of Elizabeth's reign than at the beginning. [1] Girl power: the European marriage pattern and labour markets in the North Sea region in the late medieval and early modern period. [1] One must remember that sugar in the Middle Ages or Early Modern Period was often considered medicinal, and used heavily in such things. [1]

Elizabethan England was not particularly successful in a military sense during the period, but it avoided major defeats and built up a powerful navy. [1] While Elizabethan England is not thought of as an age of technological innovation, some progress did occur. [1]

English Literary Renaissance. 26 (3): 423-60. doi : 10.1111/j.1475-6757.1996.tb01506.x. [1] This "golden age" represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of poetry, music and literature. [1]

England in this era had some positive aspects that set it apart from contemporaneous continental European societies. [1] England was exposed to new foods (such as the potato imported from South America), and developed new tastes during the era. [1]

While the Tudor era presents an abundance of material on the women of the nobility--especially royal wives and queens--historians have recovered scant documentation about the average lives of women. [1] This was in significant contrast to previous and succeeding eras of marked religious violence. [1] Economically, the country began to benefit greatly from the new era of trans-Atlantic trade, persistent theft of Spanish treasure, and the African slave trade. [1]

The Elizabethan Age contrasts sharply with the previous and following reigns. [1] In response and reaction to this hyperbole, modern historians and biographers have tended to take a more dispassionate view of the Tudor period. [1] During the Tudor period, the use of glass when building houses was first used, and became widespread. [1] Watching plays became very popular during the Tudor period. [1]

In a tradition of literature remarkable for its exacting and brilliant achievements, the Elizabethan and early Stuart periods have been said to represent the most brilliant century of all. (The reign of Elizabeth I began in 1558 and ended with her death in 1603 she was succeeded by the Stuart king James VI of Scotland, who took the title James I of England as well. [28] Shakespeare Studies Links at Central Michagan University covers Shakespeare, Elizabethan theatre, and the period in general. [29] Elizabethan Authors features period texts in original and modern spelling, plus essays and other resources. [29] Period Documents Online at Duncan's Cavalier Pages (some Elizabethan texts). [29]

Ever since that time he has been recognized as the genius of Elizabethan literature and a supreme example of Renaissance views on individualism. [7] Renaissance Sites Other Links to over 100 recommended Renaissance and Elizabethan resources on the web. [30] Elizabethan Heraldry, part of Renaissance, with essays, primary documents, blazons of arms, and online links. [29] More traditional Renaissance Faire theatrical guidelines based on Elizabethan Costuming by Janet Winter and Carolyn Savoy. [29] Elizabethan Sumptuary Statutes, transcribed by Maggie Secara, here at Renaissance. [29] Contemporaries of Shakespeare's contributed importantly to the Elizabethan Renaissance. [7]

The Renaissance, on the other hand, refers to the awakening from the Middle Ages, the resuscitation of Greek and Roman literature, and the general enlightened social culture, roughly 1400-1800 (and Elizabeth’s reign is part of this period) its "rebirth" and development of these earlier cultures gave Europe its distinct social personality. [5] The Renaissance Tailor, an extensive site with primary source tests and period patterns and methods of construction. [29] The Blackwork Embroidery Archives, original patterns inspired by period sources, from the designer of Renaissance. [29] ENGLISH RENAISSANCE  The Renaissance takes place at different times in different countries.  The English Renaissance (also called the Early Modern period) dates from the beginning of the Protestant Reformation and from the height of Quattrocento in Italy.  The period is characterized by a rebirth among English elite of classical learning, a rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman authors. [2] For this reason, scholars find the singularity of the period called the English Renaissance questionable C. S. Lewis, a professor of Medieval and Renaissance literature at Oxford and Cambridge, famously remarked to a colleague that he had "discovered" that there was no English Renaissance, and that if there had been one, it had "no effect whatsoever". [3]

Be sure to check out the other historical eras from our main page of the Period Drama Review Archives. [4] People like William Shakespeare derive from this era where they produced some of the plays and literature of all time, including Macbeth. [6] The Renaissance (Italian for "Rebirth") refers to the era in Europe, from approximately 1400-1600, following the Middle Ages. [5] While Florence, Italy, is widely credited with being the origin locus, it's important to note that this artistic, cultural, and scientific resurgence spread across Europe at intervals thus, the roughly 200 year window of the Renaissance encapsulates the different times when European countries experienced the Renaissance, including England (approximately 1550-1660). [5] In the brief, intense moment in which England assimilated the European Renaissance, the circumstances that made the assimilation possible were already disintegrating and calling into question the newly won certainties, as well as the older truths that they were dislodging. [28]

In the midst of this renaissance, Queen Elizabeth became the Queen of England. [4] The Garden Visit Guide's chapter on Renaissance gardens in England. [29] The idea of the Renaissance has come under increased criticism by many cultural historians, and some have contended that the "English Renaissance" has no real tie with the artistic achievements and aims of the northern Italian artists (Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Donatello) who are closely identified with the Renaissance. [3] It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance that many cultural historians believe originated in Tuscany in the 14th century. [3] ORIGIN The European Renaissance began in Northern Italy in the 14th century. [2] WHAT DOES RENAISSANCE MEAN?  The term 'renaissance' is derived from the French word meaning 'rebirth'.  It is used to describe this phase of European history because many of the changes experienced between the 14th and 17th centuries were inspired by a revival of the classical art and intellect of ancient Greek and Rome. [2] CHANGES - WHICH RENAISSANCE BROUGHT Renaissance brought change in Art, literature, philosophy, science, discovery and exploration. [2]

William Shakespeare played an enormous role in the Elizabethan theatre his unique writing style in "The Taming of The Shrew" influenced modern day literature. [3] This also happened to be when Elizabethan Theatre began to grow and playwrights like Shakespeare composed many plays that changed the way of the old style theatre ways. [3] In Elizabethan theater, William Shakespeare, among others, composed and staged plays in a variety of settings that broke away from England's past style of plays. [3]

The Elizabethan settlement was a compromise the Tudor pretense that the people of England were unified in belief disguised the actual fragmentation of the old consensus under the strain of change. [28]

"Elizabethan" refers specifically to the reign of Britain’s monarch, Elizabeth 1, from 1558 to 1601. [5] While the Elizabethans primarily saw the benefits, the trading industry was established by previous monarchs to Queen Elizabeth I. [6] Social ideals of wit, many-sidedness, and sprezzatura (accomplishment mixed with unaffectedness) were imbibed from Baldassare Castiglione ’s Il cortegiano, translated as The Courtyer by Sir Thomas Hoby in 1561, and Elizabethan court poetry is steeped in Castiglione’s aristocratic Neoplatonism, his notions of universal proportion, and the love of beauty as the path to virtue. [28] Elizabethan Authors : Texts, Resources, and Authorship Studies, a collection of drama, satire, poetry and fiction, with glossaries and notes a collaborative effort by Robert Brazil & Barboura Flues. [29] The love of excess is obvious in much Elizabethan writing: in the interminable, allusion-packed, allegory- made stanzas of the Faerie Queene in the piling up of quotations from the ancient Greeks and Romans in Shakespeare's fondness for puns and rhetorical devices in the extraordinarily bloody tragedies and exuberant comedies that made Elizabethan drama second only to that of the ancient Greeks. [7]

Behind the Elizabethan vogue for pastoral poetry lies the fact of the prosperity of the enclosing sheep farmer, who sought to increase pasture at the expense of the peasantry. [28]

Renaissance and Elizabethan age Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [2] Sixteenth Century Renaissance English Literature: Background Information, an astonishingly wide-ranging scholarly site at Luminarium. [29] Whare are some continuities between the Renaissance and the Middle Ages and what are some new. [5] Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet, includes renaissance resources, educational material, and other goodies. [29] The high glory in the English Renaissance lay in its literature, in the works of William Shakespeare (1564-1616), Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Edmund Spenser (1552-1599), and many others who shaped the English language for generations to come. [7] The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. [3] It was an age considered to be the height of the English Renaissance, and saw the full flowering of English literature and English poetry. [3]

Historical periods, remember, are labeled for the convenience of historians (compare Age of Enlightenment, Romantic Period, Victorianism, and the like), and seldom are named during their own existence. [5] This period was notable for its English literature, especially drama and the works of William Shakespeare. [5] Outside of the European and American world, our period drama reviews once again include historical dramas set in Asian countries. [4] Looking for new Movie, TV, and Book recommendations? Get The Silver Petticoat Review Newsletter with once a week article updates on everything Romance! Romantic Period Dramas, Paranormal Romance TV Shows, & More. [4]

It should also be noted that there will be a crossover between this period and Medieval Time. [4] In this period England’s population doubled prices rocketed, rents followed, old social loyalties dissolved, and new industrial, agricultural, and commercial veins were first tapped. [28] These two terms are attempts to break history up into distinct periods, although in truth the transitions from one "period" to another are amorphous. [5] Instrument Guide to period music from the Night Watch, with images and audio files. [29]

The Elizabethan period references the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603), a time marked by England's rise as a naval and commercial power, the strengthening of the Protestant Church, and blossoming of London as the heart of the country. [5] Tattershall Trayned Band, dedicated to the study of pike and shot companies of the Elizabethan period, English Civil War and the Scottish Border Reivers. [29]

Life in Elizabethan England: A Compendium of Common Knowledge 1558-1603 More than 88 pages of insight into everyday life in Tudor England - food, occupations, games, pastimes, religion, fashion, manners, attitudes, and education in the time of Queen Elizabeth I and Shakespeare. [30]

Literature flourished in Queen Elizabeth era and poets and writers were admired and appreciated in her court. [2] Even before this, it was popular to attend amphitheatres, but even more were constructed during this time era. [6]

There were solid foundations under the state and society that produced the wealth and victories of the Elizabethan Age and its attainments in literature, music, architecture, and science. [7] To the nineteenth- century romantics, they were brother sin romance, and nineteenth-century scholars rediscovered the Elizabethan age. [7]

A great example of this time period, for instance, would be any films about The Tudors. [4]

In the Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500 the period of European history between ancient times and the Renaissance) most Europeans considered the arts to be a means of conveying religious ideas. [13] The notion of calling this period "The Renaissance" is a modern invention, having been popularized by the historian Jacob Burckhardt in the 19th century. [11]

England, separated from the European continent by the English Channel and caught up in religious upheaval during the fifteenth century, was slow to respond to the new artistic influences of the Renaissance. [13] Elizabethan artists drew from European Renaissance ideals, but they also brought a unique national sensibility to their work. [13] The first serious music to be published in England was their Cantiones Sacrae, a collection of Latin motets, choral compositions usually sung in Latin and traditionally a part of the Catholic Mass. Though the English public found the collection too Catholic in its sound, these works are today considered some of the greatest Elizabethan compositions, full of intense emotion and musical complexity. [13] It came about that the great master of Elizabethan music was a Catholic composer named William Byrd (c. 1543-1623), who was hired by Elizabeth to a position in the royal chapel in the early 1570s. [13] The Protestant Catholic divide was settled, for a time, by the Elizabethan Religious Settlement and parliament was still not strong enough to challenge royal absolutism. [12] In Elizabethan times there was no such thing as religious tolerance. [13] By the time of Elizabethan literature a vigorous literary culture in both drama and poetry included poets such as Edmund Spenser, whose verse epic The Faerie Queene had a strong influence on English literature but was eventually overshadowed by the lyrics of William Shakespeare, Thomas Wyatt and others. [11] Sidney's poems and the works that followed, written by poets such as Edmund Spenser (c. 1552-1599), Fulke Greville (1554-1628), Michael Drayton (1563-1631), and William Shakespeare (1564-1616), represent the best of Elizabethan poetry. [13]

Like Chaucer, many Elizabethan writers wished to raise the English language, long considered a rough means of expression, to the level of art. [13] Lyly's prose style was imitated by many Elizabethans, and Euphues was praised as an attempt to elevate the English language to a new level of artistic expression. [13]

The most acclaimed Elizabethan writer of nonfiction prose was Richard Hooker (1554-1600), a clergyman in the Church of England and an educator in a law school. [13] Hilliard and his student, Isaac Oliver (c. 1560-1617), made miniatures very popular in Elizabethan times. [13] In Elizabethan times there were no professional architects to design buildings. [13]

"The theater as a public amusement was an innovation in the social life of the Elizabethans, and it immediately took the general fancy. [10] The luxurious fashions depicted in Elizabethan art work most often reflect the clothing worn by royalty, the nobility, and the elite. [14] One of his most famous works is the enormous house called Longleat in Wiltshire, which was finished in 1580 and is considered one of the finest examples of Elizabethan architecture. [13] One of the most distinctive elements of Elizabethan fashion is the exaggerated collar called a ruff. [14]

Though Foxe's book was extremely expensive, it became an Elizabethan bestseller, selling more than ten thousand copies by the end of the century. [13] As in the Middle Ages, the fabrics used to create garments of the Elizabethans were wool and linen. [14] Elizabethan court fashion was heavily influenced by Spanish and French styles. [12] Elizabethan style demanded a tight upper body paired with a voluminous lower body. [14]

Another notable change was the expression of passion and mood in Elizabethan music, which usually highlighted the emotions of the words being sung with the music. [13] He contributed greatly to Elizabethan music with his 119 songs for voice and lute. [13]

In later years most Elizabethan poetry, with the exception of Spenser's The Faerie Queene, lost its popular audience, but Shakespeare's sonnets are still widely read today. [13] It is largely thanks to him that we know what leading figures of Elizabethan days--such as poet and statesman Walter Raleigh (1522-1618) explorer Francis Drake (c. 1540-1596), and statesman Robert Dudley (Earl of Leicester 1532-1588)--actually looked like. [13] Elizabethan bodices were quite stiff, severe, and almost masculine in a shape that presented wide shoulders, and a small waist like an inverted triangle. [14]

Ruffs were the highly starched circular collars worn by Elizabethan men and women, either attached to the clothing or as a separate garment. [13]

Although so many people had very negative feelings towards plays, players and playhouses during the Elizabeth era of the Renaissance, so many good things came out of it. [10] Elizabeth ruled after the peak of the Italian Renaissance, when aesthetic innovation and achievement in poetry and literature was largely centered in southern Europe. [9]

Other cultural historians have countered that, regardless of whether the name "renaissance" is apt, there was undeniably an artistic flowering in England under the Tudor monarchs, culminating in Shakespeare and his contemporaries. [11] The first artistic influence of the Renaissance arrived in England when Henry VIII brought in some of the finest painters from Europe in the early decades of the sixteenth century. [13] Most early Renaissance writers in England strove to imitate the style of the classics. [13] The idea of the Renaissance has come under increased criticism by many cultural historians, and some have contended that the "English Renaissance" has no real tie with the artistic achievements and aims of the Italian artists (Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Donatello) who are closely identified with Renaissance visual art. [11] The portrait-miniature was a uniquely English contribution to the Renaissance, and Nicholas Hilliard (1547-1619) was the master of the art. [13]

Typically, the works of these playwrights and poets circulated in manuscript form for some time before they were published, and above all the plays of English Renaissance theatre were the outstanding legacy of the period. [11] The period coinciding with the reign of England's Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603), considered to be the literary height of the English Renaissance. [31] For this reason, scholars find the singularity of the period called the English Renaissance questionable C. S. Lewis, a professor of Medieval and Renaissance literature at Oxford and Cambridge, famously remarked to a colleague that he had "discovered" that there was no English Renaissance, and that if there had been one, it had "no effect whatsoever." [11]

Wordsmiths, like playwrights, often found work -- including the English language’s best known playwright, William Shakespeare, who wrote and staged his plays during this period. [9] It was a brief period of largely internal peace between the English Reformation, with battles between Protestants and Catholics, and the battles between parliament and the monarchy that would engulf the seventeenth century. [12] The English period began far later than the Italian, which is usually considered to begin in the late 14th century, and was moving into Mannerism and the Baroque by the 1550s or earlier. [11] The language of the Book of Common Prayer, first published in 1549, and at the end of the period the Authorised Version ("King James Version" to Americans) of the Bible (1611) had enduring impacts on the English consciousness. [11]

Weather in England during the period was cool and wet as northern Europe shivered in the grip of a mini Ice Age. [14] During this period England had a centralized, well organized, and effective government, largely a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII. [12]

This was a period when the influence of the Church was against the theater and this time its efforts towards the repression of theatre were considerably successful. [10] Time away from hard work was restricted to periods after church on Sundays, and so for the most part, leisure and festivities took place on a public church holy day. [12]

Notable garments of this period include the farthingale for women, military styles like the mandilion for men, and ruffs for both sexes. [12] The Elizabethan Age is viewed so highly because of the contrasts with the periods before and after. [12] The Elizabethan Age is the time period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. [12]

Much like the Victorian era would later be named to honor a queen, the Elizabethan age would become known as such in deference to the influential reign of one of England’s longest-serving monarchs. [9]

Despite the heights achieved during the era, less than 40 years after the death of Elizabeth the country was to descend into the English Civil War. [12] The end of the Tudor line of rulers, but a grand era of English history. [32] Economically the country began to benefit greatly from the new era of Atlantic trade. [12]

As the Renaissance began in Europe in the late fourteenth century, however, artists began to turn away from religious themes. [13] Elizabeth herself was a product of Renaissance humanism trained by Roger Ascham, and wrote occasional poems such as On Monsieur’s Departure at critical moments of her life. [11]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(35 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


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