Selinur AKA-41 - History

Selinur AKA-41 - History

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(AKA-41: dp. 4,087; 1. 426'; b. 58'; dr. 16', s. 16.9 k.
cpl. 303; a. 1 5", 8 40mm., 10 20mm., cl. Artemis
T. S4-SE2-BE1)

Selinur (AKA-41) was laid down on 18 January 1945 under Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 1902) by the Walsh Kaiser Co., Providence, R.I. launched on 28 March 1945, sponsored by Mrs. Wilton Carter, and commissioned on 21 April 1945, Lt. Comdr. W.F. Babcock in command.

After shakedown, Selinur departed Norfolk, Va., on 27 May 1945 with cargo and personnel for Hawaii, arriving at Honolulu on 18 June. After making cargo voyages to Midway, Hilo, Majuro, and Kwajalein, Selinur sailed from Pearl Harbor on 1 September with occupation troops for Japan and arrived at Sasebo on 22 September. She next sailed for Manila, whence she returned to Sasebo and reported for "Magic Carpet" duty on 20 October. The cargo vessel made two voyages bringing troops home, one from Sasebo and Okinawa and the other from Tacloban, P.I., before being released from "Magic Carpet" duty at San Francisco on 24 January 1946. She arrived at Philadelphia on 16 April for inactivation

Selinur was decommissioned on 30 April, transferred to the Maritime Commission and simultaneously loaned to the Pennsylvania Maritime Academy as Keystone State. She was struck from the Navy list on 8 May 1946. The ship was returned to the Maritime Commission in 1947 and laid up in the James River as a unit of the National Defense Reserve Fleet. She was sold by the Maritime Administration on 15 July 1968 to the Northern Metals Co., Philadelphia, for scrapping.


Here we see some great shots by the very talented USCG LCDR Krystyn Pecora of the Boston-based 270-foot medium endurance cutter USCGC Seneca (WMEC-906) as she nears the end of her periodic drydock availability.

A “Bear” or “Famous” class cutter, her keel was laid on 16 September 1982 at Robert Derecktor Shipyard, Middletown, RI, and she was commissioned in 1986, making her 31 years young.

She shares the name of the old USRC Seneca, commissioned in 1908, a former Warship Wednesday alum.

You can expect Seneca to put another decade or so under her hull before she is ultimately replaced by one of the new, larger Offshore Patrol Cutters, currently in the works. However, with her 76mm OTO Melara, helicopter hangar, economical diesel plant– and originally designed with weight and space reserved for Harpoon, Mk32, a towed array and CIWS– you can expect that she will likely be passed on to a third world ally for a second career.

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Shackle, is that you?

The Navy was already experienced in marine salvage prior to World War II. However, the Navy did not have ships specifically designed and built for salvage work when it entered WWII, and it was not until the start of the war that salvage ships become a distinct vessel type.

Then came the purpose-built Diver-class.

Built at Basalt Rock Co., Napa, Calif. — a gravel company who was in the barge building biz– 17 of the new 213-foot vessels were constructed during WWII. Fitted with a 20-ton capacity boom forward and 10-ton capacity booms aft, they had automatic towing machines, two fixed fire pumps rated at 1,000 gallons per minute, four portable fire pumps, and eight sets of “beach gear,” pre-rigged anchors, chains and cables for use in refloating grounded vessels. And of course, they were excellently equipped to support divers in the water with one double re-compression chamber and two complete diving stations aft for air diving and two 35-foot workboats.

They had a surprisingly long life and, even though they almost all left U.S. Navy service fairly rapidly in the 1970s, several gained a second career. Two went to South Korea where one, ex- USS Grapple (ARS-7) is still active as ROCS Da Hu (ARS-552) in Taiwan and another, ex-USS Safeguard (ARS-25), went to Turkey. The latter is supposedly still active as TCG Isin (A-589) though her replacement is nearing.

Three, Escape (ARS-6), Seize (ARS-26) and USS Shackle (ARS-9) went to the Coast Guard as USCGC Escape (WMEC-6), USCGC Yocona (WMEC-168) and USCGC Acushnet (WMEC-167) respectively.

USCGC Acushnet (WMEC-167) arriving at Kodiak, AK, 26 August 2008.
Photo courtesy Marine Exchange Alaska. Via Navsource

Escape was sold for scrap in 2009, Seize/Yocona was sunk as a target in 2006 and Shackle/Acushnet, decommissioned in 2011 as the last Diver-class vessel in U.S. service then put up for sale for years in Anacortes, Wash with efforts afoot to save her in one form or another.

Well it looks like Shackle/Acushnet was in fact picked up last summer by a non-profit group called Ocean Guardian, who intend to keep the Coast Guard name and put her back to work as a research ship/museum/education vessel in conjunction with the National Maritime Law Enforcement Academy.

Seems like you can’t keep a good old salvage ship down.

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The first initiation of Gamma Kappa Omega Chapter was conducted in the Attucks Grade School on Jackson Street in Carbondale, IL on March 15, 1941. In addition to Ms. Roberts of Gamma Omega Chapter in St. Louis, were three other women who participated in the initiation: Marianna Beck, Alice McGehee Smart, and Blanche Patterson McWilliams.

First Chapter Officers

Gwendolyn Chambliss, Vice President

Versa L. Hayes, Recording Secretary

Lucille Walker, Corresponding

Mildred Kedley, Sergeant-at-Arms

Jenolar F. Hillsman, Ivy Leaf Reporter

The Vision

Mrs. Lovia Penn, while attending an Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. regional meeting with her husband, met Ms. Evelyn Roberts of Gamma Omega Chapter in St. Louis, Missouri. After having expressed interest in organizing a chapter in Carbondale, Mrs. Penn conferred with Ms. Roberts in 1941 and made arrangements for members of Gamma Omega Chapter to come to Carbondale to guide eleven women in establishing their graduate chapter.

Charter Members

Gwendolyn Chambliss* Luella McCall Davis*

Mildred Kedley* Grace Perkins Kelley*

Jenolar Hillsman McBride* Lovia Bell Penn*

Derenda Wood Taylor * Lucille Walker*

Moving Forward

In keeping with the tradition of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., several service projects were undertaken. One of the original service projects was a scholarship, which was awarded to a deserving high school student. Another was the Mother&rsquos Day Scholarship Brunch, which served as a fundraiser. This activity was accomplished by holding a brunch following church services on Mother&rsquos Day, at which time donations were solicited.

In 1952, Soror Lucille Walker and Soror Jenolar (Hillsman) McBride organized Delta Beta, the undergraduate chapter located on the campus of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. These two sorors convinced Central Regional Director Evelyn Roberts that an SIU chapter could be viable and maintain a presence on campus. Delta Beta held their chapter meetings at the home of Soror Lucille Walker. Gamma Kappa Omega serves as the advising chapter for Delta Beta.

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In April of 1955, Gamma Kappa Omega Chapter served as co-hostess of the 1955 Regional Convention held at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. The men of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. provided support by sponsoring a &ldquoMoonlight Picnic&rdquo for all conference participants.

Service to Southern Illinois

Through the years, Gamma Kappa Omega Chapter has sponsored health fairs, women&rsquos forums, community appreciation receptions, dinner dances, jazz shows, public meetings, tutorial reading sessions, and math and science fairs for 8-11 year-olds. Entertainment was brought to southern Illinois by the Chapter&rsquos sponsoring the Ebony Fashion Fair. This fundraiser replenished Gamma Kappa Omega&rsquos scholarship fund from 1980 to 1995.

Other activities of Gamma Kappa Omega have included: providing scholarship assistance to women attending SIUC, holding Fashionettas at SIUC, sponsoring &ldquoGame Fests&rdquo at Thomas School, sponsoring a Christmas child and Easter child who received savings bonds, and contributing to the J.Q. Clark Scholarship Fund.

In 1997, the acclaimed Boys Choir of Harlem was brought to Carbondale by G amma Kappa Omega for the same purpose. Presently, the scholarship fund is worth $1,000 per year. Gamma Kappa Omega partnered with Shryock Auditorium to bring &ldquoHaving Our Say,&rdquo the story of the Delany Sisters, The Preservation Hall Jazz Band, and the Urban Bush Women to the area. In 2002, Gamma Kappa Omega Chapter was featured as WSIL-News TV3&rsquos &ldquoUnsung Hero&rdquo for the work with the young Ladies of Elegance, a group of young African American girls.

Milestone Celebrations

At Gamma Kappa Omega&rsquos 55th Founders&rsquo Day celebration

on April 14, 1996, in the Old Main Room of Southern Illinois

University, Carbondale, Soror Thelma Gibbs Walker was

honored for being the only charter member still active

with the Chapter. Mayor Neill Dillard proclaimed the day

&ldquoThelma Gibbs Walker Day&rdquo for her service to the community

as a religious and civic leader, educator, and entrepreneur.

On April 16, 2016, Gamma Kappa Omega celebrated 75 years of service to Southern Illinois. Held at the Garden Grove Event Center in Carbondale, Illinois, the Jubilee Anniversary Celebration was an awesome showcase of the Chapter&rsquos history and legacy of service and sisterhood. Guest included Carbondale area National Pan-Hellenic Council sororities and fraternities. In addition to sorority members travelling across the state to join in the celebration, then Central Regional Director, Kathy Walker Steele, along with former Regional Directors Pamela Bates Porch, Peggy Lewis LeCompte, Nadine Celeste Bonds, and *Johnetta R. Haley.

In keeping with the international program theme, Launching New Dimensions

of Service, members of the Carbondale community were recognized for their

support and contributions in the areas of education enrichment, health

promotion, family strengthening, environmental ownership, and global

impact. The honorees were: Michael Haywood (Global Impact) Collette Gail

Ross (Health Promotion) Randy Osborn (Family Strengthening) Daniel Booth

(Educational Enrichment) Jackson Funeral Home (Environmental Ownership) Pastors Doug and Lisa Cherry of Frontline Family Ministries (Family Strengthening) and Marilynn Ross (Educational Enrichment).


Lindsey, whose aim was to break Stenmark’s record, declared her decision to retire in 2018. The announcement came before the FIS Alpine Ski World Cup, though she decided to continue till the end of the season. In the 2018 Winter Olympics, the Skier got the sixth place in Women’s super-G and earned bronze in downhill.

Fallen Hero

On December 21, 1915, John Robert Laubach was born in Baltimore, Maryland. His father, Charles Adam Laubach, was a physician who served in the U.S. Army Medical Corps during World War I. His mother, Natalie Escher Laubach, was a homemaker who devoted herself to raising John — better known as Jack — and his younger brother, Charles. Although the family moved several times, Jack returned to Maryland often, spending his summers swimming and boating on the shores of the Chesapeake Bay.

The family settled for a while in Pennsylvania, where Jack graduated from Norristown Senior High School (NSHS) in 1933. Noted for his sense of humor and studious looks, Jack participated in many clubs that showed his love of science and sports. Although his time at NSHS was short, the class yearbook noted that he was, “…a friend that will be hard to forget.”

Jack enrolled at The Pennsylvania State College (now The Pennsylvania State University) the following fall. He studied science, graduating with a degree in forestry in 1937. After working as a salesman, Jack got a job with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). He travelled the country making detailed soil inspections. Evaluations in his USDA file revealed a dedicated worker who was respected by his managers.

Perhaps the brightest part of Jack’s post-college years was his marriage to Virginia (Ginny) Dawson. The two had known each other since childhood, and though Jack’s moves had separated them, they kept their bond alive and wed on September 10, 1938. They would rarely be apart again until Jack’s death.

Military Experience

Shortly after the United States entered World War II, Laubach sought ways to serve his country through his work with the USDA. He requested a transfer to any position related to the war effort. However, it did not take long before Laubach made the decision to join the U.S. Navy. In October 1942, he received a direct commission as an ensign.

After training in Boston, Massachusetts, Laubach became a deck officer, assigned to the USS Eagle 56 (PE-56). The U.S. Navy used eagle boats for anti-submarine patrols and as training vessels. In 1942, the Eagle 56transferred to Key West, Florida. As an officer in the ship’s 60-man crew, Laubach’s job was to keep the vessel and crew in top condition to carry out its mission. Laubach did well and received high marks from his commanders.

In June 1944, the U.S. Navy sent the Eagle 56 to Maine. There it towed targets for pilots practicing attacks on the enemy. Laubach was promoted to lieutenant (junior grade) and served as the ship’s second in command. Shortly after noon on April 23, 1945, the Eagle 56 suddenly exploded a few miles off the New England coast. Only a handful of men managed to escape the ship as it sank and 13 survivors were pulled from the ocean. Laubach was not among them.

After the explosion, the U.S. Navy held an investigation which determined that the ship sank because its boiler exploded. Many of the survivors believed that the explosion was not an accident, and several swore they saw a submarine as they abandoned ship. Even Admiral Felix Gygax, who oversaw the investigation, noted that there was a strong case for other causes. Still, the findings were approved. As World War II ended, the USS Eagle 56 was all but forgotten except by those who lost someone aboard.


In the late 1990s, a lawyer named Paul Lawton heard the story of the Eagle 56 and began looking into the sinking. Lawton proved that the Eagle 56 was not destroyed by a boiler explosion, but by a torpedo from the German submarine U-853. The submarine had orders to sink Allied shipping vessels in the weeks before Germany’s surrender. The U.S. Navy reviewed and accepted Lawton’s findings and reversed the decision from the 1945 investigation. Each crewmember from the USS Eagle 56 who died had their status changed to Killed in Action and was awarded the Purple Heart. Laubach’s medal was received by Ginny, who still deeply felt his loss over fifty years later.

It seemed that the final chapter had been written in the story of the USS Eagle 56. Then, in 2018, a team of eight divers known as the Nomad Exploration Team discovered the wreck of the ship. Their discovery further proved the true cause of the sinking and sparked renewed interest in the fate of the ship and its crew.

Today, John R. Laubach is memorialized in Hecktown, Pennsylvania, State College, Pennsylvania, and the East Coast Memorial in New York, New York. The memory of his service and sacrifice stands as a testament to all of those who, through accident or enemy fire, gave their lives in defense of their country.


Eagle 56 (PE-56) May 1944 to March 1945 Deck Logs, 1941-1950 Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, Record Group 24 (Box 3138) National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.

Eastman, Peggy. Godly Glimpses: Discoveries of the Love That Heals. Huntington: Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., 1999.

“John Laubach.” American Battle Monuments Commission. Accessed January 1, 2019.

John Laubach in Service Dress Blue Uniform. Photograph. Official Military Personnel File, Department of the Navy, Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, RG 24, National Archives and Records Administration - St. Louis. Image.

John R. Laubach, Official Military Personnel File, Department of the Navy, Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, RG 24, National Archives and Records Administration - St. Louis.

John R. Laubach, Personnel File, Department of Agriculture, RG 16, National Archives and Records Administration - St. Louis

John R. Laubach’s Memorial Headstone. Photograph. February 2019. Collection of Leif Liberg. Image.

Norristown Senior High School. Spice. Norristown: Norristown Senior High School, 1933. Montgomery County — Norristown Public Library, Public History Collection.

Oklahoma. Oklahoma County. Marriage License. Digital Images.

Puleo, Stephen. Due To Enemy Action: The True World War II Story of the USS Eagle 56. Guilford: Lyons Press, 2005.

Seid to Sentinel, Records Relating to Naval Activity During World War II, World War II Action and Operational Reports Records of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Record Group 38 (Box 1425) National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.

Selfridge (DD-357) January 1945 to October 15, 1945 and Selinur (AKA-41) April 21, 1945 to June 1945 Deck Logs, 1941-1950 Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, Record Group 24 (Box 8769) National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.

Tow Craft Eagle 57 (PE-57) and Spar. Photograph. August 19, 1944. National Archives and Records Administration (80-G-277969). Image.

Independence Seaport Museum collection of Pennsylvania Nautical School material

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the Independence Seaport Museum, J. Welles Henderson Archives and Library. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

Summary Information


An Act of Congress approved June 20, 1874 authorized the Secretary of the Navy to provide a suitable ship and assign a superintendent and officers for the purpose of training young men for the merchant marine at a nautical school at each of any of the ports of New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk and San Francisco.

The provisions of the Act of April 17, 1889 and the appropriation of May 23, 1889 by the Pennsylvania Assembly established a nautical school in the port of Philadelphia aboard the 47 year-old 882 ton sailing ship USS Saratoga. The admission requirements to the school were for boys 16 and 19 years of age whose parents were citizens and residents of the state of Pennsylvania.

The schoolship Saratoga was operated as a nautical training school from 1890 to 1908 when the 65 year-old vessel was replaced by the Navy by the 32 year-old sail and steam-powered 1,400 ton USS Adams. The schoolships Saratoga and Adams were operated jointly by the State of Pennsylvania and the city of Philadelphia.

The course of training was approximately two years which was dependent upon the capability of the ships to complete their training cruises within the specified time. The schoolship Adams ceased operations on February 16, 1914 when the Navy withheld its appropriation and withdrew the ship on account of local disagreement and the legislature's failure to appropriate funds.

The provisions of an Act of Assembly approved July 8, 1919 reactivated the nautical school as the Pennsylvania State Nautical School under the administration of the Board of the Commissioners of Navigation for the Delaware River and Its Navigable Tributaries. The 23 year old 1,000 ton steam-powered USS Annapolis was assigned by the Navy in 1920 and continued in service for 20 years. Admission requirements were raised to high school graduates between the ages of 17 and 20 years and the school offered two separate courses either in deck or engineering. Students were instructed in dead reckoning methods of finding latitude and longitude the duties of an officer theoretical and practical marine engineering and in handling boats under oars and sail.

In 1940 the administration of the school was transferred to the United States Maritime Commission and renamed the Pennsylvania Maritime Academy, but this administration was discontinued in March 1942 and the cadets and officers were transferred to the U. S. Merchant Marine Academy at Kings Point, N.Y. to complete their training. The schoolship Annapolis was replaced in 1941 by the 33 year-old steam powered former Coast Guard cutter Senaca.

The state of Pennsylvania resumed administration of the school in September 1942 when the schoolship Seneca was returned to the state and renamed Keystone State. A shore base was established at Morrisville, Pennsylvania in 1945 to augment the shipboard training facilities. The schoolship Keystone State was replaced in 1946 by the USS Selinur and renamed Keystone State II. With newer facilities there were plans for increasing the training program to a three-year course, with two practice cruises and a minimum of five hundred hours per year of classroom time . However, charges of poor management and newspaper allegations of "mutinous" behavior by cadets coupled with dwindling support in the State government, and a decline in applicants, resulted in the closing of the Pennsylvania Maritime Academy, on June 20, 1947.

There have been several alumni organizations associated with the Pennsylvania Nautical School. The first of these was the Pennsylvania Nautical School Association which was founded ca. 1905. Its newsletter, The Log of the P.N.S.A. was published for only a few issues (1912), before it was absorbed into The Log of the American Merchant Training Ships, which was published monthly by the Allied Associations of the Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania Merchant Training ships. (1913-1915).

The Pennsylvania Schoolship Association was established in 1955. It’s mission: “To provide a means for the maintenance of contacts with esteemed shipmates to promote a spirit of enduring friendship between alumni to preserve the venerable traditions and lore of the Pennsylvania’s Schoolships, and to further the interests of the American Merchant Marine.” The Association holds annual musters and memorial services, and publishes the Association’s newsletter, The Lookout (1956 to present). The Lookout features profiles and updates on alumni, reports of association meetings, as well as articles related to the merchant marine in general.

Scope and Contents

The Independence Seaport Collection of Pennsylvania Nautical School material documents the School and its alumni association the Pennsylvania Nautical Schoolship Association largely through photographs, class yearbooks, alumni newsletters, course materials, postcards, programs, and other ephemera. The collection spans the entire existence of the school, but the bulk of the materials are from the 1920’s to the 1940’s.

The Cadets series contains a variety of materials documenting the cadet experience. Of particular note is the photograph scrapbook of Cadet C.J. Anthony "Ants" Charlton (Class of 1941), which includes numerous photos of life aboard ship as well as training cruises which visited Havana, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico. The Helm, which forms the bulk of the School Publications series, records graduates and underclassmen, faculty and staff, but also includes reports on cruises, dances, and sporting activities. Especially rich in terms of documenting cadets post Nautical School careers is a complete run of the Pennsylvania Schoolship Association's newsletter, The Lookout, which contains updates on class members, individual profiles, and reports on the Association's activities. Taken together these series help to form a picture of cadets as they moved from “Boots” to graduates entering the Merchant Marine.

The Course Materials series includes a number of copies of typed notes compiled by the School's Chief Engineer, Commander C. W. Densmore, U.S.N., Retired related to all aspects of onboard engineering. Some of the subjects covered include Engineering Metals, Fuel and Combustion, and Engine Room Chemistry. Notes include diagrams and questionnaires. Also included in this series are several textbooks used by the cadets.

The School Ships series is composed almost entirely of photographs of the various ships used by the School as training vessels.

The Alumni Associations series contains materials related to the School’s two alumni associations, much of it in the form of newsletters. The first of these to be established was the Pennsylvania Nautical School Association. Its newsletter, The Log of the P.N.S.A. was published for only a few issues (1912), before it was absorbed into The Log of the American Merchant Training Ships, which was published monthly by the Allied Associations of the Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania Merchant Training ships. (1913-1915). The Pennsylvania Schoolship Association was established in 1955. Materials related to their activities include invitations, programs, and announcements of Association musters, member directories, and anniversary booklets. The Association’s newsletter, The Lookout (1956 to present), features profiles and updates on alumni, reports of association meetings, as well as articles related to the merchant marine in general.

Arrangement note

The Independence Seaport Collection of Pennsylvania Nautical School and Pennsylvania Schoolship Association materials are arranged into six series. In addition to the six series there is a box containing Administrative materials such as copies of accession records, background information, notes on the dispersal of accessions, and other materials related to the collection. The collection is an aggregate of numerous accessions over a nearly 50 year period. For further explanation and information regarding arrangement see the Processing note below.

Series I: Cadets is arranged alphabetically by individual and contains materials pertaining to cadets primarily during there time as students. Information provided varies from cadet to cadet. The series also includes group / class photographs that are not associated with an individual cadet.

Series II: General School papers is largely comprised of School ephemera and related newspaper clippings. Within the series materials are grouped by subject with those items produced by the school placed before those items such as newspaper clippings which document the school but are not official productions. Within folders materials are arranged chronologically.

Series III: Course Materials holds copies of typed notes compiled by Commander C. W. Densmore, U.S.N., Retired on a variety of subjects, including: Engineering Metals, Fuel and Combustion, and Engine Room Chemistry. The first three folders of the Densmore notes were housed in binders and their arrangement has been preserved. Additional notes are arranged alphabetically by title. Published texts used by cadets are arranged alphabetically by title.

Series IV: School Publications holds copies of the School’s yearbook The Helm from 1924 to 1946, and The Tarp, a monthly newsletter published by the cadet-midshipmen of the Pennsylvania Maritime Academy, 1945-1946. Materials are in chronological order.

Series V: School Ships is arranged alphabetically by ship’s name, with materials within folders in chronological order

Series VI: Alumni Associations is broken down into two subseries. The Pennsylvania Nautical School Association materials are grouped by subject with official records and ephemera placed before photographs and publications. The Pennsylvania Schoolship Association materials are also arranged in a similar manner. Within folders materials are arranged chronologically.

یواس‌اس سلینور (ای‌کی‌ای-۴۱)

یواس‌اس سلینور (ای‌کی‌ای-۴۱) (به انگلیسی: USS Selinur (AKA-41) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۴۲۶ فوت (۱۳۰ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۵ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس سلینور (ای‌کی‌ای-۴۱)
آب‌اندازی: ۱۸ ژانویه ۱۹۴۵
آغاز کار: ۲۸ مارس ۱۹۴۵
اعزام: ۲۱ آوریل ۱۹۴۵
مشخصات اصلی
وزن: ۴٬۰۸۷ long ton (۴٬۱۵۳ تن)
درازا: ۴۲۶ فوت (۱۳۰ متر)
پهنا: ۵۸ فوت (۱۸ متر)
آبخور: ۱۶ فوت (۴٫۹ متر)
سرعت: ۱۶٫۹ گره (۳۱٫۳ کیلومتر بر ساعت؛ ۱۹٫۴ مایل بر ساعت)

این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.

1941 Model 1891/41 Carcano Infantry Rifle (marked for accuracy)

1941 Model 1891/41 Carcano Infantry Rifle (marked for accuracy)
(Modello M91/41 Fucile Tiro a Segno Nazionale)

(Click PIC to Enlarge)

Caliber: . 6.5 x 52mm Carcano
Rifling & Twist: . 4 groove, right hand twist.
Barrel Length: . 27.2 in. (692mm)
Overall Length: . 46 in. (1168 mm)
Weight: . 8.5 lbs. (3.9kg)
Magazine Capacity: . 6
Qty Mfg: . Armageurra Cremona - 240,000
. Fabbrica Armi di Terni - 580,000

Source: . The Carcano: Italy's Military Rifle by Hobbs, Richard J. C1996, 2nd ed. 1997,
Carcano Model Identification

1941 Model 1891/41 Carcano Infantry Rifle

(53 picture virtual tour)

Observations: (by "Claven2")
Note: Pics of rifle provided courtesy of moderator Claven2.

Following France's adoption of the Model 1886 Lebel and its accompanying revolutionary small-bore, high velocity 8mm Lebel cartridge, the whole of Europe (and indeed the world) jumped into an arms race to replace their huge inventories of older, often single-loaded, large caliber, low velocity arms. Italy was no exception. In the late 1880's, the Italian were mostly equipping their armed forces with the venerable M1870 and M1870/87 Vetterli(-Vitali)s and they were no match for the newer high-velocity repeating rifles. Sensibly, a replacement was sought and a commission was formed to exhaustively test proposed replacement arms.

In 1891, the commission decided to combine an Italian state factory rifle model made by the Torino factory with the German Mod. 1888 charger-loaded central magazine of Mannlicher origin and to pay Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher the appropriate royalties (300,000 Lire). The new Modelo 1891 Fucile incorporated a gain twist barrel to reduce throat erosion when using Cordite and the early Dynamit Nobel propellants which burned excessively hot. Improvements in propellant design would render this feature unnecessary on future models.

At the time of its adoption, the Carcano was a revolutionary rifle. It had, at the time, the smallest caliber of any military rifle and held six shots in a rapidly changeable charger clip, while most of its contemporaries used either a tubular magazine of a 5 round charger clip. It was robust and the bolt could be disassembled without any tools. The Carcano M1891 gave excellent service throughout the First Word War where Italy participated on the Allied side, fighting mainly against Austria.

By the time of the Second World War, not much about the Carcano had changed. Some shorter versions of the Carcano rifle were in service and the rapid onset of the war had shelved Italy's plans to update the rifle's caliber to 7,35x51. Despite the fact that the older M1891 infantry rifle was mostly being replaced by M1891/38 series carbines, performance in North African campaigns convinced fascist Italy to begin manufacturing the longer type infantry rifle once more. This led to the adoption of the M1891/41 Fucile as pictured above. Aside from a more compact rear sight, standard non-progressive rifling, and a barrel slightly shorter than the older infantry rifle, the 1941 adaptation is little changed from the pre-WW1 era weapon - it was even issued with the same bayonet.

Unlike in the first world war, Italy did not issue scoped sniper rifles during the Second World War for sniping. Instead, those rifles demonstrating above average accuracy were stamped with the Tiro a Segno Nazionale marking consisting of two crossed rifles superimposing a bulls-eye target stamped on barrel. The best marksmen in Italian units were able to select from these more accurate rifles to act in the sniping role in the field. The above rifle is one such example and the marking can be seen in the gallery on the barrel shank.

Two patterns of sling were commonly issued with the 1941 version of the Infantry rifle. The first pattern is virtually identical to a WW1 era sling with tear-dropped shaped eye holes and brass stud keepers. The second type is a close copy of the German K98k sling as depicted on the above rifle.

The M1891/41 rifle was only manufactured at two arsenals, R.E. Terni (aka Terni, FAT) from 1941 to 1945 and Armaguerra Cremona from 1941 to 1944.

Collector's Comments and Feedback:

1. Most of the Carcano 1891/41 rifles encountered on the surplus market today were imported to North America in the 1960's. After the Second World War, Italy refurbished most of the rifles in store only to surplus most of them without ever being re-issued when they adopted the M1 Garand and various modifications of that rifle based on NATO calibers. Unscrupulous importers and dealers in those years sold many Carcanos as "axis mausers" and bent the bolt handles to more closely resemble German rifles of the WW2 era. Many, if not most Infantry Rifle Carcanos encountered today will have these bent bolts. A bent bolt in an Infantry Rifle is not a desired trait by collectors. Carbine versions of the Carcano, however, usually had bent bolts and should not be seen as detrimental to value.

Most carcanos refurbished in the later years of service in Italy will be a mixed bag of parts with blonde looking stocks, poor blueing jobs, and many markings scrubbed out. Earlier and even late war refurbished rifles, however, often retain most of their original parts. Sometimes, as is the case with this rifle, the original stock was retained and re-stamped matching over the old serial numbers after refurbishment. Dark stain was applied to the beech-wood to make the stock less visible in the field and most original markings are still visible. Such rifles are invariably more sought after than the later, more crudely refurbished examples. Unrefurbished Carcanos are really quite rare rifles and will command a premium over refurbished examples if the condition is good. Most unrefurbished rifles encountered, however, will show considerable wear and abuse.

Rifles should be examined for the Tiro a Segno Nazionale marking mentioned above. Such rifles are exceedingly uncommon compared to a normal infantry rifle and are the closest thing to a scoped sniper rifle that Italy issued in the second world war. While Carcanos in general are not generally expensive surplus rifles today, future markets will certainly dictate a large premium for the TSN marked examples.

Despite gunshow lore, the Carcano is/was an excellent and robust rifle for its day and is perfectly safe to fire if in good condition. Stories of its inaccuracy are mostly attributed to undersized bullets in 1960's era sporting ammunition - a concern not valid today with correctly dimensioned ammunition and components available. Like the Arisaka, the Carcano has proved not to be the weak-actioned pariahs they were once thought to be. Somewhat poorly constructed parts rifles in the 1960's and earlier with dubiously attached barrels sold through chains like Sears, Bannerman's and Eatons likely contributed to this undeserved infamy.

Collectors should be on the lookout for original Italian slings which are very rare today - usually costing more than the rifle. Bayonets are also priced high as most do not survive today, having been melted for scrap when the rifles were surplused. . (Feedback by "Claven2")

The .41 Colt

During the 1st Generation of Colt SAA production, the .41 Colt (aka .41 Long Colt)
was fifth-most-popular caliber in the Peacemaker and fourth in the Bisley.


What I hate is the .41 Colt is not exactly a handloading sweetheart. When I first started handloading for a nice Colt SAA .41 in 1982, factory ammo was rarely encountered, reloadable brass and proper bullet molds were almost nonexistent. Finally, having gathered the necessary items, my first handloads would have been embarrassing if anyone else had been present. The pull of the sixgun’s trigger resulted in a “pow” rather than a “bang” and the bullets actually bounced off my half-inch plywood target backboard. We will get back to this later.

Without delving into definite introduction dates, here’s how the .41 Colt story played out. In the 1870s a little pop-gun called Colt’s New Line Pocket revolver was introduced. Its cartridge was .41 Colt with a case length nominally of 0.63″ with 163-grain heel-type lead bullet over 15 grains of black powder. A few years later, along with the revolutionary Colt Model 1877DA, a more powerful .41 Colt load appeared. It had a 0.93″ case with 200-grain heel-type lead bullet and 21 or 22 grains of black powder. This second round gained the moniker “Long” and the former one was then called “Short.” Various sources rate these heel-type bullets as being from 0.401″ to 0.408″ in diameter. The single .41 Short Colt round in my collection has a 0.401″ bullet.

In my opinion, heel-type bullets were the idea of a handloading demon. They have a full diameter upper body with a reduced diameter shank to fit inside the cartridge case. Bullet lube was usually carried in exposed grooves on the full-diameter part. This type of bullet was deadly — not because it was fired from powerful revolvers but because all the crud stuck to the exposed lube, setting up horrible infections if one lodged in a victim’s body. The same crud did nothing beneficial for revolver barrels either.

Duke has only seen Colt revolvers for the .41 caliber simply marked “.41 Colt.”

Another Idea

Sometime in the late 1800s an unknown person involved in ammunition production got a brainstorm. I imagine him thinking, “Why don’t we make the bullet fit inside the case just like .44 S&W Russian and .45 Colt had done since the early 1870s?” The fly in the ointment was this — Colt .41 barrels were 0.400″ to 0.408″ across their rifling grooves and reducing bullets enough to fit inside cartridge cases made them only 0.386″. Of course the Civil War was recent history at the time and the most famous projectile used therein was the Minie Ball. It was a hollow-based, pure lead bullet, undersized in regards to rifle-musket barrels. Minie Balls would slide easily down a rifled barrel. When fired the soft lead “skirts” of the projectile expanded into rifling grooves. The miracle isn’t such a system worked but that it worked so well — to the distress of hundreds of thousands of Civil War soldiers.

And so, another .41 “Long” Colt was born. Cases were made 1.13″ with a deep hollow base in a 200-grain very blunt bullet. Powder charge remained 21/22 grains. By the early 1900s factory loads with smokeless propellants became available.

The five most popular chamberings of the Colt SAA/Bisley were from left: .45 Colt, .44-40, .38-40, .41 Colt and .32-20.

Back At The Bench

Now back to handloading. In 1982 I managed to find an old Lyman bullet mold #386177. Sadly it was the heel-type design. Also found were “new” .41 Long Colt factory loads in plain white boxes. The supposed story is Winchester made a million rounds in the 1970s for some distributor. They were good — my SAA shot great with them and I got brass for reloading. The handloads giving bouncing bullets carried Bullseye powder. The heel-type bullets just set friction tight over the powder. No crimp was possible. (A friend figured out a possible crimp by altering wire-stripping pliers but that’s another story.) Even fast burning Bullseye would not ignite properly without a crimp even with magnum primers. End of story the Colt was sold.

My second work with the .41 Colt went much better. (Note: Never have I seen a Colt revolver of any type stamped “.41 Long Colt.”) Along the way I acquired Lyman’s long discontinued bullet mold #386178 for a 200-grain hollowbase 0.386" bullet. Also a (now defunct) mold maker named Rapine offered a hollowbase 200-grain 0.386" bullet. My Colt SAA and 1877DA Thunderer shot fine with either bullet.

Cartridge at left is an original factory load of the .41 Colt, later named “Short.” At right is a factory load of the .41 “Long” Colt.

Full Circle

And then things changed. I decided my vault needed a large assortment of World War II firearms. A dozen years ago all the .41 Colt revolvers and reloading tools were sold to scratch this itch. I should have known better. My favorite song by the late Harry Chapin was “Circle” and it’s exactly what I’ve done. In 2020 I bought two .41 Colts: a fine Colt SAA and another Thunderer, and picked up a spare .41 Colt cylinder for my SAA .38-40.

Also spent were several hundred gun’riter bucks for more reloading tools. The situation is easier now. Starline makes .41 Long Colt brass and a hollowbase mold for 200-grain flat nose bullets arrived five days after ordering. I’m purposefully saving the details of the mold and its maker for another column because ingenuity deserves better than a mere mention.