Biography of Santa Ana - History

Biography of Santa Ana - History


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Mexican General, Revolutionist,

President, and Dictator

(1794-1876)

Born in 1794, in Jalapa, Mexico, Santa Anna led revolts against Iturbide (1822), against Guerrero (1828) and against Bustamante (1832). While president of Mexico (1833-36), he attempted to crush the Texan Revolution, seizing the Alamo in 1836. However, he was defeated and captured by Sam Houston at San Jacinto on April 21, 1836.

In 1844 he was made dictator of Mexico only to be deposed and exiled the following year. Interestingly he was recalled and made provisional president in 1847. Although a capable commander, he was not able to defeat the U. S. army during the Mexican War (1846-48), but was himself defeated at Buena Vista, Cerro Gordo, and Puebla. In his remaining years, Santa Anna sometimes was in power and at other times in exile. He died in poverty and neglect in Mexico City in 1876.


Antonio López de Santa Anna

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Antonio López de Santa Anna, in full Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón, (born February 21, 1794, Jalapa, Mexico—died June 21, 1876, Mexico City), Mexican army officer and statesman who was the storm centre of Mexico’s politics during such events as the Texas Revolution (1835–36) and the Mexican-American War (1846–48).

How did Antonio López de Santa Anna come to power?

Santa Anna gained much prestige in 1829 when he fought against Spain’s attempt to reconquer Mexico, and he became known as the Hero of Tampico. This surge of glory helped him gain the presidency in 1833 as a federalist and an opponent of the Roman Catholic Church in actuality, however, he established a centralized state.

What was Antonio López de Santa Anna most famous for?

In 1836 Santa Anna marched into Texas to quell a rebellion primarily by U.S. settlers there. During this expedition, Texas declared its independence from Mexico. His army defeated Texan forces at the Alamo and Goliad before moving eastward to the San Jacinto River, where he was defeated and captured by Gen. Sam Houston.

What was Antonio López de Santa Anna’s legacy?

Santa Anna possessed a magnetic personality and real qualities of leadership, but his lack of principles, his pride, and his love of military glory and extravagance, coupled with a disregard for and incompetence in civil affairs, led Mexico into a series of disasters and himself into ill repute and tragedy.

The son of a minor colonial official, Santa Anna served in the Spanish army and rose to the rank of captain. He fought on both sides of nearly every issue of the day. In 1821 he supported Agustín de Iturbide and the war for Mexican independence, but in 1823 he helped overthrow Iturbide. In 1828 he backed Vicente Guerrero for president, only to help depose him later.

Santa Anna gained much prestige in 1829 when he fought against Spain’s attempt to reconquer Mexico, and he became known as the Hero of Tampico. This surge of glory helped him gain the presidency in 1833 as a Federalist and opponent of the Roman Catholic Church in actuality, however, he established a centralized state. He remained in power until 1836, when he marched into Texas to quell a rebellion by primarily U.S. settlers there. During the course of this punitive expedition, Texas declared its independence from Mexico (March 2). After his army had defeated Texan forces at the Alamo and Goliad, Santa Anna then moved eastward to the San Jacinto River, where he was defeated on April 21 in the Battle of San Jacinto and was captured by Gen. Sam Houston. After signing a public treaty ending the war and a secret treaty in which he promised to do everything he could to ensure that the Mexican government adhered to the public treaty, Santa Anna was sent to Washington, D.C., for an interview with U.S. Pres. Andrew Jackson, who returned him to Mexico, where, in the meantime, he had been deposed from power during his absence.

In 1838, when the French navy seized Veracruz and demanded an indemnity for injuries to French citizens in Mexico, Santa Anna led forces to Veracruz, only to shoot at the ships as they departed. He lost a leg in the skirmish. He gained enough prestige from this event to act as dictator from March to July 1839, while the president was away. Two years later he led a revolt and seized power, which he held until he was driven into exile in 1845.

When war with the United States broke out, Santa Anna contacted U.S. Pres. James K. Polk, who arranged for a ship to take him to Mexico for the purpose of working for peace. Santa Anna took charge of the Mexican forces upon his return but instead of acting for peace, he led his men against the United States until he was routed by U.S. forces under Gen. Winfield Scott. Santa Anna again retired, moving to Jamaica in 1847 and to New Granada in 1853. Ten years later he sought U.S. support in an attempt to oust the emperor Maximilian, whom the French had placed on the Mexican throne at the same time, he offered his services to Maximilian. Both proposals were refused. Two years before he died, poor and blind, Santa Anna was allowed to return to his country.

Santa Anna possessed a magnetic personality and real qualities of leadership, but his lack of principles, his pride, and his love of military glory and extravagance, coupled with a disregard for and incompetence in civil affairs, led Mexico into a series of disasters and himself into ill repute and tragedy.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.


Santa Anna, Texas

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Santa Anna has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps. [7]

The twin mesas in central Coleman County have always been a landmark. One of the earliest maps of Texas shows a mountain near the center of the state with the notation, "Santa Anna's Peaks". The mountain and later the town were named for Comanche war chief Santanna, or Santa Anna.

Texas Rangers camped at the foot of the mountain long before the area was settled. Cattle drives from South Texas to the northern markets passed through the gap in the mountain along a military road. This road helped supply the outpost forts along the Texas Forts Trail. The first permanent European-American settlers soon built homes near a freshwater spring at the foot of the mountain. One enterprising settler stocked a supply of goods for trail drivers and settlers, starting the first business at "The Gap" in the early 1870s. In 1879, a petition to open a post office was filed, and the name of "Santa Anna" was chosen.

During the construction of the Santa Fe Railroad, a group of residents bought land along the right-of-way. Stone buildings were built from limestone quarried from the cap rock of the west mountain. Several businesses moved from Trickham and Brownwood to be a part of the new community. In 1886, The Santa Anna News was established. The first telephone in the county was a private line from Brownwood to Coleman, connected in the Melton Hotel in Santa Anna. A small local exchange was opened in 1892. A drugstore and a bank were opened in the 1880s, and a one-room school was opened that soon expanded to four rooms.

As the open range was preempted and sold, land was cultivated, with cotton the principal crop. Santa Anna eventually had four cotton gins in operation, and was also a major rail shipping point for livestock. The town became a trade center with a thriving business district that included drugstores, hotels, banks, livery stables, and produce houses. One of the early buildings, still a landmark downtown, housed an opera house, where traveling groups and local performers provided entertainment and culture.

After World War I, Dr. T.R. Sealy established a hospital that soon became widely known. A nursing school was founded in the 1920s to provide trained nurses, continuing until the death of Dr. Sealy in the mid-1930s. 1

During the first half of the 20th century, Santa Anna thrived as a small farming and ranching community. It later developed businesses related to the area oil industry.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, tourism has emerged as a new industry in Santa Anna. Currently, 38 businesses are located in Santa Anna, of which 13 are less than three years old. Custom hand-crafted furniture has become a hallmark of the city. Other popular draws include a steakhouse, Dairy Queen, numerous antique stores, furniture stores, and specialty shops. Santa Anna and the surrounding area are also popular among dove, quail, turkey, and deer hunters.

Every year on the third weekend in May, Santa Anna hosts the World Championship Bison Cook-off. [8] Contestants from all over Texas come and compete in four categories, including bison brisket.

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890468
19101,453
19201,407 −3.2%
19301,883 33.8%
19401,661 −11.8%
19501,605 −3.4%
19601,320 −17.8%
19701,310 −0.8%
19801,535 17.2%
19901,249 −18.6%
20001,081 −13.5%
20101,099 1.7%
2019 (est.)1,007 [2] −8.4%
U.S. Decennial Census [9]

As of the census [3] of 2000, 1,081 people, 446 households, and 283 families resided in the town. The population density was 558.0 people per square mile (215.1/km 2 ). The 574 housing units averaged 296.3 per square mile (114.2/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the town was 88.90% White, 3.89% African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 4.72% from other races, and 1.76% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 19.06% of the population.

Of the 446 households, 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were not families. About 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 18.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the town, the population was distributed as 26.3% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 21.6% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 20.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $22,857, and for a family was $31,250. Males had a median income of $29,886 versus $17,917 for females. The per capita income for the town was $11,065. About 20.4% of families and 23.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.6% of those under age 18 and 24.4% of those age 65 or over.


Contents

The district was originally called Santa Ana de Sapa after its titular patroness Saint Anne, the mother of the Virgin Mary, and the Tagalog word sapà ("creek", "stream", "rivulet"), the local name of the main settlement in the area that sat beside a rivulet connecting to the Pasig River. [4]

Pre-Colonial Edit

Archaeological excavations of a pre-Hispanic grave site within the Santa Ana Church complex and its vicinities in the 1960s have revealed the antiquity of the district, which dates back to around 900 to 1,000 years . [5] [6] Chinese ceramics from the Sung and Ming dynasties have been found associated with the burials, indicating the active participation of the early communities in Santa Ana in the extensive maritime trade around Southeast Asia and China from 12th to 15th century AD, as well as the elaborate mortuary practices of its inhabitants. [6]

In a research published in the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology by Timothy Vitales of the National Museum of the Philippines, it was described that at least five significant dog skeletons, three of which were complete, have been recorded in Santa Ana's protohistoric grave site. The dogs were dated to be between the 12th and 15th centuries AD. The research found that the dogs were buried on their own right, and were not companions for the dead. The research concluded that ancient Tagalog communities, specifically in Santa Ana, used to have good relationships with their dogs and treated these dogs as family. One of the dogs that was buried was 10cm away from the skeleton of a child. [7]

Santa Ana was at the centre of the ancient polity of Namayan. According to Felix Huerta, a 19th-century Franciscan scholar and missionary, the original inhabitants of Namayan trace their roots to a ruler named Lacantagcan/Lakan Tagkan and his wife Bouan/Buwan ("moon"), who were said to have resided in this village. Other territories that belonged to the dominions of Lakan Tagkan and Buwan included the modern Manila districts of Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Quiapo, Sampaloc and San Miguel the cities of Pasay, San Juan, Mandaluyong and Makati and the municipality of Taytay in Rizal Province. [4]

Spanish Colonial Period Edit

The Spaniards established settlements in Santa Ana that served as the seat of Namayan, with the area awarded to the Franciscan missionaries. They were the first to establish a mission beyond the walls of Intramuros, the colonial seat of power in Manila, in 1578. The church as it stands today was first built in 1720 and is known as the National Shrine of Our Lady of the Abandoned (Spanish: Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados). [8]

The Rizal novels mention Santa Ana. Earlier in the same century, in 1832, an American diplomat Edmund Roberts visited Santa Ana, writing about it in his travelogue, Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. [9]

American Colonial Period Edit

Early in the twentieth century, the Americans built a Meralco streetcar line (illustration) on Herrán which led to the eastern end of this long street. This line linked Santa Ana with Ermita.


Further Reading

Santa Ana's own account is The Eagle: The Autobiography of Santa Ana, edited by Ann Fears Crawford (trans. 1967). There is no definitive work on Santa Ana. The basic biography, although dated, is Wilfrid Hardy Callcott, Santa Ana (1936 repr. 1964) also useful is Callcott's general study Church and State in Mexico, 1822-1857 (1926). Oakah L. Jones, Santa Anna (1968), scholarly and well written, is not distinctly different from Callcott's account. Useful for a flavor of the times are the memoirs of Frances Erskine Calderón de la Barca, Life in Mexico (1843 new ed. 1966). The war with the United States and Santa Ana's role are best related in George Lockhart Rives, The United States and Mexico, 1821-1848 (2 vols., 1913 repr. 1969), and Justin H. Smith, The War with Mexico (2 vols., 1919). For life in Mexico during the war see José Fernando Ramírez, Mexico during the War with the United States, edited by Walter V. Scholes (trans. 1950). □


3. He staged a state funeral for his amputated leg.

General Santa Anna’s prosthetic leg. (Credit: Illinois State Military Museum, Department of Military Affairs, Springfield)

Two years after the 1836 Battle of the Alamo, Santa Anna led a makeshift army against French forces who had invaded Veracruz, Mexico, in what has been called the “Pastry War.” After the general was severely wounded by grapeshot fired from a French cannon, doctors were forced to amputate his leg, which Santa Anna buried at his Veracruz hacienda. After he once again assumed the presidency in 1842, Santa Anna exhumed his shriveled leg, paraded it to Mexico City in an ornate coach and buried it beneath a cemetery monument in an elaborate state funeral that included cannon salvos, poetry and lofty orations. Santa Anna’s severed leg did not remain in the ground for long, however. In 1844, public opinion turned on the president, and rioters tore down his statues and dug up his leg. A mob tied the severed appendage to a rope and dragged it through the streets of Mexico City while shouting, �th to the cripple!”


Santa Ana throughout most of its history has seen population growth. Significant growth was recorded between the censuses taken in 1950 and 1960, with the population growth over 120% to reach just over 100,000. In 1980, the population had more than doubled. In 2000, the city had more than 300,000 residents.

The census changes noted between 2000 and 2010 showed a loss of 4% of the population – the first and only time the population has dropped since the census of 1880. However, current numbers show that the population is once again on the rise, growing 3% since the last census in 2010.

The area that is now known as Santa Ana was first known to be inhabited by the Tongva and Juaneno/Luiseno tribes. The area was explored in 1769, at which time it was named Vallejo de Santa Ana. The Mission San Juan Capistrano was established in the area in 1776. Following the Mexican-American War, Americans began settling the area.

In 1869, William Spurgeon claimed a section of land in the area, and Santa Ana was incorporated as a city just seventeen years later in 1886. Just three years later, it was made the county seat of Orange County. In the late 1800s, the California Central Railway created a railroad connecting Los Angeles to San Diego, and Santa Ana served as a major intermediate station. The city continued to grow and expand, with the first auto route from LA to Santa Ana launching in 1935. This road later became the Santa Ana Freeway.

The Santa Ana Army Air Base was built during World War II. After the war, the population continued to grow as war veterans chose to live in the city. Continued development also lured in new inhabitants, including the construction of Fashion Square Mall in 1958, which still operates today under the name Westfield MainPlace. The city in the 1980s also began to revitalize its downtown area – an initiative which is still ongoing today. The Santa Ana Artist’s Village has been developed to bring in professionals and artists within the downtown area’s lofts and businesses.

The city’s economy is bolstered by several major companies, including but not limited to Behr Paint, STEC, Xerox and T-Mobile. The company is also home to the Rickenbacker instrument company. Santa Ana is also home to many small, locally-owned businesses. Nearby attractions including Disneyland and beautiful beaches also bring in tourists and residents.


History of Santa Ana

Santa Ana is about 30 miles south of Los Angeles, California and approximately 100 miles north of the U.S.-Mexico border. From the late 1800s, the city has gone from being a historic urban center in wealthy white and conservative Orange County to a large center with a Mexican, working-class and immigrant identity. During the World War II era, growth of the defense industry created thousands of jobs and accompanied a housing boom in the city and region. In addition to attracting a largely white population, the era also brought the first major wave of Mexican immigrants via the low-wage seasonal Bracero Program, following Mexican immigration patterns in the southwest region. While whites were still the majority in the 1960s, Santa Ana experienced the same white flight to the suburbs by way of racial housing policy patterns that were characteristic of many American cities at the time.

During the 1970-1980 period, Latinos accounted for the largest population growth in Santa Ana for the first time, going from 40,000 to over 90,000 people, the majority of this growth from immigration. The vast majority of immigration was from Mexico and included transnational communities who sustained strong networks with their native country. The city entered the 1980s having as many Latinos as whites and less economically well off compared to the rest of the county.


Santa Ana

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Santa Ana, city, western El Salvador. Santa Ana is situated in a basin between mountains at an elevation of 2,182 feet (665 metres). It is located on the Inter-American Highway, a section of the Pan-American Highway, at a point northwest of San Salvador and 10 miles (16 km) north-northeast of Santa Ana Volcano. Known as Santa Ana since 1708, it ranks among the country’s largest cities and is the commercial centre of western El Salvador. Santa Ana is a major coffee-processing centre, having one of the world’s largest coffee mills (El Molino). The city’s industrial activities include alcoholic-beverage distilling and the manufacture of cotton textiles, furniture, and leather goods. Historic landmarks include the Spanish Gothic cathedral and El Calvario colonial church. The city has a branch of the University of El Salvador. There are summer resort facilities at nearby Lake Coatepeque. In early 1981, Santa Ana was at the centre of a fierce attack by guerrilla units of the leftist Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional FMLN). This supposed “final” guerrilla offensive (which continued throughout the 1980s) caused heavy damage in Santa Ana. The ruins of the Indian city of Chalchuapa are located 9 miles (14 km) to the west of the city. Pop. (2005 est.) urban area, 178,600.


Biography of Santa Ana - History

The Santa Ana Pueblo people, who have occupied their current site in central New Mexico since at least the late 1500s, believe their ancestors originated from a subterranean world to the north.

Assisted by their mother Iyatiko, they ascended through four worlds--the white, red, blue and yellow worlds--before emerging at Siapapu into this, the fifth world. These people, called Keresans, moved south to a place called White House where they lived with the gods who taught them what they needed to know about living in this hostile world.

The Keresans, however, eventually became quarrelsome, arguing with the kachinas, the gods primarily in control of the rain, and later amongst themselves. This angered Iyatiko, who altered the Keresan language so that each faction spoke a separate tongue. The Keresans abandoned White House and the various factions settled in different places. One group moved further south, settling at the present site of Santa Ana.

The original pueblo, located at approximately 5,400 feet above sea level, lies against a craggy mesa wall on the north bank of Jemez River. The site provided both protection and seclusion. Travelers to the area historically tended to follow the north-south trade route along the Rio Grande or headed east and west without making contact, making Santa Ana one of the least visited of the New Mexico pueblos.

The first Spaniards to explore pueblo country arrived in the 1540s. Santa Ana, then called Tamaya, submitted to Spanish rule in 1598 and was assigned the patron saint by which it has since become known. The relationship between the pueblo peoples and the Spanish invaders exploded in 1680 when the pueblos led by Popé staged a successful revolt and drove away their oppressors. The revolt was short-lived and the returning Spanish, anxious to reconquer the pueblos, forced the Santa Anans to flee their village to the nearby Black Mesa and Jemez Mountains.

In 1693, the Santa Ana people returned to the present pueblo location, about 27 miles northwest of Albuquerque, where they began acquiring adjacent land for agricultural purposes. Hunting and gathering supplemented their diet. Throughout most of the 18th century, the Santa Ana population rose until it was reduced by a smallpox epidemic in 1789-1791. Other epidemics reduced the pueblo’s population in the late 19th century.

The increased availability of wage work in the mid-20th century, particularly in nearby Albuquerque, has diminished the economic role of the pueblo’s agricultural practices, although agricultural enterprises continue. Hunting had declined in importance, though cattle, introduced to the area by the Spanish, continue to be raised. A spirit of entrepreneurship envelopes the pueblo, with a variety of enterprises from raising and selling blue corn products, to Native American apparel, to selling Native American foods, to whole and retail distribution of native Southwestern plants, to Indian gaming to investments flourish today.

Santa Ana is linguistically linked to four other Keresan-speaking pueblos. Relations and cultural exchanges have been traditionally closest between Santa Ana and the nearby pueblos of Zia and San Felipe. The annual cycle of life at Santa Ana is tied to the solar movements and the agricultural and hunting seasons. Some traditional rituals have been moved to Spanish holy days in an accommodation to Catholicism. Santa Ana’s Day, for example, is recognized on July 26 with a corn dance and a mass and by feasting and visiting.

The remarkable resourcefulness and adaptability of Santa Ana are reflected in its social and political structures. The governor, for instance, is the principle intermediary between the pueblo and the outside world. The cacique, however, is the most sacred and thus most important position. According to Keresan tradition, when the gods departed from the people they left behind sacred societies and officers to maintain social order. The cacique, essentially a priest, is charged with assuring that order, authorizing communal rituals, and appointing other key officials. Santa Ana thrives today through a vibrant blend of traditional and modern ways.

The Pueblo of Santa Ana
2 Dove Road
Pueblo of Santa Ana , New Mexico 87004
USA


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