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Kyushu K10W 'Oak'
The Kyushu K10W 'Oak' was an intermediate trainer based on the North American NA-16 and that replaced the Yokosuka K5Y1 in Japanese naval service.
The Japanese aircraft industry had originally developed by copying and improving Western designs, but by the late 1930 it had moved on from that and was creating world class designs of its own. The only exception to this was in the 'K' series of naval trainers, where two of the most important trainers in service during the Pacific War were based on foreign designs, both originally produced in Japan by Kyushu. The first of these was the Kyushu K9W, a basic trainer based on the German Bücher Bü 131 Jungmann. The second was the Kyushu K10W1, which was based on the North American NA-16 basic trainer.
Japanese interest in the NA-16 began in 1937 when Mitsubishi purchased two examples of the aircraft, one powered by a 450hp Pratt & Whitney R-965-9CG engine and one powered by a Wright R-975-E3. Mitsubishi passed the aircraft on to the Japanese navy, which tested them as the KXA1 and KXA2 Navy Experimental Type A Intermediate Trainers. The navy was impressed by the aircraft and decided to purchase a licence to manufacture the aircraft in Japan. Production of the new trainer was entrusted to K.K. Watanabe Tekkosho, and the modified aircraft was designated the Navy Type 2 Intermediate Trainer (K10W1). Watanabe was later renamed Kyushu, and the aircraft is normally referred to as the Kyushu K10W1, although the company letter remained 'W'.
The K10W was a low-wing monoplane, with a crew of two carried in tandem under a greenhouse canopy. The wings had a straight centre section and tapering outer sections, with more of a taper on the leading edge. The vertical tail surfaces differed from those on the NA-16, and the aircraft was given a more powerful 600hp Nakajima Kotobuki 2 Kai air-cooled radial engine.
Watanabe built 26 K10W1s, before in November 1942 production was transferred to Nippon Hikoki, which built 150 aircraft between February 1943 and March 1944 (the aircraft was thus actually never built by the renamed Kyushu Company). The K10W1 replaced the earlier K5Y1 as the standard intermediate trainer in the Japanese Navy, although by the time it entered service the navy was rarely able to give its pilots a satisfactory amount of training.
Engine: One Nakajima Kotobuki 2 air-cooled radial
Power: 600hp at take off, 460hp at 6,825ft
Wing span: 40ft 6 5/8in
Height: 9ft 3 5/8in
Empty Weight: 3,254lb
Loaded Weight: 4,448lb
Max Speed: 175mph at 6,825ft
Cruising Speed: 138mph at 3,280ft
Service Ceiling: 23,950ft
Range: 652 miles
Armament: One forward firing 7.7mm machine gun
Kawasaki Ki-10 (US: Perry) fighter
Nakajima Ki-11 fighter
Mitsubishi Ki-15 Karigane (US: Babs) reconnaisance
Mitsubishi Ki-21 (US: Sally/Gwen/Jane) heavy bomber
Nakajima Ki-27 Setsu, Otsu (US: Nate/Abdul) fighter
Kawasaki Ki-28 (US: Bob) fighter
Mitsubishi Ki-30 (US: Ann) light bomber
Kawasaki Ki-32 (US: Mary) light bomber
Tachikawa Ki-36 (US: Ida) Verbindungsflugzeug
Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (US: Oscar/Jim) fighter
Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki (US: Tojo) fighter
Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu (US: Nick) fighter
Mitsubishi Ki-46 (US: Dinah) Multi-role
Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu (US: Helen) heavy bomber
Kawasaki Ki-56 (US: Thalia) transport
Kawasaki Ki-60 fighter
Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien (US: Tony) fighter
Kawasaki Ki-64 (US: Rob) fighter
Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu (US: Peggy) heavy bomber
Kawasaki Ki-78 experimental
Manshu Ki-79 trainer, variant of the Nakajima Ki-27
Mitsubishi Ki-83 long range fighter
Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (US: Frank) fighter
Nakajima Ki-87 fighter
Rikugun Ki-93 heavy fighter and attack
Tachikawa Ki-94 fighter
Manshu Ki-98 heavy fighter and attack
Kawasaki Ki-100 Goshiki fighter
Tachikawa Ki-106 fighter. Like Ki-84 made of wood
Tokyo Koku Ki-107 trainer
Mitsubishi Ki-109 (US: Peggy) interceptor. See Ki-67
Nakajima Ki-115 Tsurgi attack
Mitsubishi Ki-200 Shusui rocket fighter J8M
Nakajima Ki-201 Karyu fighter
Історія створення [ ред. | ред. код ]
В середині 1930-х років авіація Імперського флоту Японії потребувала сучасний моноплан для підготовки пілотів на заключному етапі навчання. Для цього фірмою Mitsubishi були придбані 2 літаки North American NA-16. Випробування літаків пройшли успішно і через посередників була придбана ліцензія на виробництво в Японії.
Командуванням ВПС флоту було сформульоване технічне завдання «14-Сі», відповідно до якого в конструкцію літака мали бути внесені певні зміни, щоб пристосувати його під особливості японської авіапромисловості. Зокрема, на літак планувалось встановити двигун Nakajima Kotobuki 2 KAI потужністю 600 к.с.
Виготовлення літака було доручене фірмі Watanabe (майбутня «Kyushu»). Перший прототип був готовий у квітні 1941 року. Після випробувань літак був запущений в серію під назвою «Перехідний навчальний літак флоту Тип 3 Модель 11» (або K10W1).
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O Kyūshū Q1W Tokai (東海 "Mar Oriental") foi um bombardeiro leve de patrulha desenvolvido para a Marinha Imperial Japonesa durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. [ 1 ] O nome de código aliado para esta aeronave era Lorna. Embora se apresentasse similar ao bombardeiro médio alemão Junkers Ju 88, o Q1W era muito mais pequeno e tinha muitos detalhes diferentes no seu design. [ 1 ]
O armamento desta aeronave era puramente defensivo, adequado para uma aeronave militar desta classificação. Tinha uma arma de fogo de 7,7 mm Tipo 92, montada em um suporte flexível na parte traseira da cabine da tripulação, enquanto um ou dois canhões de 20 mm de tiro dianteiro Tipo 99 podiam ser montados se necessário. Internamente, o Q1W poderia fazer uso de até 500 quilos de carga composta de bombas (2 x 250 kg) ou bombas de profundidade, estas últimas para missões de caça anti-submarina. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ]
A produção da Kyushu Q1W foi severamente limitada e, portanto, apenas um punhado de designações existiam para as suas variantes. O Q1W1 foi usado para designar o protótipo único e o seu modelo de produção de primeira execução, o "Mar Oriental". O Q1W2 representou o modelo de produção diferenciado pelo seu uso de madeira ao longo das superfícies da cauda. O Q1W1-K "Tokai-Ren" ("Mar Oriental de Treino") foi um único exemplo de quatro assentos para treino e instrução de tripulações, mas que porém nunca se materializou em número. [ 1 ] [ 2 ]
O Q1W1 era alimentado por dois motores a pistão radial de 9 cilindros da série Hitachi Amakaze-31, cada um avaliado em 610 cavalos de potência. A velocidade máxima era de 322 quilómetros por hora com um alcance de 1,342 km. O tecto de serviço foi limitado nos 4.490 metros de altitude, com uma taxa de subida de 229 metros por minuto. O peso vazio era de 3102 kg, com um peso máximo de descolagem de 5318 kg. [ 1 ] [ 2 ]
À medida que o esforço de guerra japonês desmoronou, vários Q1W1 foram utilizados em missões Kamikaze contra navios aliados. [ 1 ]
Log shiitake - Bungotakada City, Oita Prefecture
In 2013, the Usa region of northeast Oita Prefecture’s Kunisaki Peninsula was certified as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System. The world recognized the steadfast efforts of the local residents, who have continued to protect the traditional agricultural, forestry, and fishing industries in the face of a climate where low precipitation makes it difficult to secure water. Log shiitake are “blessings of the forest,” brought forth through a coordinated rotation system of about 1200 reservoir ponds with Japan’s largest concentration of sawtooth oak forest. I visited this cultivation site, where the energies of life are intimately connected.
Tiny shiitake break through the thick bark, poking out their heads
Nestled into the base of the Kunisaki Peninsula, Tashibunoshou, Osaki District. The rustling leaves engage in whispered conversation as the wind blows through the Japanese cedar forest, and my body is enveloped in cool, moist air. At my feet, rows of logs cut to a length of about 1 m are lined up. Sometimes sunbeams pierce through the canopy to illuminate them. “Look, right here.” I look in the direction Mr. Tadaomi Kono, a shiitake farmer who is my guide at the cultivation site, is pointing and there I see a small mushroom breaking through the thick, rugged bark to poke out its head! When I brought my head closer, I caught the faint fragrance of shiitake.
Shiitake cultivation has continued in Oita since its discovery here in the Edo Period.
Beginning shiitake cultivation in 1957, Mr. Kono is a grand veteran with over 50 years on this path. “Beginning with raising the oaks, it takes a minimum of 15 years to grow one shiitake.” For 13 years, saplings grow out of the stumps of sawtooth oaks, and are protected from hungry deer until they reach a diameter of 30 cm, when they can be lumbered. Holes are drilled into the logs, spawn plugs containing the shiitake spawn are driven into the holes, and they are left to rest there for two years until the spawn have diffused through the logs. That autumn the logs are moved to a cultivation site (known as a hodaba) such as a cedar forest, and in the spring the shiitakes finally emerge. It is said that shiitake cultivation began in Oita Prefecture in the mid 1600s, predicated by the discovery of a man who had been engaged in charcoal firing in Saiki City who found that shiitake were naturally occurring in the lumber he had gathered for charcoal. From then, cultivation using the “nata-me-shiki cultivation method,” where notches are cut into logs with a nata (a wide-bladed knife similar to a machete) and shiitake spawn is then stuck into the notches, continued for about 250 years until 1942, when a Kyoto University student invented a “pure culture wood spawning method” to inoculate wood with shiitake spawn cultures. Through the swift introduction of this method, production volumes drastically increased overnight, and Oita Prefecture became one of the biggest areas for log cultivation.
An Environment That Protects Sawtooth Oaks and Ponds Certified as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System
“There isn’t much rain around here, and rain water drains right through the volcanic soil in this area, so in the old days water shortages seems to have been a perennial cause of annoyance. Our forefathers made reservoir ponds and ran waterways through, so now we can secure the water we need for agriculture,” said Mr. Kono. About 1200 small scale reservoirs were made in the Kunisaki Peninsula, and they’re not only used for irrigation water, but also serve various other purposes, such as refilling and purifying groundwater, and maintaining biodiversity. In addition, the fact that the sawtooth oak forests upstream of the irrigation ponds are reasonably managed for shiitake logging has led to the conservation of the ecosystem, providing habitats for endangered species such as the Oita salamander, and giving rise to a virtuous cycle of biological resources. Efforts to hand down the wisdom of these forefathers and protect the environment have been highly appreciated, and in 2013 the Usa Region’s “Kunisaki Peninsula Usa Integrated Forestry, Agriculture and Fisheries System, Linked by Sawtooth Oak Forests and Irrigation Ponds” was certified as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System.
Where Do Studio Ghibli Movies Take Place? 11 Studio Ghibli Related Places to Visit in Kyushu, Japan
Kiki's Delivery Service
・Kiki's Delivery Service Bakery (Yufuin Floral Village, Oita Prefecture)
The real-life version of the iconic bakery in Studio Ghibli's Kiki's Delivery Service is located in Yufuin Floral Village, a picturesque area famous for its hot springs and surrounding nature. Yufuin Floral Village is an amusement and shopping area reminiscent of the atmosphere of the European countryside, with quaint alleys decorated with flowers and small buildings that look as if they've come straight out of a fairy tale. Kiki's Bakery is part of the colorful scenery of the village and is modeled after the bakery seen in the Ghibli movie where the protagonist - the witch Kiki - works at, delivering bread by broomstick after moving out of her parents&rsquo home. Just as in Studio Ghibli's Kiki's Delivery Service, the real-life bakery offers delicious bread and pastries, as well as the chance to greet Jiji - Kiki's talking black cat.
・Donguri no Mori Studio Ghibli Store (Yufuin Floral Village, Oita Prefecture)
Since you can find Kiki's Bakery here, is there also a Studio Ghibli store in the area? The answer is yes! Luckily, one of Studio Ghibli's stores is conveniently located in Yufuin Floral Village! The Yufuin Floral Village Studio Ghibli Store - Donguri no Mori - is a tiny wooden house surrounded by greenery where you can find Studio Ghibli goods and memorabilia. Once you have your stomach full with the delicious pastries and bread from Kiki's Bakery, you can spend some time exploring the charming village and commemorating your Ghibli-themed day with some Studio Ghibli souvenirs! Thanks to the magical surroundings of the village, you'll feel like you're in your favorite Ghibli movie!
My Neighbor Totoro
・Totoro's Forest (Itoshima, Fukuoka Prefecture)
The real-life location of Totoro's forest can be found in Fukuoka's Itoshima area, a tropical retreat with a charming beachside, pristine nature, and several insta-worthy cafes! Totoro's forest is located inside Keya no Oto Park and was the inspiration for the lush-green nature that is a common theme in Studio Ghibli's My Neighbor Totoro. The forest is so similar to the one in the movie that you'll think you might encounter Totoro while walking amidst the dense vegetation. As you explore tunnels made of intricate branches and mysterious pathways covered in leaves, you are sure to feel like Mei chasing after Ghibli's spirit of the forest!
Board the Cat Bus at the Real-Life Locations of the My Neighbor Totoro Bus Stop
・Takaharu Tonari no Totoro Bus Stop (Miyazaki Prefecture)
Have you ever wished to meet Studio Ghibli's Totoro in real life? At the Takaharu Tonari no Totoro Bus Stop, you can wait for the bus together with Studio Ghibli's sweet spirit of the forest! Waiting for you in Miyazaki Prefecture's lovely countryside, this Totoro was built by a local pair of grandparents who wished to create something fun for their grandchildren, but it has since become a hit on the internet. Every year, countless travelers pay a visit to Takaharu's Totoro to snap a commemorative photo while holding an umbrella, so that they can recreate the famous scene in My Neighbor Totoro. If you forgot to bring an umbrella with you, fret not! They started renting red umbrellas, as well as selling Totoro acorn "omikuji" (fortunes written on strips of paper), and postcards for as cheap as 100 yen.
*This Totoro is located on private property, so be sure to be respectful when visiting and taking pictures. Visitors are also not allowed at night.
・Hita Tataragi Bus Stop (Oita Prefecture)
As this is a bus stop dedicated to local students, it's a pity visitors can't get on the bus! But Hita's Tataragi Bus Stop is so cute, it will make you want to wait for Studio Ghibli's Cat Bus anyway! Tataragi Bus Stop was revamped with the help of Ghibli's Cat Bus and Totoro in the effort to revitalize the local tourism and make both adults and children smile when visiting. The giant Cat Bus artwork is reminiscent of traditional Japanese moss art, according to which moss is an element of beauty and simplicity, and has been appreciated since ancient times for the contribution to memorable Japanese landscapes and serene gardens.
・Saiki Totoro Bus Stop (Oita Prefecture)
As this bus stop is located in Saiki City's Totoro District, its official name is Totoro Bus Stop. Thanks to its unique name, the small bus stop became famous after the release of Studio Ghibli's My Neighbor Totoro. After the movie became a hit, the locals started decorating the bus stop with Totoro-themed illustrations and signboards with scenes from the movie, such as the one representing Satsuki and Mei waiting for the Cat Bus. The surrounding natural scenery is also reminiscent of the Studio Ghibli movie, so the world of Totoro started expanding beyond the bus stop to a nearby small park which is now nicknamed Totoro no Mori (Totoro's Forest). There, visitors can view a beautiful signboard of the Cat Bus as well as a multitude of Mini Totoro lined up on an oak tree.
・Hiramamachi Totoro Bus Stop (Nagasaki Prefecture)
Nagasaki Prefecture has its own Studio Ghibli Totoro Bus Stop! This picturesque spot that looks like one of My Neighbor Totoro's most famous scenes is located in Hiramamachi surrounded by tranquil rice fields. Totoro, the Cat Bus, along with Satsuki and Mei with their iconic red umbrella, were all lovingly crafted by a local resident who created this recreation for his grandson but then decided to share it with the world. It's the perfect spot to take the ultimate photo with all the characters from My Neighbor Totoro!
・Amami Oshima Totoro Bus Stop (Kagoshima Prefecture)
Japan's tropical paradise, Amami Oshima, also boasts a cute Totoro Bus Stop which means this remote island is a great place to refresh yourself in nature and have marvelous marine adventures as well as Ghibli-themed explorations. This real-life location of the Totoro Bus Stop is located in Setouchi City right beside the Setouchi Town Fire Department and was built by the firefighters using scrap wood and their secret artistic skills. No Ghibli fan would be able to resist the allure of taking a photo here!
・Yakushima (Kagoshima Prefecture)
The cedar forest growing on the secluded island of Yakushima is one of the biggest inspirations for Princess Mononoke's otherworldly natural scenery. Home to some of the oldest trees in the world (the most ancient of which may be over 7,000 years old), the real-life location of Studio Ghibli's Princess Mononoke embodies the mystery and wilderness that is witnessed in the movie, serving as the perfect background for the mesmerizing Japanese folklore portrayed by Miyazaki's artwork. In particular, the mystical environment of Shiratani Unsuikyo Ravine coated in deep-green moss is so magical that visitors might feel like they are going to encounter the same spirits and creatures they've previously seen in Princess Mononoke.
・Sasaguri Forest of Kyushu University (Fukuoka Prefecture)
Located on the western side of Kyushu University, Sasaguri Forest is another real-life representation of the forest we can admire in Studio Ghibli's Princess Mononoke. You might remember that some of the movie's most stunning scenes are set in a semi-submerged forest - Sasaguri Forest's Waterside Forest of bald cypress trees inspired that scenery. As this type of tree can grow submerged in swamps, they reflect green hues on the surrounding water, so that this spot retains a magical aura fitting with Princess Mononoke's themes such as spirits and Japanese folklore. The 17-hectare forest can be visited through several hiking courses, but the most popular one is the 2-kilometer Sasaguri Kyudai No Mori Course that focuses on the main attractions of the forest.
・Takeo Shrine 3,000 Year Old Tree (Saga Prefecture)
Originally built in the year 735 at the foot of Mt. Mifuneyama, Takeo Shrine was a place meant to pray for the peace of the region. The shrine houses the Great Camphor Tree of Takeo, a 3,000-year-old sacred tree that is believed to be the dwelling of the gods. The 27-meter-tall tree hides a cavity inside its trunk which has a circumference of 20 square meters. This impressive size, the giant roots spreading across the mossy ground, and the bamboo forest in the background all enhance its solemn figure. In the presence of such awe-inspiring scenery, you'll surely feel like one of the characters of Studio Ghibli's Princess Mononoke!
・Kamishikimi Kumanoimasu Shrine (Kumamoto Prefecture)
Kamishikimi Kumanoimasu Shrine embodies all the mystical vibes of Studio Ghibli's Princess Mononoke thanks to its striking location: a lush forest of impresive cedar trees. The path to the shrine is highlighted by an ancient staircase dotted with stone lanterns and torii gates coated with moss. The location has been venerated for millennia thanks to its unique natural features that made the locals identify it as a power spot. Visitors are sure to experience the same otherworldly atmosphere that Studio Ghibli portrayed in its famed movie, Princess Mononoke.
・Spirited Away's Railway (Nagabeta Seabed Road, Kumamoto Prefecture)
Kumamoto Prefecture is also home to one of the real-life locations of Studio Ghibli's Spirited Away. Nagabeta Seabed Road is an underwater road that features bizarre utility poles that emerge from the water - instantly reminding you of the railroad that appears in Spirited Away when Chihiro and No Face board a train traveling on the surface of the sea. Thanks to the magical effect of the tide, this Studio Ghibli's location is visible during low tide while it disappears during high tide. The best time to visit the Nagabeta Seabed Road is at sunset, when the water is tinged in warm hues, perfectly recreating one of Spirited Away's most iconic scenes.
Castle in The Sky
・Laputa Road (Kumamoto Prefecture)
This winding road in Kumamoto Prefecture is said to be the real-life location of the road that leads to the floating castle of Laputa in Studio Ghibli's Castle in the Sky. Officially known as Road 339 or Milk Road (because of the number of cows that can be seen in the area), this picturesque road in Kyushu has gained itself the nickname of Laputa Road due to its resemblance to the iconic Ghibli scenery. Laputa Road is located on the side of a mountain with panoramic views of vibrant grasslands stretching in every direction. It is especially reminiscent of Studio Ghibli's Castle in the Sky when the clouds cover the nearby plain and it looks like the road is floating in the sky.
*Laputa Road is currently under reconstruction.
Nobeoka Laputan Robot (Miyazaki Prefecture)
Nobeoka City's Kitagawa Riverside is now the dwelling of the ancient robot that once lived in the floating castle of Laputa. Surrounded by the lush nature of the region, Studio Ghibli's iconic robot peacefully waits together with one of Laputa's cute fox squirrels, Princess Mononoke's mysterious kodama spirits, and Spirited Away's quirky No Face. Being a paradise of rare animals and plants as well as blessed with warm weather, Nobeoka's natural scenery perfectly matches the magical atmosphere fans enjoyed watching Studio Ghibli's Castle in the Sky. The Laputan Robot was built here to watch over the children living in the area, with the hope that in the future even more children could spend a pleasant day playing in the green surroundings!
Laputa Ruins (Himegaiyama Cannon Ruins, Nagasaki Prefecture)
Located on Tsushima Island, the Himegaiyama Cannon Ruins are said to be another inspiration for Studio Ghibli's Castle in the Sky. At the real-life location of the floating castle, visitors will encounter abandoned brick buildings swallowed up by nature and ruins cocooned in vegetation. Originally used for military purposes, the island had 30 military forts built from 1887 to 1945 that now create a fascinating space with a retro atmosphere. The remote Tsushima Island is also a hiker's paradise thanks to its ancient forests and mountains with panoramic views, as well as a goldmine for beach enthusiasts who can enjoy a great number of stunning marine landscapes.
Showa 13 – Japanese year 2598 – Calendar year 1938
13-Shi Carrier Bomber: Kugisho D4Y Suisei (selected as Type 2)
13-Shi Attack Bomber: Mitsubishi G5M, Nakajima G5N Shinzan (selected as Type 2)
13-Shi Flying Boat: Kawanishi H8K (selected as Type 2)
13-Shi Training Flying Boat: Aichi H9A (selected as Type 2)
13-Shi High-speed Reconnaissance Plane: Aich C4A (cancelled in favour of Mitsubishi C5M)
13-Shi Escort Fighter: Nakajima J1N
O armamento deste caça consistia em quatro canhões de 30 mm. Uma explosão concentrada desses quatro canhões de Tipo 5 teriam causado danos significativos ao funcionamento interno dos bombardeiros de quatro motores, completamente pressurizados da Força Aérea do Exército dos Estados Unidos, provocando falhas no sistemas ou, pelo menos, alguma confusão dentro da aeronave. [ 2 ]
A velocidade máxima atingiria os 750 quilómetros por hora, enquanto o alcance da aeronave seria de 850 quilómetros. O tecto de serviço foi relatado por alcançar os 12 000 metros de altitude. Como um interceptor de resposta rápida, o J7W1 teria uma capacidade de subir 750 metros por minuto. O avião seria alimentado a partir de um único motor da série Mitsubishi Ha-43 12, fornecendo cerca de 2130 cavalos de potência, girando um conjunto de seis hélices. Quando totalmente carregado, o J7W1 teria um peso máximo de descolagem de 5288 quilos. [ 2 ] [ 3 ]
Depois da guerra, os norte-americanos enviaram a aeronave para os Estados Unidos para ser estudada e avaliada. Depois de se realizar a inspecção à aeronave, ela foi enviada para o Smithsonian Institution em 1960, onde ainda permanece em exposição. [ 4 ]
Nel 1937 la Mitsubishi Jūkōgyō KK decise di acquistare dalla statunitense North American Aviation Inc due esemplari degli addestratori avanzati NA-16, modello già in servizio nella United States Army Air Corps (USAAC), in previsione di proporlo come alternativa ai modelli utilizzati nelle scuole di volo militari nazionali. I due velivoli si differenziavano tra loro per la versione richiesta, il primo, consegnato nel settembre 1937, era un NA-16-4R, equipaggiato con un motore Pratt & Whitney R-985, un radiale 9 cilindri raffreddato ad aria da 450 hp (335 kW), abbinato a un'elica tripala, il secondo, consegnato tre mesi più tardi, motorizzato Wright R-975, dalla medesima architettura e potenza disponibile, ma che trasmetteva il moto a un'elica bipala.  
Ottenuto il consenso da parte della Marina imperiale, i due esemplari vennero avviati ad una serie di prove di valutazione identificandoli con la designazione "lunga" Aereo da addestramento intermedio sperimentale per la Marina Tipo A  , più specificatamente indicando il primo con la designazione "corta" KXA1 e il secondo KXA2. Ritenute le sue prestazioni soddisfacenti, avendo la Marina espresso l'intenzione di dotare le proprie scuole di volo della versione NA-16-4R vennero avviate trattative per l'acquisizione di una licenza di produzione tramite una società intermediaria. Una volta ottenuta, venne emessa la specifica 14-Shi che prevedeva una variante derivata dal progetto di concezione nazionale, assegnando il compito di sviluppo e successiva produzione alla Watanabe Tekkōsho. 
Il prototipo, completato nel 1941 e indicato con la designazione "corta" K10W, si differenziava dal progetto originale per il diverso disegno dell'elemento verticale dell'impennaggio e per l'adozione di una motorizzazione di produzione nazionale, il Nakajima Kotobuki, a sua volta sviluppo del britannico Bristol Jupiter che manteneva l'architettura 9 cilindri a singola stella dei motori statunitensi. Le successive e positive prove di volo confermarono la volontà di avviare la produzione in serie del modello che, a seconda della convenzione venne indicato K10W1 e Aereo da addestramento intermedio per la Marina Tipo 2. 
Dopo il primo lotto di 26 esemplari realizzati dalla Watanabe, ordine completamente evaso nel novembre 1942, i vertici della Marina imperiale ordinarono all'azienda di trasferire progetti e relativi macchinari atti alla produzione alla Nippon Hikōki, la quale tra il febbraio 1943 e marzo 1944 realizzò altri 150 esemplari.