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USS Tarbell (DD-142)
USS Tarbell (DD-142) was a Wickes class destroyer that served with the Neutrality Patrol and then on convoy escort duties in the Atlantic for most of the Second World War.
The Tarbell was named after Joseph Tarbell, a US naval officer during the war with Tripoli and the War of 1812.
The Tarbell was laid down on 31 December 1917 at Cramp's of Philadelphia, launched on 28 May 1918 and commissioned on 27 November 1918, just two weeks after the end of the First World War. She operated off the East Coast until September 1919 when she took part in the mass fleet move to the Pacific. She joined Destroyer Division 15, Destroyer Flotilla 5, Destroyer Squadron 4 until January 1920 when she moved to DesDiv 13 in the same flotilla.
In February 1920 the Tarbell was moved to Cavite in the Philippines and in March she joined the Asiatic Fleet. She served on that station until the summer of 1921 when she returned to the Pacific Fleet, with a new base at Puget Sound. She was decommissioned on 8 June 1922.
The Tarbell was recommissioned on 29 May 1930 and joined DesDiv 11, DesRon 10, Destroyer Squadrons, Battle Fleet. She was based at San Diego until January 1931, when she moved to Charleston. She moved to DesDiv 3 of the Scouting Force in March 1931. By October 1934 she had been moved back to San Diego, but still as part of the Scouting Force. Late in 1936 she returned to the East Coast where she was decommissioned for a second time.
The Tarbell was recommissioned for the second time on 4 October 1939 to take part in the Atlantic Neutrality Patrol. She performed that role for the next two years, before the US entry into the war put the Navy on a full war footing.
Anyone who served on her between 9 July-1 August, 7 September-10 October, 21 October-21 November or 5-7 December 1941 qualified for the American Defense Service Medal.
On 8 December 1941 the Tarbell, Niblack (DD-424) and Benson (DD-421), part of Task Unit 4.1.3, attacked a contact that they believed to be a U-boat, although it was later considered not to have been.
After the US entry into the war the Tarbell performed convoy escort duties and anti-submarine warfare in the North Atlantic. In January 1942 she escorted convoy HX-170 east to the Mid Ocean Meeting Point. On 25 March 1942 she rescued 22 survivors from the oil tanker Dixie Arrow after she was sunk by U-71. In May 1942 she began a new duty, watching Vichy French warships that were trapped in various Caribbean ports. Her task was to watch the training cruiser Jeanne D'Arc at Guadeloupe. On 16 May she rescued 23 survivors from the freighter Lammont Du Pont, sunk by U-125. On 26 May she put to sea to try and catch U-156, after that submarine torpedoed the USS Blakeley (DD-150). The search lasted until 27 May, but the submarine escaped. On 2 June she rescued 19 survivors from the SS Alegrete and on 4 June another 30 survivors from the tanker M.F. Elliot, sunk by U-502.
In mid-May 1943 the Tarbell began to escort transatlantic convoys, starting with UGS-9, which reached Casablanca on 15 June. She escorted a second Casablanca convoy in August, then resumed local escort duties, before joining the Croatan (CVE-25), Lea (DD-118) and Upshur (DD-144) to escort another convoy from 22 October-3 November. She then escorted the return convoy, which reached New York on 21 November.
On 26 December 1943 she left Norfolk as part of the escort for convoy UGS-28, heading for North Africa. The voyage was interrupted after the USS Lea was rammed by one of the merchant ships. The Tarbell had to tow her part of the way to Bermuda, before she was relieved by a fleet tug. The Tarbell rejoined the convoy. After reaching North Africa she joined a hunter-killer anti-submarine group operating around the Azores, but this was a short assignment and she was back at Norfolk on 7 February 1944.
The Tarbell was then allocated to the Air Force, Atlantic Fleet, to act as a target ship for aircrew training. She carried out this duty in April, before joining the screen of the carriers USS Ranger (CV-4) and Kasaan Bay (CVE-69). She then alternated between the two roles - carrier escort and target ship duty until July 1945. She was decommissioned on 20 July 1945, and sold for scrap on 30 November 1945.
2 shaft Parsons turbines
3,800nm at 15kts on trial (Wickes)
Armour - belt
Armaments (as built)
Four 4in/50 guns
28 May 1918
27 November 1918
20 July 1945
|Sold for scrap||30 November 1945|
Service history [ edit | edit source ]
Tarbell operated along the eastern seaboard until September 1919, when she was reassigned to the Pacific Fleet. Based at San Francisco, she served with Destroyer Division 15, of Destroyer Flotilla 5 and Destroyer Squadron 4, until late January 1920 when she joined Division 13 of the same flotilla and squadron. In February, her home yard was changed to Cavite in the Philippines, and in March, the destroyer joined the Asiatic Fleet. Tarbell served on the Asiatic Station until the summer of 1921, when she returned to the Pacific Fleet with her home yard at Puget Sound. She operated with the Pacific Fleet until she was decommissioned on 8 June 1922 and berthed at San Diego, California.
On 29 May 1930, Tarbell was recommissioned and assigned to Destroyer Division 11, Destroyer Squadron 10, Destroyer Squadrons, Battle Fleet. Her home port was San Diego until January 1931, when it was changed to Charleston, South Carolina. However, she remained assigned to the same administrative organization until March, when she was reassigned to Destroyer Division 3 of the Scouting Force. Sometime between July and October 1934, the destroyer changed home ports back to San Diego, but remained a part of the Scouting Force Destroyers. Late in 1936, Tarbell returned to the east coast to prepare for her second decommissioning, this time at Philadelphia.
She remained there until after war broke out in Europe in September 1939. To keep the war out of the Americas, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued two Neutrality Acts on the 5th and ordered the Navy to form a Neutrality Patrol. A month later, on 4 October 1939, Tarbell was placed back in commission at Philadelphia, Lieutenant Commander Edward W. Rawlins in command. She operated in the Atlantic with the Neutrality Patrol for over two years before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor jolted the United States into the war.
World War II [ edit | edit source ]
Tarbell ' s duties remained much the same after the United States entered the conflict. The destroyer continued to escort convoys and perform antisubmarine work in the northern Atlantic. She shuttled merchantmen back and forth across the ocean and operated out of the east coast ports on rescue missions to pick up survivors of torpedoed ships.
One such rescue mission occurred on 26 March 1942. A Socony tanker, Dixie Arrow, was torpedoed off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and Tarbell ' s lookouts sighted her distress flares a little before 0900. The destroyer instantly rang up full speed and, one-half hour later, she arrived at the scene of the attack. She dropped a depth-charge barrage to drive off any U-boats lurking in the vicinity and then picked up 22 survivors. After a futile search for the enemy submarine, she disembarked the survivors at Morehead City, North Carolina.
In May 1942, the destroyer began helping in the surveillance of Vichy French warships in the Caribbean. To assure that those French ships were not turned over to the Germans and that, in accordance with the Panama Declaration, there be no transfer of European possessions in America to any non-American power, she was assigned a patrol area around Pointe-à-Pitre, Grand Terre Island, Guadeloupe, and her specific charge was the old training cruiser Jeanne D'Arc.
Her rescue missions continued along with observation missions. On the 16th, she rescued 24 members of the crew of Lammont Dupont, torpedoed four days out of New York. On the evening of 25 May, when word reached her at San Juan, Puerto Rico of a U-boat attack on Blakeley, Tarbell got underway so rapidly that two of her officers and 13 crewmen were left behind in Puerto Rico. The following day, she picked up eight wounded Blakeley crewmen at Martinique, then participated in the search for the U-boat until the afternoon of the 27th. On 2 June, Tarbell rescued 19 survivors of Alegrete. Two days later, the destroyer sighted survivors of the sinking of M.F Elliot and brought them aboard, running her tally up to 31 men rescued on that mission.
Following additional escort duty in the Caribbean and in the Gulf of Mexico, Tarbell began screening transatlantic convoys in mid-May 1943. Her first voyage was in the escort of convoy UGS-9 which was augmented by the latest development in antisubmarine warfare (ASW)—an escort carrier. The convoy reached Casablanca safely on 15 June. Tarbell returned to the United States at New York, underwent repairs, and conducted training before joining another Casablanca-bound convoy in August. Upon her return to New York, the destroyer resumed local escort work until 22 October, when she departed New York in company with Croatan, Lea, and Upshur to cover the passage of another convoy. The unit steamed via Bermuda, where it was joined by Albemarle, and arrived at Casablanca on 3 November. Following a short voyage to Gibraltar, Tarbell headed back across the Atlantic on 10 November. The return convoy entered New York harbor on the 21st.
The following month brought an availability, refresher training, and time spent in training prospective crews for destroyer-type warships. On 26 December, she departed Norfolk in company with Mission Bay and Destroyer Division 61 to cover convoy UGS-28 to North Africa, from there operating as a hunter/ killer group in the vicinity of the Azores. On 31 December, Lea was severely damaged in a collision, and Tarbell took her in tow for Bermuda. On 3 January 1944, the destroyer was relieved of her towing duties by Cherokee and Twiggs and caught up with the convoy at Horta in the Azores on the 7th.
After hunting submarines along the convoy routes, Tarbell ' s group reached Norfolk, on 7 February, and the destroyer set out for a 10-day availability at Boston. Following that, she was assigned to the Air Force, Atlantic Fleet (AirLant) for air crew training operations off Provincetown, Massachusetts. Relieved of that duty in April, she operated for a time in the screen of Ranger and Kasaan Bay. From then until July 1945, she alternated between carrier escort duty and target ship duty with AirLant. On 20 July 1945, Tarbell was placed out of commission at Philadelphia. Her name was struck from the Navy List on 13 August 1945, and she was sold for scrapping on 30 November 1945 to the Boston Metal Salvage Company, Baltimore, Maryland.
As of 2012, no other ship in the United States Navy has borne this name.
USS Tarbell (DD-142) - History
USS Tarbell , a 1090-ton Wickes class destroyer, was built at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Commissioned in late November 1918, she spent the last part of that year and the first half of 1919 in the waters off the U.S. Atlantic Coast and off western Europe. Transferred to the Pacific in July 1919, Tarbell served off the West Coast and, in 1920-1921, with the Asiatic Fleet. She was decommissioned in June 1922 and placed in reserve at San Diego, Califiornia.
Tarbell returned to commissioned service in May 1930, based as San Diego until January 1931, when she was shifted to Charleston, South Carolina. During the next five years the destroyer alternated between the Atlantic and Pacific and was again laid up in reserve in about late 1936. The outbreak of World War II in Europe brought her back into commission for Atlantic Neutrality patrol duty early in October 1939.
After the United States entered the conflict in December 1941, Tarbell remained in the Atlantic, escorting convoys and conducting antisubmarine patrols. During March-June 1942 she rescued survivors of several torpedoed merchant ships off the East Coast and in the Caribbean area. Refitted later in 1942 to improve her escort capabilities, Tarbell began trans-Atlantic convoy duties in May 1943. In addition, she was often assigned to screen aircraft carriers as part of antisubmarine hunter-killer task groups and during air crew training. In July 1945, with the European War concluded, the now very elderly USS Tarbell was decommissioned. She was sold for scrapping at the end of November 1945.
This page features, or provides links to, all the views we have related to USS Tarbell (Destroyer # 142, later DD-142).
|If you want higher resolution reproductions than the digital images presented here, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."|
Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.
Online Image: 73KB 740 x 585 pixels
USS Tarbell (Destroyer # 142)
Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation. Collection of Lieutenant Charles Dutreaux.
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.
Online Image: 108KB 690 x 610 pixels
USS Tarbell (Destroyer # 142), at left
Steaming through the Gaillard Cut, during the Pacific Fleet's passage through the Panama Canal, 24 July 1919.
USS Woolsey (Destroyer # 77) is immediately ahead of Tarbell .
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.
Online Image: 108KB 740 x 545 pixels
Destroyers at the Mare Island Navy Yard, 1919
These ships are (from left to right):
USS Tarbell (Destroyer # 142)
USS Thatcher (Destroyer # 162)
USS Rizal (Destroyer # 174)
USS Hart (Destroyer # 110)
USS Hogan (Destroyer # 178)
USS Gamble (Destroyer # 123)
USS Ramsay (Destroyer # 124) and
USS Williams (Destroyer # 108).
Donation of Rear Admiral Ammen Farenholt, USN (Medical Corps).
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.
Online Image: 83KB 740 x 555 pixels
In San Diego harbor, California, during the early 1930s.
Donation of Franklin Moran, 1967.
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.
Online Image: 92KB 740 x 610 pixels
In New York Harbor during the 1930s.
Courtesy of Donald M. McPherson, 1969.
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.
Online Image: 70KB 740 x 450 pixels
USS Yarnall (DD-143)
USS Tarbell (DD-142)
Tied up together alongside a pier, during the 1930s.
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.
Online Image: 112KB 595 x 765 pixels
USS Upshur (DD-144)
USS Tarbell (DD-142)
Tied up in port, during the later 1930s.
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.
Online Image: 83KB 600 x 765 pixels
In addition to the views referenced above, the National Archives appears to hold at least one other photograph of USS Tarbell (DD-142). The following listing describes this image:
The image listed below is NOT in the Naval Historical Center's collections.
DO NOT try to obtain it using the procedures described in our page "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions".
Reproductions of this image should be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system for pictures not held by the Naval Historical Center.
File:USS Tarbell (DD-142) underway in Charleston harbour, 17 December 1942.jpg
Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.
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Seeking records of USS Reuben James (DD-245) and Convoy HX 156
I'm looking for records related to the sinking of the Reuben James (DD-245) while escorting Convoy HX 156 on Oct. 31, 1941. My best lead is RG 313.5.2 Records of the Atlantic Fleet (Destroyer Force), but I'm wondering if there was an inquiry on the ship's loss or other operational records to the convoy it was escorting. Thank you!
Re: Seeking records of USS Reuben James (DD-245) and Convoy HX 156Jason Atkinson 03.02.2020 12:49 (в ответ на CHRISTOPHER LOOMIS)
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
We searched the National Archives Catalog and located located World War II War Diaries, Other Operational Records and Histories, ca. 1/1/1942 - ca. 6/1/1946 in the Records of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (Record Group 38) that includes the reports COMTASK-UNIT 4.1.3 - Report of loss of USS REUBEN JAMES, 10/31/41 and COMTASK-UNIT 4.1.3 - Report of Escort Operations (HX156) . Both have been digitized and can be viewed online through the Catalog. These reports were made by the Commander of Task Unit 4.1.3, which was the US Navy unit which included the USS Reuben James (DD-245) and was tasked with escorting Convoy HX 156.
We also located the record series World War II Command Files in the Records of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (Record Group 38) that includes the file units Individual Ships, Reuben James [Miscellaneous] Individual Ships, Reuben James Record of Board of Investigation and Individual Ships, Reuben James Casualties/Loss 31 October 1941 . These file units contain information about the loss of the USS Reuben James (DD-245) and the investigation thereof.
In addition, we searched the Logbooks of U.S. Navy Ships and Stations, 1941 - 1983 in the Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel (Record Group 24) but were unable to locate a deck log for the USS Reuben James for the month of October 1941 when it was sunk. This is normal, as deck logs and other ship records typically go down with the ship, with rare exceptions. This series does include logs of the other American warships escorting Convoy HX 156, namely the USS Niblack (DD-424), the USS Tarbell (DD-142), the USS Benson (DD-421), and the USS Hilary P. Jones (DD-427).
Also, we located Copies of Records of the German Navy and War Journals of German Commander in Chief of Submarines in the National Archives Collection of Foreign Records Seized (Record Group 242) which may contain German records of the attack.
Copies of records listed above that are not available in digital form online may be requested by contacting the National Archives at College Park - Textual Reference (RDT2) via email at [email protected] . There is a reproduction fee for this service.
Alternatively, the staff of the National Archives at College Park - Textual Reference (RDT2) will be pleased to make finding aids for these records available to you or your representative in the Textual Research Room located 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD, near the University of Maryland--College Park campus. The Textual Research Room (Room 2000) hours are 8:45 a.m. to 5:45 p.m., Monday through Friday, except for legal holidays. The RDT2 consultation room hours are 8:45 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, except for legal holidays. No appointment is necessary. Prior to your visit, please consult College Park websites at https://www.archives.gov/dc-metro/college-park/ , https://www.archives.gov/dc-metro/self-service-copying.html , and https://www.archives.gov/research/start/getting-started.pdf .
The Naval History and Heritage Command (NHHC) has an online article about the Reuben James I (DD-245) in their Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships and in the NHHC Collection of the Navy Department Library (NDL) is a listing for German Navy U-Boat (Submarine) Headquarters War Logs From World War II that may contain German documents regarding the sinking. The NHHC and the NDL may have additional resources on this topic.
Please contact The National Archives of the United Kingdom for access to British records concerning the convoy and the roles that the Royal Navy played in escorting it.
You may also be interested in U-Boat Attack Logs: A Complete Record of Warship Sinkings from Original Sources 1939-1945 by Bruce Taylor and Daniel Morgan, which included a chapter on the sinking of the USS Reuben James as well as information about captured German U-Boat records in British custody.
We hope this is helpful. Best of luck with your research!
[information provided in part by Nate Patch, Subject Matter Expert]
Re: Seeking records of USS Reuben James (DD-245) and Convoy HX 156
Dear Mr. Atkinson and Mr. Patch,
Thank you so much for your amazingly detailed and quick response. I really appreciate your thoughtfulness and effort. Thanks again.
USS Tarbell DD 142
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Joseph Tarbell (about 1780 – 24 November 1815) was an officer in the United States Navy during the First Barbary War and the War of 1812.
Born in Norfolk, Virginia, Tarbell was appointed midshipman in the Navy on 5 December 1798. He served in Constitution and other ships of the Mediterranean Squadron from 1800 to 1804, at the height of America's war with Tripoli. He was present, under Commodore Edward Preble's command, during the demonstration before Tripoli in 1804 and was among those honored by Congress for services rendered during that action.
From 19 to 23 June 1813, during the War of 1812, Tarbell commanded a boat expedition against the British squadron off Craney Island and in the James River. His flotilla of 15 boats fought the enemy for an hour and one-half and succeeded in forcing him to flee. In those actions, his men sank three British boats, took 43 prisoners, and killed 90 of the enemy. Tarbell was commended by his superior, Commodore Stephen Cassin, and by the army officers ashore for his gallantry and assistance in the defense of Craney Island. Just over a month later, on 24 July 1813, he was promoted to the rank of captain.
Captain Tarbell died at Norfolk, on 24 November 1815.
This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
The Wilbur E. Tarbell Post #109 was organized after the Second World War, and its charter meeting held on March 15, 1951. On May 7, 1956, the post was officially incorporated and the name chosen in memory of Wilbur E. Tarbell. Mr. Tarbell, son of Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Tarbell, was the Town of Windham&rsquos only casualty of WWII.
Wilbur E. Tarbell Photo courtesy Mary Ann Horaj
Born on August 18 th 1920 in Mapleton, Maine, Wilbur Tarbell was the only son of Maurice and Elva (Dimock) Tarbell. His only sibling was his sister Fielda. When he was 21 months old, the family moved to southern New Hampshire. Although they did not live permanently in Windham until 1932, they were frequent visitors. Wilbur went to school in Pelham, Warner and Salem New Hampshire. While attending Woodbury High in Salem, he represented the school, his junior and senior years, in YMCA basketball tournaments, which hosted the best players in the region. He graduated from Woodbury in 1938 a three sport letterman.
Wilbur enlisted in the Navy on January 21, 1942. After boot camp, he joined the submarine service. An average of 9 out of every 100 applicants was selected for the preliminary testing at the Navy&rsquos National Submarine Training School near New London, Connecticut. Of that select group, 25 to 30% were rejected before the program even began, based on tests given to determine who was physically and mentally fit for submarine duty. The submarine service during World War Two was the most dangerous duty in the military with a casualty rate around 20%.
On October 5, 1942, Wilbur was assigned as Electrician&rsquos mate 3 rd class to the newly commissioned USS Scorpion 278, one of the new Gato class of submarines. . Gato -class boats carried the brunt of the U.S. submarine war early in World War II. The diesel &ndashelectric submarines of this class were some of the most heavily armed submarines of the war. World War II subs were basically surface ships that could travel underwater for a limited time. Diesel engines gave them high surface speed and long range, but speed and range were severely reduced underwater, where they relied on electric motors powered by relatively short-lived storage batteries. Recharging the storage batteries meant surfacing to run the air-breathing diesels. Even combat patrols routinely involved 90 percent (or more) surface operations.
USS Scorpion (SS-278), Photo On Eternal Patrol - Lost Subs of World War II, 1944
After returning home for Christmas leave and to attend his sister Fielda's wedding in Windham in December of 1942, EM1 Tarbell and the crew of the Scorpion began operations that would include four combat patrols in the Atlantic and Pacific - including Midway and Pearl Harbor - from 1942 until February of 1944. Acording to the Naval History and Heritage Command, "In her first three patrols, Scorpion sank ten ships, for a total of 24,100 tons, and damaged two more, for 16,000 tons. Her first war patrol was in the approaches to Tokyo in April 1943. Here she sank two freighters, four sampans and two patrol craft. In addition, she damaged a freighter. On her second patrol, conducted in the Yellow Sea, she sank two freighters. Her third patrol was made in the Mariana Islands, and resulted in damage to a tanker."
The Scorpion was last seen and heard from on January 6 of 1944 after a rendevouz with the USS Herring 233, with attempts on the sixteenth of the following month to warn her and her sister Gato class USS Steelhead 280 of suspected enemy submarine activity in their vicinity. As of February 24, 1944, no report had been received by Midway from the Scorpio, and she was reported presumed lost on March 6, 1944. Subsequent information from the Japanese government after the war indicates that the loss was not likely to have been the result of a direct submarine attack while there are reports of newly laid mine lines across the entrance to the Yellow Sea around the time of the disappearance.
USS Scorpion (SS-278), Photo U.S. Navy, 1944
Submarines that do not return from patrol are often referred to as being "on eternal patrol" by sailors, and accordingly there are a series of memorials called the "Still on Patrol" markers throughout the United States. The marker for the USS Scorpio is in Elberton, Georgia at the intersection of Bobby Brown Park Road and Ranger Drive.
By Brian Scott, October 19, 2014
Next to the marker is a stone tablet containing a roll call of the sailors on the USS Scorpio at the time of her disappearance.
Shipmates on Eternal Patrol in USS Scorpion (SS-278).
Lost February 1sty, 1944
East China Sea
James S. Alexander, [email protected]/Charles W. Appleton, SC3/Lorren L. Bausman, SC1/ Hollis F. Bell, S1/Robert T. Brown, LTjg/Rufus H. Bynum, QM1/ Robert J. Chamberlain, EM2/ Harold F. Christman, S1/ Jack E. Clough, TM2/ Theodore T. Cornelius, MoMMC/Joseph W. Cunningham, RMC/ Lawrence W. Deane, TM3/ Raymond P. Dews, SM1/ Vincent R. Drake, ENS/Robert B. Drake, LTjg/Ernest L. Echorst TM2/Richmond H. Ellis, LTjg/Edward J. English, MoMM1/Lee M. Faber, S1/James A. Fasnacht, QM2/Lyle D. Faustman, MoMM1/Nearest Ferguson, SM3/William A. Flaherty, Jr. QMC/John F. Glazier, GM2/Paul L. Harvey, EM2/Robert D. Harvey, Jr., F3/Jean T. Heidenrich, TM1/Carl P. Heinz, MoMM1/Frank E. Hood, S2/Carl M. Hund, GMC/Robert E. Hutchinson, TM3/George E. Ingram, MoMM2/Robert L. Jacobs, S2/Nicholas L. Koster, MoMMC/E. Krawczykowicz, MoMM3/Walter C. Labarthe, MoMM2/Robert W. Lloyd, MoMM2/Lawrence A. Manganello, CCS/Stanley E. Matthews, RM1/Russell K. McMillan, MoMM1/Frank A. McNally, Jr., RT2/Paul J. Miller, Jr., EM2/Howard W. Morgan, QM2/Lyle E. Mosbey, EM2/Canterbury B. Pierce, Lt (XO)/ Robert M. Rairden, YN3/Wilbert L. Randolph EM1/Jack P. Rawlings, EMC/Frederick J. Robillard, S1/Thomas E. Roche, TM2/Albert V. Rowe, S2/Bill Saunders, S1/Maximilian G. Schmidt, CDR (CO)/Daniel A. Seaman, MoMM1/William I. Sears, EM1/Mark W. Setvate, TM3/James Sharke, F1/Irvin S. Shapiro, PhM1/Paul D. Shea, MoMM3/Russell O. Sink, MoMM3/Samuel R. Skelton, TM3/Donald E. Smith, RM3/Joseph F. Smith, TM3/Charles R. Spears, MoMMC/Edgar A. Sturges, MoMM1/Wilbur E. Tarbell, EM1/Jack Townsend, RM3/Raymond V. Udick, TM1/Jack L. Voorhees, TM2/Rudolph F. Weidenhach, FC3/Robert R. Williford, MoMM3/Raymond J. Wise, Jr., LT/Robert L. Womack, MoMM2/Karl Zimmerman, RM1
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Muckraker, any of a group of American writers identified with pre-World War I reform and exposé literature. The muckrakers provided detailed, accurate journalistic accounts of the political and economic corruption and social hardships caused by the power of big business in a rapidly industrializing United States. The name muckraker was pejorative when used by U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt in his speech of April 14, 1906 he borrowed a passage from John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress that referred to “the Man with the Muckrake…who could look no way but downward.” But muckraker also came to take on favourable connotations of social concern and courageous exposition.
Where does the term muckraker come from?
The name muckraker was pejorative when used by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in a speech on April 14, 1906 he borrowed a passage from John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress that referred to “the Man with the Muckrake…who could look no way but downward.” But muckraker came to take on favourable connotations of social concern and courageous exposition.
What does the term muckraker mean?
A muckraker was any of a group of American writers identified with pre-World War I reform and exposé writing. The muckrakers provided detailed, accurate journalistic accounts of the political and economic corruption and social hardships caused by the power of big business in a rapidly industrializing United States.
Acme was an Emergency Fleet Corporation design 1047 tanker laid down by the Union Iron Works in San Francisco, in 1916, for the United States Shipping Board. She was launched 29 April 1916, and commissioned 22 June 1916. 
Acme was designed for transporting oil in bulk to Far Eastern ports that had been served by British ships before the outbreak of World War I. She, along with four more ships that were to follow her, had been designated "A" boats by the Marine Transportation Department. 
World War I Edit
During World War I Acme filled in for British ship that had been commandeered by the British Admiralty. Her first voyage was to China. She would continue her San Francisco to China route for the next five years with only rare trips to New York for loads to Singapore via the Suez Canal. After the United States entered World War I, only Acme and two of her sister ships were available for Standard Transportation to use in the Pacific, this was mainly because on her return trips she would load coconut oil in the Philippines, which because of its 12 percent glycerin content made it a valuable war cargo. 
Post war service Edit
Acme started running a route from the "Texas-oil-coast" to "ports-north-of-Hatteras" in 1925. She changed owners in 1931 and 1935, but she didn't change names. 
World War II Edit
Acme was sailing for Corpus Christi, Texas, from New York, on 17 March 1942, about 1 nmi (1.9 km 1.2 mi) west of Diamond Shoal Light, North Carolina, ( 35°03′N 75°12′W / 35.05°N 75.20°W / 35.05 -75.20 ) when she was damaged by a torpedo from U-124. Eleven of her crew were killed with the surviving 20 abandoning ship. They were rescued by USCGC Dione (WPC-108) and landed at Norfolk, Virginia, with Acme being towed to Lynnhaven Roads, Virginia, and later to Newport News, Virginia, for repairs. The War Shipping Administration (WSA) requisitioned her about a month later while she was still in dock. 
After repairs Acme served in transatlantic convoys, with deliveries of fuel to Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, on occasion. 
In September 1943, the WSA obtained full title to Acme when they traded six obsolete tankers for three new tankers. 
In anticipation of her acquisition by the Navy, Acme was renamed Abarenda on 3 November 1943 and simultaneously classified IX-131. She was purchased by the Navy on 26 February 1944 and commissioned on 18 April 1944, Lieutenant commander Benjamin F. Langland, USCGR, in command. 
Abarenda was assigned to Service Squadron 10 as a floating storage tanker. She served at Manus Island in the Admiralty Islands until 20 February 1945 when she headed for the Philippines. The tanker arrived at Leyte on 13 March and, for the remainder of the War, dispensed fuel to the warships of the 3d/5th Fleet. 
Post war and decommissioning Edit
Following the end of World War II, Abarenda fueled the ships supporting the occupation forces in the Far East and continued that duty until 28 February 1946 at which time she was decommissioned in the Philippines. Returned to the WSA that day, she was berthed with that organization's reserve fleet at Subic Bay. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 20 March 1946 and she resumed the name Acme while in the WSA reserve fleet. 
Sold on 29 January 1948 to the Asia Development Corp., Shanghai, China, along with 15 other vessels, for scrapping, she was delivered to her purchaser on 3 March 1948.