World History 1100-1200 AD - History

World History 1100-1200 AD - History

1106 AD Battle of Tinchebray- An English war of succession came to an end at the Battle of Tinchebray, in Normandy. It began with the death of William II, King of England on August 2nd, 1100. Henry I (Beauclerc) seized the throne, but was opposed by his brother Robert II (Curthhose), of Normandy. Henry defeated Robert at Tinchebray and returned him in chains. Robert spent the rest of his life in prison.
1113 AD Khmer Empire Reaches Peak - The Khmer Empire in present-day Cambodia was established in 600 and reached its peak under Suryavarman II. Under his leadership, the Khmer Empire was expanded to include most of the area consisting of modern-day Vietnam.
1125 AD Henry V Dies Matilda Returns to England- Henry V, King of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, died after leading an expedition against the French Louis VI. His widow, Matilda, returned to England where her father forced English nobles to accept her as his successor after the death of his son at sea. When Henry I, her father, died Stephen of Blois, Henry's nephew, refused to accept Matilda's rule and he seized power. This resulted in a ten-year war of succession.
1143 AD Alfonso I King Of Portugal- Under the terms of the Treaty of Zamora in 1143, the independence of Portugal was recognized. Alfonso I became the first King.
1147 AD Second Crusade - The Second Crusade was organized by Louis VII, King of Spain and Conrad III, King of Germany. The Crusade came to a disastrous end due to a lack of leadership and control. It ended with an aborted siege of Damascus.
1147 AD Morrocco Conquered By Almohads - Morocco was conquered by Abd al-Mumin, the leader of the Berber Muslim Almohad Dynasty. This conquest brought to an end the Almoravid Dynasty. By 1152, Algeria was also brought under the control of the Almohads.
1157 AD Eric IX Jedvardsson Defeats Finns- Eric IX (Jedvardsson) Christian King of Sweden, defeated the Finns. He then forced them to convert to Christianity.
1163 AD Work Began On Notre Dame- One of the most notable gothic churches was begun in 1163- Notre Dame. The church was conceived by Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris.
1168 AD Oxford Founded- The school of Oxford was founded in 1168. After the founding of the University of Paris in 1200 Oxford became an offshoot of it.
1171 AD Saladin Founds Ayyubid Dynasty- Saladin, ruler of Egypt, proclaimed the end of the Fatima dynasty that had ruled Egypt since 968. He declared himself Caliph of the new Ayyubid dynasty.
1171 AD Henry II Launches Invasion of Ireland- Henry II, King of England responded to a request for help from Ireland's deposed King Dermot MacMurrough, by sending forces to Warford. Henry was recognized as the ruler of Ireland by the Treaty of Windsor in 1171.
1174 AD William The Lion Defeated- Henry II defeated William the Lion, King of Scotland at the siege of Alnwick Castle in 1174. William officially accepted Henry as the ruler of Scotland.
1176 AD Frederick I Barbarossa Defeated By Lombard League- The Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I (Barbossa) was decisively defeated by the Lombard League at Legano. Frederick was attempting to reassert his authority over northern Italy.
1184 AD Streets Paved In Paris- The streets in front of the Louvre were paved. This marked the first time streets in Paris were paved.
1185 AD Battle of Dannoura- The Japanese Tairo clan was decisively defeated by the Minamoto clan in a naval battle that took place off Dannoura. The child emperor Antoku, who had been held prisoner by the Taira, was killed in the battle. Japan entered the Kamakura period in the aftermath of the battle. It was a era marked by a clear division between the powerless imperial court and the dominant military government.
1187 AD Battle Of Hittin- Christian forces from the Kingdom of Jerusalem attacked a caravan carrying the sister of Saladin. In retaliation, he began a holy war against the Crusaders. At the Battle of Hittim, he defeated a combined Christian army. He then laid siege to Jerusalem and captured it, although he did not sack the city after the conquest.
1186 AD Second Bulgarian Empire- A successful revolt took place against the Byzantine rule of Bulgaria. This established the second Bulgarian empire which lasted until 1396.
1192 Ad Crusader Captures Acre- Spurred by Saladin's triumph, the Christians launch the Third Crusade, led by Richard the Lionhearted. Despite many difficulties, they reached the coastal area of the Holy Land and successfully captured the Acre fortress. Richard negotiated a truce with Saladin that ensured Christian access to holy sites in Jerusalem.
1199 AD Richard The Lionhearted Dies- Richard the Lionhearted died of an arrow wound while besieging Chalus in Western France. Richard, ruler of England since 1189, had actually spent very little time there. Instead, he helped lead the Third Crusade. Richard had been imprisoned by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1193, but managed to purchase his freedom. He fought an on-going battle with Philip II of Normandy. While Richard was involved in affairs outside England, the land was administered for him by Jubert Walter.

World History 1100-1200 AD - History

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List of largest cities throughout history

This article lists the largest human settlement in the world (by population) over time, as estimated by historians, from 7000 BCE when the largest populated place in the world was a proto-city in the Ancient Near East with a population of about 1,000–2,000 people, to the year 2000 when the largest urban area was Tokyo with 26 million. Alexandria, Rome, or Baghdad may have been the first city to have 1,000,000 people, as early as 100 BCE or as late as 925 AD. They were later surpassed by Constantinople, Chang'an, Hangzhou, Jinling, Beijing, London (the first city to reach 2 million), and New York (the first to top 10 million), among others, before Tokyo took the crown in the mid-20th century. As of 2020, the Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, with more than 37.393 million residents. [1]

Many of the figures are uncertain, especially in ancient times. Estimating population sizes before censuses were conducted is a difficult task. [2]


11th Century, 1001 to 1100

1001 Mahmud, an Afghani and militant Muslim, has secured his rule. He vows to take the word of Allah to the Hindu kingdoms of India every year, by sword and fire.

1002 From Greenland, Leif Ericson (Erikson) son of the Eric the Red, has led an expedition with a crew of 34 men to the coast of North America.

1004 China's elite believes that their neighbors should be awed by China's greatness and by its favor from the heavens. They base their foreign policy ideas on this and the belief that if the Chinese nation behaves morally that neighboring kings will give China the respect it deserves.

1004 Confident of his moral superiority, China's emperor responds with pacifism to military incursions from the Khitan of Manchuria. He appeases the aggressions of the Khitan by ceding permanently to them that part of China which they occupy, including Beijing, and he agrees to pay the Khitan annual tribute (taxes).

1008 Sweden's king, Olof Skötonung, converts to Christianity, and when a king converts to Christianity, his subjects also convert.

1010 Division has weakened India. Through the Khyber Pass, Muslims on horseback have been raiding temple towns in northwest India and carrying back to Ghazni as much booty as they can &ndash much of its wealth stolen from temples. The raiding stops after the Indians agree to pay tribute to the Afghani ruler, Mahmud. The Indians begin sending to Ghazni annual trains of elephants laden with gifts.

1015 A 21-year-old Dane, to be known as Canute the Great (Cnut I), has invaded England with a powerful fleet.

1017 Canute has conquered much of England. He marries the widow of the king of Wessex, Ethelred (Aethelred II) &ndash a devout Christian. Canute converts to Christianity and proclaims his intention to rule in a Christian fashion, and he strengthens political and commercial ties between England and Normandy.

1019 Canute's brother Harald, king of Denmark, dies, and Canute becomes king of Denmark

1020 Avicenna, (Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina) the greatest thinker and person of medicine of this and surrounding centuries, is forty years-old. He has 17 more years to live, a lifetime in which he will have composed 276 books on medicine, physics, astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, economics and religion. He believes in empiricism and rationalism and thinks scientifically. He has been accused by fellow Muslims of "unbelief," to which he replies: "If I have turned from Him who is blessed by birth, there's no true Muslim left on earth." His "Canon on Medicine" will be translated into Latin and begin influencing Europe in the 12th century &ndash a book of 830 pages. At Amazon.com and Barnes & Noble his work will have a five-star rating.

1022 Putting people to death for heresy has begun in Europe, fourteen said to have been burned to death at the city of Orleans on order of the French king, Robert the Pious.

1028 Canute occupies Norway with a fleet of fifty ships from England, with the help of Norweigan nobles he drives the Norwegian king since 1016, Olaf II Haraldsson, into exile.

1029 Olaf II Haraldsson returns to Norway and falls in battle.

1034 The archbishop of Milan, Heribert, seizes members of a group that rejects infant baptism and has them burned to death.

1040 The Chola dynasty, now led by Rajendra I (1014-44), ruling from southeast India, has conquered the island of Lanka. In Hindu society in general, wealth has been accumulating at the top. A few princes have thousands of servants and hangers-on. A greater percentage of agriculture is being taken from free peasants, and more of those who work the land are laborers bound to the land, locked in place by their caste &ndash the Shudras.

1044 Rulers in China have failed to keep China strong militarily. Tangut (Tibetan) warriors have been making incursions into China. The Tangut occupy China's ethnically diverse northwest, and China buys peace by agreeing to make tribute payments to them as well as to the Khitan of Manchuria, who are still ruling at Beijing.

1050 In Japan, in place of a national army or local government militia, wealthy landowners, acting with some independence, have formed little armies of their own. Their armed men are called samurai (men who serve), or bushi (warriors). They are little more than opportunists of violence, but they will consider themselves a class above the common farmer who labors hard to grow the food upon which everyone depends.

1050 The globe is warming, which is improving crop production and increasing populations. In Europe the "High Middle Ages" begins.

1054 In a doctrinal dispute, the Church in Rome accuses the Christians in Constantinople of allowing priests to marry, re-baptizing Roman Christians and deleting "and the Son" from the Nicene Creed." The last of these accusations was untrue. The Church in Rome excommunicates the Church in Constantinople, and the Church of Constantinople excommunicates the Church in Rome. The schism between Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy has become final.

1055 Turks have been moving westward through Transoxiana and into Persia. Islam has been fragmented and unable or unwilling to rally to defend its frontier. The Turks have conquered much of Persia and now from the Fatimid Dynasty they conquer Baghdad.

1060 The Almoravids (al-Murabitun), puritanical Islamic reformers, have amassed a following and an army fired by religious fervor and an interest in booty, and they have moved from their base on the Mauritanian coast and they seize power in Morocco and western Algeria.

1062 The Almoravids found Marrakech.

1066 William I of Normandy ends Anglo-Saxon rule in England and becomes its first Norman king of England. Many French words are to become English words.

1073 Previously Hildebrand had thwarted attempts to make him Pope, and he had proposed what became the choosing of Popes by the College of Cardinals. Now Hildebrand becomes Pope Gregory VII.

1075 Berbers of Morocco, fervent Muslims, declare war on the non-Muslim kingdom and empire of Ghana centered at city of Kumbi.

1077 Pope Gregory VII is pursuing church reform and is in conflict with the "Roman Emperor" in Germanic lands, Henry IV (a descendant of Charlemagne's rule). The issue is Gregory's decree that anyone who accepts a church position offered by a layman will be deposed and any layman who gives a church position to anyone would be excommunicated. Gregory excommunicates and deposes Henry. Nobles relish power taken from Henry. And, to restore himself, Gregory crosses the Alps to Canosso, in Italy, where Gregory grants him absolution &ndash forgiveness.

1080 Pope Gregory again excommunicates and deposes Henry. This time, Henry uses a power that a few kings have in greater amount than does the pope: Henry goes to Italy with an army and takes power in Rome.

1085 Christianity has been expanding against Muslims since Charlemagne took Barcelona in 801. The Christian king of Castile and Galicia, Alfonso VI, has been inviting Christians in Islamic Spain to his kingdom. Now he expands militarily to Toledo, in central Spain. The Christian reconquest of Spain is underway.

1085 Pope Gregory VII dies. The Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV, still controls Rome.

1091 Normans were originally hired by Italian principalities as mercenaries. Then the Normans started conquering in southern Italy on their own, and they became rulers accepted by the papacy. Now they conquer Sicily, ending two centuries of Muslim rule there. Arabs are allowed to continue working in public administration.

1094 The kingdom of Aragon expands southward to Valencia.

1095 The Seljuk Turks have been expanding against the empire centered at Constantinople. They have conquered Jerusalem. The Turks were also Muslims, however they did not allow Christians to visit their holy sites. Pope Urban II responds to a call for help from the emperor at Constantinople and organizes what was to become known as the First Crusade. Urban II announces that Christ will lead any army that goes to rescue the Holy Land.

1095 The first wave of the crusades begins, from Sweden into Finland, to convert the Finns to Christianity.

1096 Pope Urban II condemns the crossbow as "hateful to God." There are no firearms as yet, and the crossbow seems too deadly in its ability to pierce chain mail, and too impersonal, unlike the sword and lance, which can be parried up close.

1097 Well-trained knights defeat Muslims near Nicaea, and later in the year the Crusaders reach Antioch.

1099 Jerusalem falls to the Crusaders, who slaughter the city's Jewish and Muslim inhabitants.

1100 A Persian, Omar Khayyam (Ghiyath al-Din Abu'l-Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim Al-Nisaburi al-Khayyami), writes his poem the Rubaiyat, including lines translated as .

Come, fill the cup, and in the fire of spring Your winter-garment of repentance fling: The bird of time has but a little way To flutter-and the bird is on the wing.

Ah, Love! could you and I with Him conspire To grasp this sorry scheme of things entire, Would not we shatter it to bits, and then Remold it nearer to the heart's desire!


Aztec Civilization

The Aztec Empire (c. 1345-1521) covered at its greatest extent most of northern Mesoamerica. Aztec warriors were able to dominate their neighbouring states and permit rulers such as Montezuma to impose Aztec ideals and religion across Mexico. Highly accomplished in agriculture and trade, the last of the great Mesoamerican civilizations was also noted for its art and architecture.

The Aztec civilization, with its capital city at Tenochtitlán (Mexico City), is actually the most well-documented Mesoamerican civilization with sources including archaeology, native books (codices) and lengthy and detailed accounts from their Spanish conquerors - both by military men and Christian clergy. These latter sources may not always be reliable but the picture we have of the Aztecs, their institutions, religious practices, Aztec warfare and daily life is a rich one and it continues to be constantly expanded with details being added through the endeavours of 21st-century CE archaeologists and scholars.

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Historical Overview

Sometime around 1100 the city-states or altepetl which were spread over central Mexico began to compete with each other for local resources and regional dominance. Each state had its own ruler or tlatoani who led a council of nobles but these small urban centres surrounded by farmland soon sought to expand their wealth and influence so that by c. 1400 several small empires had formed in the Valley of Mexico. Dominant amongst these were Texcoco, capital of the Acholhua region, and Azcapotzalco, capital of the Tepenec. These two empires came face to face in 1428 with the Tepanec War. The Azcapotzalco forces were defeated by an alliance of Texcoco, Tenochtitlan (the capital of the Mexica) and several other smaller cities. Following victory, a Triple Alliance was formed between Texcoco, Tenochtitlan and a rebel Tepanec city, Tlacopan. A campaign of territorial expansion began where the spoils of war - usually in the form of tributes from the conquered - were shared between these three great cities. Over time Tenochtitlan came to dominate the Alliance, its ruler became the supreme ruler - the huey tlatoque ('high king') - and the city established itself as the capital of the Aztec empire.

The empire continued to expand from 1430 and the Aztec military - bolstered by conscription of all adult males, men supplied from allied and conquered states, and such elite members of Aztec society as the Eagle and Jaguar warriors - swept aside their rivals. An Aztec warrior wore padded cotton armour, carried a wooden or reed shield covered in hide, and wielded weapons such as a super sharp obsidian sword-club (macuahuitl), a spear or dart thrower (atlatl), and bow and arrows. Elite warriors also wore spectacular feathered and animal skin costumes and headdresses to signify their rank. Battles were concentrated in or around major cities and when these fell the victors claimed the whole surrounding territory. Regular tributes were extracted and captives were taken back to Tenochtitlan for ritual sacrifice. In this way, the Aztec empire came to cover most of northern Mexico, an area of some 135,000 square kilometres.

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The empire was kept together through the appointment of officials from the Aztec culture's heartland, inter-marriages, gift-giving, invitations to important ceremonies, the building of monuments and artworks which promoted Aztec imperial ideology, and most importantly of all, the ever-present threat of military intervention. Some states were integrated more than others whilst those on the extremities of the empire became useful buffer zones against more hostile neighbours, notably the Tarascan civilization.

Tenochtitlan

The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán (today beneath Mexico City) on the western shore of Lake Texcoco flourished so that the city could boast at least 200,000 inhabitants by the early 16th century, making it the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. These inhabitants were divided into several social strata. At the top were local rulers (teteuhctin), then came nobles (pipiltin), commoners (macehualtin), serfs (mayeque), and finally slaves (tlacohtin). The strata seem to have been relatively fixed but there is some evidence of movement between them, especially in the lower classes.

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Not only the political and religious capital, Tenochtitlán was also a huge trading centre with goods flowing in and out such as gold, greenstone, turquoise, cotton, cacao beans, tobacco, pottery, tools, weapons, foodstuffs (tortillas, chile sauces, maize, beans, and even insects, for example) and slaves. The Spanish invaders were hugely impressed by the city's splendour and magnificent architecture and artwork, especially the Templo Mayor pyramid and massive stone sculptures. Dominating the city was the huge Sacred Precinct with its temples and monumental ball court. Tenochtitlan's water management was also impressive with large canals crisscrossing the city which was itself surrounded by chinampas - raised and flooded fields - which greatly increased the agricultural capacity of the Aztecs. There were also anti-flood dykes, artificial reservoirs for fresh water, and wonderful flower gardens dotted around the city.

The whole city was designed to inspire awe in the people, especially visiting nobles who, entertained with lavish ceremonies, could see that the Mexica Aztecs truly were:

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Masters of the world, their empire so wide and abundant that they had conquered all the nations and that all were their vassals. The guests, seeing such wealth and opulence and such authority and power, were filled with terror. (Diego Durán, the Spanish friar, quoted in Nichols, 451)

Religion

Mythology and religion, as with most ancient cultures, were closely intertwined for the Aztecs. The very founding of Tenochtitlán was based on the belief that peoples from the mythical land of plenty Aztlán (literally 'Land of White Herons' and origin of the Aztec name) in the far northwest had first settled in the Valley of Mexico. They had been shown the way by their god Huitzilopochtli who had sent an eagle sitting on a cactus to indicate exactly where these migrants should build their new home. The god also gave these people their name, the Mexica, who along with other ethnic groups, who similarly spoke Nahuatl, collectively made up the peoples now generally known as the Aztecs.

The Aztec pantheon included a mix of older Mesoamerican gods and specifically Mexica deities. The two principal gods worshipped were Huitzilopochtli (the war and sun god) and Tlaloc (the rain god) and both had a temple on top of the Templo Mayor pyramid at the heart of Tenochtitlan. Other important gods were Quetzalcoatl (the feathered serpent god common to many Mesoamerican cultures), Tezcatlipoca (supreme god at Texcoco), Xipe Totec (god of Spring and agriculture), Xiuhtecuhtli (god of fire), Xochipilli (god of summertime and flowers), Ometeotl (the creator god), Mictlantecuhtli (god of the dead) and Coatlicue (the earth-mother goddess).

This sometimes bewildering array of gods presided over every aspect of the human condition. The timing of ceremonies in honour of these deities was dictated by a variety of calendars. There was the 260-day Aztec calendar which was divided into 20 weeks, each of 13 days which carried names such as Crocodile and Wind. There was also a Solar calendar consisting of 18 months, each of 20 days. The 584 day period covering the rise of Venus was also important and there was a 52-year cycle of the sun to be considered. The movement of planets and stars were carefully observed (albeit not as accurately, though, as the Maya had done) and they provided the motive for the specific timing of many religious rites and agricultural practices.

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The sun, not surprisingly, had great significance for the Aztecs. They believed that the world went through a series of cosmic ages, each had its own sun but finally each world was destroyed and replaced by another until the fifth and final age was reached - the present day for the Aztecs. This cosmic progression was wonderfully represented in the famous Sun Stone but also crops up in many other places too.

The gods were honoured with festivals, banquets, music, dancing, decoration of statues, burning of incense, the ritual burial of precious goods, penances such as blood-letting, and animal sacrifices. Human sacrifice, both of adults and less often children, was frequently carried out to metaphorically 'feed' the gods and keep them happy lest they become angry and make life difficult for humans by sending storms, droughts etc. or even just to keep the sun appearing every day. Victims of human sacrifice were usually taken from the losing side in wars. Indeed, the so-called 'Flowery Wars' were specifically undertaken to collect sacrificial victims. The most prestigious offerings were those warriors who had shown great bravery in battle. The sacrifice itself could take three main forms: the heart was removed, the victim was decapitated, or the victim was made to fight in a hopelessly one-sided contest against elite warriors. There were also impersonators who dressed in the regalia of a specific god and at the climax of the ceremony were themselves sacrificed.

Architecture & Art

The Aztecs were themselves appreciative of fine art and they collected pieces from across their empire to be brought back to Tenochtitlan and often ceremonially buried. Aztec art was nothing if not eclectic and ranged from miniature engraved precious objects to massive stone temples. Monumental sculptures were a particular favourite and could be fearsome monstrosities such as the colossal Coatlicue statue or be very life-like such as the famous sculpture of a seated Xochipilli.

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Organised in guilds and attached to the main palaces, artisans could specialise in metalwork, wood carving or stone sculpture, with materials used such as amethyst, rock crystal, gold, silver, and exotic feathers. Perhaps some of the most striking art objects are those which employed turquoise mosaic such as the famous mask of Xuihtecuhtli. Common forms of pottery vessels include anthropomorphic vases in bright colours and of special note was the finely made and highly prized Cholula ware from Cholollan.

Aztec art depicted all manner of subjects but especially popular were animals, plants and gods, particularly those related to fertility and agriculture. Art could also be used as propaganda to spread the imperial dominance of Tenochtitlan. Examples such as the Sun Stone, Stone of Tizoc, and Throne of Motecuhzoma II all portray Aztec ideology and seek to closely correlate political rulers to cosmic events and even the gods themselves. Even architecture could achieve this aim, for example, the Templo Mayor pyramid sought to replicate the sacred snake mountain of Aztec mythology, Coatepec, and temples and statues bearing Aztec symbols were set up across the empire.

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The Aztec empire, which controlled some 11,000,000 people, had always had to deal with minor rebellions - typically, when new rulers took power at Tenochtitlan - but these had always been swiftly crushed. The tide began to turn, though, when the Aztecs were heavily defeated by the Tlaxcala and Huexotzingo in 1515. With the arrival of the Spanish, some of these rebel states would again seize the opportunity to gain their independence. When the conquistadors finally did arrive from the Old World sailing their floating palaces and led by Hernán Cortés, their initial relations with the leader of the Aztecs, Motecuhzoma II, were friendly and valuable gifts were exchanged. Things turned sour, though, when a small group of Spanish soldiers were killed at Tenochtitlan while Cortés was away at Veracruz. The Aztec warriors, unhappy at Motecuhzoma's passivity, overthrew him and set Cuitlahuac as the new tlatoani. This incident was just what Cortés needed and he returned to the city to relieve the besieged remaining Spanish but was forced to withdraw on 30 June 1520 in what became known as the Noche Triste. Gathering local allies Cortés returned ten months later and in 1521 he laid siege to the city. Lacking food and ravaged by disease, the Aztecs, now led by Cuauhtemoc, finally collapsed on the fateful day of 13 August 1521. Tenochtitlan was sacked and its monuments destroyed. From the ashes rose the new capital of the colony of New Spain and the long line of Mesoamerican civilizations which had stretched right back to the Olmec came to a dramatic and brutal end.


I happened upon the changes being made to the high school level AP World History course beginning this fall. AP classes are a College Board scam (in my opinion) where students are led to believe they will earn college credit if they take this course in high school, and pass the test at a certain level (for which there is a fee). Not all colleges will accept this credit, but that information is not widely disseminated.

At any rate, the AP World History class, rather than starting in the Paleolithic era as in previous years, now begins at 1200 AD (they use CE, but I do not). Apparently, the development of societies, trade, etc., before 1200 is not pertinent to what happened afterward. I skimmed through the class guide, here is a PDF link if you are interested.

The first unit is The Global Tapestry, which begins with Asia, Dar al-Islam, South and Southeast Asia, State Building in the Americas, State Building in Africa, and then, developments in Europe (which alone of the geographic areas has a focus on coerced labor and serfdom – because of course it was only in Europe where slavery existed).

I’m not going to go through the entire course here, but the topics in the next unit, Network of Exchanges, is interesting as well: The Silk Roads, The Mongol Empire and the Making of the Modern World, Exchange in the Indian Ocean, Trans-Saharan Trade Routes, and Cultural and Environmental Consequences of Connectivity. (Ya figure they will cover cultural appropriation?)

This is how it’s done: Pretend that nothing of consequence happened before an arbitrary date (Egyptians? Greeks? Romans? The beginnings of Christianity?), then pretend that Western Civilization is not worth study. We shouldn’t wonder why our “best and brightest” do not know the significance of a thorough knowledge of history.

According to a 2017 press release from the College Board, 2.7 million students were expected to take 4.9 million AP exams that year (across 38 subjects).

These AP classes are a big deal in high schools, pushed by counselors, and can often affect grade point averages when weighted according to the rigor of the class. You are not considered to be a serious student if you do not take AP courses. One would have to homeschool or try to find something outside the public school system that has not bought into the College Board propaganda. Frankly, those options may simply not be available to everyone who would like to get their kids out of public schools.

Unfortunately, we must expect that the majority of our future college graduates in politics, law, etc. – the ones who will be running the country – will be steeped in this muck. I find it to be a very depressing outlook.


The Divine Campaigns, AD 1100-1200

I read this book along with all of the others in the TimeFrame series as my initial introduction to history. They run from Pre-History up to the early 1990&aposs in a chronological manner spanning some 25 volumes.

Reading this series will make your entire study of history much more meaningful and rewarding. It is perfect for anyone who needs an overarching understanding of how the different periods of human history developed and how each period and event relates to the context of the whole.

I knew alm I read this book along with all of the others in the TimeFrame series as my initial introduction to history. They run from Pre-History up to the early 1990's in a chronological manner spanning some 25 volumes.

Reading this series will make your entire study of history much more meaningful and rewarding. It is perfect for anyone who needs an overarching understanding of how the different periods of human history developed and how each period and event relates to the context of the whole.

I knew almost nothing of history when I found this series of books and I thoroughly devoured them.

This series of books provides a fantastic blueprint of the history of the world. It lays out the chronology and the geography of the major themes and events of world history in a very coherent, organized structure. Using this series as a starting place, every other aspect of history you will subsequently learn about will only add to what you've read here as you fill out your knowledge. Reading history books is not necessarily meaningful or intriguing without the ability to place what you're reading into a wider context. After reading this series you will be able to understand any element of history much better by realizing how it relates to the whole.

In sum, I cannot recommend these books enough for anyone wanting a compelling and comprehensive overview of world history. . more


10th Century, 901 to 1000

904 Recent emperors in China have been incompetent and the puppets of palace eunuchs. Many in China believe that these emperors have lost the Mandate of Heaven.

905 China's emperor loses control over Annam (northern Vietnam). There a village notable, Khuc Thua Du, has led a rebellion. The Chinese garrison at Tong Binh (Hanoi) is vanquished. Khuc Thua Du declares Annam autonomous.

911 The King of France, Charles III, gives Normandy to Vikings in return for the Viking leader, Rollo, a Norwegian, pledging his allegiance to him &ndash the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. Rollo and his Vikings (mostly Danes) are to defend his part of the coast of France from attacks by other Vikings.

912 Rollo and his Vikings become Christian.

924 Bulgarians overrun the lands of Prince Caslav Klonimirovic in what today is Serbia.

927 Prince Caslov drives away the Bulgarians and expands his kingdom, uniting what today is Serbia, Montenegro, East Herzegovina (Hercegovina) and Bosnia, then called Raska, Duklja, Travunija and Bosnia. This is said by Serbians to be the founding of Serbia. Orthodox Christianity is the state religion.

929 At Cordoba Spain, Abd-ar-Rahman, of the Umayyad dynasty, elevates himself from an emir to caliph, putting himself in rivalry with the Abbasid caliph at Baghdad.

950 Women in a Chinese harem invent playing cards.

960 In China, palace guards surround their commander and demand that he become emperor. The commander agrees but only if they vow to obey him and not plunder, not harm citizens and not harm the ruling family they are overthrowing. The troops agree. The new emperor is Taizu, who will begin the Song Dynasty.

970 Córdoba, on the Iberian Peninsula, is Europe's intellectual center and the world's most populous city. Constantinople is the only other European city in the top ten of the world's most populous cities. Córdoba is a Muslim city. Caliph al Hakam II has been in power since 961 and is contributing to the building of Cordoba's libraries. Córdoba has Europe's best university, with a spirit of free inquiry. It has medical schools. Work is being done also in math and astronomy. The city is tolerant toward its Jewish and Christian minority.

970 In China, paper money, invented there around 100 C.E., now dominates as the monatery unit.

970 Around this year in China, a ruler's consort who has bound her feet with strips of silk cloth performs a dance that impresses the aristocrat artsy crowd. Other court females adopt the practice. The binding of feet becomes a part of aristocratic culture for women expected to be playthings and entertainers rather than having the mobility needed for labor among common women.

975 Europeans begin to use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, et cetera), which are more convenient in arithmetic than Roman numerals.

980 Wealthy landowners in Japan have freed themselves from paying taxes. The government has little in revenues and has stopped supporting a national army. The wealthy landowners have been consolidating their various lands into single administrative units and creating their own armies. The men hired for these armies are to be known as samurai (men who serve), or bushi (warriors).

982 Erik the Red has been expelled from Iceland. He leads a group in the exploration of Greenland.

985 Erik the Red has returned to Iceland. With 25 ships filled with people and their belongings he heads back to Greenland. Many are lost at sea. With the 350 persons who arrive in Greenland, he establishes a settlement.

988 In Kiev, Prince Vladimir I adopts the religion of the Byzantine Empire as the state religion.

990 Between Timbuktu and the Atlantic coast, authoritarian kings have enriched themselves by forcing tradesmen to give them a cut in the gold that has been passing through their territory from mines to their south on their way northward. Their kingdom is called Ghana. Ghana extends its empire by conquering the Berber-dominated town of Awdaghost, to the northwest of Ghana, and Ghana is now at the peak of its power.

1000 Northern Maya cities begin to be abandoned. The Toltecs have arrived from central Mexico, and at what had been a Maya city, Chichen Itza, they build their own monuments.

1000 A few Turks are in Iran employed as soldiers. Now tribes of Turks start moving into Iran.

1000 Muslims looking forward to the future are expanding southward along the Somali coast in eastern Africa. The town of Mogadishu is founded, where Muslim merchants are to trade in gold dust from the south.

1000 For centuries Christians have been expecting the Second Coming of Jesus &ndash the Day of Judgment. Giving importance to a round figure such as 1000, and assuming that Jesus was born exactly one thousand years earlier, many believe this is the year that it will happen. The passing of the year leaves believers thanking God for the postponement of Armageddon.

1000 Per capita world Gross Domestic Product (according to today's economic historian Angus Maddison) is $435, measured in 1990 dollars. This (according to Maddison) is down from $444 in the year 1. And (according to Maddison) income levels in Europe are below those of Asia and North Africa.


The First Crusade, 1095-1100

Map of the Mediterranean World in 1092
1. The crusading movement was a significant event in the history of medieval Europe. They opened an era in which Western Europe came into direct contact with the great trade routes that united the civilizations of Eurasia For the first time since the fall of the Roman empire, western Europe was not isolated, but a part of a greater world. Many things flowed along these trade routes. Some were good, such as paper, the compass, medicines and spices, new crops and advances in mathematics. Some were not so good, such as leprosy, gunpowder, and bubonic plague.

Like most great events, there were many factors, some immediate and apparent, some basic and apparent, and some in between that went together to cause the people of western Europe to seek to conquest and hold the lands of the Eastern Mediterranean.

1. European society had survived the raids of the Magyars, Vikings, and Saracens, and its economy and society were recovering quickly. There was a new spirit of adventure apparent in the art, literature, an actions of the western Europeans. This was manifested at least partly in an increased popularity of pilgrimages -- journeys to visit distant holy places to worship there and view the relics of the saints. This was a religious activity, but the many of the pilgrims clearly enjoyed themselves like tourists in any age.

2. Europe was already in a period of expansion, and its capacity for war and conquest had grown during the years of fending off raiders from all direction. Most importantly from the standpoint of the crusades, the Italian city states had developed navies of merchant/fighting vessels that had seized control of the Mediterranean. They had reconquered Sicily and southern Italy from the Muslims, and there was a general sense that, like the Vikings and Magyars, the force of the Muslims was spent and that the way eastward lay open.

3. The spirit of religious reform that had led to the Investiture Controversy had been accompanied by an increase in popular spirituality. People were no longer to accept their religion passively many wanted to participate actively and to do something positive in honor of their god.

B.Intermediate Causes

Despite their growth, European society and economy were in a state of transition, and were unstable.

1. The aristocracy found themselves at relative peace, and were losing the importance they had enjoyed when they stood between Europe and its attackers. Their numbers were growing because there were no longer the losses in battle they had once sustained. They needed more land with which to endow their children and were beginning to fight with each other over the land that was available to them.

2. The kings were now working to reverse the decentralization that had been characteristic of the feudal age. They, and many who now looked to them for protection and leadership, wanted to reduce the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and transfer that power to the central governments of the kingdoms, and they wanted to ends the civil wars caused by the aristocracy and establish a greater measure of law and order.

3. The Church had split into eastern and western organizations in 1054, and the pope's wanted somehow to heal that split. They were involved in the Investiture Controversy and were looking for allies, such as the still-prestigious eastern Roman emperor.

4. Churchmen generally recognized the new spirituality of the age and wished that there were some way that the Church could build upon this and assume the moral leadership of Europe and the Europeans.

5. The middle classes were now aware of the profits of the eastern trade, and were searching for some way to bypass the middlemen of the eastern empire and to trade directly with the Muslims. They knew that they could become rich by cutting out the Byzantines and taking for themselves the profits that the Byzantine merchants had been making on trade with them.

6. The economic system was in a state of transition, with some districts specializing in some "industrial" crops to the point that they did not raise enough grain to feed themselves, and were doing so before the transportation and internal trading system had advanced enough to distribute consumer goods efficiently. So there were frequent local famines. At the same time, agriculture was improving so greatly in productivity that many people no longer had work. The peasants needed more food and more land to cultivate. In 1095, a famine and epidemic in northern France and the Lowlands was causing widespread misery and the lower classes were some miracle to deliver them.

7. Pilgrims returning from the Holy Land were bring home stories of the atrocities being committed by the Seljuk Turks, masters of the Levant, against pilgrims, and of the way in which they were desecrating the places holy to Christians. This caused great outrage, in part because the average western European was better acquainted with the Bible lands than any place other than their own villages and towns. The Holy Land was the Christians "other home."

Since their victory at the Battle of Manzikert (1071), the Seljuk Turks had been pressing towards Constantinople and were now actually within sight of the city.

Alexius Comnenus, the eastern emperor, needed reinforcement. A couple of years previously, he had seen a group of western knights under the command of Count Robert of Flanders and returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. He had been impressed by their fighting ability and decided to try to hire about 1200 such warriors. he sent his request, and the reasons for it, to Pope Urban II.

Urban was pleased, since the Holy Roman Emperor had set up a rival "pope" as a manoeuver in the Investiture Controversy, but the eastern emperor had asked for help from him. He wanted to help, so, after a council held at Aurillac in France, he gave an impassioned speech to the laymen who had come to hear him. He said little about helping Alexius -- since the westerners did not like the Byzantines all that much -- and concentrated on the mission to free the Holy Land. He promised them the Church's blessing, the aid of God, and the certainly of being taking immediately into heaven for those who fell in the attempt.

The crowd was swept up in the call, and the cry of Deus vult! ("God wills it!") spread far and wide. Almost all classes and nationalities of Europeans responded in a movement far greater and more varied than Urban may have expected. It is unlikely that anyone realized how well this call suited the needs and predisposition of the Europeans of the time.

Against all odds, the first armed pilgrimage to the Holy Land was successful, and the Christians captured Jerusalem in 1100. They benefitted from the disunity among the Muslims and set up the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Although it was only ninety years before the Muslims had reorganized and taken back most of what they had lost, the effect of the crusaders' success was great.

A heightened sense of confidence animated the Europeans and, with new influences from the East, culture and intellectual life flourished. Western Europe, so some historians hold, came of age.


Wednesday, November 16, 2011

58. Bronze Mirror (Japan, AD 1100-1200)

Japan in Isolation!
What, you say? These don’t look like mirrors? They’re bronze and, at one time, were polished so that they worked as reflective surfaces modern mirrors, using glass on top of a shiny reflective surface, didn’t evolve until Venice during the Renaissance. These objects had, as they still have, an evocative, mysterious power: there’s something magical about being able to turn light around, to look at yourself in reverse. In Japanese culture at the time, mirrors were used both for defense—shields, or ways of attracting good fortune—and feared because they might be portals for mischievous demons, or might bring about bad luck.

Historically, the thing that’s important about this episode is that Japan, situated way out at the eastern end of the inhabited world, has often cut off interactions with its big neighbors to the west (China and Korea) and established a policy of isolationism. Which then results in, I believe the word MacGregor used was, an extremely 'idiosyncratic' culture. When you’re isolated, you can develop in directions different than the mainstream when everything is connected, bland homogenization is the result. If much of Japanese culture seems baffling or odd to an outsider, this geography, not to mention this geographically-inspired policy, is the reason.

Much, however, is familiar good old human nature at work. These mirrors, for instance, are manifestations of a courtly, aristocractic culture, which, like all such courtly, aristocratic cultures all over the world, became obsessed with aesthetics. The tea ritual, which developed in Japan into this elaborate thing, isn’t about replenishing the body’s water supply—it’s about showing off your grace and refinement and beauty. These mirrors would have been used by aristocrats in such a culture as part of looking their best when venturing forth in public. MacGregor draws our attention to The Tale of Genji, a novel from this Heian period, which (like Gilgamesh) I’ve always promised that someday I’ll get around to reading. I know a little more about the later, Samurai period, mostly from watching Kurasawa films. there’s a lot to know.

One other fun thing about these mirrors: they were found in a pool in a temple quite a ways from Kyoto, which was the capital at the time. People came and tossed their mirrors into the pool for good luck, as we toss coins into fountains. Who knows the origin of this human obsession with dumping magical things into water? The Nibelung horde, in the old legends, lies at the bottom of the Rhine for years and years Tolkien buries his Silmarils one in the deep, one in a volcanic crack in the earth, and the other transformed into the evening star, shining on Eärendil’s brow forever. I’m sure Ishmael opines at length on what this means, somewhere in Moby-Dick.


Hohokam in Arizona Build Platform Mounds

The Hohokams (the “vanished ones” in O’odham language) were Native Americans who lived in the southern parts of Arizona to the northern portions of the Mexican state of Sonora. The culture flourished between 100 BC and 1500 AD. They were the ancestors of modern day Pima people or Akimel O’odham who spoke a variant of the Uto-Aztecan language. The Hohokams were known for their innovative irrigation systems in areas that they settled, particularly the Gila and Salt River valleys. These canals allowed them to grow food that was enough to support their people and allowed them to thrive in an inhospitable environment. Their society was highly organized and complex—something which they shared with the other Southwest Culture peoples, such as the Mogollon and the Anasazi. Hohokam built Platform mounds between 1100 -1200 AD according to the Biblical Timeline with World History.

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Hohokam Platform Mounds

The Hohokam settlements showed a distinct Mesoamerican influence, as shown in the ballcourt and platform mounds they constructed. The earliest mounds were built around 800 AD, but the majority were constructed between 1150 and 1350 AD. Platform mounds were typically rectangular in shape which covered an area of hundreds to thousands of square feet and reached up to ten feet high. Many of these earthworks can be found in Pueblo Grande, Mesa Grande, Plaza Tempe, and Tres Pueblos. As much as fifty platform mounds were discovered in thirty Hohokam villages in recent years. At the culture’s peak, there must have been around a hundred platform mounds.

The Hohokams usually built the mounds along major canals, and initially did not build structures on top. By 1250, however, the Hohokams began to build homes for their leaders and priests, as well as temples on top of the mounds. The construction of these platforms was pretty simple. The Hohokam started by building a single cell made of adobe, granite, and sandstone. Other cells would be built around it, and the structure would be filled with trash and soil. The top was covered with a natural cement made of calcium carbonate called caliche. Structures would be built on top of the finished mound. The largest mounds in the Salt River Valley reached up to 30 feet high and were as big as a football field.


Watch the video: Παγκόσμια Ιστορία Επεισόδίο 1 - Τι είναι η ιστορία;