Roman Hunter with Lioness Painting

Roman Hunter with Lioness Painting


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65 Names That Mean Hunter Or Huntress For Your Fearless Baby

Instinct, planning, precision, and attack! It takes a lot to hunt, whether it is humans hunting for fun or food, or animals hunting their prey. The hunting locations fill us with all kinds of emotions with their rustic beauty, flora, and fauna. While hunting as a recreational sport is debatable, hunting by animals is crucial for nature to maintain a balance and ensure that the wildlife populations are sustained from one generation to the next.

Hunting is so incredible that it inspires a plethora of baby names as well. Baby names inspired by hunting are cuddly, cute, and rugged, all at the same time. So, if you want your child’s name to reflect your love for hunting, check out MomJunction’s list of 65 baby names that mean hunter or huntress.


Abandoned 19th Century villa with treasure trove of antiques and FULLY STOCKED wine cellar discovered in Italy

A PHOTOGRAPHER exploring Northern Italy was stunned to find a beautiful abandoned grand villa filled with antique furniture, artwork and even a fully-stocked wine cellar.

Tucked away in a small town, the forgotten gem, discovered by Roman Robroek, is covered in plants and the hidden property shows little sign of its former glory – until you go inside.

Armed with his camera, Roman from the Netherlands, discovered the palace last summer after reading about it online and was immediately bowled over by the bounty of furniture inside.

With fully kitted-out bedrooms and living rooms almost untouched by time, you’d be forgiven for thinking the owner had simply taken an extended holiday and forgotten to lay down dust sheets.

Investigating further, Roman found a drawing room decorated in different shades of yellow, with luxurious chaise lounges and a stunning feature ceiling with an elaborate painting of a tree.

Other rooms were equally decadent, with one room featuring a show wall painting of a stunning seaside palace – which no doubt served as inspiration for the owners.

The wine cellar was still fully stocked with dusty bottles and crates of untouched liqueur.

In the bedroom, heavy duty wooden frames held dressed mattresses with the sheets still on – looking fit for a princess, albeit after a clean.

“The palace was covered in stunning thick drapes and curtains,” Roman said.

“Old books were lying around everywhere and the furniture left behind is pure craftsmanship. Next to that, a lot of statues of popes, saints and Madonnas were found all over the place.”

One of the former owners of the palace, was a lawyer with a chivalric title, says Roman.

He spoke about his history of the property on his blog: "In one of the bedrooms in the building I found a photograph of him with a date of birth in 1874.

"Other than him, the palace must have been owned by a religious and very wealthy family well known for growing cereals.

"In the office there were several birth registers lying around. The son of the family supposedly has a degree in agriculture and was born in 1941.


Saint Hubert

Who or what is Saint Hubert the patron saint of?
Saint Hubert is the patron of Hunters and Mathematicians. Meanings, definition and origins - a patron is considered to be a defender of a specific group of people or of a nation. There is a patron for virtually every cause, profession or special interest. Prayers are considered more likely to be answered by asking a patron for intercession on their behalf.

The Story and History of Saint Hubert
The story and history of Saint Hubert. Hubert was born c.656 in France, the eldest and privileged son of the Duke of Aquitaine. St. Hubert was the Bishop of Maestrecht and Liege. He is honoured as apostle of the Ardennes and Brabant, into which provinces he carried the Gospel where with his zeal, the last remnants of idolatry were destroyed. The account of his conversion is similar to that given of Saint Eustace. Though professedly a Christian, he was addicted to neglecting his religious duties for the sake of hunting and following the chase. One day during Holy Week, when all good Christians were supposed to be at their devotions, he encountered a stag having a crucifix between its horns. At the same time as he heard a voice admonishing him to repent of his misspent life. He then retired from the world, took orders, and was subsequently made bishop of that part of France which he converted to the service of God.

Death of Saint Hubert
There are two categories of saints: martyrs and confessors. A Christian martyr is regarded as one who is put to death for his Christian faith or convictions. Confessors are people who died natural deaths. Date of Death: Saint Hubert died in A.D. 727. Cause of Death: Natural Causes.

Why is Saint Hubert the patron of Hunters and Mathematicians?
Why is Saint Hubert is the patron of Hunters? Because of the legend of hunting the stag and his subsequent vision.

How Saint Hubert is represented in Christian Art
It is helpful to be able to recognise Saint Hubert in paintings, stained glass windows, illuminated manuscripts, architecture and other forms of Christian art. The artistic representations reflect the life or death of saints, or an aspect of life with which the person is most closely associated. Saint Hubert is represented in Christian Art in episcopal robes, with mitre and crosier, and a stag lying upon a book held in his left hand.


Roman Hunter with Lioness Painting - History

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Roman Hunter with Lioness Painting - History

Art unifies communities. We need art and YOU more than ever.
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By making a donation today, you help the BMA continue to provide meaningful arts experiences to our communities. A gift enables us to carry out our commitment to sharing the power of art in many ways, including:

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The Stewarts

While the history of Oak Alley Plantation begins with the Jacques Telesphore Roman family, it is the legacy of Mrs. Josephine Armstrong Stewart which keeps the iconic Oak Alley Plantation open to the public today. October 3rd is the anniversary of Mrs. Stewart's passing, and we take this day to celebrate her wonderful life and the precious gift of Oak Alley that she has left for all of us to enjoy.

Maria Josephine Armstrong was born in 1879 in Austin, Texas, and raised on the famous Armstrong Ranch, where her passion for cattle ranching and the ranching lifestyle began. Her father was John B. Armstrong, III, a famous Texas lawman. Josephine met and fell in love with cotton broker Andrew Stewart, whom she married on April 18, 1906 at St. Marks Episcopal Church in San Antonio, Texas. Following a European honeymoon, they settled in New Orleans, Louisiana, where Andrew’s office was located. On a trip up the Mississippi River, Mrs. Stewart spotted an amazing avenue of live oaks leading to a declining antebellum mansion. This was her first glimpse of her future home, Oak Alley Plantation. The open land and grand mansion offered Josephine a dream location for her own cattle ranch and in 1925, she and Andrew purchased the plantation for $50,000 and spent $60,000 in renovations to return it to its former glory. Andrew and Josephine’s restoration of Oak Alley Plantation is one of the finest examples of adaptive restoration in the River Region. While restoring the “Big House,” the Stewarts are believed to have lived what serves today as the Ticket Booth and Oak Alley Foundation office. Once the “Big House” was restored to a livable condition, the Stewarts made it their residence. Josephine, or "Aunt Tita" as she was affectionately referred, was well-known for her cordiality, as well as for her love for her beautiful plantation. Area residents were often invited over to visit or have tea and neighboring children often freely explored the grounds, to the delight of Mrs. Stewart. Josephine annually hosted all the seniors from all the area high schools, and regularly invited music clubs, garden clubs, and 4-H clubs to the plantation. She eventually opened her private home to the public for tours. Josephine loved the outdoors, had a great passion for gardening (roses in particular) and riding horses on the grounds of her beloved plantation. She also enjoyed swimming and had an indoor swimming pool built by moving together two chicken coops that were located on the grounds. This one-of-a-kind indoor pool still exists today, resting just outside of the historic grounds in the private residence area. Although sugar cane was the primary plantation crop in south Louisiana, the mosaic virus wiped out the sugar cane crops in the area in the early 1900s. Josephine, coming from a cattle ranching family, decided, along with her husband, to operate Oak Alley primarily as a cattle ranch. It wasn't’t until the 1960’s that sugar cane was introduced back to Oak Alley. It was at that time that Josephine entered into a lease agreement with M. Rodrigue & Sons to develop the plantation’s farmland into a thriving sugar cane crop. Following her husband Andrew’s passing in 1946, Josephine was more determined than ever to share Oak Alley Plantation with the community. While continuing to keep her home open to neighbors, relatives and students, Mrs. Stewart began formulating a plan to assure that Oak Alley would remain open for generations to come. The Stewarts had no children, and Josephine was concerned about the fate of the plantation. She created the non-profit Oak Alley Foundation and appointed relatives and close friends to the Board of Trustees to oversee the home and 25 acres of historic grounds. Josephine named her nephew Zeb Mayhew, Sr. as chairman of the board, and pledged him to oversee the upkeep of the home, thus beginning the Mayhew era at Oak Alley Plantation. It is Josephine’s great nephew and Zeb Sr.’s son, Zeb Mayhew Jr. that has served as Executive Director of Oak Alley Foundation for the past 37 years. Three generations of the Mayhew family, direct descendants of Josephine Stewart, are still actively involved with Oak Alley as we know it today! Mrs. Josephine Armstrong Stewart passed away on October 3rd, 1972 at 7:30am. All clocks in the house are stopped at that time to honor her memory. On October 3rd we pause for a moment to remember her, and to be grateful for the foresight she had to create the Oak Alley Foundation, which keeps our beautiful antebellum mansion and historic grounds safe, well-cared-for, and open to the public.


Welcome to Oxford Art Online

The soldiers in the life-size terracotta army at Lintong have varied facial features, some of which reflect the diverse ethnic mix of the newly formed Qin empire the application of different hairstyles, facial hair, and attire yields further differentiation, indicating military rank and specialization..

Rachel Ruysch

Dutch painter Rachel Ruysch specialized in still-lifes rendered in meticulous detail, with flowers arranged in elegant, balanced compositions.

May 2021 Update

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Explore the full list of what has been recently published and revised on Oxford Art Online.

Letter from the Editor

Read a letter from the Editor in Chief of the Benezit Dictionary of Artists, Dr. Valerie Cassel Oliver, discussing her editorial approach and the work underway to expand Benezit’s coverage of emerging artists, varied media, and artists of diverse social and cultural backgrounds.

Pronunciation Guide for Artist Names

Explore the new Grove Art pronunciation guide to the names of modern and contemporary artists. Listen to recordings of scholars pronouncing a selection of names from Ann Demeulemeester to Cai Guo-Qiang to Francisco Zúñiga.

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Latin American Art

Grove Art continues a major initiative to revise and expand Grove’s content on Latin American art and architecture. Led by Tom Cummins at Harvard University, this project includes scholarship on topics from the Pre-Columbian period to present day.


Is your curiosity piqued? Read on to discover 6 incredible facts about the revolutionary Altamira cave paintings.

Great Hall of Altamira. Polychrome reproduction from M. Sanz de Sautuola's 1880 publication. (Photo: Public domain via Wikipedia

A young girl's observations helped lead to their discovery.

The caves were first discovered in 1868 by a local hunter named Modest Cubillas. He told the owner of the cave, nobleman Marcelino Sanz de Sautola, about what he found, but Sanza de Sautola didn&rsquot make his way to the caves until 1876. Once there, he wasn&rsquot impressed by what he perceived as senseless symbols. But, after a trip to the 1878 Universal Exhibition in Paris, where he saw pieces of caved bone similar to what he&rsquod seen in the cave, he realized that it was something special.

This led to him partnering with Juan Vilanova y Piera, an archeologist from the University of Madrid, to start excavations in 1879. At first, they began unearthing animal bones and small tools. It was actually Sanza de Sautola&rsquos 8-year-old daughter Maria, who accompanied him to the caves one day, who first noticed paintings of bison within one of the chambers.

The findings of the excavations were published in 1880 but we were dismissed by most scholars, who took the paintings for modern forgeries. It was only at the turn of the twentieth century, when other similar paintings were found in the region, that they were acknowledged as the genuine artworks we know today.

Photo: Stock Photos from EQRoy/Shutterstock

The Altamira cave paintings were created over the course of 20,000 years.

We know that the cave was inhabited for millennia during the Paleolithic age, but scientists are still working to narrow the timeframe on exactly when the Altamira Cave paintings were created.

Based on the dating of different objects found in the caves, archeologists are certain that there were two main cultures that used the location&mdashthe Solutrean (about 21,000 to 17,000 years ago) and the Magdalenian (around 11,000 to 17,000 years old). These populations symbolize the apex of culture during the Upper Paleolithic Period and were known for their toolmaking and artistry. They would be responsible for the majority of the paintings at Altamira.

Using uranium-thorium dating, researchers in 2008 discovered that the paintings themselves were probably created over a span of 20,000 years. A later study in 2012 confirmed that there were at least 10,000 years between different paintings in the caves.

Replica of the Altamira cave at the National Museum and Research Center of Altamira. (Photo: Stock Photos from EQRoy/Shutterstock)

Artists had cramped quarters to execute their paintings.

The Altamira cave is 971 feet long, and while humans only inhabited the entrance chamber, there are paintings found throughout the length of the cave. The artists had no problem going over other, previous paintings and so the cave has become a palimpsest of art.

Most of what Altamira is known for is painted on the roof, which is astounding when one considers that the chamber where most of the paintings are found has a variable height of 3.8 feet to 8.7 feet. This meant that most of the artists had to crouch down as they worked.

The work in this chamber is a combination of engraving and painting. Most figures were first etched into the stone with tools and then painted over in black, red, and violet hues. As the most realistic and sophisticated paintings, these were created by the later Magdalenian culture.

Photo: Stock Photos from Jesus de Fuensanta/Shutterstock

Animals are a dominant subject in the cave paintings.

With such a long period of production, it should come as no surprise that the cave paintings are quite varied. The most famous paintings in the cave are probably the 25 colored paintings of bison, deer, and horses etched and then painted on the roof of the cave. Impressively, one female deer measures over 6.5 feet. In terms of material, charcoal was used to make black lines, while they ground hematite to create the red ochre used to fill in shapes.

Older paintings in the caves include positive and negative images of hands, many depictions of deer, and &ldquomasks&rdquo created by strategically drawing eyes and a mouth around bumps in the stone. In fact, this technique was used throughout the history of the Altamira cave paintings, as the three dimensional quality of the rocks were used to give volume to figures.

Altamira shows an important step forward in the history of art.

Altamira is vital for learning more about daily life in the Paleolithic Period. In terms of art history, the cave paintings executed during the late Magdalenian culture, which include the bison and deer, are of vital importance. They show a realism and sophistication that is unparalleled for the time. In fact, the best example of art by the Magdalenian is located in Altamira.

Though the individual paintings don&rsquot necessarily have a relationship or compositional tie between them, there is a sophistication in how volume, expressions, and perspective were shown that make them the high point of prehistoric art.

Photo: Stock Photos from Jesus de Fuensanta/Shutterstock

The paintings may have been used in religious rituals.

While researchers don&rsquot know exactly why these cave paintings were created, their production certainly shows that these cultures had the leisure time to produce them. This points to cultures that weren't only surviving, but thriving. In terms of a specific purpose, some experts believe that the paintings may have been used during a ritual where a shaman would enter the cave and go into a trance in order to make contact with spirits.


Paleolithic vs. Neolithic Art: How and Why are They Different?

Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument, in Wiltshire, England.

Reader question: “Can you tell me about the changes that took place in human development from the Paleolithic through the Neolithic periods, and the ways in which art was affected by those changes?”

This is an exciting question for me, because as someone who currently works every day with contemporary visual culture, I don’t get much of a chance to look this far back in history.

As always with questions asking me to look at broad time periods or geographies, I have to start with the disclaimer that this will be an incredibly brief overview of a very complex subject (as in…thousands of years worth of history), and with some definitions:

The Paleolithic era is a period from around 3 million to around 12,000 years ago .

The Neolithic era is a period from about 12,000 to around 2,000 years ago .

These dates vary depending on what part of the world you’re looking at, so see these as very broad ranges. Basically, the Paleolithic era is when humans first invented stone tools, and the Neolithic era is when humans started farming.

I’ll go into more depth below with some examples so you can see what I’m talking about, but the most obvious difference in human development that affected art is that humans went from living a nomadic lifestyle, to developing agricultural societies and being able to settle in one place. This was the beginning of permanent architecture, including tombs and monuments. Tools also became more advanced, leading to new forms of art.

Paleolithic era (3 million – 12,000 years ago)

Cave paintings from around 17,000 years ago in the Lascaux cave complex in France.

During the Paleolithic era, there was more than one species related to the modern human, including Neanderthals. They lived a nomadic lifestyle as hunter-gatherers, not settling in any permanent communities and with no concept of private property. They used pretty simple stone tools.

There were two basic forms of art during the Paleolithic era: painting and sculpture, the two oldest known art forms.

The oldest known figurative painting—over 40,000 years old—in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave.

The type of painting made during the Paleolithic era was cave painting, through techniques like spraying paint with the mouth, applying paint with a brush or swab, and engraving.

These cave paintings mainly depicted scenes of hunting, animals, and handprints. The earliest known figurative painting ever, dated more than 40,000 years old, depicts a bull and is found in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave in Indonesia. Another famous example from this era are the paintings in Chauvet cave in France, which are around 32,000–30,000 years old.

We don’t know the purpose or meaning behind these paintings—they were made so long ago that we have to be careful with trying to impose our modern interpretations and understandings on to them and potentially obscuring their actual historical and cultural significance. Possible theories as to their meaning, however, include storytelling, spiritual, and educational purposes.

Sculpture and ornamentation

Two Paleolithic Venus figurines. Left: Venus of Hohle Fels, the earliest known Venus figurine at 40,000 to 35,000 years old. Photo by Ramessos, CC BY-SA 3.0. Right: Venus of Dolní Věstonice, made between 29,000 to 25,000 BCE. Photo by Petr Novák, Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 2.5

The oldest examples of art are non-representational ornamentation that is, decorative objects that don’t depict any person, animal, or thing. One example is from 82,000 years ago: a collection of Nassarius snail shells found in Morocco . They are pierced and covered with red ochre, suggesting that they might have hung off a string.

The most famous example of Paleolithic sculptures, however, are the ‘Venus figurines’ : small figurines carved from stone, bone, ivory, or clay, depicting naked women, often with exaggerated body parts and genitalia. (I’ve previously mentioned these in my history of hairless vulvas in art.) Again, we don’t know what the purpose of these figurines—which have been found all over Europe—were, but there are theories that they were somehow related to in interest in fertility.

Neolithic era (12,000 – 2,000 years ago)

Dolmen of Sa Coveccada in Sardinia. Photo by Giovanni Seu, CC BY-SA 3.0.

During the Neolithic era, there was only one species of human—the modern human. They started domesticating plants and animals, developing agriculture, and settling into permanent communities. This was the beg inning of permanent architecture. Humans also developed or improved skills like spinning, weaving, and pottery. Wall paintings, which started in this era, are less durable than cave paintings, and very few survive. It’s perhaps because of this that this era is more known for crafts and architecture than painting.

Mural from Çatalhöyük. Photo by Omar hoftun, CC BY-SA 3.0.

With the advent of permanent buildings, this era saw the start of wall painting in addition to cave painting. A famous Neolithic site, Çatalhöyük in Turkey, has numerous wall paintings. Like Paleolithic paintings, these ones also depict animals and hunting scenes. Wall paintings, however, are not very durable, so only traces of Neolithic wall paintings have survived.

Two examples of Neolithic pottery. Left: Jar from 4900-4300 BC in Erbil Civilization Museum, Iraq. Photo by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg), CC BY-SA 4.0. Right: Pottery fragment from Iraq with a painting of an Ibex from 4700-4200 BC. Photo by ALFGRN, CC BY-SA 2.0.

Pottery was an increasingly important art form during this era. It was likely used to store food in these new agricultural communities, and to decorate permanent homes. Previously, pottery was thought to have started in the Neolithic era however, recent discoveries at the sites of Xianrendong and Yuchanyan in China suggest that pottery actually started slightly earlier, around 20,000-15,000 years BC. Despite this, pottery definitely seems to have become more developed and more common during the Neolithic era.

While wall paintings were not durable and haven’t survived in great numbers, pottery painting was much more durable as the paint is baked into the pottery’s surface. As a result, we have a lot more examples of pottery painting than wall painting. The designs were usually geometric and quite simple.

Another aspect of this era seems to have been the development of sculptures and decorations for homes, with the advent of permanent settlements. This may be why Chinese jade carvings and lacquerware were both likely first developed in this era.

The Cairn of Barnenez in France. Photo by NewPapillon, CC BY-SA 3.0.

One of the most important artistic developments during this time was the start of permanent architecture that came alongside settling down into communities. The earliest known, still remaining building was created during this era: the Cairn of Barnenez in France, which was made in around 4,800 B.C. out of heavy stone.

The Paleolithic era also saw the start of megalithic architecture. The term ‘megalithic’ architecture refers to large stones that have been placed to create structures or monuments. This leads me to perhaps the most famous example of Neolithic art: Stonehenge in England, created between 2,000-3,000 BC. This monument of large upright stones is famous for its ‘mysteries’: who created it, and for what purpos e? While we don’t know exactly, I think it’s likely that this monument could not have been created during the Paleolithic era. Getting all of those stones into place would have taken time and energy something that could not have been accomplished by nomadic people who couldn’t settle for too long in one place.

This is obviously a very shallow summary of the differences in these eras, but should give you at least a basic idea of the main differences between them and how those differences affected the art that was produced. The switch from a nomadic lifestyle to settling in permanent communities led to some very clear impacts on the art that was produced, such as the start of permanent architecture, the switch from cave painting to wall painting, and the increase in pottery and large sculptures.

As always, let me know if you have any feedback, extra information, or other examples of Paleolithic and Neolithic art and visual culture!


Watch the video: King Lion Revenge Hyena For Destroying Lioness, Epic Battle of Big Cat vs Hyenas. Lion vs Wild Dogs


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