1943: TheItaly switches to the side of the allies, signing an armistice with the Anglo-Americans and declaring war on Germany. The fighting on the peninsula continued until the spring of 1945.
1658 : Oliver cromwell, the English dictator, dies, leaving the country in the hands of his son Richard. Richard will prove incapable of keeping power, leaving the way open for a monarchical restoration.
1189 : Richard Ier (Lionheart) is crowned King of England at Westminster. Little in love with his new kingdom, he will embark on various military adventures, the most famous of which is the 3rd Crusade.