1954: The French Parliament refuses to endorse the creation of a European Defense Community (CED). This vote of refusal is due to the opposition to the CED of the Gaullists and the Communists.
1914: The Russian armies until then in full offensive are crushed in East Prussia at Tannenberg by the German troops of General Hindenbug. Russia will have to face a long war.
1898: Colonel Henry, guilty of having made a forgery which accused Captain Dreyfus, commits suicide in prison. His death reignites the debates around theDreyfus affair, which will take on a national scale.