1947: Great Britain grants theindependence from India and in the future Pakistan.
1944: The allies, mainly French from the colonies, land in Provence.
1534: The Basque Ignatius of Loyola founds theJesuit order.
778: The count of the march of Brittany Roland, ally of Charlemagne, died during a surprise attack of the Vascons (Basques), in the pass of Roncesvalles (Pyrenees).
- 30: The last queen of Egypt, Cleopatra VII, takes his own life following the defeat against Octave, the future Augustus, and the suicide of his lover Marc-Antoine.