1815. A Waterloo in Belgium the French army of Emperor Napoleon I was defeated by Prussian and British units. This is the end of the Napoleonic epic.
1940. In London, the provisional brigadier general Charles de Gaulle launches a call to French on the BBC. De Gaulle urges his compatriots to continue the fight against Germany, despite the upcoming armistice. The Free France movement has just been born.
1953. In Egypt the republic is proclaimed, a year after the overthrow of King Farouk. The new republic is the work of the free officer movement, including Colonel Trapr will soon take the lead.