1942: The Royal Air Force (RAF) carries out its first "1000 Bombers Raid" on Cologne, a German city on the left bank of the Rhine.
1778: Death of Voltaire, writer and philosopher of the Enlightenment.
1631: The king's doctor Théophraste Renaudot obtains from Minister Richelieu the monopoly of the press. He launches the weekly information sheet La Gazette.
1431: At the end of his trial, Jeanne D'Arc was burned alive for heresy on the Place du Vieux-Marché in Rouen.