Thelight bulb invention is generally attributed toThomas edison, which designs and then markets, the October 21, 1879, a bulb whose filament is a carbonized cotton fiber. But it's actually a certain Joseph swan, whose anteriority is recognized following a lawsuit, which was at the origin of the electric bulb. The two men will also be authorized to manufacture their bulbs, which over the decades will undergo transformations and improvements which still monopolize the energy of many research laboratories today.
Who invented the light bulb?
The electric bulb was invented in 1879 by the English Joseph swan before being improved by the works of the American Thomas edison, the first using a bayonet base, the second a screw base. Edison files a patent for a light bulb powered by ... a bamboo filament from Japan. The very first light bulb consisted of carrying an incandescent filament of tungsten placed in a vacuum or in a rare gas (in this case, krypton or argon). However, this technique has some drawbacks: once overheated, the material of the filament degrades, condenses on the bulb, making it more opaque over time. The filament ends up breaking after a few hundred hours of operation.
Electric bulb: halogen (1959) then low consumption (1983)
The Halogen bulb was developed by two engineers from General Electric: Edward Zubler and Frederick Mosby. Its operation is quite similar to that of the filament bulb, except that the latter is placed in a mixture comprising a halogen gas. This technique allows the filament to withstand a much higher temperature and considerably extend its longevity, but also to reduce electricity consumption. The low consumption light bulb is actually a domestic version of the famous industrial tube: the fluorescent lamp. Its lifespan is nearly ten times longer than an incandescent lamp, for a consumption about five times less.
It was launched in 1983 by the company Philips, but it has had limited success, due to its very high price and relatively large size. But production costs are nowadays less important, and above all, this type of bulb is intended to replace, from 2012, the so-called "classic" bulbs.
Invention of the LED lamp (2014)
The light emitting diode lamp (LED) is the latest innovation in lighting. Although the principle was demonstrated at the beginning of the 19th century, it was not until 2014 that three Japanese researchers developed an LED capable of providing high light power. They will receive the Nobel Prize in Physics for this innovation.
Its main interest lies in its efficiency: low power consumption for greater luminous efficiency. With a limited environmental impact, it also allows the production of a wide variety of colors. Now connected, the LED bulb is a trendy object that has integrated the Automation.
To go further on the invention of the light bulb
- The fabulous history of inventions - From mastery of fire to immortality. Dunod, 2018.
- History of electricity: From amber to electron, by Gérard Borvon. Vuibert, 2009.