1942: The Vichy government brings to justice the former French political and military leaders: Edouard Daladier, Guy La Chambre, Maurice Gamelin, Léon Blum and Robert Jacomet to Riom in the Puy-de-Dôme. They are accused of being responsible for the 1940 defeat.
1803: Bonaparte restores the Swiss Confederation, made up of 19 cantons governed by a federal diet.
1797: As Napoleon Bonaparte's troops invade Italy, the Pope’s representatives are forced to sign the Tolentino treaty, by which the Papal States lose important territories.
197: In Lyon, Septimius Severe defeats his rival Albinus and becomes Roman Emperor. The city, which had chosen the wrong camp, is devastated in retaliation.