1942: Rather than take to sea, the French fleet scuttles itself in the harbor of Toulon.
1940: TheAlsace Lorraine was annexed by Nazi Germany, following the defeat of June 1940.
1895: Creation of the Nobel Peace Prize.
1790: The French clergy must take an oath of loyalty to the king and to the nation.
1095: Pope Urban II launches from Clermont an appeal for crusade to "deliver" the Holy Land.
511: Death of Clovis, who will be buried in a basilica in Paris, the new capital of the Franks.