History is made up of anecdotes and little secrets that have passed on to posterity. Here is a selection of some unusual short anecdotes from all eras.
Until the 18th century, the French believed that champagne bubbles were the work of the devil. In 1694, Louis XIV's doctor forbade him to drink champagne on the pretext that this drink was bad for his gout!
Until the 18th century, the French believed that champagne bubbles were the work of the devil. In 1694, Louis XIV's doctor forbade him to drink champagne on the pretext that this drink was bad for his gout!
During the years 1905 and 1906, the dancer Margaretha Geertruida Zelle had enormous success in major European cities. Her notoriety declining after 1907, she moved to Paris and lived off its charms. War declared, riddled with debt, she reached Germany and met the German consul in The Hague. He offers to settle his debts, in exchange for information on France. This is how Mata Hari, Agent H 21, was born ... Greedy for money and jewelry, she became a double agent and sold information to France!
Louisiana, acquired by France at the time of Louis XIV, brought in nothing and cost much too much with the twelve thousand settlers installed, often suffering from malaria and fighting against the Indians. Napoleon decides to carry out the largest real estate transaction in the history of France: to sell Louisiana… to the United States! Talleyrand estimates the price at eighty million francs. And the Americans took possession of this land in December 1803.
Under the Ancien Régime, familiarity was considered gross impertinence. After the Revolution, customs changed, and the Convention made formal tuition compulsory from November 1793, in civil matters and in administrations, marking a bond of universal brotherhood. But this fashion will last only a year, until the fall of Robespierre.
Mirabeau, who died on April 2, 1791, entered the Pantheon on the 4th… but came out three years after September 12, 1794 to be buried in the Clamart cemetery. Indeed, the locksmith Gamain who had made the famous "iron cabinet" for Louis XVI, is taken by remorse and will reveal his secret to the Convention. Among the papers discovered, there are correspondences between Mirabeau and the king! The Convention then decreed the exclusion of the ashes of Mirabeau from the Pantheon.
The upkeep of La Bastille is very expensive for Necker and therefore for Louis XVI. The king therefore decided in 1784 to have it razed and the architect of the buildings of Paris, proposed a public square bearing the name of the king, keeping only one of the towers, in memory of the past. At its center he would set up a pedestal made up of chains and bolts from the dungeons and a statue of the king "extending a hand of liberation towards the ruined tower." This work was never carried out, but we know the circumstances in which the Bastille was finally destroyed!
In May 1768, Louis XV accepts an exchange: Corsica against the debt of two million pounds that the city of Genoa owes to France! The Corsicans, dissatisfied, rise up and the seven thousand five hundred French sent there, are beaten. A year later, twenty two thousand French people landed on the island to take possession of it. Only about a hundred Corsicans escape, including a couple who will have these words "my son will be the avenger of Corsica"! This woman is pregnant and will give birth three months later to a boy named Napoleon….
Etienne de Silhouette, adviser to the parliament, chancellor of the Duke of Orleans, commissioner to the Compagnie des Indes, was appointed Controller General of Finances in March 1759. At first popular, he had the misfortune of proposing projects that would make him unpopular and among other things, he urges individuals to come and drop their dishes at the Hôtel de la Monnaie so that it is melted into silver to replenish the Treasury! No longer having any support from the king, he resigned. It was then that the Parisians had fun drawing portraits in profile, dressed in panties without pockets, clothes without wrinkles where it was impossible to hide any money. These fashionable portraits, these light sketches after the shadow of the profile of the face are called Silhouettes ...
Vauban was the great engineer of the XVIIth Century with its two hundred citadels built, three hundred old places renovated, participating in one hundred and fifty seats and having directed some fifty. He achieved a masterpiece during the construction of the "iron belt": these fortified towns along the French border to the north and north east. But he was also interested in demography and economics. In 1707, he proposed to the king a tax reform: a single tax of ten percent on all income, without distinction of privileges! For Louis XIV, it was an overthrow of the monarchy ... and Vauban was disgraced!
"God save the Queen" is originally a French song! To celebrate Louis XIV's recovery after his fistula operation in November 1686, Mme de Maintenon organized an evening, the Duchess de Brinon composed a poem and Lully added the music. An Englishman passing through St Cyr that day found the music very pretty and brought this tune back to England. He strummed, changed just a few bars, and played this tune in front of Marie Stuart and William of Orange who made it their official music!
The Chantilly festivities offered by the Prince of Condé to King Louis XIV in April 1671 did not go well. The first evening, the roasts are missing at the table; the second evening the fireworks are a fiasco, due to bad weather; the next day, the fish and shellfish are not delivered on time .... In despair, feeling dishonored, Vatel, the famous cook puts an end to his days by piercing his heart with his sword! And yet, if he had had a little patience, he would have received the delivery of the baskets of fish!
In May 1653, a mason worker discovered an old tomb… that of Clovis' father, who died in 481! In addition to the gold and silver coins found, he discovers two skulls, an iron sword and its fittings, buckles, rings and various gold objects, as well as the famous ring of Childeric's sigil. All these objects are taken to Vienna and offered to Leopold I the Emperor. Fifteen years later, the prince elector of the Holy Germanic Empire offered the remains and all the treasure found to… Louis XIV! On returning to its place of origin, everything was unfortunately stolen in 1831, except for a few items found in the Seine.
Louis XIII can finally become king on the day of Marshal d'Ancre Concino Concini's death. On April 24, 1617, he succeeded in having him killed by his gentlemen on the Louvre bridge. Concini's body is buried near Saint Germain’Auxerrois. But the Parisians are unhappy, not having been able to participate in this assassination. The next day, they open the grave, take out the corpse, beat it. They then drag him to the Pont Neuf, tie him to a gallows, cut off his nose, fingers, ears and "shameful parts". Finally, they attack his heart by cooking it over coals! The Parisians had gone half mad!
The April Pisces tradition dates from… August 9, 1564! Prior to this date, the year began on Easter Day. Easter being a mobile holiday, it took place between March 22 and April 25. But there were occasions when there were two Easter days in the same year, as was the case in 1347 on April 1 and again on April 20. In remembrance of ancient times, some continued to give New Year's gifts on April 1, but adding hoaxes .... and since it was the end of Lent, some smart kids were offering ... fish!
François Ier, after wars and various constructions, signed a new "Edit de Châteauregnard" in May 1539, in order to replenish the state coffers. Instead of a new tax, he imagines a national lottery based on the strong Italian Lotto principle. Jewelry would be distributed by lottery to buyers of lottery tickets. It was a complete fiasco! This edict will be abandoned and annulled in February 1541, barely two years later.
The first "bordes" or "bourdeaux" (specialized houses for prostitutes) were created by Charles V. Indeed, under Louis IX his predecessor, prostitutes had been put outside Paris, on the "edge" of the city. They lived there without hygiene, at the risk of catching all kinds of diseases. King Charles V therefore built these intramural houses, with a right of passage at the entrance and a guard on duty in front of the door to ensure order and decency in these places.
Philippe Auguste could no longer bear the pestilential odors in Paris in the years 1186. He was the first to have paving stones laid in the streets of the City, as well as in the squares, at the expense of the State. On the other hand, it leaves to the good care of the inhabitants, to pave in the poor districts! Then he built the first market halls in Paris as well as many butchers to supply Paris with meat, then the Saint Gervais aqueduct to bring water from Romainville and Ménilmontant.
In 855, Pope John VIII would have actually been a woman! A brilliant student, Jeanne took theology classes… dressed as a man. Received at the curia, the cardinals elect her on the death of Pope Leo IV. Pregnant, she nevertheless participates in the Ascension procession; but along the way, she feels the baby coming and is forced to give birth in public… She would have been sentenced to death on the spot, her body tied to horses which drag her through all the streets of Rome. The people don't like to be "fooled" ...
Prior to the year 595, an assassination could be redeemed for cash. For the murder of a bishop: 400 crowns; for a shepherd or a plowman: 30 ECU; a jeweler: 150 ecus. But everything changed in February 595 when Childebert, king of the Franks and son of Clovis, decreed that any assassination would be punished by the death penalty.
The arenas of Lutèce, destroyed during the invasions in the year 280, fell into oblivion during the construction of the surrounding wall in the 13th century by Philippe Auguste. During road widening works in 1860, they were rediscovered, but quickly buried. It is thanks to Victor Hugo, who wrote a letter to the Municipal Council that one can walk in the arenas of Lutèce since 1896.
Many people live in Attic rooms. They owe it to Jules-Hardouin Mansart (1646-1708), Louis XIV's first architect, who to save space and build additional accommodation, was the first to fit out rooms in the attic.
Under the revolution, bullets were lacking to feed infantry rifles. Thus, in the first place, lead was taken from the roofs of churches and as this was insufficient, all the royal coffins from Dagobert to Louis XV were relieved of this material in October 1793.
At the end of the 19th century, a study was carried out to verify the hygiene of the French: 2% of wealthy people took baths, 18% sometimes washed their feet, 52% washed eight times a year, 4% cleaned themselves hands and face to go to mass and the last (24%) only knew water if they fell into a puddle!
There is nothing more elegant than a maxi dress. But by hanging out on the sidewalks, this garment became a real nest of germs: this is what great doctors decreed at a congress in Rome in 1900. Two years later, they attacked corsets, guilty of gastric problems, vertebral and… neurasthenic in women!
To brighten up the evenings of theEmperor Napoleon III, we did dictations. Prosper Mérimée (1803-1870) was recruited to write sufficiently difficult texts according to the guests. Many were surprised when the results were announced: Napoleon III would have done a lot, Alexandre Dumas 24, Mme Metternich 42, the Prince of Metternich 6 ... and Eugenie 62 ... but she had a Spanish father and an Irish mother!
François Rabelais (1494-1553), on the road to Paris, had no more money to pay the innkeeper. He found a good way by leaving in his room a small bag of sugar with the following sign "Poison pour le Roi" ... The guard was called and took Rabelais directly to the capital. Francis I, who greatly appreciated his spirit, forgave him.
Michelangelo, called to Rome to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, took four years to complete this work. Lying on a scaffolding, he painted stretched out, brush at arm's length, the paint running down his face, crawling forward and twisting to avoid brushing off the dry paint. When the Pope came to scold him to go faster, Michelangelo did not hesitate to drop cans of paint on his head!
On the Alma's bridge, built by Napoleon III in memory of the victory of September 1854, the Zouave was not alone. Indeed there were three other statues: a grenadier, an artilleryman and a hunter. During the work on this bridge in 1970, only the Zouave was preserved and became the mascot of Parisians during the rise of the Seine.
Many symbols of the Republic were destroyed during the commune in 1871. This is the case with the Vendôme column demolished at the request of Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) the famous French painter "realist". Later, he had to pay for the restoration of this monument which he had nicknamed "the big turnip".
There was a time when cats were signs of misfortune, responsible for the plague. Later, this animal was wanted to hunt rodents. But in the 19th century, having found technical means to get rid of mice, the cat became a much sought-after pet that was fed. The bourgeois thus showed their wealth by having several cats in their homes - a luxury that the people could not afford.
Molière wrote in the Ecole des Femmes "on the side of the beard is omnipotence". Moreover, between 1848 when Louis Napoleon was elected president and 1944 when De Gaulle led liberated France, all the presidents wore beard or mustache or both at the same time, except Adolphe Thiers.
Symbol of the French defeat of 1940, the Maginot line was reinvested in 1945 by the French army, only to be definitively abandoned in 1969, once France had acquired a nuclear deterrent force.
Diogenes, a follower of the bare essentials, lived in a barrel, without shoes, wearing only one coat. When he asked for public charity, he gave alms to statues in order to get used to refusals. When he died, having asked that his body be thrown into a ditch like a dog, he received a grandiose funeral. A superb marble dog adorned his tomb.
Bernard Palissy (1510-1589) took 16 years before finding the secret of Italian glassmakers to make glazed earthenware. In order to operate his oven, he had come to burn all the trees in his garden, his furniture and the floor of his house. Once the secret was found, Catherine de Medici finally provided him with the workshop and the necessary ovens.
Among England's largest private schools, founded over 500 years ago, Eton's is the source of the word "snob". During the inscriptions, those who were without nobility, were assigned the letters “S. Nob. Without nobility.
Four years before the Crusaders reached Jerusalem in 1099, there was the Poor People's Crusade. The monk Peter the Hermit sent by Pope Urban II was so eloquent that all the people of France cried out "God wills it, God wills it" and set off. A large number perished on the way and the last were massacred by the Turks on entering Asia.
Many men of war and in particular the Marshals of the Empire have a street or an avenue in their honor in Paris. Only the Marquis de Grouchy (1766-1847) did not, indirectly responsible for the defeat of Waterloo.
Emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus gave his name to the vespasiennes, our current sanisettes. He had undertaken major works in Rome and short of money, instituted taxes and levies, including the tax on urine. Every Roman citizen, faced with a pressing need, had to pay this tax each time the public latrines or vespasians were used.
Before Colbert’s arrival, the French navy was non-existent. In 1683, upon Colbert's death, the French fleet had grown from 18 to 276 ships in 23 years. This is how the corsairs appeared, which cost the state nothing and could make big money.
The high column on Place Vendôme in Paris was made with the 180 cannons captured from the enemy by Napoleon in December 1805 after the Battle of Austerlitz. Napoleon wanted to pay homage to the feat achieved by his army.
Constable's office was immense: command of generals and princes of blood, responsible for the king's militia, power of justice, division of the booty taken, march of troops and reception of surrenders from besieged towns. This office had existed since 1218, was abolished by Louis XIII in 1627 and re-established by Napoleon I in 1804.
Napoleon, who spent most of his time in the war, was wounded only once on April 23, 1809 in Regensburg. He was hit by a bullet in the heel, was treated and immediately returned to his horse.
In the 17th century, it was customary, at the end of a war, to bring back the flags and standards taken from the enemy and hang them in the Notre Dame Church in Paris. This is how the Duke of Luxembourg was nicknamed "the upholsterer of Notre Dame" having taken so many flags.
The king Dagobert, concerned about his debauchery (he had 3 wives who were all 3 queens) wanted to redeem himself with God. He helped the poor and built the Abbey of Saint Denis.
In the 6th century, there was an infamous custom for men: having their heads shaved. So much so that when Frédégonde asked Brunehaut if she preferred to see her little children dead or shaved, she retorted that she preferred to see them dead rather than shorn!
In Roman times, there were different categories of gladiators: the "dimachères" with a sword in each hand, the "equestrian" on horseback with a javelin, the "essédaires" on a chariot, the "lacquerers" with a lace. to strangle the adversary, the "mirmillons" with a curved sword and an oval shield and the "retiaries" with their net and their trident.
Nero was known to be a great artist. He was once participating in a song and music competition in Greece. He won it along with a prize of 1,800 crowns. And before dying, he had these nice words "what artist will perish with me"!
England was Franco-Norman in 1066, when William the Conqueror captured it. During the next 300 years, 3 languages coexisted in the country: French spoken by the aristocracy, the people speaking English and Latin used by the clergy.
Chateaubriand and Victor Hugo were two big names in French literature. Yet one rests on a Breton island near Saint Malo, under an unnamed slab, only accessible at low tide, while the other rests in Paris at the Pantheon.
"Mail must pass" was the motto of Jean Mermoz, on each of its flights. He was hired in 1920 for a very special mission: to transport mail between France and Africa. In 1920, it took 2 days to connect Paris to Dakar.
Louis IX had created the Parliament of Paris. Sometimes he sat in person in his parliament, he was then installed under a canopy and seated on 5 cushions: one for the seat, one for the backrest, two for the armrests and one for the royal feet.
AT Byzantium, in 1453, the Crescent replaced the Cross. But between 790 and 1453, 109 rulers succeeded one another. 23 were murdered, 12 died in prison or in the convent, 3 died of hunger, 18 were castrated, wrung out, deprived of their nose or their hands, 8 died in war or by accident, 34 had the privilege of being extinguished normally in their beds, the others were suffocated, poisoned, strangled, stabbed, thrown from the top of a wall ...
Throughout the Middle Ages, theater was practiced mainly in a liturgical and educational context. It was a matter of dramatizing scenes from the Bible in order to edify the faithful. Most of the festivals of the year were thus commemorated by small plays. The idea that the theater came back into fashion during the Renaissance is therefore one of the many clichés in our history.
The name of this aperitif comes from Canon Félix Kir, former mayor of Dijon and last deputy of the Ve Republic to sit in a cassock. Finding the aligot burgundy too acidic, he decided to sweeten it by adding crème de cassis at the rate of 1/3 to 2/3 of this white wine. He then popularized this drink by offering it to his guests, the "cassava" thus becoming the "kir".
Kill them all, God will recognize his own ! This famous phrase refers to the massacre of Béziers in 1209, the papal legate giving the order to put to death all the inhabitants of the city, not being able to recognize the Cathars heretics from the Christian faithful. Thus frequently used to stigmatize medieval violence and the religious obscurantism of the time, this sentence actually comes from the overflowing imagination of a German monk Césaire de Heisterbach and his work: The Book of Miracles. This famous sentence therefore does not overlap with any historical reality.
"Le Bon Roi Dagobert" is a burlesque song composed in 1750 in honor of Dagobert and his minister Saint Eloi. It did not become fashionable in Ile de France until 1814, at the time of the first Restoration. But in reality, through these words the royalists made fun of Napoleon I who had it banned during the Hundred Days.
“Les Filles du Roy” are these orphans, often from the north west of France, penniless and without a future, who left for New France between 1660 and 1670. Louis XIV, considered their guardian, paid them the travel expenses as well as their dowry so that they can settle there. They were less than a thousand but their impact on the demography of the colony was very important.
In the 1645s, the “daughters of Notre Dame” were prostitutes dressed in red dresses with falsely silver lace. They used to offer their services in the bays of the Cathedral.
Théophraste Renaudot is at the origin of the Mont de Piété in France. The nickname “My Aunt” comes from Prince de Joinville, 3rd son of Louis-Philippe, who had to leave his watch there because of gambling debts. To his mother, he pretended to have forgotten it at his aunt's place!
Marie Antoinette created a special patent in January 1784. The “Coureur de Vin”, such is the person to whom this charge was attributed, and who had to follow the queen in all her movements, carrying bread in a napkin, a bottle of wine and some food.
Louis XIV, a teenager and to get rid of Marie Mancini's cumbersome housekeeper, gave her a box gallantly decorated with ribbons of various colors ... filled with about 12 mice! Barely far away, Mme de Venel came back saying "it is because I am not reassured that I thought I should not be away from the son of Mars".
Marat suffered from widespread eczema that forced him to live in the soothing water of a bathtub. When he died, the faithful of Marat decided to embalm his body to show it to the people. Difficult operation consisting of bleaching the face with grease, reshaping sagging lips with plaster, wrapping the arms with a painted canvas to hide ulcers, lifting the eyelids with tweezers. Everything was varnished ...
"C'est la Mère Michel ..." the song has been in fashion since 1820. If the lyrics are relatively recent, the tune is older since it was used to sing, in the 17th century, the praises of the Marshal de Catinat, one of Louis XIV's best captains, adored by his soldiers.
It is well known: The King cures patients with eccrucos. Accompanied by his doctor, he approaches the patients, extends his arm towards the face, traces with 2 fingers of his right hand, from forehead to chin and from one ear to the other, a sign of the cross saying: " the King touches you, God heals you ”. Louis XIV had affected 2,500 patients, Louis XV: 2,000, Louis XVI: 2,400, Charles X: 121 patients.
The royal etiquette was born in 1574 under Henri III. Bored in winter, the cuties had fun in a ceremony dressing the king, spraying him with creams, making him up. They could say, “Oh! Majesty, how beautiful you are! ". Conversely, the king had to be able to say to his cuties: "How nice and charming you are, my beauties! ". Then were created the titles of Highness and Excellence!
The Regent Philippe of Orleans had invented the 35 hours. At 9 a.m., he got to work, received ambassadors, answered dispatches or read reports until lunch. After dessert, he chaired a council in his office; but when five o'clock struck, he greeted his ministers, left his affairs of state there and went to devote himself to pleasure.
Mrs. de Montespan died in May 1707 in Bourbon-l'Archambault. His entrails, bequeathed to the neighboring abbey, are brought there by a young peasant. Bothered by the foul odor, he threw the contents of the vase into the ditch where a few moments later a herd of pigs was feasting.
Madame de Montespan transformed the salons of Versailles into a menagerie. The Duc de Noailles, in his Memoirs said: "she harnessed 6 mice to a filigree coach and let her beautiful hands bite them, she also raised little pigs and goats under the painted and gilded paneling of her apartment in Versailles. ".
The ideal of life for cynical, was intended to be very rudimentary and they only used items essential to their survival. One day, Diogenes, who used to drink from a bowl, saw a child drinking the water using his hand. Diogenes then broke his bowl, which was not essential, as he had just noticed.
The Chastity belt, invented in Venice, was sold for the first time at the Saint Germain fair by a hardware dealer at the beginning of the 17th century. Henri IV, during his absences, forced his mistress, the Marquise de Verneuil, suspected of infidelity, to wear this instrument.
Louis XIII was born September 27, 1601. Weak constitution and a little deficient, the midwife “filled her mouth with wine and whispered it; at the same hour he returned and savored the wine given ". Héroard, the king's doctor could say: "a tall child, very muscular, the genitals to match the body and the rump all hairy".
The term okay comes from the Civil War: every day, the Northern General Staff compiled the number of losses by sector, in a register indicating the number of killed next to a K for "Killed", which gave 25K 12K etc. ... The good days, in the good sectors, are those where we had no deaths, that is to say 0 K, become subsequently OK.
The " July 14t ”corresponds to the feast of the Federation of 1790 and not the storming of the Bastille in 1789. Feast of commemoration of the taking of the Bastille, it is intended to be the reconciliation and unity of all French people, as well as the king . And it was not until July 6, 1880 that "July 14" officially became French National Day.
Charles V already had running water. In his castle in Vincennes, to brush his teeth, he took up a position in front of his small sink, pulled a chain, and the rainwater collected at the top of the keep arrived. You can visit its small sink and its latrines whose walls are lined so as not to catch cold in winter.
In 1686, not yet able to hunt due to the fistula operation, Louis XIV disappeared into his Cabinet de Curiosité and contemplated his medals. In 1664, he had none. But in 1691, he held 7,000 modern medals, and 14,000 ancient medals.
The fashion characterizing the Renaissance man - short hair and beard - was born from an unfortunate incident that occurred to Francis I on the day of theEpiphany 1521. Having received a burning log on the head, the doctors cut off the king's long hair. To hide the scars, he let his beard grow.
« I am the state ": Louis XIV never said it. But he said “Gentlemen, everyone knows the misfortunes produced by the Assemblies of Parliament. That we cease those which are started on the edicts that I have brought, which I want to be executed. Mister the first president, I forbid you to suffer any assembly and not one of you to ask them ".
Le Prix Nobel de Mathématique n’existe pas : le meilleur mathématicien de l'époque était l'amant de l'épouse d'Alfred Nobel, ce dernier décida donc qu'il n'y aurait pas de prix Nobel de Mathématiques.
A Versailles, point de lieu d'aisance. Si bien que courtisans et visiteurs se soulagent où ils peuvent, rendant l'atmosphère du château irrespirable. Les 274 chaises percées du palais sont réservés aux ducs, princes et princesses. ceux-ci profitent de cette "activité" pour recevoir et discuter entre amis, donnant à la chaise percée le nom de "caquetaire".
Au Moyen Age, au cours des mariages et autres céremonies religieuses, certaines grosses cloches étaient mises en mouvement avec le pied, par des mendiants recrutés pour l'occasion. Ces pauvres recevaient quelques pièces en échange et étaient appelés "clochards".
The croissants du petit déjeuner doivent leur forme au croissant de lune des ottomans. En 1683, après deux mois de siège, les troupes ottomanes doivent se retirer de Vienne, en Autriche. Les boulangers de la ville inventent alors une viennoiserie en pâte feuilletée pour célébrer cette victoire.
En 1202, Jean, fils d'Henri II d'Angleterre et d'Aliénor d'Aquitaine enlève la fiancée d'un seigneur français. Pour le punir Philippe Auguste lui confisque ses terres en France, Normandie, Anjou, Maine et Poitou. Le prince anglais devient alors Jean-sans-terre.
En 1529, les premiers adeptes de la réforme luthérienne défendent leur foi à la diète impériale de Spire, contre Charles Quint, opposé à leur doctrine. Ceux qui protestent deviendront les protestants.
Au moyen-âge, les impôts appelés "taille des gens de guerre" étaient ponctuels. En 1451, Jacques Coeur, grand argentier du royaume, instaure l'impôt permanent, sans qu'il serve forcément à l'entretien de l'armée. C'est l'impôt moderne en vigueur de nos jours.
Le fameux calendrier maya ne se terminera pas le 21 décembre 2012 comme d'imprudents augures l'annoncent. Il passera tout simplement du 22.214.171.124.19 (le 20) au 126.96.36.199.0 (le 21), comme nous sommes passés du 31.12.1999 au 01.01.2000. L'apocalypse attendra encore un peu.
Le prénom Clovis vient du germanique Chlodweg. Romanisé il devient Clodovicus puis Clouis et enfin Louis, nom porté par dix-huit rois en France et de nombreux français.
De la chute de Rome à l'an mille, les femmes n'étaient l'objet d'aucune considération : on les enlevait, violait, jetait, tuait comme de vulgaires animaux ou objets. Les théologiens pensaient même qu'elles n'avaient pas d'âme ! C'est l'amour courtois chevaleresque, bien que "jeu" rituel masculin, qui a commencé à faire évoluer les mentalités et les rapports hommes/femmes.
L’Abwehr, service de renseignements de l'état-major allemand, fut créé en 1925 et fut en activité jusqu'en 1944. Après l'arrivée au pouvoir d'Adolf Hitler, l’Abwehr s'est régulièrement trouvée en conflit avec les services secrets du parti nazi : le SD et la Gestapo.
Le premier engin spatial à se poser en douceur sur la Lune fut Luna 9 (U.R.S.S.). La capsule se posa sur l'astre le 3 février 1966 et envoya des clichés du sol pendant trois jours.
En exterminant massivement les chats, assimilés au diable rendu responsable des épidémies de peste, les européens du XIVème siècle n'ont fait qu'accroitre largement la diffusion de ce fléau, les rats qui propageaient cette maladie n'ayant plus de prédateurs.
Avant de devenir le célèbre compagnon de Tintin, Milou était le nom du fox terrier de Bonaparte, que ce dernier aurait notamment emmené avec lui durant sa campagne d' Egypte en 1798-1799.
Louis XIV, prénommé à sa naissance Louis-Dieudonné et surnommé par la suite le Roi-Soleil ou Louis le Grand (Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 5 septembre 1638 – Versailles, 1er septembre 1715) est, du 14 mai 1643 jusqu’à sa mort, roi de France et de Navarre, le troisième de la maison de Bourbon de la dynastie capétienne. Louis XIV, a régné pendant 72 ans: il est le chef d'État qui a gouverné la France le plus longtemps et le monarque qui a régné le plus longtemps en Europe.
La guerre de Cent Ans couvre une période de 116 ans (1337 à 1453) pendant laquelle s’affrontent la France et l’Angleterre lors de nombreux conflits, entrecoupés de trêves plus ou moins longues.