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On June 7, 1494, the Catholic Monarchs and John II of Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas dealing with the demarcation of their colonial empires by an imaginary line crossing the Atlantic west of the Cape Verde Islands. The other European maritime powers are denied all rights to these new lands. François Ier will ask to see "the clause of Adam's will which excludes him from this sharing". The Amerindian, African and Asian populations are not consulted on this division of the world.
England and Scotland have only been united for 300 years. Before 1707, the year of the act of union between the Kingdoms of Scotland and England, Scotland was an independent and sovereign state. To understand the origins and birth of this state, we must go back to the Roman period.
Destroyed in 1945, divided for nearly 50 years, Germany was one of the symbols of the Cold War and the bipolarization of the world.
Between 1935 and 1939, Hitler engaged in a policy of violation of the Treaty of Versailles. His will to achieve a "greater Germany" materializes with the annexation of Austria and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia.
Following the errors of the Congress of Vienna, Europe was agitated throughout the 19th century by national and liberal movements. With the help of France, Cavour and Victor-Emmanuel II set out to unify Italy around the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
From the 1st century, the Roman armies regularly tried to conquer the lands located north of their province of Britannia, but the successes were short-lived.
The Germanic confederation created in 1815 and chaired by the Emperor of Austria, does not satisfy the German patriots. Bismarck and William I set out to unify the German states around the kingdom of Prussia.