The Germanic confederation created in 1815 and chaired by the Emperor of Austria, does not satisfy the German patriots. Bismarck and William I set out to unify the German states around the kingdom of Prussia.
- Pierre Ayçoberry, German Unity, 1800-1871, Presses Universitaires de France, 1968
- François-Georges Dreyfus, German Unity, Presses Universitaires de France, 1993
- Heinrich August Winkler (trans. Odile Demange), History of 19th-20th century Germany - Le long chemin vers l'Occident, Fayard, 2005