1987: Signed in February 1986, the Treaty ofSingle European Actn comes into force.
1944: From July 1 to 22, the international monetary conference of Bretton woods, in the USA. At the end of the meeting, two international institutions will be created: the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) or World Bank.
1905: the German-born physicist Albert Einstein publishes his special theory of relativity.
1863 : Battle of Gettysburg, considered the deadliest of the Civil War.
- 23: Octavian, the adopted son of Caesar and heir to the Roman Empire, who took the name ofAugust meaning "sacred", is attributed the tribunitian power for life.