The plow is the major invention that made agricultural production take off. In the Neolithic period, the arear appeared, which split the soil of Palestine, but without turning the earth over. Pulled by two oxen, this wooden tool replaced the digging stick and spread between 7000 and 5000 BC throughout Europe.
Birth of the plow
But the "real" plow as we know it was not born until the second century BC, with the first plowshares in planks. A century later, they are made of metal and sink deeper to overturn heavy soils, increasing agricultural yields by 30% in northern Europe, and allowing more people to be fed.
It is the transition from a kind of careful gardening to the beginning of extensive agriculture. The plow will then be equipped with wheels and will be perfected until the Middle Ages to take its final shape.