August 9, 2013 Day 202 of the Fifth Year - History

August 9, 2013 Day 202 of the Fifth Year - History

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President Barack Obama looks back towards a group of students before signing H.R. 1911, the "Bipartisan Student Loan Certainty Act of 2013," in the Oval Office, Aug. 9, 2013.

10:15AM THE PRESIDENT receives the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office
Closed Press

2:55PM THE PRESIDENT holds a bilateral meeting with Prime Minister Antonis Samaras of Greece
Oval Office

In 2006, Barbara Payne established the Single Working Women’s Affiliate Network to recognize the achievements that single women have contributed to the world. Single Working Women's Day comes at the end of Single Working Women's Week, a time to celebrate the women "who do it all. Not only do they bring home the bacon, but they also shop for it, cook it, serve it and clean it up, then take out the garbage, walk the dog, and fix the sink (or call the repairman!)."

CatLane/iStock via Getty Images

Underwear emporium Freshpair founded National Underwear Day on August 5, 2003. Since then it has grown to include events around the country that encourage the 80 percent of people who have worn the same style of underwear their whole lives to branch out.

Lockdown Dates Changed in Bengal for the Fifth Time, Oppn Say Move to Facilitate TMCP Foundation Day

The West Bengal government on Wednesday pared down the number of state-wide complete lockdown by one day, making it the fifth change to the shutdown schedule this month.

The lockdown on August 28 (Friday) has been done away with keeping in mind the interest of banking and business operations, a state government order said.

The decision drew the ire of the opposition parties, which alleged that it was taken to facilitate a function marking the foundation day programme of Trinamool Chatra Parishad, the student wing of the ruling TMC.

TMC denied the charge as "completely baseless".

According to the state government order signed by chief secretary Rajiva Sinha, the decision to withdraw the

complete lockdown on August 28 was taken after several communications were received citing difficulties to conduct business and banking operations because of two days' lockdown on Thursday (August 27) and Friday (August 28) in the last week of the month followed by another the following Monday (August 31).

Complete lockdowns were slated to be held on the three dates as per the earlier decision of the government.

"The state government has considered the requests for the relaxation of the lockdown as would be necessary and essential. Therefore, in partial modification, the lockdown on Friday (August 28) as noted earlier is hereby withdrawn," it stated.

State-wide complete lockdowns will now be observed on four days for the rest of this month instead of five days as announced earlier.

The dates of the complete lockdown will now be August 20, 21, 27 and 31, it said.

Earlier this month complete lockdowns were observed on August 5 and 8.

The change in the total lockdown evoked sharp reactions from the opposition parties. They criticised the TMC regime alleging that it was completely clueless as it had failed to manage the COVID-19 crisis.

BJP national secretary Rahul Sinha said, "The state government has not only failed, but is also clueless about the way forward."

"The state government could change the dates but it didn't yield to our request to do so on August 5 the day of bhoomi pujan for the Ram Mandir at Ayodhya. It changed the lockdown dates to facilitate TMCP foundation day," he charged.

CPI(M) legislature party leader Sujan Chakraborty said Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee and her government has turned the lockdown into a "farce".

"Is celebration of TMC Chatra Parishads's foundation day more important than the lives of the common people?" he asked.

The TMC in its turn dubbed the allegation that the day was changed for TMCP's foundation day as "completely baseless".

"We observed the July 21 Martyrs' Day this year virtually due to the pandemic. The decision to change the complete lockdown dates was taken due to difficulty in conducting business and banking operations," TMC leader and spokesperson Sougato Roy said.

West Bengal has till Tuesday reported 1,01,390 coronavirus cases and the toll has touched in 2149.

A Brief History of Independence Day

Independence is declared it must be maintained.
–Sam Houston, American politician (1793–1863)

The Declaration of Independence is America’s revolutionary Charter of Freedom and the document upon which the nation’s founding principles were established.

The Declaration of Independence Was Not Officially Signed on July 4

On April 19, 1775, during the Battles of Lexington and Concord (Mass.), the first shots were fired between colonists and British troops, starting the American Revolution. After these first military conflicts, tension between Britain and her American colonists continued to mount.

Finally, on July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence from Britain.

Two days later, on July 4, the Congress approved the final draft of the Declaration of Independence, which had been written by Thomas Jefferson and edited by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin.

On July 8, the first public reading of the Declaration took place at the Pennsylvania State House (now Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Later that same day, other readings occurred in Trenton, New Jersey, and Easton, Pennsylvania.

Printer John Dunlap made about 200 copies of the Declaration, with the date of July 4. Known as the “Dunlap Broadsides,” these were distributed throughout the 13 colonies.

However, it wasn’t until August 2, 1776, that the Declaration was officially signed. John Hancock, president of the Congress, was the first of 56 delegates who signed this enlarged version, writing in big, bold letters.

Image: John Trumball’s 1819 painting “Declaration of Independence.” This iconic scene with all the delegates present never actually occurred in Philadelphia.

On August 4, 1776, after delegates of the Continental Congress had signed the document, the Declaration of Independence was made official.

How Did Our Founders Envision Independence Day Celebrations?

John Adams considered July 2 to be the day when Americans actually declared their independence.

He envisioned the celebration to be one filled with fun, games, and fireworks—not an occasion for displaying military strength (as one might expect). On July 3, 1776, he wrote these words to his wife Abigail, capturing the spirit of the times:

“Yesterday the greatest Question was decided, which ever was debated in America, and a greater, perhaps, never was or will be decided among Men. A Resolution was passed without one dissenting Colony ‘that these united Colonies, are, and of right ought to be free and independent States, and as such, they have, and of Right ought to have full Power to make War, conclude Peace, establish Commerce, and to do all the other Acts and Things, which other States might rightfully do…’

The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival… . It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more.”

On July 18, 1777, an issue of the Virginia Gazette describes the July 4 celebration in Philadelphia:

“The evening was closed with the ringing of bells, and at night there was a grand exhibition of fireworks, which began and concluded with thirteen rockets on the commons, and the city was beautifully illuminated. Every thing was conducted with the greatest order and decorum, and the face of joy and gladness was universal.”

What’s really special about America’s celebration of freedom is it was quite different for its time, focusing on the joys of freedom. Many countries have emulated this spirit of celebration ever since.

Refresh Your Memory: The Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence is one of the most important documents in the history of the United States. It was an official act taken by all 13 American colonies in declaring independence from British rule.

The document was originally written by Thomas Jefferson, but Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, along with Jefferson then worked together to make changes. The final draft of the Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776, but the actual signing of the final document took place on August 2, 1776.

Here is an excerpt from the Declaration of Independence ( U.S. 1776):

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

We invite you to refresh your memory as an annual tradition. Read a transcription of the complete text of the Declaration at

More Fourth of July History

  • July 4, 1776: Thomas Jefferson noted in his “Weather Memorandum Book” that the weather was cloudy, the temperature 76ºF.
  • July 4, 1826: Both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson—signers of the Declaration of Independence who each later became president—died on the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the declaration.
  • July 4, 1884: The Statue of Liberty was formally presented to the United States by the people of France.
  • July 4, 1911: It was a hot Fourth of July in New England. All-time state records were set in Nashua, New Hampshire (106°F), and Vernon, Vermont (105°F).

4th of July Trivia

While we celebrate with fireworks, let’s not forget the freedom that our founding fathers declared to the world over two centuries ago. Here are some fun facts you may not know about the holiday:

Q. Why is the name “John Hancock” synonymous with “your signature”?
A. Hancock’s bold signature on the Declaration of Independence dwarfed the signatures of the other signers. Legend says that Hancock wanted the king of England to see the rebellious signature without having to wear his spectacles!

Q. When did America actually declare independence?
Congress ruled in favor of independence on July 2, 1776. Two days later, on July 4, Congress accepted Jefferson’s declaration document. Nonetheless, John Adams thought July 2 should be Independence Day.

Q. How many people signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4?
A. Only two men signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776—John Hancock, president of the Congress, and Charles Thompson, secretary of the Congress.

Q. On what day did most people sign the Declaration of Independence?
A. August 2, 1776.

Q. When did Independence Day become a national holiday?
A. The Fourth of July was not declared a federal holiday until 1938!

Q. Is anything written on the back of the Declaration of Independence?
A. Yes, but not a treasure map like a certain favorite film suggests! The message “Original Declaration of Independence dated 4 th July 1776” is written upside down on the back of the Declaration of Independence.

Q. Where is the Declaration of Independence document today?
A. Thomas Jefferson’s original draft was lost and the one eventually signed is the “engrossed” document. It is kept at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., for all to see.
Of the 200 printed copies of the Declaration made by John Dunlap (the Dunlap Broadsides), only 27 are accounted for. One of these was found in the back of a picture frame at a tag sale and sold at auction for $8.14 million to television producer Norman Lear in 2000. It traveled the country on display to the public for ten years.

Q. Where was George Washington when the Declaration of Independence was written?
A. In July 1776, Washington was in New York with his troops. On July 9, he received his copy of the Declaration with a note from John Hancock telling Washington to share the news with his soldiers. The men were so excited that they rushed over to the Bowling Green and tore down the statue of King George III . Shortly after this, the British, as Washington expected, attacked the colonists and the American Revolution was under way. The colonists fought eight long, hard years (1775–83) for independence from Britain.

After the war, George Washington hoped to retire and return to Mount Vernon, Virginia. Instead, in 1789, the electors unanimously voted him in as the first president of the United States. Because it was such an honor, and he felt a great duty to his country, he accepted. He departed Mount Vernon on April 16 and arrived in New York City on April 30 for his inauguration. As he took his oath standing on the balcony of Federal Hall, the crowd broke into cheers. The members of his first Cabinet included Thomas Jefferson as secretary of state and Alexander Hamilton as secretary of the treasury.

Celebrating the Fourth of July

In the United States, Independence Day is a federal holiday traditionally observed with parades, concerts, picnic food, and fireworks.

Take a look at our Fourth of July recipes to have a delicious picnic or barbecue—and for a list of patriotic desserts!

Also, be sure to check the American Flag Guidelines so that you can proudly and properly display your flag.

How do YOU celebrate the 4th of July? Fireworks? Barbeque? Both? Let us know in the comments—and have a Happy Independence Day, America!

2020 Calendar - United States

Below is our United States 2020 yearly calendar with Federal Holidays highlighted in red and prominent holidays highlighted in blue.

Change Year:

Change Country:

  • Friday, January 10
  • Sunday, February 9
  • Monday, March 9
  • Wednesday, April 8
  • Thursday, May 7
  • Friday, June 5
  • Sunday, July 5
  • Monday, August 3
  • Wednesday, September 2
  • Saturday, October 31
  • Monday, November 30
  • Wednesday, December 30

Leap Year Status

Year 2020 is a leap year, with 366 days. The latest prior leap year occurred in 2016 and the next will be in 2024. The reason for the leap year is to reconcile the earth's orbit around the sun. By adding days to the year the seasons stay in step with the month's for each year. More information on Leap Year. This web site uses the Gregorian date system, which uses leap years.

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Affordable Care Act guidance. Notice 2013-54, 2013-40 I.R.B. 287, available at, provides guidance for employers on the application of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to FSAs and Health Reimbursement Arrangements (HRAs).For more information on the ACA, go to

Photographs of missing children. The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children® (NCMEC). Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child.


Various programs are designed to give individuals tax advantages to offset health care costs. This publication explains the following programs.

Health Savings Accounts (HSAs).

Medical Savings Accounts (Archer MSAs and Medicare Advantage MSAs).

Health Flexible Spending Arrangements (FSAs).

Health Reimbursement Arrangements (HRAs).

An HSA may receive contributions from an eligible individual or any other person, including an employer or a family member, on behalf of an eligible individual. Contributions, other than employer contributions, are deductible on the eligible individual’s return whether or not the individual itemizes deductions. Employer contributions aren’t included in income. Distributions from an HSA that are used to pay qualified medical expenses aren’t taxed.

An Archer MSA may receive contributions from an eligible individual and his or her employer, but not both in the same year. Contributions by the individual are deductible whether or not the individual itemizes deductions. Employer contributions aren’t included in income. Distributions from an Archer MSA that are used to pay qualified medical expenses aren’t taxed.

A Medicare Advantage MSA is an Archer MSA designated by Medicare to be used solely to pay the qualified medical expenses of the account holder who is enrolled in Medicare. Contributions can be made only by Medicare. The contributions aren’t included in your income. Distributions from a Medicare Advantage MSA that are used to pay qualified medical expenses aren’t taxed.

A health FSA may receive contributions from an eligible individual. Employers may also contribute. Contributions aren’t includible in income. Reimbursements from an FSA that are used to pay qualified medical expenses aren’t taxed.

An HRA must receive contributions from the employer only. Employees may not contribute. Contributions aren’t includible in income. Reimbursements from an HRA that are used to pay qualified medical expenses aren’t taxed.

Comments and suggestions.

We welcome your comments about this publication and suggestions for future editions.

You can send us comments through Or, you can write to the Internal Revenue Service, Tax Forms and Publications, 1111 Constitution Ave. NW, IR-6526, Washington, DC 20224.

Although we can’t respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments and suggestions as we revise our tax forms, instructions, and publications. Do not send tax questions, tax returns, or payments to the above address.

Getting answers to your tax questions.

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Natal Day (Nova Scotia)

Natal Day is a non-statutory holiday in Nova Scotia. In 1895, a day was set to celebrate the anticipated arrival of the railway in Dartmouth in August of that year. The branch line was delayed, but the townsfolk decide to have the holiday anyway. They kept the date and named the day Natal ('birth') Day to commemorate the birthday of the municipality instead, even though that had historically been celebrated on June 21st to mark the founding of Halifax in 1749.

Chinese New Year Day - Coming Years

2023 Chinese New Year is on Sunday, January 22, 2023. 2023 is the Black Rabbit year.
2024 Chinese New Year is on Saturday, February 10, 2024. 2024 is the Green Dragon year.
2025 Chinese New Year is on Wednesday, January 29, 2025. 2025 is the Green Snake year.
2026 Chinese New Year is on Tuesday, February 17, 2026. 2026 is the Red Horse year.
2027 Chinese New Year is on Saturday, February 6, 2027. 2027 is the Red Sheep year.

Full Moon for August 2020

August’s full Sturgeon Moon reaches its peak on Monday, August 3, 2020. Learn how this month’s full Moon got such a peculiar name!

When to See the Full Moon in August 2020

The Full Sturgeon Moon

August’s full Moon will appear on the night of Sunday, August 2, before reaching peak illumination at 11:59 A.M. Eastern Time on Monday, August 3. On either of these nights, look toward the southeast after sunset to catch a glimpse of the Sturgeon Moon rising!

Perseid Meteor Shower

Not too long after August’s full Moon, it will be time to keep an eye out for the annual Perseid meteor shower, which lasts from late July to late August. The meteors will reach their maximum in the hours just before dawn (while it’s still dark) between August 11 and 13! The Moon will be in its Last Quarter phase at this time (August 11), so the meteors may be washed out to some extent by the Moon’s brightness. Learn how and when to see the Perseid meteor shower.

Moon Phases for August 2020

See Moon phase dates and times below. Note: All dates and times are ET . Go to the Moon Phase Calendar for your time zone.

Moon Phases for August 2020

Why Is It Called the Sturgeon Moon?

August’s full Moon was traditionally called the Sturgeon Moon because the giant sturgeon of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain were most readily caught during this part of summer.

Other names for this Full Moon include ”Full Green Corn Moon,” signaling that the corn was nearly ready for harvest, “Wheat Cut Moon,” “Moon When All Things Ripen,” and ”Blueberry Moon.”

The tradition of naming Moons is rich in history. Here at The Old Farmer’s Almanac, we have long honored the Native American Moon names and the folklore of those who came before us. We follow the full Moon names that were used during Native American and Colonial times to help track the seasons—usually by the Algonquin people who were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the St. Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes.

What Is a Sturgeon?

These prehistoric-looking fish have been traced back to around 136 million years ago and many people call them “living fossils.”

  • Females require around 20 years to start reproducing, and they can only reproduce every 4 years. However, they can live up to 150 years!
  • Today, there are about 29 species worldwide, including the lake sturgeon found in the Great Lakes. They have evolved in size from the size of a bass to monster sturgeon as big as a Volkswagen.
  • The lake sturgeon is quite rare today, due to intense overfishing in the 19th century, pollution, and damage to their habitat.

The word “sturgeon” means “the stirrer,” which is what this giant fish does when it is looking for food it stirs up the mud and silt on river and lake bottoms. Notice the pointed snout and whisker-like tactile organs near the mouth. Credit: Tennessee Aquarium.

Full Sturgeon Moon Video

Each month, we will explain the traditional names of the Full Moon along with some fascinating facts. In this video, learn about the Full Sturgeon Moon. Click below to watch the video.

Best Days in August 2020

Below are the Best Days for activities based on the Moon’s sign and phase in August.

For Cutting Hay:

To Quit Smoking:

For Cutting Hair to slow down growth:

Moon Folklore

  • Clothes washed for the first time in the full Moon will not last long.
  • If you glimpse the new Moon over your right shoulder, you will have good luck.
  • To have a project prosper, start it during the new Moon.
  • Babies born a day after the full Moon enjoy success and endurance.

Share your thoughts about this month’s moon below!

Option #1: When you need editable back to school sign fast

In case you are in a hurry to get this done as quickly as possible or you simply don’t feel like putting extra work into editing these templates, this first option will work great for you.

Simply choose your desired editable back to school sign (the PDF version), print it out and complete it in handwriting.

A few useful tips:

1. When choosing the right colored pen or marker, the easiest way is to go for a color that is already in the design (pink/purple, blue/green, red/blue). It is a safe bet that will make your customizing way quicker.

2. Experiment with different marker tips for different sections to easily blend in your handwriting.

3. Practice on a piece of paper first. Try different letter sizes to see how they’ll fit in the design. Adjust accordingly.

For this option, make sure to download the PDFs, not JPEGs!

Watch the video: Today in History for August 12th