Kawasaki Ki-38

Kawasaki Ki-38


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Kawasaki Ki-38

The Kawasaki Ki-38 was an early version of the aircraft that would enter production as the Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu (Nick) twin engined fighter. In 1937 the Japanese Army decided that it wanted a twin-engined long range heavy fighter, in the same class as the Messerschmitt Bf 110 or the French Potez 630, but it could not decide if it wanted their new aircraft to be fast, manoeuvrable or heavily armed. In March 1937 the Army issued a remarkably vague specification in this class to Nakajima, Kawasaki and Mitsubishi. Work on the Nakajima Ki-37 and Mitsubishi Ki-39 designs stopped at an early stage because those companies had more urgent projects for their design teams, but the Kawasaki aircraft reached the mock-up stage.

The Ki-39 would have been a twin engined monoplane, with elliptical wings and powered by two 12 cylinder liquid cooled engines. The model was completed in October 1937, just in time for the Army to suspend the project. Over the next two months the Army finally came up with a more detailed specification, and in mid December Kawasaki was ordered to resume work on the project.

The new aircraft was to have a top speed of 335.5mph at 11,480ft, be able to operate effectively between 6,560ft and 16,405ft, have an endurance of four hours and forty minutes at 217mph plus thirty minutes of combat and be armed with two forward firing and one rear firing machine gun, and was given the new designation Ki-45.


Kawasaki Ki 45 Torjú [Nick]

Made a total of 1,698 aircraft of this type (some sources state 1,701 aircraft).
Production took place at: as 崎 航空 工 機 業 株式会社 - Kawasaki Kōkūki Kōgyō Kabushiki Kaisha, Kagamigahara, near Gifu [img_6:aaaaaa comment = Japan (JPN)] https://vcdns.valka.cz/images/flags/jp.gif[/img_6:aaaaaa]

Sources used:René J. Francillon Ph.D., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, 2nd edition, London, Putnam & Company Ltd., reprinted 1979, ISBN 0-370-30251-6.William Green, War Planes of the Second World War, Volume Three: Fighters, London, Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., 1961, ISBN 0-356-01447-9.Robert C. Mikesh, Japanese Aircraft Code Names & Designations, Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1993, ISBN 0-88740-447-2.https://www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/ki45.htmlhttps://www.ww2warbirds.net/ww2htmls/kasaki45.html

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Phản ứng lại việc xuất hiện nhanh chóng của các kiểu máy bay tiêm kích hạng nặng hai động cơ tại châu Âu như chiếc Messerschmitt Bf 110, Lục quân Đế quốc Nhật Bản đã yêu cầu phát triển một kiểu máy bay tiêm kích hai chỗ ngồi, hai động cơ vào năm 1937, và chấp nhận đề xuất của hãng Đóng tàu Kawasaki dưới tên hiệu Ki-38. Đề án này chỉ thực hiện một mô hình, nhưng vào tháng 12 cùng năm, Lục quân yêu cầu thực hiện một chiếc nguyên mẫu hoạt động được ký hiệu Ki-45, bay lần đầu tiên vào tháng 1 năm 1939. Tuy nhiên, kết quả từ những thử nghiệm không đáp ứng những mong mỏi của Lục quân, động cơ Ha-20 Otsu không đủ mạnh và dễ hỏng hóc, trong khi khung máy bay bị chòng chành.

Ki-45 không được đưa vào hoạt động, nhưng phía Lục quân nhấn mạnh đến nhu cầu cần có kiểu máy bay tiêm kích hai động cơ, đã yêu cầu Kawasaki tiếp tục việc phát triển. Kawasaki đã đáp ứng bằng cách thay thế động cơ bằng kiểu Nakajima Ha-25 đã được sử dụng tin cậy hơn. Việc bay thử nghiệm tỏ ra có triển vọng.

Tháng 10 năm 1940, Lục quân yêu cầu thêm các cải tiến khác như chuyển sang sử dụng động cơ Mitsubishi Ha-102 1.080 mã lực (805 kW), dùng cánh của kiểu máy bay ném bom hạng nhẹ Ki-48. Chiếc máy bay này, được đặt tên là Ki-45 Kai, hoàn tất vào tháng 9 năm 1941 và được chính thức đưa vào hoạt động trong Lục quân vào tháng 2 năm 1942 dưới tên gọi "Máy bay Tiêm kích hai chỗ ngồi Kiểu 2".

Kiểu sản xuất hằng loạt đầu tiên (Ko) được trang bị hai súng máy 12,7 mm trước mũi, một pháo 20 mm dưới bụng và một súng máy di động 7,92 mm ở buồng lái sau. Sau đó kiểu Otsu được nâng cấp thay pháo 20 mm bằng loại pháo 37 mm thường trang bị cho xe tăng để chống lại những máy bay ném bom B-17. Trong khi sức công phá khá hủy diệt, việc phải nạp đạn bằng tay khiến cho tốc độ bắn chỉ đạt được hai phát mỗi phút. Kiểu tiếp theo (Hei) quay trở lại trang bị pháo 20 mm, và lần này đặt một khẩu pháo tự động 37 mm trước mũi. Các bổ sung sau này là một cặp pháo 20 mm bắn chéo đặt phía sau buồng lái thay cho những khẩu 20 mm bên dưới.

Chiếc Ki-45 ban đầu được sử dụng như là máy bay tiêm kích hộ tống ném bom tầm xa. Phi đoàn Độc lập 84 sử dụng nó vào tháng 6 năm 1942 để tấn công Guilin, nơi nó đối đầu, nhưng không sánh được, những chiếc P-40 Tomahawk do Đội Phi Hổ (Flying Tigers) sử dụng. Đến tháng 9 cùng năm, nó lại chạm trán với P-40 bên trên bầu trời Hà Nội với kết quả tương tự. Rõ ràng là chiếc Ki-45 không thể tự vệ được trong không chiến trước những chiếc máy bay tiêm kích một động cơ.

Sau đó nó được bố trí tại nhiều mặt trận khác nhau trong vai trò tiêm kích đánh chặn, tấn công mặt đất và tàu thuyền, bảo vệ hạm đội. Thế mạnh nhất của nó là máy bay tiêm kích đánh chặn chống máy bay ném bom. Tại New Guinea, Không lực Lục quân dùng chiếc máy bay này để chống tàu thuyền, vì chiếc Ki-45 được trang bị vũ khí nặng gồm một pháo 37 mm và hai pháo 20 mm cũng như có thể mang hai bom 250 kg (550 lb) trên những đế dưới cánh. Có tổng cộng 1.675 chiếc Ki-45 thuộc mọi phiên bản được sản xuất trong chiến tranh.

Không lâu sau khi được đưa vào hoạt động, Ki-45 được giao nhiệm vụ phòng thủ chính quốc, và nhiều chiếc đã được tung ra chống lại Trận không kích Doolittle, nhưng không có vụ chạm trán nào xảy ra. Trang bị vũ khí rất mạnh của kiểu máy bay này tỏ ra hiệu quả để chống lại các cuộc không kích của máy bay ném bom B-29 vốn được bắt đầu từ tháng 6 năm 1944. Tuy nhiên, tính năng bay của nó không đủ để đối phó những chiếc B-29 vốn hoạt động ở độ cao 10.000 m. Các cải tiến như giảm lượng nhiên liệu và đạn dược mang theo để nhằm cải thiện tính năng bay chỉ mang lại rất ít kết quả, nên cuối cùng chiếc máy bay được dùng trong kiểu tấn công đâm thẳng mang tính tự sát. Năm 1945, các khẩu súng bắn ra phía trước và hướng lên trên tỏ ra có kết quả khi chống lại các đợt ném bom ban đêm, nhưng không được trang bị radar là một thiếu sót. Đến đầu năm 1945, khi phía Mỹ đưa ra các máy bay tiêm kích xuất phát từ tàu sân bay và những chiếc P-51 xuất phát từ Iwo Jima để hộ tống cho những chiếc B-29 bên trên bầu trời Nhật Bản, vai trò của chiếc Ki-45 đi vào kết thúc.

Phiên bản tiếp theo, Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc, được phát triển đặc biệt cho chiến đấu ban đêm, và được dự tính sẽ trang bị radar bước sóng centimeter trước mũi, nhưng do những khó khăn trong sản xuất nên không thể thực hiện được. Kiểu máy bay này được Lục quân Nhật trang bị cho bốn phi đoàn (sentai) từ giữa năm 1944 cho đến hết chiến tranh, tham gia vào việc phòng thủ chống ném bom ban đêm. Nó đạt được một số thành tích, và một phi đoàn đã ghi được 150 chiến công và bắn rơi được 8 chiếc B-29 Superfortress của Không lực Mỹ.

Trong vai trò tấn công mặt đất chiếc Ki-45 được dần dần thay thế, nhưng không hoàn toàn, bởi chiếc Kawasaki Ki-102, cho đến cuối cuộc chiến.

Sau Thế Chiến II, ba chiếc Ki-45 rơi vào tay của lực lượng Giải phóng quân Trung Quốc. Không như hầu hết những máy bay Nhật chiếm được khác chỉ dùng trong vai trò huấn luyện, ba chiếc Ki-45 được giao các nhiệm vụ chiến đấu, được đưa vào Phi đội 1 của Không đoàn Tác chiến vào tháng 3 năm 1949. Những chiếc Ki-45 này nghỉ hưu vào đầu những năm 1950.


Зміст

На самому початку Японсько-китайської війни авіація Японії зіткнулась у Китаї з новими радянським бомбардувальником СБ-2, який був практично невразливим для японських винищувачів, оскільки мав швидкість, порівнянну зі швидкістю найновішого на той час японського винищувача Nakajima Ki-27. У грудні 1937 року ВПС Імперської армії Японії сформулювали технічне завдання на розробку аналогічного легкого двомоторного бомбардувальника, який із бомбовим навантаженням 400 кг мав розвивати на висоті 3000 м максимальну швидкість 480 км/год та набирати висоту 5000 м менше, ніж за 10 хв. На літаку мало бути встановлено два двигуна Nakajima Ha-25. Оборонне озброєння мало складатись з трьох-чотирьох 7,7-мм кулеметів. Оскільки основним імовірним противником Японія вважала СРСР, то особливу увагу слід було приділити можливості експлуатації літака в умовах низьких температур.

Розробка літака була доручена фірмам Mitsubishi та Kawasaki (проекти отримали позначення Ki-47 та Ki-48 відповідно). Але через завантаженість іншими роботами фірма Mitsubishi практично одразу відмовилась від участі у конкурсі.

На фірмі Kawasaki роботами керував Такео Дої, який використав досвід розробки важких винищувачів Kawasaki Ki-38 та Kawasaki Ki-45. Новий літак був середньопланом з однокілевим оперенням та шасі, що складалось. На літаку були встановлені двигуни Nakajima Ha-25 потужністю 950 к. с. з гвинтами змінного кроку. Екіпаж літака складався з 4 осіб — пілота, штурмана, бомбардира та радіооператора, причому три останні могли виконувати функції стрільця: для цього на літаку були встановлені три 7,7-мм кулемети «Тип 89», розміщені у носовій, верхній та нижній вогневих точках. Бомбове навантаження літака могло складатись з 24 15-ти кілограмових або шести 50-ти кілограмових бомб.

Через проблеми в розробці Ki-45, іншого проекту під керівництвом Такео Дої, останній часто відволікався і перший прототип Ki-48 був готовий лише у вересні 1939 року. Випробування показали, що літак в цілому відповідає вимогам технічного завдання. Єдиним серйозним недоліком була вібрація хвостового оперення. Для усунення цього дефекту на 5 передсерійних машинах зміцнили конструкцію хвостової частини та підняли стабілізатор. Після цього літак був прийнятий на озброєння під назвою «Легкий армійський бомбардувальник Тип 99 Модель 1А» (або Ki-48-Iа).

Перший серійний Ki-48-Iа був виготовлений в липні 1940 року і почав заміняти собою вже застарілі на той час Kawasaki Ki-32. Під час виробництва літак вдосконалювався і останні серійні моделі отримали свою назву Ki-48-Ib, який міг нести вже до 400 кг бомбового навантаження. Всього було збудовано 577 літаків Ki-48-I модифікацій.

У 1942 році була розроблена покращена модифікація Ki-48-IIa, оснащена двигунами Nakajima Ha 115, яка мала протектовані паливні баки, бронювання робочих місць пілота та бомбардира, нові кулемети. Фюзеляж був трохи довший, швидкість зросла до 503 км/г, бомбове навантаження до 800 кг. Варіант Ki-48-IIb використовувався як тримісний пікіруючий бомбардувальник, тому на літаку розмістили перфоровані повітряні гальма. Останні серійні Ki-48-IIa/b також отримали подовжений кіль для кращої стабільності.

Оборонне озброєння все ще було недостатнім, і в якості експерименту на декількох літаках кулемет в хвостовій турелі було замінено на 20-мм гармату, але в серійний випуск такий варіант не пішов. Серійним став варіант Ki-48-IIc — подальший розвиток Ki-48-IIa, який випускався з 1943 року. На ньому було встановлене посилене стрілецьке озброєння (12,7-мм кулемет у верхній вогневій установці, додатковий 7,92-мм кулемет у вікні з правого борту). Варіант Ki-48-IId, який випускався з 1944 року, мав удосконалене бортове обладнання. Всього до жовтня 1944 року, коли було припинено виробництво, було виготовлено 1 411 літаків модифікації Ki-48-II.

На завершальному етапі війни вцілілі Ki-48 переобладнували для атак камікадзе. Літак, який отримав позначення «Спеціальний армійський штурмовик Тип 99» (або Ki-48-II KAI). З нього знімалось все захисне озброєння та зайве обладнання, а система управління, розрахована на двох льотчиків, перероблялась на одиночне управління. Літак ніс 800-кг бомбу.

На базі Ki-48 були розроблені проекти сильноброньованого важкоозброєного літака Ki-81 та одномісного штурмовика Ki-174, але вони реалізовані не були. У 1944 році 4 літаки Ki-48-IIb були переобладнані для випробувань керованої бомби Kawasaki Ki-148 Igo-1-B. Також один з Ki-48-II було перероблено як експеримент у реактивний Ne-0, для цього дверцята бомбового відділення було забрано, і реактивний двигун був підвішений під фюзеляжем [1] .

Технічні характеристики Редагувати

Ki-48-I Ki-48-IIa Ki-48-IIc
Екіпаж 4 особи 4 особи 4 особи
Довжина 12,60 м 12,75 м 12,75 м
Висота 3,80 м 3,80 м 3,80 м
Розмах крил 17,47 м 17,45 м 17,45 м
Площа крил 40,00 м 2 40,00 м 2 40,00 м 2
Маса пустого 4 050 кг 4 550 кг 4 650 кг
Маса спорядженого 5 900 кг 6 500 кг 6 500 кг
Максимальна злітна маса 6 050 кг 6 750 кг 6 750 кг
Навантаження на крило 147,5 кг/м 2 162,5 кг/м 2 162,5 кг/м 2
Двигуни 2 х Nakajima Ha-25 2 х Nakajima Ha-115 2 х Nakajima Ha-115
Потужність 2 x 950 к. с. 2 x 1150 к. с. 2 x 1150 к. с.
Питома потужність 2.95 кг/к. с. 2.9 кг/к. с. 2.9 кг/к. с.
Максимальна швидкість 480 км/год 505 км/год 485 км/год
Крейсерська швидкість 350 км/год 390 км/год -
Дальність польоту (операційна) 1 980 км 2 050 км -
Максимальна дальність польоту 2 400 км 2 400 км 2 400 км
Практична стеля 9 500 м 10 100 м 10 000 м
Швидкість підйому на 5000 м — 9 хв. на 5000 м — 8 хв. 30 с. на 5000 м — 9 хв. 30 с.

Озброєння Редагувати

  • Ki-48-I, -IIa, -IIb, -IId: 3 х 7,7-мм кулемети «тип 89» (в турелях в хвості, в носі і знизу літака)
  • Ki-48-IIc: 3 х 7,7-мм кулемети «тип 89» (два в носі і один знизу літака) і 1 x 12,7мм кулемет «тип 1» в хвості літака
  • Ki-48-I: нормальна — 300 кг, максимальна — 400 кг
  • Ki-48-II: нормальна — 400 кг, максимальна — 800 кг
  • Ki-48 — прототип, оснащений двигунами Nakajima Ha 25
  • Ki-48-Ia — перший серійний варіант
  • Ki-48-Ib — покращений варіант Ki-48-Ia зі збільшеним бомбовим навантаженням
  • Ki-48-II — прототип другої модифікації
  • Ki-48-IIa — оснащений двигунами Nakajima Ha 115, встановлене додаткове захисне озброєння, бомбове навантаження зросло до 800 кг
  • Ki-48-IIb — варіант пікіруючого бомбардувальника
  • Ki-48-IIc — посилене захисне озброєння
  • Ki-48-IId — покращений варіант Ki-48-IIc
  • Ki-48-II KAI — переобладнаний варіант для атак камікадзе
  • Ki-81 — проект важкоозброєного літака реалізований не був
  • Ki-174 — проект одномісного штурмовика реалізований не був

Всього на заводі Kawasaki в Ґіфу було випущено 1977 літаків всіх модифікацій [1] :

  • 4 прототипи Ki-48 (1939)
  • 5 передсерійних Ki-48-I (1940)
  • 557 Ki-48-I (липень 1940 — червень 1942)
  • 3 прототипи Ki-48-II (лютий 1942)
  • 1408 Ki-48-II (квітень 1942 — жовтень 1944)

Друга світова війна Редагувати

Уперше літаки Ki-48 були використані у 1940 році у Північному Китаї, де, не маючи серйозного опору з боку китайської авіації, завдяки своїй швидкості, проявили себе досить непогано. Загалом до початку війни з США сім авіазагонів було повністю забезпечнено Ki-48: 2 на Формозі, 2 в Маньчжурії, 2 в Індокитаї і 1 на Курилах. [2]

З початком війни на Тихому океані Ki-48 в складі 8-го і 16-го авіазагону перекинули на Філіппінах, де діяли проти американців. Частини, розміщені в Індокитаї (75-й і 90-й авіазагони), забезпечували десантні операції в Малайї та голландській Ост-Індії. У січні 1942 року ці частини перекинули в Бірму. На цих фронтах, зіткнувшись із сучасними англійськими та американськими винищувачами, Ki-48-I зазнали відчутних втрат через слабке озброєння і вісутність захисту паливних баків і екіпажу. Швидкість теж була недостатьною, щоб втекти від винищувачів. На Бірму було перекинено ще 16-й авіазагін. Щоб знизити втрати, вони стали використовуватись як нічні бомбардувальники, що ще більше знизило їх ефективність, яка й так була невисока через невелике бомбове навантаження.

Восени 1942 року в частини надійшла нова модифікація Ki-48-II, яка була більш захищена, мала більшу швидкість та краще захисне озброєння. Максимальне бомбове навантаження було збільшене вдвічі, проте все ще залишалось порівняно малим. Першими частинами стали 34-й і 35-й загін, які переозброювались в Пномпені і воювали в Бірмі. В лютому-березні 1943 з Маньчжурії було переведено 45-й і 208, які розмістились в Рабаулі. У 1943 році Ki-48-II цих частин, в тому числі варіант пікіруючого бомбардувальника Ki-48-IIb, діяли в Новій Гвінеї, де зазнавали серйозних втрат, зокрема велика кількість машин була знищена внаслідок нальотів союзників на аеродроми. Пізніше частини, які використовували ці літаки, були розформовані. [1]

У Китаї діяли 6-й, 16-й і 90-й авіазагони, які, зокрема брали участь в нальотах на Куньмін, але інтенсивність була не надто високою, оскільки пріорітетними були інші фронти. Коли у 1944 році в Індію прибули бомбардувальники B-29, літаки Ki-48 8-го і 35-го авіазагону, розміщені в Бірмі, стали залучатись до нальотів на авіабази американських літаків. Але з часом союзникам вдалось налагодити ППО, і бойові частини японців втратили більшість Ki-48.

У середині 1944 року значна кількість літаків Ki-48 була зосереджена на Філіппінах (12, 75 і 208-й авіазагони). Більшість із них була втрачена 24 жовтня 1944 року в атаці на американський флот вторгнення. Їм на допомогу перекинули літаки з Курил та Китаю, але й вони загинули, намагаючись зупинити наступ американців [2] .

Після втрати Філіппін Ki-48 зрідка зустрічались лише у Бірмі та Індокитаї. Навесні 1945 року вцілілі Ki-48 використовувались для атак камікадзе в битві за Окінаву [1] .

Післявоєнне використання Редагувати

Після закінчення війни декілька десятків Ki-48, захоплених в Нанкіні, Пекіні та Ханькоу, увійшли до складу ВПС Китаю. Декілька Ki-48 були захоплені також гоміньданівськими військами.


The cause of Kawasaki disease (KD) is unknown. The disease results when cells move into the tissues and buildup there, leading to vascular damage, but what causes the cell buildup in the first place is unknown. The body's response to a virus or infection combined with genetic factors may cause the disease. However, no specific virus or infection has been identified, and the role of genetics is not well understood. [2] [4]

Genetic factors appear to be important to this disorder, as suggested by the increased frequency of the disease in Asian and Asian-American populations and among family members of an affected child. A number of gene variants ( polymorphisms ) are associated with an increased risk of developing ( susceptibility ) KD, and some of these variants are also associated with coronary artery lesions and aneurysm formation.[12298]

Other theories suggest that the disease is caused by a response from the body's immune system . [5]

KD is not contagious it cannot be passed from one person to another. [2] Other risk factors include being a male gender, being between six months and five years of age, and having a family history of KD. [5]


Mask Up! Help slow the spread of COVID-19 while raising KD Awareness.

Gregory ChinKDF Founder & President

The Kawasaki Disease Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. The Foundation’s tax exemption number and federal tax ID are 17053137024021 and 04-3536123, respectively. KDF is supported by donations and volunteers. We have no paid staff, and our operating costs are minimal. Your generous contributions will go directly to support programs that can make an impact on the lives of many families and children.


Avioane supraviețuitoare

Doar un Ki-45 KAIc rămâne astăzi. A fost unul dintre cele 145 de avioane japoneze aduse în Statele Unite la bordul USS Barnes pentru evaluare după al doilea război mondial. A fost supus unei revizii la Middletown Air Depot , Pennsylvania, și a fost testat la Wright Field , Ohio și la Naval Air Station Anacostia din Washington, DC. În Statele Unite Forțele Aeriene ale Armatei a donat Toryu la Institutul Smithsonian din iunie 1946. Fuselajul este în prezent numai pe ecran la Steven F. Udvar-Hazy , alături de un Nakajima J1N și Aichi M6A .


Історія використання [ ред. | ред. код ]

Перші Ki-45-KAIa надійшли до 5-го авіазагону ППО, що базувався в Касіва (Тіба) в вересні 1942 року, але в бій першими вступили Ki-45 21-го авіазагону в Бірмі і 16-го авіазагону в Китаї, які почали використовуватись у бойових діях у жовтні і листопаді відповідно. Потужне озброєння і захищені паливні баки дозволяли використовувати літак не лише як засіб ППО, а також для атак наземних і морських цілей. Для таких цілей і була розроблена модифікація Ki-45-KAIb.

Літаки моделі Ki-45-KAIb активно використовувались у Новій Гвінеї проти американських патрульних човнів.

Коли США почали здійснювати бомбардувальні нальоти на Японію, Ki-45-KAIc почали активно діяти як нічні винищувачі протиповітряної оборони. Зокрема в першій місії з використанням Ki-45-KAIc по захисту японських островів, японські пілоти доповіли про вісім збитих B-29. В обороні активно діяли літаки 4, 5, 45, 53 і 70 авіазагонів Ώ] .


Post by Robert Hurst » 28 Jul 2003, 16:12

The ease of piloting and good handling characteristics of the Ki-36 combined with good performance rendered it ideally suited for adaptation to the advanced training role. All unnecessary equipment was removed to conserve weight, as were the observation windows under the fuselage and wheel spats. Designated Ki-55, the trainer was adopted as the Army Type 99 Advanced Trainer and was manufactured in large numbers by Tachikawa and Kawasaki. In the normal flight training syllabus, Army single-engined pilots received their wings after flying the Ki-55 solo, and the aircraft was operated by civil flying schools operating under military contracts as well as by regular Army Flying Schools. Ki-55s were also delivered to the wartime Japanese satellite air forces of Thailand, Manchukuo and Cochin China, while three aircraft of this type abandoned on Java by the Japanese were flown against the Dutch by the revolutionary Indonesian Air Force.

During the last year of the war a number of Ki-55s, similarly code named 'Ida' by the Allies, were expended in suicide sorties for which they carried externally a single 250 kg or 500 kg (551 lb or 1,102 lb) bomb.

Kumagaya, Mito, Tachhiarai and Utsonomiya Army Flying Schools.

Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki KK (Tachikawa Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined advanced trainer.
Crew (2): Pilot and Instructor in tandem enclosed cockpits.
Powerplant: One 450 hp Army Type 98) Hitachi Ha-13a) nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: One forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-gun in the engine cowling Bomb-load suicide mission one 250 or 500 kg (551 or 1,102 lb) bomb.
Dimensions: Span 11.8 m (38 ft 8 9/16 in) length 8 m (26 ft 2 31/32 in) height 3.64 m (11 ft 11 5/16 in) wing area 20 sq m (215.277 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,292 kg (2,848 lb) loaded 1,721 kg (3,794 lb) wing loading 86.1 kg/sq m (17.6 lb/sq ft) power loading3.4 kg/hp (7.4 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 349 km/h (217 mph) at 2,200 m (7,220 ft) crusing speed 235 km/h (146 mph) climb to 3,000 m (9,845 ft) in 6 min 55 sec service ceiling 8,200 m (26,900 ft) range 1,060 km (659 miles).
Production: A total of 1,389 Ki-55s were built by Tachikawa Hikoki KK and Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK as follows:

Tachikawa Hikoki KK at Tachikawa:

1 Ki-55 prototype - September 1939
1,077 Ki-55 production aircraft - October 1939-April 1943 and November-December 1943

Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK at Gifu:

251 Ki-55 production aircraft - February 1941-March 1943

Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK at Akashi:

60 Ki-55 production aircraft - September 1941-November 1942

The top photo was taken from the Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, by David Donald, and the bottom photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Post by Robert Hurst » 29 Jul 2003, 12:43

To Allied aircrews the Ki-46 'Dinah' was known as the aircraft with the nice 'linah'. Indeed the the Ki-46 had probably the most graceful lines of any fighting aircraft of the Second World War. Cleanly designed, reliable and fast, this aircraft performed its unspectacular tasks of high-altitude reconnaissance with considerable success from the first unauthorised overflight of Malaya before the Japanese invasion of that country to the surveillance flights over the US 20th Air Force's bases in the Marianas during the closing stages of the war. Respected by its foes and trusted by its crews, the Ki-46 also captured the attention of the Luftwaffe which fruitlessly negotiated the acquisition of a manufacturing licence under the Japanese-German Technical Exchange Programme.

Because of the geographical location of Japan and the vastness of the area in which a potential conflict requiring their participation would be fought, the Imperial Japanese Army had a constant requirement for reconnaissance aircraft combining high speed with substantial range performance. In 1937, while it appeared that the immediate requirements were going to be met by the Mitsubishi Ki-15, Maj. Fujita and Engineers Tanaka and Endo of the Technical Branch of the Koku Hombu set out to draw the preliminary specifications for its successor. On 12 December, 1937, the Koku Hombu issued to Mitsubishi a specification calling for a long-range photographic and visual reconnaissance aircraft which would possess a performance sufficient to complete its missions without being intercepted. Required endurance was six hours at a speed of 400 km/h (249 mph) between 4,000 and 6,000 m (13,125 and 19,685 ft) and maximum speed was to be 600 km/h (373 mph) at 4,000 m (13,125 ft). One flexible rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-gun had to be provided but Mitsubishi had the choice of single- or twin-engined configuration using either the 790 hp Nakajima Ha-20b, the 950 hp Nakajima Ha-25 or the 850 hp Mitsubishi Ha-26, and to meet the stringent range and speed specifications the design team was freed from all other usual requirements.

The top photo was taken from The Concise Guide to of Axis Aircraft of World War II, by David Mondey. The middle and bottom photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Post by Robert Hurst » 29 Jul 2003, 13:04

When Tomio Kubo began preliminary design studies for the Ki-46 he was able to call on the experience recently acquired by Mitsubishi in designing the Ki-39, a twin-engined two-seat long-range fighter competing with the Kawasaki Ki-38, and the Ki-40, a projected reconnaissance aircraft derived from the Ki-39. Furthermore, he obtained the co-operation of the Aeronautical Research Institute of the University of Tokyo which developed close-fitting cowlings for the two Mitsubishi Ha-26 fourteen-cylinder radials, with resultant improvement in pilot's sideways vision and a reduction in drag, and which also contributed to the design of the fully retractable landing gear selected for the aircraft. To meet the stringent performance requirements Tomio Kubo adopted a thin wing section and a fuselage of small diameter in which a large fuel tank was mounted close to the aircraft's centre of gravity. The pilot and radio-operator/gunner were seated in two cockpits separated by the fuselage fuel tank. Design and construction of the first prototype progressed slowly as it was found necessary to conduct extensive wind-tunnel tests in the facilities of the Aeronautical Research Institute of the University of Tokyo, and the aircraft was not completed at Mitsubishi's Nagoya plant until early November 1939.

With Maj. Fugita - whose efforts had resulted in the issuance of the Ki-46 specification - at the controls, the first flight took place in late November at Kagamigahara, Gifu Prefecture, north of Nagoya. Powered by two Mitsubishi Ha-26-I engines with a military rating of 780 hp for take-off and
900 hp at 3,600 m (11,810 ft) and driving three-blade constant-speed propellers, the prototype performed satisfactorily. However, when performance trials began, it soon became evident that the Ki-46 failed by some 64.3 km/h(40 mph) to reach its design speed, a maximum of 540 km/h (335.5 mph) at 4,000 m (13,125 ft) being registered. Despite this failure to meet the speed requirement, the Ki-46 was received enthusiastically by the Army as it was still faster than the Ki-43-I, their newest fighter then about to be delivered, as well as being faster than the A6M2 fighter of their rival, the Navy, and production of an initial batch of identical aircraft was authorised under the designation Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 1 (Ki-46-I).

The photos were all taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Post by Robert Hurst » 30 Jul 2003, 12:03

The following colour drawings were taken from The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II, by David Mondey.

Post by Robert Hurst » 30 Jul 2003, 12:04

While testing of the Ki-46 was going on, the engine plant of Mitsubishi had under development an advanced version of the Ha-26-I engine, the Ha-102, with two-speed supercharger which was expected to boost take-off rating to 1,080 hp and military rating to 1,055 hp at 2,800 m (9,185 ft) without an increase in overall diameter. With this powerplant it was anticipated that the Ki-46 could easily meet its speed requirement and consequently Mitsubishi were instructed to proceed with the design of the Ki-46-II to be powered by a pair of Ha-102s. Pending availability of this version, the pre-production Ki-46-Is were issued to the Shimoshizu Rikugun Hikogakuko (Shimoshizo Army Flying School) for pilot training and to an experimental unit for intensive Service evaluation. During the following months minor problems arose and ground crews complained that the aircraft, considerably more complex than the Ki-15 it replaced, was difficult to maintain in the field. Vapour locks occurred frequently under hot and humid weather conditions and special tests had to be conducted on Formosa during June 1940, using a Ki-46-I, and in June 1941 with a Ki-46-II, to locate the cause. A change from 87-octane to 92-octane fuel and relocation of the fuel lines around the engines corrected the condition. Pilots complained that oil was overheating during the long climb to cruising altitude, necessitating a slower rate of climb, that ailerons responded slowly and rudder was ineffective, and also that the oxygen system was unreliable during long flights. But the most serious problem was that effecting the undercarriage, which due to the aircraft's high rate of sink, often collapsed on landing. Despite the use of a stronger auxiliary rear strut, the landng gear suffered from chronic weakness throughout the operational life of the aircraft. However, as these difficulties rendered the Ki-46 neither difficult nor unsafe to fly, its production was accelerated and constant modifications finally overcame the major difficulties.

The first Ha-102 powered Ki-46-II was completed in March 1941 and early in its flight trials reached a speed of 604 km/h (375 mph) at 5,800 m (19,030 ft), thus slightly exceeding the maximum speed initially specified. As the Ki-46-II had an identical airframe to that of the earlier Ki-46-I, flight tests progressed smoothly and, as fast as the production rate allowed, the aircraft was delivered, starting in July 1941, to the 18th, 50th, 51st, 70th, 74th, 76th and 81st Dokuritsu Dai Shijugo Chutais in Manchuria and China. Its high speed enabled the Ki-46-II to avoid interception by the few fighters then available to the Chinese Air Force, and the Japanese crews took advantage of the situation to familiarise themselves with their new mount. With the war against the Allies about to begin, a unit of Ki-46-IIs was moved to French Indo-China and , on 20 and 22 October 1941, its commanding officer, Capt. Okeda, reconnoitred the area selected by the Japanese High Command for the planned amphibious landings in Thailand and Malaya. When hostilities finally broke out, the Ki-46 units were deployed in small detachments to cover the entire Southeast Asia area. The Army Type 100 Command Reconniassance Planes were able to perform their missions with almost complete freedom from interception as, without the benefit of ground control radar to guide them, the Allied squadron's obsolescent fighters failed to reach the elusive Japanese aircraft in time. This ability attracted the attention of the Japanese Navy which negotiated the acquisition of a small number of the type. Some of the Ki-46s operated by that Service flew regular missions over Northern Australia from their bases on Timor, while the aircraft of the Japanese Army operated as far west as the Bay of Bengal.

The two photos and the line drawing were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Post by Robert Hurst » 30 Jul 2003, 12:32

When the USAAF deployed P-38F Lightnings to the Pacific and the RAAF received some Spitfire Vs for the defence of Darwin, the losses suffered by Ki-46-II units began to mount. Fortunately for the Japanese, the Koku Hombu had anticipated this situation and in May 1942 had instructed Mitsubishi to install their new Ha-112-II engine with a military rating of 1,500 hp fpr take-off and 1,250 hp at 5,800 m (19,030 ft) in an improved version of the aircraft, the Ki-46-III, to increase maximum speed to 650 km/h (404 mph) and an endurance by one hour. To meet the requirements for increased flight duration, despite the higher fuel consumption of the new engines, it was necessary to redesign the fuel system and add a fuselage fuel tank in front of the pilot with a resultant increase in total capacity from 1,675 litres (365 Imp gal) to 1,895 litres (417 Imp gal). Provision was also made for a ventral drop tank containing an additional 460 litres (101.2 Imp gal). The engine nacelles were also slightly enlarged to accommodate the Ha-112-II, a development of the earlier Ha-102 fitted with direct fuel injection system. The landing gear was strengthened to cope with the increased weight and no provision was made for the single flexible machine-gun which, though installed on earlier models at the factory, had often been dispensed with in the field. However, the most significant change in external appearance was the redesign of the forward fuselage to provide a new canopy over the pilot's seat without the step between the nose and the top of the fuselage which had characterised the earlier versions of the aircraft.

Completed in December 1942, two Ki-46-III prototypes underwent accelerated flight trials leading to a production order under the designation Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 3. Both the Ki-46-II, which remained in production until late in 1944, and the Ki-46-III were built at the Nagoya plant. However, when in December 1944 this plant was severely damaged by an earthquake and suffered further from the pounding inflicted by B-29s of the US 20th Air Force, production was transferred to a new plant at Toyama where only about one hundred machines were built. Late production Ki-46-IIIs coming off the Nagoya and Toyama lines were fitted with individual exhaust stacks providing some thrust augmentation and had slightly better speed and range.

Priority in delivery of the Ki-46-IIIs was given to units operating in areas where Allied forces had achieved air superiority, but often they operated alongside the older Ki-46-IIs which they never completely supplanted. Once maintenance problems with the fuel injection system of their Ha-112-IIs had been solved, the Ki-46-IIIs, benefitting from markedly improved performance between 8,000 and 10,000 m (26,250 and 32,810 ft), proved to be a thorn in the Allies' side and only the faster climbing fighters under radar control could successfully intercept the fast Japanese machines which kept constant watch over such well defended bases as the B-29 airfields in the Marianas. However, as the war drew to its end, The Ki-46 Dinah was no longer free from interception and losses rose alarmingly.

The colour drawing was taken from The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II, by David Mondey. The middle photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon, and the bottom photo was taken from Weapons and Warfare Pt 77.

Post by Robert Hurst » 30 Jul 2003, 15:55

As the production of the Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 3 gained tempo, a small number of of the earlier Model 2s were modified as three-seat radio-navigation trainers. Distinguished by a stepped-up cockpit behind the pilot's seat, these aircraft were designated Army Type 100 Operations Trainer (Ki-46-II KAI) and served with the Shimoshizu Rikugun Hikogakuko (Shimoshizu Army Flying School).

A high-altitude interceptor fighter veresion of the Ki-46-III was developed by the Rikugun Kokugijutsu Kenkyujo (Army Aerotechnical Research Institute) as a stopgap pending production of specialised aircraft. Initially studies for this aircraft began in June 1943 and its development was oursued actively from May 1944 onwards. A modification programme was initiated at the Tachikawa Dai-Ichi Rikugun Kokusho (First Army Air Arsenal) at Tachikawa where the photographic equipment of the standard Ki-46-III was removed. Modifications also included the redesign of the nose to provide space for two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon and the
replacement of the top centre fuselage fuel tank by an obliquely mounted forward-firing 37 mm (1.46 in) Ho-203 cannon. The first Army Type 100 Air Defence Fighter (Ki-46-III KAI) was completed in October 1944 and, a month later, aircraft of this type were issued to various units operating in the defence of Japan. Operational results were disappointing as the Ki-46-III KAIs did not have the climbing speed required for an interceptor, but further developments of this variant resulted in the Army Type 100 Assault Plane (Ki-46-IIIb), of which only a few were built, this version was similar to the Ki-46-III KAI apart from the deletion of the Ho-203 cannon, and the Ki-46-IIIc which remained on the drawing board.

The colour drawing was taken from The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II, by David Mondey. The two photos were taken from Warplanes of The Second World War Fighters: Vol 3, by William Green.

Post by Robert Hurst » 31 Jul 2003, 13:18

Retaining the Ki-46-III airframe but powered by two Ha-112-II Ru engines rated at 1,500 hp for take-off, and fitted with exhaust-driven turbosuperchargers, four Ki-46-IV prototypes were built in 1943-44. With a military rating of 1,250 hp at 7,400 m (24,280 ft) and 1,100 hp at 10,200 m (33,465 ft), the Ha-112-II Ru gave the aircraft superior performance at altitude. Compared with the Ki-46-III, the Ki-46-IV differed by the installation, in the lower rear portion of the engine nacelles, of turbosuperchargers, the intake air being methanol-cooled as space restriction prevented the use of an intercooler, and by an increase in internal fuel capacity to 1,977 litres (453 Imp gal). Tests began in February 1944, but difficulties with the turbosupercharging system delayed the production of the Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 4A (Ki-46-IVa) and its fighter version, the Ki-46-IVb with nose-mounted cannon, both aircraft being finally deleted from the production priority list.

While the Ki-46-IIs and -IIIs operated until the end of the war, two Ki-46-IVs demonstrated in February 1945 that the Dinah was still one of the best reconnaissance aircraft of the time by covering, with the help of strong tailwinds, 2,301 km (1,430 miles) at an average speed of 700 km/h (435 mph).

(Army Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Plane): 2nd, 8th, 10th, 15th, 38th, 81st, 82nd and 88th Sentais 17th, 18th, 19th, 50th, 55th, 63rd, 70th, 74th, 76th, 81st and 85th Dokuritsu Dai Shijugo Chutai 38th Dokuritsu Hikotai Shimoshizu Rikugun Hikogakuko (Shimoshizu Army Flying School) and Tokorozawa Rikugun Koku Seibigakuko (Tokorozawa Army Air Maintenance School).

(Army Type 100 Air Defence Fighter): 28th and 106th Sentais 4th, 16th, 81st, 82nd and 83rd Dokuritsu Dai Shijugo Chutais and 16th Dokuritsu Hikotai.

Manufacturer: Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co Ltd).
Type: (Ki-46-I to Ki-46-IV) Twin-engined reconnaissance aircraft (Ki-46-II KAI) operational trainer (Ki-46-III KAI) interceptor fighter and (Ki-46-IIIb, -IIIc and -IVb) ground attacke fighter.
Crew (2): Pilot and radio-operator/gunner in enclosed cockpits, except (Ki-46-II KAI) as a bove plus one student.
Powerplant: (Ki-46-I) Two 900 hp Army Type 99 Model I (Mitsubishi Ha-26-I) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving three-blade constant-speed metal propellers. (Ki-46-II and -II KAI) Two 1,050 hp Army Type I (Mitsubishi Ha-102) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving three-blade constant speed metal propellers. (Ki-46-IIIa, -IIIb, -IIIc and -III KAI) Two Army Type 4 (Mitsubishi Ha-112-II) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving three-blade constant-speed metal propellers. Ki-46-IVa and -IVb) Two Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving three-blade conctant-speed metal propellers.
Armament: (Ki-46-I and -II) One 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 rear-firing flexible machine-gun. (Ki-46-III KAI) One 37 mm (1.46 in) Ho-203 cannon obliquely mounted in the fuselage and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon in the nose. (Ki-46-IIIb, -IIIc and -IVb) Two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon in the nose.
Dimensions: Span (Ki-46-I, -II, -III, -III KAI & -IVa) 14.7 m (48 ft 2 3/4 in) length ( Ki-46-1, -II, -III, & IVa) 11 m (36 ft 1 1/16 in) length (Ki-46-III KAI) 11.485 M (37 FT 8 3/16 IN) height (Ki-46-1, -II, -III, -III KAI & IVa) 3.88 m (12 ft 8 3/4 in) wing area (Ki-46-I, -II, -III, -III KAI & -IVa) 32 sq m (344.444 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (Ki-46-1) 3,379 kg (7,449 lb) (Ki-46-II) 3,263 kg (7,449 lb) (Ki-46-III & -III KAI) 3,831 kg (8,446 lb) (Ki-46-IVa) 4,010 kg (8,840 lb) loaded (Ki-46-I) 4,822 kg (10,631 lb) Ki-46-II) 5,050 kg (11,133 lb) (Ki-46-III) 5,722 kg (12,619 lb) (Ki-46-III KAI) 6,228 kg (13,730 lb) (Ki-46-IVa) 5,900 kg (13,007 lb) Maximum (Ki-46-II) 5,800 kg (12,787 lb) (Ki-46-III & -IVa) 6,500 kg (14,330 lb) wing loading (Ki-46-I) 150.7 kg/sq m (30.9 lb/sq ft) (Ki-46-II) 157.8 kg/sq m (32.3 lb/sq ft) (Ki-46-III) 178.8 kg/sq m ((36.6 lb/sq ft) (Ki-46-III KAI) 194.6 kg/sq m (39.9 lb/sq ft) (Ki-46-IVa) 184.4 kg/sq m (37.8 lb/sq ft) power loading (Ki-46-I) 3.1 kg/hp (6.8 lb/hp) (Ki-46-II) 2.3 kg/hp (5.1 lb/hp) (Ki-46-III & IVa) 2 kg/hp (4.4 lb/hp) (Ki-46-III KAI) 2.1 kg/hp (4.6 lb/hp).
Performance: (Ki-46-I) 540 km/h (335.5 mph) at 4,070 m (13,350 ft) Ki-46-II) 604 km/h (375 mph) at 5,800 m (19,030 ft) Ki-46-III, III KAI & IVa) 630 km/h (391 mph) at 6,000 m (19,685 ft) cruising speed (Ki-46-II) 400 km/h (249 mph) at 4,000 m (13,125 ft) (Ki-46-IVa) 450 km/hr (280 mph) at 4,000 m (13,125 ft) climb to (Ki-46-I) 5,000 m (16,405 ft) in 7 min 45 sec (Ki-46-II) 8,000 m (26,250 ft) in 17 min 58 sec (Ki-46-III) 8,000 m (26,250 ft) in 20 min 15 sec (Ki-46-III KAI) 8,000 m (26,250 ft) in 19 min (Ki-46-IVa) 10,000 m (32,810 ft) in 16 min 30 sec service ceiling (Ki-46-I) 10,830 m (35,530 ft) (Ki-46-II) 10,720 m (35,170 ft) (Ki-46-III & III KAI) 10,500 m (34,450 ft) (Ki-46-IVa) 11,000 m (36,090 ft) range (Ki-46-I) 2,100 km (1,305 miles) (Ki-46-II) 2,474 km (1,537 miles) (Ki-46-III & -IVa) 4,000 km (2,485 miles) (Ki-46-III KAI) 2,000 km (1,243 miles) plus 1 hr combat.
Production: A total of 1,742 Ki-46s were built by Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK in their Nagoya and Toyama plants as follows:

34 Ki-46 prototypes and Ki-46-I production aircraft - 1939-1940
1,093 Ki-46-II production aircraft - 1940-1944
2 Ki-46-III prototypes - 1942
609 Ki-46-III production aircraft, including fighter conversions - 1942-1945
4 Ki-46-IV prototypes - 1943-1944

The colour drawing was taken from The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II, by David Mondey, and the two photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.


The E-series, which offers energy savings through improvements of propulsion efficiency, ease of onboard maintenance, and environmentally friendly performance, was launched. Four units were ordered, which will be installed onto tugboats to be operated by China's Port of Tianjin, and the operation will start from the latter half of 2018.

The Rexpeller is an azimuth thruster which rotates the propeller 360-degrees around the vertical axis so the unit generates thrust in any direction horizontally, to act as propulsor and rudder. Tugboats, offshore supply vessels, drill ships, and cable-layers are major beneficiaries, thanks to its superior maneuverability.

Since 1983, when Kawasaki commenced production of the Rexpeller, more than 1,000 units have been delivered. Culmination of Kawasaki’s comprehensive technologies such as fluid-dynamics for marine propellers, hydraulic technology for accurate control, and reduction gears technology for reliable torque transmission are fully incorporated in the design and are working all over the world.

Kawasaki has an excellent delivery record for the Rexpellers for vessels engaged in offshore oil and gas development, such as drillships that use them in the drilling of oil and gas wells, shuttle tankers that transport oil and gas mined from petroleum wells, and platform supply vessels that transport goods to offshore platforms. The growth in market share achieved by Kawasaki is attributable not only to its highly reliable equipment, which operates stably in harsh environments caused by strong winds and tidal currents, but also to Kawasaki’s ability to accommodate the individual requirements of its clients, and achieve made-to-order customization.

In 2018, Kawasaki launched the E-series Rexpeller into the market, and has already been awarded orders for four units. Deemed a model with the potential to become a new international best-seller, high expectations are placed on the E-series as a driver of increased sales.