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Anton Denikin was born in Russia in 1872. He came from a humble background but passed through the General Staff Academy and fought in the Russo-Japanese War.
1. Was a strong supporter of Nicholas II and the autocracy.
2. Did not believe in universal suffrage.
3. Wanted the Russian government to deal harshly with those people demanding political reforms.
4. Thought Russia should support Serbia against the Triple Alliance.
5. Thought Russia should honour its obligations and support the Triple Entente against the Triple Alliance.
6. As the Russian Army was the largest army in the world he was convinced that Russia would defeat Austria-Hungary and Germany in a war.
7. If the Triple Entente defeated the Triple Alliance, Russia would gain control of Posen, Silesia, Galicia, North Bukovina and the Dardanelles.
Anton Ivanovitj Denikin (ryska: Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин), född 16 december 1872, död 8 augusti 1947, var en rysk general och en av ledarna i antibolsjevikiska vita gardet i det ryska inbördeskriget.
Denikin blev officer vid infanteriet 1892 och deltog som kompani- och bataljonschef i rysk-japanska kriget. Han blev överste 1905 och regementschef 1910. Under första världskriget befordrades Denikin snabbt till generallöjtnant och fick i maj 1917 befälet över västra fronten. Häktad av Aleksandr Kerenskij på hösten samma år lyckades han fly till Rostov och trädde under Michail Aleksejevs befäl. Efter Lavr Kornilovs död den 31 mars 1918 övertog han befälet över dennes armé och satte sig så småningom i besittning av större delen av Sydryssland. Under 1919 försökte han samverka med Aleksandr Koltjak men efter dennes nederlag i november samma år tvingades Denikin till återtåg. Hans armé råkade i upplösning och 4 april 1920 överlämnade han befälet till Pjotr Nikolajevisj Wrangel och begav sig till Storbritannien. Senare bodde han i Frankrike och USA, där han avled.
Denikin har författat The Russian Turmoil (1922) och The White Army (1930).
Denikin was born in Szpetal Dolny village, in the Russian province of Poland. The son of a serf, he lived in a state of poverty. He entered the Imperial Russian Army at the age of twenty and served in an artillery brigade for three years.
Denikin first saw active service during the Russo-Japanese War . By the time it was over, he had achieved the rank of colonel. Just a few weeks before the outbreak of the Great War in 1914, he had become a major general.
Initially, Denikin was to be a quartermaster in General Alexey Brusilov's unit, but petitioned for a transfer to the front lines. He was sent to the 4th Rifle Brigade, which eventually evolved into a division.
Following the abdication of Czar Nicholas II, Denikin became chief of staff to Generals Mikhail Alexeev, Brusilov, and finally Lavr Kornilov. Denikin supported Kornilov's failed coup against Russian Prime Minister Aleksandr Kerensky. In September 1917, Denikin and Kornilov were sent to prison. The office of commander-in-chief would pass to Alexeev.
The Russian Federation awarded Anton Denikin with the Orders of St Anne, St Stanislaus, St George, and St Vladimir. He also received commendations from Romania, France, and the United Kingdom.
Anton Denikin married a woman named Xenia Vasilievna Chizh. They had a daughter named Marina Antonovna Denikina. She went on to become a writer and journalist. She wrote a book about her father, titled My Father is General Denikin.
Anton Denikin in 1914 - History
General Anton Denikin led the White Army in its fight back against the 1917 Bolshevik revolution leaders.
His remains and those of philosopher Ivan Ilyin, and their wives, were transferred from their graves in the US and Switzerland for the ceremony.
They were buried with full military honours at Moscow's Donskoi monastery.
The leader of the Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarch Alexei II, praised the reburials as a sign that divisions within Russian society caused by the 1917 revolution were at last being bridged.
"Today's ceremony testifies to the unification of our people, divided by the tragic history of the last century," he said.
Film director Nikita Mikhalkov, who heads the Russian Cultural Foundation, said the reburial marked the "beginning of bringing the horrible civil war to an end".
Gen Denikin fought under Tsar Nicholas II in World War I.
During the bloody civil war that followed the revolution, he was one of the leaders of the White Russian forces, anti-communist conservatives with backing from Britain, France and the US.
Their attacks against Leon Trotsky's Red Army were rebuffed and the Whites were driven back to the Black Sea, the Baltic and the Pacific - causing hundreds of thousands of White soldiers and civilians to emigrate.
Gen Denikin fled to Europe and died in exile in the United States in 1947.
"The last words of my father in the American hospital were 'I will not live to see Russia free'," Spanish news agency Efe quoted the general's daughter Marina Denikina as saying. She attended the ceremony on Monday.
Born Dec. 4 (16), 1872, near Warsaw died Aug. 8, 1947, in Ann Arbor, Mich. One of the main leaders of the all-Russian counterrevolution during the Civil War (1918-20) lieutenant general (1916). Born into the family of an officer.
Denikin graduated from the Kiev Infantry Junker School (1892) and the Academy of the General Staff (1899). During World War I he commanded a brigade, a division, and from the autumn of 1916 the 8th Army Corps on the Rumanian front. In April-May 1917 he was chief of staff of the supreme commander in chief and then commanded the troops of the western and southwestern fronts. He was an active participant in the Kornilovshchina. On Nov. 19 (Dec. 2), 1917, along with L. G. Kornilov, he fled from the Bykhov prison to the Don River, where he took part in the creation of the Volunteer Army, which he headed after Kornilov&rsquos death on Apr. 13, 1918. In the autumn of 1918, with the aid of the Entente, Denikin became commander in chief of the counterrevolutionary Armed Forces of the South of Russia and Admiral A. V. Kolchak&rsquos deputy supreme ruler of Russia. In the summer and autumn of 1919 he led a campaign on Moscow. After the White Guards were routed in March 1920, Denikin and the remnants of the army evacuated to the Crimea. There on April 4 he turned over the command to General P. N. Wrangel and departed on an English destroyer for Constantinople.
In his political views he sympathized with the Constitutional Democrats (Cadets) and supported a bourgeois parliamentary republic. Although he remained an enemy of Soviet Power to the end of his life, in 1939 he appealed to White emigres not to support fascist Germany in the event that it fought a war against the USSR. He is the author of memoirs on the Civil War (Essays on the Russian Disturbances, vols. 1-5, Paris, Berlin, 1921-26 in an abridged version, The Campaign on Moscow, Moscow, 1928).
Anton Ivanovitš Denikin (ven. Антон Иванович Деникин , 16. joulukuuta (J: 4. joulukuuta) 1872 Wloclawek, Varsovan kuvermentti, Venäjä – 8. elokuuta 1947 Ann Arbor, Yhdysvallat) oli venäläinen kenraali, Venäjän sisällissodassa toimineen sadan tuhannen miehen Etelä-Venäjän valkoisen armeijan komentaja vuosina 1918–1919.
Denikin opiskeli Kiovan sotakoulussa ja yleisesikunta-akatemiassa. Hän osallistui Venäjän-Japanin sotaan 1904–1905. Ensimmäiseen maailmansotaan hän lähti kenraalimajurina ja toimi sodan alussa prikaatinkomentajana Karpaateilla ja Galitsiassa.
Vuonna 1916 hänet nimitettiin VII armeijakunnan komentajaksi. Vuoden 1917 syyskuussa hän osallistui kenraali Lavr Kornilovin epäonnistuneeseen vallankaappaushankkeeseen Aleksandr Kerenskiä vastaan, joka oli elokuusta 1917 toiminut diktatorisena hallitsijana Venäjän väliaikaisen hallituksen antamin valtuuksin. Denikin pidätettiin yhdessä Kornilovin kanssa. Marraskuussa 1917 tapahtuneen kansankomissaarien lokakuun vallankumouksen jälkeen Denikin ja Kornilov onnistuivat pakenemaan Etelä-Venäjälle, jossa liittyivät kenraali Mihail Aleksejevin vastavallankumouksellisiin.
Etelä-Venäjän armeijan komentajana Denikin onnistui karkottamaan bolševikit Ukrainasta ja lähti sitten etenemään pohjoiseen kohti Moskovaa. Hyökkäys lähti hyvin liikkeelle, mutta puna-armeija onnistui kuitenkin pysäyttämään Denikinin Orjolissa ja lyömään hänen joukkonsa, koska valkoinen armeija joutui keskittämään voimiaan etelään Nestor Mahnoa vastaan.
Vuonna 1920 Denikin erosi valkoisesta armeijasta, luovutti komentajuuden Pjotr Wrangelille ja pakeni Krimiltä laivalla Mustanmeren yli Istanbuliin. Denikin sai turvapaikan Englannista, jossa hän asui kaksi kuukautta. Myöhemmin hän asettui asumaan Belgiaan, sitten Unkariin, vuodesta 1926 hän asui Ranskassa ja vuodesta 1945 New Yorkissa Yhdysvalloissa.
Denikin kuoli sydänkohtaukseen 8. elokuuta 1947 lomamatkalla Ann Arborissa Michiganissa.
Denikin haudattiin sotilaallisin menoihin Detroitissa. Hänen jäännöksensä siirrettiin Pyhän Vladimirin hautausmaalle Jacksoniin, New Jerseyiin. Denkinin puoliso Ksenia haudattiin (1892-1973) Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois’n venäläiselle hautausmaalle lähelle Pariisia.
Denkinin tytär Marina Denikina sai Venäjän kansalaisuutensa takaisin vuonna 2005. Hän pyysi presidentti Putinilta, että hänen isänsä ruumis haudattaisiin uudelleen Venäjälle Donskoin luostariin Moskovaan, mikä tapahtuikin 3. lokakuuta 2005.
Anton Denikin in 1914 - History
Date of birth : 1872-12-07
Date of death : 1947-08-07
Birthplace : Wloclawek, Warsaw, Poland
Nationality : Polish
Category : Historian personalities
Last modified : 2010-12-16
Anton Denikin led the White Volunteer Army which in nearly succeeded in defeating the "Red" Bolshevik forces in 1919, during the Russian civil war.
Anton Ivanovich Denikin was born on December 7, 1872, in Shpetal Dolnyi village near the city of Wloclawek, in Warsaw Province, a section of Poland that had been absorbed by the Russian Empire in the 18th century. His father, Ivan Denikin, had been born a serf in the Russian province of Saratov, yet had worked himself up to the rank of major in the Russian frontier guards. Two years after retiring, in 1869, Ivan married a poor Catholic seamstress, Elizaveta Vrjesinski, who was supporting her aged father.
The pension of a retired major was not sufficient to support a family in circumstances other than abject poverty. Yet Ivan Denikin always had a charitable hand for others in need. Anton, an only child, was technically a Russian Polish "half-breed," but his father's commitment to Russian patriotism and the Russian Orthodox Church provided the boy with a path eagerly followed. Indeed, at the age of 70, Denikin's father volunteered to fight in the Russo-Turkish War, and it seems clear that, from an early age, young Denikin had determined to become a soldier.
As a student, Denikin was capable, if not brilliant. He was admitted to secondary school at the age of nine. Four years later, after the death of his father, Denikin began tutoring younger boys so that the family could earn a tiny additional income. He became a proficient swimmer and local soldiers taught him how to use a rifle.
At the age of 18, Denikin began a course at the Kiev Junker School, a military college from which he graduated in 1892. As a newly commissioned officer, he was posted to the 2nd Field Artillery Brigade. During this initial assignment, Denikin prepared to take the entry examinations for the Academy of the General Staff, which he passed in 1895.
Life at the Academy in the Russian capital of St. Petersburg opened new vistas for this provincial young man in his early 20s. He met members of the intelligentsia, had occasion to read politically "subversive" left-wing material, and was able to make contact with persons from most walks of life and from all social classes. So much interested him outside the Academy that he graduated at the bottom of his class.
Due to an injustice in bureaucratic procedure, over which he petitioned Tsar Nicholas II, Denikin was not able to become an officer of the General Staff until 1902. Therefore, in 1900, he returned to his old artillery brigade in Warsaw Province and waited.
Two years later Denikin was transferred to the General Staff and was rotated through a series of positions considered beneficial for the development of his career. Serving at the lowest level as a squad leader in an infantry regiment, he was then attached to the headquarters of the 2nd Cavalry Corps, acquiring experience in each of the main branches of the army: artillery, infantry, and cavalry.
In 1904, when the Japanese staged a surprise attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur in the Far East, Denikin immediately volunteered for frontline duty and, according to Dimitry Lehovich, in White Against Red: The Life of General Anton Denikin, soon "acquired a reputation for personal bravery and for the ability to make a quick assessment of combat situations." Action suited him better than staff work. In November, he distinguished himself during hand-to-hand attacks at Tsinchentchen and again the following year during a large cavalry raid behind enemy lines. In the course of the Russo-Japanese War, Denikin served with the border guards, the Trans-Baikal Cossacks, the Ural Trans-Baikal Division, and with the mounted troops of 2nd Army, rising to the rank of colonel.
Despite Denikin's personal success, the fate of the Russian military was tragic. Inadequate logistics and incompetent leadership robbed the gallant Russian soldiery of victory. Political unrest among soldiers and workers spilled over into the Revolution of 1905. After the war, it took Denikin one month to cross Russia from the Far East to St. Petersburg via the Trans-Siberian Railroad. At times, he and his traveling companions exchanged fire with revolutionary mobs as he made his way back to the 2nd Cavalry Corps near Warsaw.
By spring 1906, order had been restored in Russia. Before the close of the previous year, Tsar Nicholas II had proclaimed his October Manifesto which attempted to compromise with political dissidents by providing Russia with a parliament, or duma. For a military officer, Denikin's political views were atypical he welcomed the Manifesto and a constitutional monarchy and advocated major political reforms.
From a military standpoint, this was a time for self-examination. From 1906 to 1913, Russian authorities replaced over half of the officer corps with abler men. Denikin introduced reforms while a member of the 57th Reserve Brigade at Saratov and as commander of the 17th Arkangelogorodsk Regiment near Kiev. While progress was measurable, domestic discontent and the pressure of international events conspired against the Tsar's government, which was never able to achieve a working relationship with the Duma. Radical left-oriented parties continued to grow, including the Social Revolutionaries, the Mensheviks, and the Bolsheviks. In 1911, terrorists assassinated the Russian premier, Peter Stolypin, thereby ending perhaps the best opportunity for a compromise between Duma and Tsar. Two wars broke out in southeastern Europe in 1912 and 1913, and Russia was embroiled more deeply in the dangerously entangled web of European diplomacy. Finally, in 1914, the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, pushed Europe into the First World War.
During the course of the four-year-long cataclysm, the Allies (Russia, France, Britain, Belgium, and Serbia) fought against the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire). Italy, Rumania, and the United States would join the Allies, respectively in 1915, 1916, and 1917, and Bulgaria would follow the Central Powers in 1915. The Russians found themselves fighting each of the Central Powers along the length of the Eastern Front.
Despite a few glorious moments, the Russian road was one of successive defeat—from the 1914 disaster at Tannenburg to the 1917 revolutions and the 1918 civil war. The personal record of Anton Denikin, however, was laudable. In 1914, he was promoted to major-general and reorganized the staffs of 3rd and 5th Armies. Briefly attached to Alexei Brusilov, as deputy chief of staff in August, he volunteered for and received a frontline assignment as commander of the 4th Rifle "Iron" Brigade, which was expanded to a division in April 1915. Looking back with the benefit of hindsight, Denikin would say that his two years with the "Iron" Division were his most fulfilling. In the first months of war, he won both the Sword of St. George and the Cross of St. George, 4th Class, for bravery.
Throughout the first winter of World War I, Denikin's troops were deployed against the Austro-Hungarians in the snowy passes of the Carpathian Mountains. Not only was he able to maintain unit cohesion when so many other Russian units were breaking down, he also succeeded in invading Hungary, a feat which produced accolades from every corner of the Russian army.
In spring 1915, Russian morale was still high, but severe munitions shortages were threatening to make it impossible to continue the war. Sensing a military opportunity, the Germans threw their main offensive against Russian Poland and the "great retreat" of 1915 began. The Tsar, contrary to the advice of his chief counselors, assumed personal command of the armed forces. The talented and respected General M.V. Alexeev was appointed his chief of staff. By the end of 1915, however, many of the original and experienced Russian soldiers had been killed and the army primarily consisted of uniformed civilians who were already showing the strains of war. Denikin had fought two exemplary engagements at Lutsk and Chartoryisk, rising to lieutenant-general in the process.
1916 was a year of decision for the Russian military. In May, Brusilov led four armies in Russia's most famous offensive of the entire war. Denikin's "Iron" Division participated under General A.M. Kaledin's 8th Army and was instrumental in the breakthrough at Lutsk. In fact, Denikin was first into the town, an act of gallantry for which he would be awarded the rare Sword of St. George with Diamonds. In September, he was promoted to the command of 8th Corps and sent to help Russia's ally, Rumania. After spectacular gains, the Brusilov offensive lost momentum and suffered major reverses by the end of the year.
The fatal crucible for Russia and Denikin was 1917. The Royal Family had discredited itself through ineptitude and scandal so that political chaos and military defeat combined to herald the downfall of Tsar Nicholas. By February, a Provisional Government was established in the capital of St. Petersburg, the name of which had already been changed to Petrograd.
While taking a decidedly left-wing political turn, the Provisional Government, under Alexander Kerensky as minister of war, nevertheless sought to continue the war and fulfill treaty obligations previously contracted with the Allies. Denikin was appointed chief of staff to the supreme commander, a position he would hold for two tumultuous months. This elevation was sudden and unexpected. The government sought a talented combat general who had been critical of the old regime and who had welcomed the February Revolution. The government also reasoned that Denikin's peasant origins would endear him to the people.
Summer saw the end of the Russian army. A fresh offensive, carried out with more rhetoric than energy, was bathed in blood. Discipline and morale, already at a low point, vanished. Soldiers shot their own officers and entire regiments threw down their weapons and marched home to the Bolshevik rhythm of "peace, land and bread." V.I. Lenin's Bolsheviks (Communists) were already undermining the Kerensky government from within.
During these unhappy months Denikin served under a succession of supreme commanders: Alexeev, Brusilov, and finally, Lavr G. Kornilov. Denikin and Kornilov were in full agreement that discipline had to be restored in the army and civil order established in Russia. From July to October, a series of intricate political maneuvers unfolded wherein Kornilov was pitted against Kerensky, who was simultaneously at odds with members of his own government.
At the end of August, after a brief, abortive coup, Kornilov and his sympathizers, including Denikin, were arrested and imprisoned. In order to defeat Kornilov, Kerensky had armed Lenin's Bolsheviks. This act was the prelude to the end of Kerensky's reign as head of state. In October, Lenin—aided by Leon Trotsky and assorted bands of workers, soldiers, sailors, and politicos-succeeded in toppling the remnants of governmental authority in that epoch-turning event known to history as the Russian Revolution.
In December 1917, by escaping from prison or eluding capture altogether, Denikin and several key army officers— including Kornilov and Alexeev-managed to meet in Don Cossack territory in southern Russia. There, painstakingly, the first small units of the White Volunteer Army were born. Three years of civil war ensued, during which Lenin's followers became known as "Reds," while Denikin and other opponents were called "Whites."
The original plan of the White Volunteer Army had been to unite with the Don Cossacks and liberate Russia. Unfortunately, the Reds overran the Don so that the Whites had to retreat south into the lands of the Kuban Cossacks in the hope of obtaining allies. For several weeks during the frozen winter and early spring of 1918, the Volunteer Army
fought their "campaign of ice" against vastly superior numbers. When Kornilov was killed in the desperate siege of Ekaterinodar in April, Denikin assumed command and led the brilliantly successful Second Kuban Campaign that summer and the North Caucasian Campaign in the autumn. By the end of the year, the Volunteer Army had grown significantly, despite its extremely heavy casualties. When the Kuban and Don Cossacks agreed to participate under a joint leader, Denikin became the commander in chief of the Armed Forces of South Russia (AFSR).
The tide of international events also had been swift. In March, the Bolsheviks had surrendered much of Russia to the Germans in the humiliating Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and the Central Powers, in turn, had surrendered to the Allies in November. But if World War I had ended, the Russian civil war was set to enter its most virulent phase. White armies had sprung up in northern and western Russia and in Siberia. Several of the Allies advocated limited aid to the various disparate and disunited White groups the British and French offered military assistance to Denikin.
In the spring of 1919, Denikin decided to launch one of the most spectacular advances in military history. For six months, from May to October, the world watched, breathless, as the fate of Russia and the Communist Revolution hung in the balance. In the first weeks, the Whites captured several hundred square miles of enemy territory. Other units of the AFSR took the critical city of Tsaritsyn (later called Stalingrad).
Encouraged, Denikin issued his famous "Moscow Directive" in June. Three wings of the AFSR were to move in a massive fan-shape up the Volga in the east and to the Polish border in the west, then shift in unison toward the common goal of Moscow—the ancient capital of Russia and contemporary seat of the Red Bolshevik government. It was an ambitious thrust, yet by October, Volunteer units had reached Orel, only 200 miles south of Moscow.
That summer, Lenin had ordered the concentration of every resource against Denikin, including a special Red cavalry army led by S.M. Budenny. In October, at the critical point of Denikin's offensive, the Red cavalry struck the AFSR in flank at Voronezh and drove a deep wedge between the Volunteers and the Don Cossacks.
The White defeat rapidly became a retreat and then a rout. Disease and winter snows ravaged the remnants of Denikin's armies. Survivors were evacuated by ship from Novorossiisk to the Crimea in southern Russia in March 1920. What had begun with so much hope and promise had ended in failure. Physically and emotionally exhausted, Denikin resigned in favor of his sharpest critic, General Baron P. N. Wrangel, who reconstructed a White Russian army. After a remarkable comeback, however, the Whites were decisively defeated in November 1920 and were forced to leave Russia. Denikin's involvement in Russian public affairs ended he would spend his final 27 years in exile.
Early in his military career Denikin had established a reputation as a skilled orator and writer, qualities that were not wasted. His earliest publications were vignettes of military life. In particular, he attacked harsh punishments and the lack of progressiveness in the officer corps. When he went into exile and retirement, he applied himself to a five-volume work concerning Russia in the First World War, the Revolution, and the Civil War. Translated into English, Volume I has been published as The Russian Turmoil, while Volumes II-V have been substantially abridged into one book, The White Army. These comprise his most valuable work, but his The Career of a Tsarist Officer: Memoirs, 1872-1916, published after his death, provides significant insights into the Russian imperial army.
As commander in chief, Denikin had worn tattered uniforms. In exile, his only revenue came from his many books and lectures, but this was not enough to save his family from penury. (In 1918, he had married Xenia Vasilievna Chizh their daughter was born the following year.) During these years, the Denikins lived in England, Belgium, Hungary, and France. When the Nazis invaded Soviet Russia during World War II, he warned expatriate White Russians not to participate alongside the Germans.
After the war, the Denikins emigrated from France to the United States and lived in New York City. On August 7, 1947, at the age of 74, Denikin died while vacationing near Ann Arbor, Michigan. Originally buried in Detroit, his remains were transferred to St. Vladimir's Cemetery in Jackson, New Jersey.
Communist propagandists have claimed Denikin was a dictator and an enemy of the Russian people who was born into a family of wealthy estate-owners near Kursk. His memoirs, backed by the historical facts, prove these accusations false. On the contrary, according to Dimitry Lehovich: "In some ways Denikin invites comparison with Robert E. Lee, who in a different period and country, also suffered defeat in a civil war and emerged from it with his honor intact and with the respect of his contemporaries and of future historians." Indeed, until the end of his life Denikin hoped and believed that the Russian people would one day rise up and overthrow communism. In 1991, 44 years after his death, the Communist Party was outlawed in Russia.
Denikin was born as the son of Major Iwan Jefimowitsch Denikin (1807-1885) and Elżbieta Wrzesińska, the mother came from a Polish family of impoverished smallholders. He graduated from the Academy of the General Staff in 1899 and served in the Russo-Japanese War . In June 1910 he was appointed commander of the No. 17 Infantry Regiment in Arkhangelsk, a position he held until March 1914. On March 23, 1914, he was assigned to the Commander of the Kiev Military District, where he served as Deputy Chief of Staff.
In the world war
During the First World War , in August 1914, he was Quartermaster General of the 8th Army under Brusilov in Galicia . The 8th Army Chief of Staff was Denikin's classmate at the Academy, Lieutenant General Pyotr Lomnovsky. In order to get away from his desk work, he was transferred and on September 6, 1914 took over the leadership of the 4th Infantry Brigade , which was immediately used in the Battle of Grodek and Rawa Ruska . Then his troops took part in the battle of the 4th Army against the Austro-Hungarian 1st Army , which was pushed back to Radom in the Battle of the Vistula . In November 1914, his brigade fought again with the 8th Army, initially in the first phase of the Carpathian Battle on the Humene and Mezőlaborc plains . Then in February 1915 Denikin's brigade of the Combined Division of General Kaledin near Uzhgorod came to the aid and in early March his troops were involved in the battle for the besieged Przemysl fortress . After the Great Withdrawal , he commanded a division in the XXX area. Army Corps (General of the Infantry Sajontschkowski ) and was able to retake Lutsk in September 1915 , for which he was promoted to Lieutenant General. He took part in the Battle of Czartorysk in October 1915 and in June 1916 in the Association of XXXX. Army Corps participated in the Brusilov Offensive , where he succeeded in retaking the lost Lutsk for the second time. In autumn 1916 he took over the leadership of the 8th Army Corps, which had left the Romanian theater of war , in the Association of the 4th Army . In April / May 1917 he was Chief of the General Staff , later Commander-in-Chief of the Western and Southwest Fronts.
Russian civil war
In August 1917 he was instrumental in the military coup led by Kornilov . After the October Revolution of 1917, Denikin joined the white volunteer army set up by Kornilov and Alexejew on Don to fight the Bolsheviks in the civil war . After Kornilov's death he became the commander of this formation, which temporarily controlled large parts of southern Russia . In the summer and autumn of 1919 Denikin tried to advance to Moscow from the North Caucasus . He had parts of his army under Wrangel line up in the direction of Tsaritsyn so that they could unite with Kolchak's troops . By the time Tsaritsyn was conquered, Kolchak's association had suffered heavy defeats and was repulsed by the Red Army . Denikin's decision to split his forces was later seen by many Western observers as the crucial mistake of the White Troops. His subordinate and competitor Wrangel even saw it as the death knell for the white movement. His opponent Yegorov , who was then the front-line commander of the Red Army, exonerated him after the war and reaffirmed the logic of his decision. The question of whether Denikin made a mistake is still controversial in history today. Near Oryol , Denikin was defeated by the Red Army at the end of 1919 and withdrew to the Crimea with the rest of his army in 1920 .
There he transferred the command of the remaining troops to General Wrangel and went into exile . In the first years of exile Denikin changed his place of residence several times and lived in various European countries. So he left his first country of exile, Great Britain, to protest against the signing of the peace treaty between the British government and Soviet Russia in August 1920 and went to Belgium . In June 1922 he emigrated to Hungary and lived there until 1925. In spring 1928 he settled in Paris and devoted himself to literary activities and public relations.
During the Second World War, the National Socialists proposed Denikin cooperation against the Soviet Union. However, this refused any cooperation. Denikin's motto was: "Defend Russia and overthrow Bolshevism". Although he remained a bitter opponent of Soviet power, at the same time he called on all Russian emigrants living in Europe not to support Nazi Germany in the fight against the Soviet Union .
1945 Denikin emigrated to the United States and died in 1947 in Ann Arbor in the US state of Michigan .
On October 3, 2005, at the request of his daughter Marina Antonovna Denikina and with the permission of the Russian government, his remains were transferred to Russia and buried in Moscow in the cemetery of the Donskoy Monastery .
Anton Denikin - the fate of the officer on the altar of history
Anton Ivanovich Denikin - a noble officer who remained loyal to Tsarist Russia, or the leader of an unbridled gang of marauders? Today, there are adherents of both that and this point of view. Rate historical the personality that Denikin is without a doubt follows, given the most varied facts and characteristics. The character of this outstanding personality can be understood only by turning to the path of life that he had to go through. The complex life of a person who is strong and certainly talented, rich in both tragic and bright events, deserves the attention of posterity.
A white officer was born in the village of Shpetal Dolny in the Warsaw province 4 December 1872. The Denikin family, although related to military families, lived in poverty. His mother, Elizabeth Franciskovna, practically did not express herself in Russian, since she was a pure-blooded Polish woman, and her father had no noble origin. Ivan Efimovich, that was the name of the father of the future leader of the white movement, was a serf who was recruited and promoted to the rank of major. Despite the "proletarian" origin, the orders in the family were very refined and strict. Since childhood, the boy was inculcated with a sense of dignity, honor and responsibility. Ivan Efimovich professed Orthodoxy, while his wife was a Catholic. Little Anton was introduced more to the Russian church, but occasionally he attended the church. The boy grew up talented and lively, at the age of four he read well, and at nine he entered the Vlotslavskoe real school.
In 1885, Major Denikin passed away, and his relatives found themselves in very cramped financial conditions. The already small monthly pension for which the family existed has drastically decreased. Anton Ivanovich by that time turned 13 years, but already at such an early age he showed his best qualities. The young man took upon himself the burden of keeping his relatives and began giving paid lessons. Soon the diligent and out of age reasonable student noticed. In 15 years he was assigned student allowance, and also granted the right to live in a special apartment, together with peers. The responsible young man quickly gained credibility and was appointed a senior student in the dormitory. The fate of Denikin from an early age made him be strong and fight for well-being.
The atmosphere in the Denikins family reigned patriotic. My father spent most of his life in real service and from an early age instilled in his son love and respect for the Russian army. The dream of a young man soon came true. Immediately after the end of the Lovitsky Real School, Denikin was enlisted in the first rifle regiment as a volunteer and lived in the barracks for several months. However, a military career without appropriate training in Russia was impossible, especially for a person who had no noble origin. In July, Denikin entered the Kiev Junker School, graduating in 1892 with the rank of second lieutenant. In the same year, Anton Ivanovich met his future wife, Xenia, who was only a few weeks old at the time. Denikin met her father under very curious circumstances, after killing the boar who had driven the venerable Vasily Chizh to a tree. After the “salvation”, Anton Ivanovich became a family friend and even attended Xenia’s christenings.
In 1895, Denikin entered the Academy of the General Staff, but was expelled in his first year for academic debts. The hardness of character manifested itself at this stage in the life of the young officer — he again passed the entrance tests. 1899, Anton Ivanovich gets the rank of captain. A diligent and talented graduate was supposed to be enrolled in the General Staff, but some General Sukhotin changed the lists on his own initiative. Denikin complained about the general, and Sukhotin’s actions were declared illegal, but the impudent officer was not credited with the Headquarters.
In addition to abilities in military science, Denikin also possessed a literary gift. In his youth, he wrote poetry, but after that he preferred prose. His works Anton Ivanovich devoted to questions of army life. His first creations saw the light through the Warsaw Diary and Scout journals. The critics' literary ability was appreciated, but the command was wary of the thinking officer. Most of the problems that Denikin affected in his works were unpleasant for the commanding staff and aroused the keen interest of the public. Anton Ivanovich wrote all his life, especially his works became popular in the West. Each line of his writings is imbued with genuine love of country and rejection of the communist system.
Friendship with Kuropatkin allowed Denikin to finally get to headquarters. The officer, who said that he was not looking for mercy, still actively used connections to move up the career ladder. Since 1902, Anton Ivanovich is one of the staff officers and receives not a small pension. Young, full of strength, Denikin sought to win awards and honor in real battles. Despite the slight injuries caused by falling from a horse, Anton Ivanovich goes to the front of the Russian-Japanese war. The first experience of the battles was obtained in clashes with the Chinese brigands, as the border brigade entrusted to Denikin was in the rear. However, October 28 in the rank of lieutenant colonel Anton Ivanovich sent to the Cossack division under the command of Rennekampf. While serving as chief of staff, Denikin participated in the Tsinkhechensky battle, where, under his leadership, one of the hills was repelled in a bayonet attack. This was followed by active and successful reconnaissance actions, as well as a clash with the Japanese at the Vancelin pass, the Mukden battle, and other effective operations. The command highly appreciated the merits of the brave commander, and from the war Denikin returned as a colonel who was awarded the Order of St. Anna 2 degree with swords, as well as St. Stanislav with bows and swords.
A further career has been quite successful, but the merit of career advancement belongs exclusively to Denikin himself. After the war, he spent a long time in a lower position at the headquarters of the second cavalry corps, awaiting an acceptable appointment. During this period he visited Europe. Anton Ivanovich was distinguished by astonishing self-control and perseverance, he was not afraid to give up his post as chief of staff of the Eighth Siberian Division and received the desired appointment to the Kazan Military District. The ability to wait and demand more than once helped Denikin to take a worthy place in the hierarchy of military officials. The conduct of the post of Chief of Staff of the Reserve Infantry Brigade in Saratov No. 57 is evaluated by researchers in different ways. During this period, Anton Ivanovich was actively writing to the journals, and his work contained sharp criticism of not only the existing orders in the army, but also contained clear "injections" addressed to the immediate commander, General Sandetsky. Life-filled with events and appointments shows us Denikin as an active and purposeful person. Anton Ivanovich openly expressed his political views, defiant in his youth, he softened somewhat in his mature age, but did not give up his convictions.
In 1914, Denikin arrives in Kiev in connection with his appointment to the post of general on instructions at the headquarters of the Commander in the Kiev Military District. By the beginning of the First World War, he received the rank of Major General and served under the command of Brusilov. Again, Denikin wrote a petition for his transfer to the line service and sent to the front. Almost immediately, Anton Ivanovich conducted a successful attack from Grodek, for which he was marked by Georgievsky weapons. The command of the Iron Brigade was so productive that soon the brave commander was awarded the Order of St. George 4 degree. In September, 1915, for taking Lutsk, he was promoted to lieutenant general, even a wound in the arm did not force Denikin to return to the rear. For the secondary capture of Lutsk, he was again granted a George’s own weapon adorned with diamonds and a special engraving. From September 1916 to 1917, Denikin commanded the Russians of the Eighth Corps on the Romanian front. For his services to Romania, he is awarded the highest military award by the Order of Mihai the Brave of the third degree.
The February Revolution interrupted Anton Ivanovich's glorious feats of arms, as it was caused by the new Minister Guchkov. After a long conversation, he was appointed chief of staff at the new Supreme Commander. Alekseev's displacement and the arrival in his place of Brusilov Denikin met tensely. The rejection of political change was reflected in the refusal of the post. For a sharp statement in support of General Kornilov, Denikin was arrested and thrown into Bykhov prison as a supporter of the rebellion. Together with Kornilov, he soon escaped under the name of Dombrowski. Combat experience made Denikin an authoritative figure in the military-political arena in June 1918, he became the head of the Volunteer Army, numbering about 9000 people. The white general moved his troops to Yekaterinodar, and thanks to his knowledge, he was able to smash the Kuban grouping. By early next year, Denikin controlled the northern territory of the Caucasus, as well as the Kuban and the Don. Using political connections, he receives impressive assistance from members of the Entente, which largely determined the success of offensive operations.
In January, 1919, the Denikin Volunteer Army merged with the Don military forces, and Anton Ivanovich became the commander of the Armed Forces of Southern Russia. Researchers of personal correspondence and diaries of this extraordinary and strong person indicate that, despite the importance of the position, Anton Ivanovich was not happy with her. Being a successful commander-in-chief, he did not strive for sole authority, but rather feared it. Perhaps that is why in June 1919 he recognized the power of Kolchak. However, there are other points of view. For example, some historians prove the Nizhneudinsky decree of Kolchak 1920 of the year to prove the opposite, in which he confirms the possibility of transferring all the power to Denikin. The commander himself, in his memoirs, confesses that he would have refused sole authority. Historians explain the failure of the White Army, Denikin’s miscalculations in the area of discipline, as well as an insufficient assessment of the forces and capabilities of the enemy.
By April, 1920, relations with the opposition are coming to a head, and Denikin is leaving for England, handing over his post to Wrangel. Despite his long tenure as commander-in-chief, Anton Ivanovich is practically deprived of his means of livelihood. In exile, he refuses to support Churchill and the aristocratic English circles, promising large financial injections. A few months later the white general departed for France. His life in emigration was modest, he lived a subsistence economy, but still closely followed the situation in Russia, leaving no hope of return. During the years of the fascist occupation, he refused to assist the Third Reich, sincerely rejoicing at the successes of the Soviet army. In the postwar years, Denikin arrived in the United States, where he was received very coldly, since the USSR was officially considered an ally, and the disgraced general was perceived as a provocateur and even an enemy.
Anton Ivanovich’s diaries, letters and memoirs testify to his sincerity in serving Russia. Perhaps the historical truth and power turned against his ideological convictions, but he remained true to his ideals of patriotism and officer duty. Denikin called the fight against the Soviets a personal spiritual confrontation, and considered only Russia as his motherland.