Pyramidion, Egypt

Pyramidion, Egypt

The Enigmatic Story of the Pyramidion / Capstone in Ancient Egypt

In case you didn’t know already, a pyramidion also known as a capstone, is basically the cap that was put on top of the pyramids in ancient Egypt. They were the last piece that was ever added to the pyramids as they would completely seal off all of the slaves inside with the remnants of the pharaoh.

These pyramidions are meant to represent God Ra’s resting point and to some extent the union between Earth and Heaven.

Dr. Rainer Stadelmann, a famous German Egyptologist actually came across a pyramid known as the Red Pyramid of Dashur from Egypt back in 1993 alongside what appeared to be pyramidion that he later on reported to not have been made to be a part of the Red Pyramid after all.

He knew this after he realized the fact that the pyramidion was one meter tall and that it was inclined at an angle of 51 degrees and 52’ while the Red Pyramid was at an angle of 43 degrees.

Despite the fact that he tried to actually reconstruct the pyramid and the pyramidion to look exactly how they were meant to look in ancient times, in 2006 a man named Zahi Hawass decided to commence with his own plans to reconstruct it all in his image.

So, he cut the pyramidion nearly in half, making it now a 0.78 meters tall construction and changing it to be around 45 degrees now so it would fit the Red Pyramid better.

Jean Pierre Adam actually calmed him out on this and stated that what he did there was a blatant blasphemy of ancient history.

The Enigmatic Story of the Pyramidions / Capstones in Ancient Egypt

If you’ve ever heard of how pyramids are thought to have been constructed in ancient times then you already know that the hubcap part of it was usually placed at the end to make sure that nobody could ever enter nor leave the pyramid ever again after it was closed down.

This hubcap was referred to as the pyramidion or capstone and it was a very important part of the Egyptian culture. The ancient Egyptians believed that this pyramid represented the resting place of the solar god Ra and more importantly that it showcased the union between the Afterlife and Earth.

Back in 1993, the German Egyptologist came upon a wonderous discovery, to say the least as he found himself what appeared to be a huge pyramid that was later on named the Red Pyramid of Dashur.

Next to it was also discovered a decently sized pyramidion that the team believed to belong to the Red Pyramid.

Stadelmann however reported later on that the 1 x 1.57 meters construction was not a part of the Red Pyramid of Dashur because it didn’t have the same inclination. While the pyramidion had an inclination of 51 degrees and 51’, the Red Pyramid had an angle of 43 degrees.

He took it upon himself to reconstruct the pyramidion which was almost completely destroyed by the locals that would carve their names on it or the soldiers that would just do it for fun.

Sadly though, he was replaced in 2006 by Zahi Hawass who mangled the pyramidion altogether, changing it from 1 meter to 0.78 and changing its angle to 45 degrees so it would fit the Red Pyramid better.

He was called out by Jean-Pierre Adam afterward, stating that what he had done is unforgivable and a total insult to history as a whole.

Rare Golden Tip from Egypt’s old kingdom discovered in Saqqara

The tip was found to the North of the pyramid of Pharaoh Pepi I, near the place where was to be built the pyramid of his wife, Queen Ankiecie II, mother of the Pharaoh Pepi II. Archeologists had no hints that they would be able to find such a pyramidion.

A rare golden Tip of a pyramid was found in Egypt for the first time ever!

Virtually all ancient Egyptian pyramids, built during the heyday of this ancient civilization were visible for tens of kilometers due to the fact that their top was decorated with a special structure, the pyramidion, «burning» in the Sun.

It was a stone of pyramidal form, covered with gold and other precious metals, and decorated with the name of the person buried in the chamber. To date, none of these stones did survive intact.

Studying sediments in the vicinity of the pyramid of Pepi I, one of the most powerful rulers of the sixth dynasty of the old Kingdom, scientists found a partially destroyed, 1.3 x 1.1 meter pyramidion (image above).

According to the team of archaeologists, the top of the pyramid was intended for Queen Ankiecie II, wife of Pepi I and the alleged mother of Pepi II.

Winged Scarab Pendant of Tutankhamun

This golden pendant of cloisonné technique is inlaid with semiprecious stones and colored glass. The central element of the composition is a winged scarab of Libyan desert glass, grasping on one side a lotus and on the other a papyrus flower, flanked by two uraei, or cobras.

A gold frame outlines the main composition and supports pendants of lotus flowers, papyrus, and poppy seed heads. A slim solar boat rests upon the front feet of the scarab and carries the wadjet eye symbol or Eye of Horus, flanked by two rearing uraei.

The wadjet eye is surmounted by a lunar crescent of gold and a silver disk with images of the gods, Thoth and Ra-Horakhty, crowning the central figure of king Tutankhamun.

From the Tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62), Valley of the Kings, West Thebes. Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. JE 61884

What happened to capstone of the Great Pyramid of Giza?

Throughout history, and starting around 4,700 years ago, the ancient Egyptian civilization erected impressive pyramids. There are around 120 pyramids in Egypt, many of which are unrecognizable and were reduced, for various reasons, to no more than rubble. In fact, there are many pyramids in Egypt that appear as no more than mounds of sand. Beneath them, however, are the remnants of structures that can be traced back thousands of years.

Although the Great Pyramid of Giza is perhaps Egypt&rsquos most famous pyramid, Egypt is home to many others that are equally important. In fact, were it not for these ancient pyramids, the Great Pyramid of Giza may never have been built.

According to Egyptologists, the ancient Egyptian pyramid&rsquos birth can be traced back to the Third Dynasty reign of King Djoser and the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.

Some 4,700 years ago, Djoser instructed his royal vizier and architect, a young man called Imhotep, to travel to Saqqara and design a monument that would stand the test of time. Imhotep did not disappoint his king, and he would eventually build a monumental stairway to heaven.

Measuring around 65 meters in height, it was the greatest construction that the Egyptians had undertaken until then, only surpassed several generations later by Giza&rsquos great pyramids.

A stairway to heaven

Great Pyramid of Cheops vividly reflected in Nile overflow. Image Credit: Matson Photo Service / Library of Congress. The image was taken between 1950 and 1977.

Such dimensions were at the height of the goal pursued by its designer: to allow his Pharaoh, once buried inside, to ascend the six steps of the pyramid to meet the sun god Ra, without appearing before the court of Osiris, the god who judged the souls of the deceased.

In itself, the Pyramid at Saqqara is not the perfect pyramid that would come many years later. As revealed by experts, it is not even entirely accurate to speak of a &ldquostep pyramid.&rdquo

As demonstrated by the French archaeologist and architect Jean-Philippe Lauer, who spent several decades studying the site, the building did not start from a complete initial project. Still, it was the result of a series of successive modifications. Originally, a mastaba was a large flat-roofed mud-brick structure with which the Pharaonic tombs were covered since the first dynasty.

The Step Pyramid was completed in around 19 years and became the example of Pyramids in Egypt. Pharaohs that followed Djoser worked on replicating the pyramid complex, but many of them failed. Djoser&rsquos Step Pyramid is thought to have been the only pyramid completed in the Third dynasty. There is evidence of other attempted pyramids, but none of them were complete.

The greatest pyramid builder

The Fourth Dynasty, King Sneferu would revolutionize Egypt again. He built three large pyramids and made sure history would remember him as Egypt&rsquos greatest pyramid builder.

Sneferu erected three majestic pyramids one at Meidum and two at Dahshur. His pyramids, just as that of Djoser, would completely revolutionize Egyptian pyramid building. The Pyramid at Meidum was an experimental structure in which the builders tried creating a smooth-sided pyramid. Today, only its core remains, but it may have even surpassed in terms of height the Step Pyramid of Djoser at one point in history.

Sneferu&rsquos next two pyramids, the Bent Pyramid and Red Pyramid would further develop the Egyptian pyramid building techniques. The construction of these two pyramids allowed future pyramid builders to construct more precise, more complex, and larger monuments. Essentially, the Bent and Red Pyramids of Sneferu laid down the foundations for constructing Egypt&rsquos greatest pyramid, the Pyramid of Khufu.

The Red Pyramid of Sneferu was Egypt&rsquos tallest and largest pyramid and remained so until the Great Pyramid construction. Even after the construction of Khafre&rsquos pyramid next to that of Khufu, the Red Pyramid would remain one of Egypt&rsquos largest pyramids ever built. In fact, in terms of size, the largest pyramids in Egypt are Khufu&rsquos, Khafre&rsquos, and Sneferu&rsquos Red Pyramid.

The Step Pyramid of Djoser was essentially Egypt&rsquos most unique pyramid because it was the only true step pyramid ever built in Egypt. All other monuments that followed it had very different design elements, which tells us that the Egyptian pyramids were developed and changed from generation to generation.

We can probably conclude that the birth of Egypt&rsquos smooth-sided pyramid can be attributed to Sneferu and the construction of the Red Pyramid at Dahshur. Many elements were taken from Sneferu&rsquos Red Pyramid by future generations of pyramid builders.

The Egyptian pyramid building peak was met with Khufu&rsquos majestic monument the builders had succeeded in constructing a never-before-seen pyramid with an estimated 2.3 million stone blocks. Egyptologists believe that Khufu&rsquos incredible monument is massive and has a total weight of around 6.5 million tons.

The Pyramidion

This is the Pyramidion of the Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Dahshur. Image Credit: Pinterest.

The most mysterious part of the pyramid is perhaps its uppermost part, specifically its pyramidion. This structure was the uppermost piece&mdashcapstone&mdashplaced both on Pyramids and Obelisks. In ancient Egyptian times, the pyramidion was referred to as the benbenet, which associated the entire structure with the sacred benben stone. The Benben was the mound that arose from the primordial waters Nu. The creator deity Atum settled in the creation myth of the Heliopolitan form of ancient Egyptian religion.

Therefore, the benbenet was one of the most sacred and important parts of a pyramid, yet if we look at some of the most impressive examples of ancient Egypt, this stone seems to be missing.

In fact, the lack of a pyramidion has sparked widespread debate among experts whether pyramids in the distant past even had one. Usually, when we look at recreations of what the pyramids of Egypt may have looked like thousands of years ago, we see a benben stone that is usually made of gold or other precious materials.

But even though the pyramidion was of great importance in the pyramids&rsquo design elements, when we look at the pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, Sneferu, and many others, we see their top lacking what many say is the most important part.

So, what happened to the capstone of the pyramids? Did it ever exist? If so, what was it made of? Was it Gold? Was it destroyed in ancient times? Or was it looted, like many of the pyramids were?

Without its capstone, the pyramid is incomplete.

The Great Pyramid&rsquos missing capstone is perhaps the most evident its summit is marked by a flagpole that is said to have been installed there by astronomers in 1874 who were attempting to calculate the pyramid&rsquos apex.

Since there aren&rsquot any descriptions or texts dating back to when the pyramids were completed, and since archaeologists have failed to find any blueprints describing how the pyramids were built, it is challenging to imagine what these majestic structures may have looked like in their prime. Nonetheless, I believe we can conclude that such majestic monuments must have had a summit equally stunning.

The lost Capstone of the Great Pyramid

The Great Pyramid was Egypt’s most perfect Pyramid, and one of the most unique ever built. Not only because of its tremendous height and volume but because of its intricate alignment and precision.

In addition to being the only eight-sided Pyramid on Earth, the Great Pyramid of Giza has an otherworldly accuracy: its base is level to within just 2.1 centimeters the average deviation of the sides from the cardinal directions is 3𔄀″ of arc the greatest difference in length of the sides is 4.4 centimeters.

Why such phenomenal precision and alignment exists remains one of the greatest enigmas surrounding the 4,500-year-old Pyramid.

Once completed, the Pyramid was cased by highly polished blocks of limestone, which made the Pyramid reflect the rays of the Sun, shining like a star.

But in addition to its countless phenomenal characteristics, its uppermost part is perhaps of most interest. The Pyramid rises perfectly towards the sky, and then stops abruptly, almost as if someone or something had cut off the Pyramid’s summit.

Today, after climbing its 203 courses or steps and reaching its summit, the Pyramid is incomplete.

Standing at its apex, we have an unforgettable view at present-day Cairo, Giza, its accompanying pyramids and the Great Sphinx. Surrounded by legends and mysteries, the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World has always aroused astonishment and admiration. However, and above all, it has always forced us to question its very purpose.

Its missing apex causes us to question it even more.

What happened to the top of the Great Pyramid? Was it ever there? Was it destroyed? Was it stolen?

There are those who argue that the Great Pyramid of Giza never had a specific capstone, but rather that it was built all the way to the top as its core and covered with casing.

There are others who argue that such a majestic pyramid must have had a majestic summit: a golden capstone once crowned the most astonishing Pyramid built in Egypt. This would fall in line with everything we know about the pyramids.

Curiously, at the Cairo Museum, we have a remarkably well-preserved pyramidion, inscribed, decorated and made of highly polished granite, which once belonged to the Pyramid of Ammenenhat III, of the 12th Dynasty. This has led experts to believe that many pyramids after the Third Dynasty Red Pyramid of Sneferu had a capstone in place.

Robert Bauval’s book “Secret Chamber” offers an interesting story about the whereabouts of the Pyramid’s capstone:

Originally the Great Pyramid of Khufu had its capstone in place. It was gold-plated, and on each of its four sides, a blue eye of Horus was painted. When the Sun struck the Pyramid, a beam of light was reflected from this golden blue eye that could be seen for miles around. As the epoch/6th dynasty age of Egypt came to a close, the priesthood removed the capstone and buried it secretly. No one knows where. But according to the story, it will one day be rediscovered and will be replaced on top of the Pyramid. When that day comes, a ‘new order of the ages’ will be established, which will correspond to a general spiritual reawakening. It is just a story.

What are the odds that the Great Pyramid of Giza did have a previous capstone on its apex, but it was removed in ancient times from the Pyramid and buried somewhere beneath the golden sands of Egypt?

‘Aliens BUILT the pyramids’ Soviet scientist’s shock Egypt claim to KGB revealed

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Egypt: Soviet scientist claims ‘aliens BUILT the pyramids’

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Until the Eiffel Tower was constructed in 1887, the Great Pyramid was the tallest structure in the world. More than two million stones were used in its construction with no stone weighing less than a ton, making it 20 times the weight of the Empire State building. Inside the pyramid, passageways connect the chambers and shafts run to the exterior. Today the pyramid is rough stone, but it once had a mirror-like masonry. It is believed the Great Pyramid was adorned with a top of solid gold and for centuries, experts have speculated on the purpose of the pyramids.

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Conventional theory claims the pyramids were symbolic doorways to the afterlife. Others believe the pyramid was an astronomical observatory, and some say it was a geographical survey instrument.

One outlandish theory states the Great Pyramid was a grain elevator. But experts do agree that they were more than just gigantic tombs.

In Amazon Prime&rsquos &lsquoThe Secret KGB Files&rsquo, the 2001 documentary reveals former Soviet spies and conspiracy theorists&rsquo investigations into the possibility that extraterrestrial life built the pyramids using astronomical technology.

One scientist asks why nobody has ever found evidence of a burial in a pyramid.

Conspiracy theorists believe they have found "proof" that "aliens built the pyramids" in Egypt (Image: Getty)

The documentary&rsquos host, the late Roger Moore said: &ldquoScholars had argued that the technology to contract massive pyramids might not have been available to people at the point in human history when these structures were built.&rdquo

The narrator said: &ldquoThe pyramid builders knew information that would not be rediscovered for centuries. For example, the pyramid&rsquos height corresponds to the distance from the earth to the sun.

&ldquoThe pyramid was set within four degrees of the corners of a compass, a precision that has never been equaled. The Great Pyramid lies in the exact centre of the earth&rsquos land mass.

One scientist said: &ldquoWhen I began my field research at Giza, I was immediately struck by the fact that whoever built the pyramids could determine longitude and latitude.

&ldquoThis is amazing, since the technology to fix longitude was not invented until the 1600s.

One former Soviet scientist advised the KGB that the pyramids were built for by alien explorers (Image: Getty)

&ldquoBut more to the point, the pyramids were constructed at the exact centre of the earth. Also the size of the pyramids can be seen from the moon.

&ldquoFor these reasons, I advised the KGB that the pyramids of Egypt were built for navigation by alien explorers.&rdquo

Doctor Viktor Ivanovich, former science advisor to the Kremlin said: &ldquoIt makes perfect sense, Egypt would be an obvious choice for the aliens who had to establish an outpost for planetary expeditions.

&ldquoThe initial landing by an alien expedition team would pick a flat area with a few obstacles. Egypt would be an obvious choice, since it&rsquos also in the centre of their land of habitable mass of the earth.&rdquo

The meteoric origins of Egypt’s first ironwork

Deep in the Predynastic galleries of the Petrie Museum, there is something truly out of this world.
In the cabinet containing jewellery and beads from a tomb in Gerzeh, a site about 70km from Cairo, there are three iron beads. They may not look like much, they are small, blackened and corroded and placed among more colourful artefacts, but these are no ordinary beads…they are made from a meteorite. At over 5,000 years old, they are the oldest man made iron objects in history.

Professor Thilo Rehren from UCL made the discovery that proved the extraterrestrial origins of the iron beads, which are not made from pure iron but an iron-nickel alloy. This natural alloy is common in meteorites but the research team needed further proof. By scanning the beads with gamma rays and neutron beams, Thilo and his research team discovered unusually high amounts of cobalt, germanium and phosphorus. This was the proof that the metal really did originate in space, as these trace elements are found in higher concentrations in meteoric iron than in iron ore.
The beads also show the earliest examples of blacksmithing: instead being carved or drilled like other beads, the iron was heated before being hammered and rolled into shape, then cooled extremely slowly to prevent the metal from cracking.

The discovery is further evidence that ancient Egyptians knew of iron in its metallic form long before the discovery of smelting iron ore mined from the ground. They seemed to have known that this metal had celestial origins and associated it with divinity and rebirth: the Pyramid Texts speak of the bones of the deceased king as being made from iron. There is even a theory that the ritual blades used in the Opening of the Mouth ceremony may have been made from meteoric iron. This ceremony was performed on the mummified dead as a means of reanimating the soul of the deceased.
Whilst it is more probable that ancient Egyptians came across these iron-rich stones in the desert by chance whilst looking for stones with which to make jewellery, I can also imagine that perhaps they would have witnessed huge fireballs falling from the sky, shooting stars much brighter and more dramatic than usual. When they investigated where these may have landed, they would have discovered unusual metallic stones, and thus concluded that it they were made from a special, possibly sacred material.

Interestingly, this is not the only meteorite-related story to come out of Egypt…

The mysterious Benben stone, a cult object which once stood in the solar temple at Heliopolis, may have been a meteorite that had a conical or pyramidal shape. We will never know for sure what the Benben really was, since the stone was lost in antiquity, but some suggest that its shape may have been the inspiration for the tips of obelisks and even the pyramids themselves.

Another rock from space also fell upon Egypt in 1911. Like the meteorite that exploded over Russia in February 2013, the Nakhla meteorite’s entry into the Earth’s atmosphere was spectacular and noisy. One account claims that it struck and killed a dog, however, this is probably just conjecture. This meteorite is even more remarkable because we now know that it originally came from Mars. Scientists analysed trapped bubbles of gas within Nakhla and discovered the gas had a composition identical to that of the Martian atmosphere, which had been analysed by the Viking Mars lander. It is thought a huge cosmic impact chipped the rock off the Red Planet’s surface and propelled it towards Earth.

I will end with another piece of cosmic Egyptian jewellery belonging to one of the most famous pharaohs of all. There is a region of Egypt’s Western Desert, close to the border with Libya, which is strewn with fragments of natural glass, formed when the sand there was molten by extremely high temperatures. This is most likely to have been caused by a large meteorite exploding in the atmosphere that heated the air to thousands of degrees, causing the sand to melt and to eventually form a beautiful greenish-yellow glass once it had cooled. The event took place in prehistory, about 29 million years ago. One of the pieces of desert glass was then collected by ancient Egyptians, fashioned into the shape of a scarab and placed in a necklace belonging to none other than the boy king Tutankhamun. The necklace can now be seen in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

Watch the video: The Pyramidion: Mysterious of #Benben stone. #Pyramidion: Mistero della pietra di Benben