May 27, 2014 Day 128 of the Sixth Year - History

May 27, 2014 Day 128 of the Sixth Year - History

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President Barack Obama meets with Senior Advisors in the Oval Office, May 27, 2014.

11:15AM THE PRESIDENT views science fair projects
State Dining Room

11:45AM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks at the White House Science Fair
East Room

4:45PM THE PRESIDENT meets with Secretary of Defense Hagel
Oval Office

1:30PM THE PRESIDENT arrives the White House

South Lawn

3:00PM THE PRESIDENT signs H.R. 1209 and H.R. 685
Oval Office

Facts about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects that occur when a baby&rsquos lip or mouth do not form properly during pregnancy. Together, these birth defects commonly are called &ldquoorofacial clefts&rdquo.

What is Cleft Lip?

The lip forms between the fourth and seventh weeks of pregnancy. As a baby develops during pregnancy, body tissue and special cells from each side of the head grow toward the center of the face and join together to make the face. This joining of tissue forms the facial features, like the lips and mouth. A cleft lip happens if the tissue that makes up the lip does not join completely before birth. This results in an opening in the upper lip. The opening in the lip can be a small slit or it can be a large opening that goes through the lip into the nose. A cleft lip can be on one or both sides of the lip or in the middle of the lip, which occurs very rarely. Children with a cleft lip also can have a cleft palate.

What is Cleft Palate?

The roof of the mouth (palate) is formed between the sixth and ninth weeks of pregnancy. A cleft palate happens if the tissue that makes up the roof of the mouth does not join together completely during pregnancy. For some babies, both the front and back parts of the palate are open. For other babies, only part of the palate is open.

Other Problems

Children with a cleft lip with or without a cleft palate or a cleft palate alone often have problems with feeding and speaking clearly and can have ear infections. They also might have hearing problems and problems with their teeth.

How Many Babies are Born with Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate?

  • About 1 in every 1,600 babies is born with cleft lip with cleft palate in the United States.
  • About 1 in every 2,800 babies is born with cleft lip without cleft palate in the United States.
  • About 1 in every 1,700 babies is born with cleft palate in the United States. 1

Causes and Risk Factors

The causes of orofacial clefts among most infants are unknown. Some children have a cleft lip or cleft palate because of changes in their genes. Cleft lip and cleft palate are thought to be caused by a combination of genes and other factors, such as things the mother comes in contact with in her environment, or what the mother eats or drinks, or certain medications she uses during pregnancy.

Like the many families of children with birth defects, CDC wants to find out what causes them. Understanding the factors that are more common among babies with a birth defect will help us learn more about the causes. CDC funds the Centers for Birth Defects Research and Prevention, which collaborate on large studies such as the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS births 1997-2011) and the Birth Defects Study To Evaluate Pregnancy exposureS (BD-STEPS began with births in 2014), to understand the causes of and risks for birth defects, including orofacial clefts.

Recently, CDC reported on important findings from research studies about some factors that increase the chance of having a baby with an orofacial cleft:

  • Smoking―Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have a baby with an orofacial cleft than women who do not smoke. 2-3
  • Diabetes―Women with diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy have an increased risk of having a child with a cleft lip with or without cleft palate, compared to women who did not have diabetes. 5
  • Use of certain medicines―Women who used certain medicines to treat epilepsy, such as topiramate or valproic acid, during the first trimester (the first 3 months) of pregnancy have an increased risk of having a baby with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, compared to women who didn&rsquot take these medicines. 6-7

CDC continues to study birth defects, such as cleft lip and cleft palate, and how to prevent them. If you are pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant, talk with your doctor about ways to increase your chances of having a healthy baby.


Orofacial clefts, especially cleft lip with or without cleft palate, can be diagnosed during pregnancy by a routine ultrasound. They can also be diagnosed after the baby is born, especially cleft palate. However, sometimes certain types of cleft palate (for example, submucous cleft palate and bifid uvula) might not be diagnosed until later in life.

Management and Treatment

Services and treatment for children with orofacial clefts can vary depending on the severity of the cleft the child&rsquos age and needs and the presence of associated syndromes or other birth defects, or both.

Surgery to repair a cleft lip usually occurs in the first few months of life and is recommended within the first 12 months of life. Surgery to repair a cleft palate is recommended within the first 18 months of life or earlier if possible. 8 Many children will need additional surgical procedures as they get older. Surgical repair can improve the look and appearance of a child&rsquos face and might also improve breathing, hearing, and speech and language development. Children born with orofacial clefts might need other types of treatments and services, such as special dental or orthodontic care or speech therapy. 4,8

With treatment, most children with orofacial clefts do well and lead a healthy life. Some children with orofacial clefts may have issues with self-esteem if they are concerned with visible differences between themselves and other children. Parent-to-parent support groups can prove to be useful for families of babies with birth defects of the head and face, such as orofacial clefts.


  1. Mai CT, Isenburg JL, Canfield MA, Meyer RE, Correa A, Alverson CJ, Lupo PJ, Riehle‐Colarusso T, Cho SJ, Aggarwal D, Kirby RS. National population‐based estimates for major birth defects, 2010&ndash2014. Birth Defects Research. 2019 111(18): 1420-1435.
  2. Little J, Cardy A, Munger RG. Tobacco smoking and oral clefts: a meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ. 200482:213-18.
  3. Honein MA, Rasmussen SA, Reefhuis J, Romitti P, Lammer EJ, Sun L, Correa A. Maternal smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and the risk of oral clefts. Epidemiology 200718:226&ndash33.
  4. Yazdy MM, Autry AR, Honein MA, Frias JL. Use of special education services by children with orofacial clefts. Birth Defects Research (Part A): Clinical and Molecular Teratology 200882:147-54.
  5. Correa A, Gilboa SM, Besser LM, Botto LD, Moore CA, Hobbs CA, Cleves MA, Riehle-Colarusso TJ, Waller DK, Reece EA. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2008199:237.e1-9.
  6. Margulis AV, Mitchell AA, Gilboa SM, Werler MM, Glynn RJ, Hernandez-Diaz S, National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Use of topiramate in pregnancy and risk of oral clefts. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012207:405.e1-e7.
  7. Werler MM, Ahrens KA, Bosco JL, Michell AA, Anderka MT, Gilboa SM, Holmes LB, National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Use of antiepileptic medications in pregnancy in relation to risks of birth defects. Annals of Epidemiology 201121:842-50.
  8. American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. Parameters for evaluation and treatment of patients with cleft lip/palate or other craniofacial anomalies. Revised edition, Nov 2009. Chapel Hill, NC. P. 1-34. external icon
Cleft Lip

The images are in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. As a matter of courtesy we request that the content provider (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities) be credited and notified in any public or private usage of this image.

Cleft Palate

The images are in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. As a matter of courtesy we request that the content provider (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities) be credited and notified in any public or private usage of this image.

How Many Computers Are There in the World?

As of October 2014, there were nearly 2 billion personal computers used worldwide. By comparison, the 1 billionth personal computer was shipped in 2002, although 1 billion computers were in use in 2008. Several research groups believe the 2-billion mark of PC usage will occur sometime in 2015 or 2016. Tablet computers and mobile devices are gradually gaining on PC usage.

The difference between PCs in use and PCs shipped are due to several factors. Older computers get removed from service when companies and individuals buy newer models. Computers shipped from manufacturers are not necessarily sold at retailers. Personal computers are being replaced by smaller, faster models.

During 2013, more than 134.4 million PC units were shipped in the United States. In the third quarter of 2014, more than 78.5 million units were shipped from manufacturers, a decline of 1.4 percent from the third quarter of 2013. Lenovo, HP, Dell, Acer and Apple are the five largest personal computer manufacturers in the world, as of October 2014.

Predicted sales of desktop PCs will drop to just 5 percent of the market by 2017, with smartphones taking more than 70 percent of the market. More than 1.01 billion smartphone units, 227.3 million tablet computers and 180.9 portable PCs were shipped in 2013, all numbers that exceed desktop PC shipments in the same year.

Best of the OLL BOLL 51: Percy Bysshe Shelley, “On Liberty” (1810-22)

This is part of “The Best of the Online Library of Liberty” which is a collection of some of the most important material in the OLL. This collection of Shelley’s writings contains his “Declaration of Rights” (1812), numerous poems on the topics of liberty and oppression, and extracts from some of his dramas which were written between 1810 (when he was 18) and his death in 1822 just before he t.

Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Ideas About Liberty Liberty and Virtue: Frank Meyer's Fusionism (June 2021)

Welcome to our June 2021 edition of Liberty Matters. This month Stephanie Slade, managing editor at Reason magazine, has written our lead essay on Frank Meyer. Liberty Fund publishes Meyer’s most widely cited book In Defense of Freedom and related essays which also includes a number of Meyer’s more well known essays. Meyer was one of the founders, along with William F. Buckley, of National Re.

Black History

Black History Month is observed every February in the United States. Learn about the history of Black History Month, read biographies of famous African Americans, try our quizzes and crosswords, find stats and facts about African Americans, and more.

500 Notable African American Biographies



History & Timelines

Learn about famous firsts by black Americans, read the history of black history, and find information about milestones in black history.

Contemporary Issues & Facts

Find out about recent developments in civil rights cases, milestones in affirmative action, population statistics regarding African Americans, and more.

Biographies & Special Features

Brush up on the Harlem Renaissance and Negro League Baseball, read biographies of famous African Americans such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Muhammad Ali, and more.


Learn about the history, traditions, and significance of Kwanzaa, Juneteenth, and Martin Luther King Jr Day.


Find information about the best colleges for African Americans, historically black colleges, milestones in education, and more.


Learn about awards exclusively for African Americans, including the NAACP Image Awards, the Spingarn Medal, and the Coretta Scott King Award, and see a full list of winners.

Quizzes & Crosswords

Test your knowledge about black history and famous African Americans by trying our quizzes and crosswords.

(Re-)Watch: #StudioMHDay

Part 1: Best of Menstrual Hygiene Day 2021
Event highlights, best of online campaigning, the Menstruation Bracelet action, best of media coverage, examples of action, and preliminary numbers

Part 2: Progress updates
Progress from world regions, update on period poverty, the status of period stigma, and spotlight on MHH in emergencies

Part 3: The route to 2030
Key challenges and how the MH Day movement can address them

May 2021 - Overview for the Month

The whole universe is invited to acclaim the glories of the Ascending Christ. He is surrounded with the just of Limbo, with the souls who had finished their purgatorial expiation and probably with the saints who came out of their tombs on Easter Sunday: "Ascending on high He has led captivity captive".

The month of May is dedicated to The Blessed Virgin Mary. The first 23 days fall within the liturgical season of Easter, which is represented by the liturgical color white &mdash the color of light, a symbol of joy, purity and innocence (absolute or restored). The remainder of the month (beginning the Monday after Pentecost) is in Ordinary Time which is represented by the liturgical color green. This symbol of hope is the color of the sprouting seed and arouses in the faithful the hope of reaping the eternal harvest of heaven, especially the hope of a glorious resurrection.

The World of Finance
Let us pray that those in charge of finance will work with governments to regulate the financial sphere and protect citizens from its dangers. (See also Pope's Worldwide Prayer Network)

The feasts on the General Roman Calendar celebrated during the month of May are:

The Gospel readings for all the Sundays in May are taken from St. John and and St. Matthew and are from Year B, Cycle 1.

As Spring blossoms forth and we are surrounded by new life, we spend this month full of the joy of our Easter celebration and in anticipation of the coming of the Holy Spirit, our Consoler and Advocate.

The saints that we will focus on this month &mdash those who have already shared in the rewards of the Resurrection &mdash are St. Joseph the Worker (May 1), Sts. Philip and James (May 3), St. Damian the Leper (May 10), St. Nereus & Achilleus, St. Pancras (May 12), Our Lady of Fatima (May 13), St. Matthias (May 14), St. Isidore the Farmer (May 15), St. John I (May 18), St. Bernadine of Siena (May 20), St. Christopher Magallanes (May 21), St. Rita of Cascia (May 22), St. Bede, St. Gregory VII and St. Mary Magdalene de Pazzi (May 25), St. Philip Neri (May 26), St. Augustine of Canterbury (May 27) and the Visitation (May 31).

The feasts of St. Athanasius (May 2) is superseded by the Sunday liturgy. The Solemnity of the Ascension (May 13) is celebrated on May 16 (Sunday) in most dioceses in the United States.

The world is resplendent with Spring's increased light and new growth. It is Mary’s month in the Easter season and all of nature rejoices with the Queen of heaven at the Resurrection of the Son she was worthy to bear. During the remainder of Easter time, let us endeavor through the prayers of the Holy Liturgy and the Holy Rosary to deepen our gratitude for the mystery of our Baptismal rebirth in Christ.

"The month of May, with its profusion of blooms was adopted by the Church in the eighteenth century as a celebration of the flowering of Mary's maidenly spirituality…With its origins in Isaiah's prophecy of the Virgin birth of the Messiah under the figure of the Blossoming Rod or Root of Jesse, the flower symbolism of Mary was extended by the Church Fathers, and in the liturgy, by applying to her the flower figures of the Sapiential Books-Canticles, Wisdom, Proverbs and Sirach.

"In the medieval period, the rose was adopted as the flower symbol of the Virgin Birth, as expressed in Dante's phrase, 'The Rose wherein the Divine Word was made flesh,' and depicted in the central rose windows of the great gothic cathedrals-from which came the Christmas carol, 'Lo, How a Rose 'ere Blooming.' Also, in the medieval period, when monasteries were the centers of horticultural and agricultural knowledge, and with the spread of the Fransiscan love of nature, the actual flowers themselves, of the fields, waysides and gardens, came to be seen as symbols of Mary&hellip" &ndash John S. Stokes

Pentecost, the birth of the Church, is also among the celebrations of May. Though sprung from the side of Christ on the Cross, the Church marks as her birthday the descent of the Holy Spirit on Mary and the Apostles. At the 'birth' of the world, the Holy Spirit — the Breath of God — was the "mighty wind [that] swept over the waters" (Gen 1:2) at the birth of the Church He is present again "like the rush of a mighty wind" to recreate the world in the image of Christ through His Church (Acts 2:2).

We, the members of Christ’s Mystical Body, are the present-day disciples sent by the Holy Spirit to bring Christ to the world. May we go forth as did Mary, who set out in haste to assist St. Elizabeth (feast of the Visitation, May 31). Come upon us, O Holy Spirit, so that, with Mary, we may proclaim the greatness of the Lord who has done great things for us — for his mercy endures forever!

"In the hierarchy of holiness it is precisely the 'woman', Mary of Nazareth, who is the 'figure' of the Church. She 'precedes' everyone on the path to holiness in her person 'the Church has already reached that perfection whereby she exists without spot or wrinkle'". — JOHN PAUL II Mulieris Dignitatem, 1988

2020 Theme: Recover Better - Stand Up for Human Rights

This year’s Human Rights Day theme relates to the COVID-19 pandemic and focuses on the need to build back better by ensuring Human Rights are central to recovery efforts. We will reach our common global goals only if we are able to create equal opportunities for all, address the failures exposed and exploited by COVID-19, and apply human rights standards to tackle entrenched, systematic, and intergenerational inequalities, exclusion and discrimination.

10 December is an opportunity to reaffirm the importance of human rights in re-building the world we want, the need for global solidarity as well as our interconnectedness and shared humanity.

Under UN Human Rights’ generic call to action “Stand Up for Human rights”, we aim to engage the general public, our partners and the UN family to bolster transformative action and showcase practical and inspirational examples that can contribute to recovering better and fostering more resilient and just societies.

Lab-08 - Eighth Lab for the course

This lab aims to teach you basic of web design using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). The next lab will show you how to use Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). These two technologies are the fundamental underlying building blocks of the world wide web, and are used to build every single site you visit during your day.

2 What is a Markup Language

As the name suggests, HTML is a &quotmarkup language&quot, but what does that even mean? To put it plainly, markup language is a system for annotating documents in a way that is indistinguishable from text. The idea evolved from the traditional method of &quotmarking up&quot paper manuscripts with formatting instructions intended for the operator of a printing press:

HTML replaces the &quotpenciled in&quot instructions with a system of &quottags&quot that can be read by a computer, and used to properly format the text when it is printed or displayed on the screen. For example, this is how one would make bullet points in HTML:

&lt l i &gt❖♥❡&lt/ l i &gt
&lt l i &gt❚✇♦&lt/ l i &gt
&lt l i &gt❚❤r❡❡&lt/ l i &gt

Working with markup is a bit different from working in a WYSIWYG environment such as Microsoft Word. In markup environment formatting instructions are explicit and can be read, and validated for correctness.

3 Editing HTML Documents

To edit a HTML document you will need a text editor. Any editor will do and in the lab we will be using a professional web design tool called Brackets.

Brackets is available from and is completely free, and available for Windows, Mac and Linux so you can install it on your home computer if you need to.

is associated with a web browser application (we talked about file extensions during the File Systems lecture so this should be a familiar concept by now).

To edit the contents of the HTML file, you will need to open it in a plain text editor or a web design tool such as Brackets. To do this:

  • Open your text editor (eg. Brackets, Notepad, etc. )
  • Browse to the File menu and choose Open
  • Find your file and double click on it

When working with a HTML document, I suggest that you open it in a text editor and in a web browser, then put the windows side by side on your screen. Brackets allows you to do that automatically using the Live Preview feature. Simply hit the &quotlightning&quot button on the right side of your editor, and the current page will be opened in Google Chrome. Whenever you make changes to the code, they will be reflected in the browser.

Note: if you are not using Brackets Live Preview, you will have to save your HTML document and then refresh the browser page manually to see the changes you just made.

5 Starting a HTML Project

Create a folder named❧❛❜✽on your desktop. We will be saving all the files we create into this folder.
Open Brackets, and choose Open Folder on the sidebar, then navigate to your❧❛❜✽folder:

Now Brackets knows where to save your files. Any files you create within this Brackets session will be

Saved into❧❛❜✽. Additionally, any files added or saved to the ❧❛❜✽folder, will show up in the sidebar. It

should be empty right now, because we have not created any files yet. Lets rectify that.

Go to the file menu and choose the New command. This should open a new file named ❯♥t✐t❧❡❞✲✶
And show it under❲♦r❦✐♥❣ ❋✐❧❡ssection in the sidebar.
Now go to File and choose Save As. Name your file✐♥❞❡①✳❤t♠❧. This will create a new file inside❧❛❜✽

Now you have a blank HTML document and should be ready to begin creating the web page. Should you accidentally close Brackets, it will remember your folder and re-open it next time you start the program.

Test the Live Preview feature by clicking the small Lightning icon on the right. This should open Google Chrome. Put Brackets and Chrome windows side by side. Type something into the blank document in your text editor and watch it appear in the web browser.

6 HTML Markup

6.1 HTML Tags

HTML documents use the concept of a tag. A HTML tag is usually a word enclosed in the angular brackets

❁ ❃. Tags usually come in pairs, so we can distinguish between an opening tag (eg. ❁❤✶❃) and a closing
Tag (eg. ❁✴❤✶❃). The opening and closing tags enclose the text to be formatted. Here is an example:
&lth1&gt❍ ❡ ❧ ❧ ♦ ❲ ♦ r ❧ ❞!&lt/ h1&gt
In this example we are using ❁❤✶❃ tag which stands for Heading 1 or first level (large) heading. This

markup will make the words &quotHello World!&quot as a large chapter heading.

Most tags (with few notable exceptions) follow this pattern of opening and closing tags.

HTML tags may have what we call attributes. Attributes are a list of key-value pairs embedded inside an opening tag like this:

&lta href=&quot http : / / example .com&quot &gt❚ ❤ ✐ s ✐ s ❛ t ❛ ❣ ✇ ✐ t ❤ ❛ t t r ✐ ❜ ✉ t ❡ s&lt/ a&gt
As you can see, only the text inside the❁❜♦❞②❃ tag is displayed as web page content. The rest of the

text above is just markup. Here is what the individual tags actually mean:

❁✦❉❖❈❚❨P❊❃ This tag must always be on the first line of the document. This tells the web

browser we are using the modern HTML5 standard. If you skip this tag, the browser will have to guess which HTML version you are using, and it may guess wrong, resulting in odd side effects.

❁❤t♠❧❃ This tag wraps the entire document and delimits where actual content starts and

ends. You should never have more than one set of these tags, and there should

Never be anything below the closing one. The ❁✴❤t♠❧❃ should mark the ab-

solute end of your document. If you put anything below it, it won’t be displayed properly.

❁❤❡❛❞❃ This tag encloses so called &quotmetadata&quot - basic information about the content of

the document. In this example it only contains &lttitle&gt tag. It may seem superflu- ous and useless, but you have to have it.

❁t✐t❧❡❃ Tells the browser what title to put on the tab pane.
❁❜♦❞②❃ This tag encloses the actual content of the web page which is to be displayed
On the screen. The ❁✴❜♦❞②❃ tag should be the second to last line of your

6.3 White Space

When displaying your web page content, browsers will ignore any and all tabs, line breaks, or repeated spaces in your document. The only exception are the single spaces in between words. The colloquial term we use to refer to things like spaces, tabs and line breaks is white space.

In HTML you cannot use white space for alignment or formatting or paragraphs. Line breaks and paragraph breaks must be explicitly entered using HTML tags.

Here is an example of how to format paragraphs and headings properly:

&lth1&gt❚ ❤ ✐ s ✐ s ❛ ❤ ❡ ❛ ❞ ✐ ♥ ❣&lt/ h1&gt
&ltp&gt❚ ❤ ✐ s ✐ s ❛ ♣ ❛ r ❛ ❣ r ❛ ♣ ❤. ■ t ♠ ❛ ② ❝ ♦ ♥ t ❛ ✐ ♥ ♠ ✉ ❧ t ✐ ♣ ❧ ❡ s ❡ ♥ t ❡ ♥ ❝ ❡ s.&lt/ p&gt
&ltp&gt❚ ❤ ✐ s ✐ s ❛ s ❡ ❝ ♦ ♥ ❞ ♣ ❛ r ❛ ❣ r ❛ ♣ ❤.&lt/ p&gt
&lth2&gt❚ ❤ ✐ s ✐ s ❛ ❧ s ♦ ❛ ❤ ❡ ❛ ❞ ✐ ♥ ❣&lt/ h2&gt
&ltp&gt❚ ❤ ✐ s ✐ s ❛ t ❤ ✐ r ❞ ♣ ❛ r ❛ ❣ r ❛ ♣ ❤.&ltbr / &gt ■ t ❤ ❛ s ❛ ❧ ✐ ♥ ❡ ❜ r ❡ ❛ ❦ ✐ ♥ t ❤ ❡ ♠ ✐ ❞ ❞ ❧ ❡.&lt/ p&gt

When rendered in the web browser the above code should look like this:

Note how there is a little bit of vertical space between the paragraphs and a bit more space above and

Below headings. When you use the ❁♣❃ or heading tags, the browser will add this padding to keep
Things separated. If you wish to avoid this, you can use the ❁❜r❃tag. It breaks the text to the next line

immediately without any extra spacing.

&lt l i &gt❆ ♥ ♦ t ❤ ❡ r ❧ ✐ s t ✐ t ❡ ♠&lt/ l i &gt

The tags available for making lists are as follows:

❁✉❧❃ Starts an un-ordered (or bullet point) list
❁♦❧❃ Starts an ordered (or enumerated) list
❁❧✐❃ Stands for &quotlist item&quot

6.6 Links

Links are what binds the World Wide Web together. They are by far one of the most important components

Of each web page. In HTML you create links using the anchor tag❁❛❃.

This tag is somewhat unique in that on its own it does absolutely nothing. However if you use it with the

❤r❡❢ attribute (which stands for HTTP Reference) it turns the enclosed text into clickable link that will

send the reader to the web page specified as the value of that attribute.

&lta href=&quot http : / / montclair. edu&quot&gt▼ ♦ ♥ t ❝ ❧ ❛ ✐ r ❙ t ❛ t ❡ ❯ ♥ ✐ ✈ ❡ r s ✐ t ②&lt/ a&gt

In the above example, the words Montclair State University will become a clickable link which will take you

To the MSU home page. The❤r❡❢attribute is mandatory and without it the link won’t work. Note that you

also cannot leave the contents of the tag blank, or else there will be nothing for the user to click on.

You can also link to a specific heading within the same document. To do so, give one of your headings

An id attribute, and then use the★ character, followed by the value of that id attribute instead of a web
&lth1 top &quot&gt❲ ❡ ❧ ❝ ♦ ♠ ❡!&lt/ h1&gt
&lta href=&quot#top &quot&gt❚ ♦ ♣ ♦ ❢ t ❤ ❡ P ❛ ❣ ❡&lt/ a&gt

6.7 Images

Embedding images in your website is accomplished using the❁✐♠❣❃tag. Much like ❁❜r❃it is a stand-
Alone tag which does not need to be closed. Instead it requires two mandatory attributes: sr❝ (which
Stands for &quotsource&quot as in the source of the image) and❛❧t(which stands for &quotalternate text&quot).

The former lets the web browser know where to find the image, and the second lets it know what to display on the screen if the image is missing or cannot be used (for example if you are browsing the web using a screen reader).

&ltimg src=&quot http : / / example .com/ image. jpg &quot a l t =&quotMy Image&quot&gt

Adding the❛❧ttag may seem superfluous but you should keep in mind that vision impaired users of the

web cannot see images, and therefore they are absolutely reliant on these tags in order to make sense of web pages.

Also note that thesr❝attribute must point to an actual image file. This means it should always end in a
File extension associated with images such as (but not limited to)✳❥♣❣,✳♣♥❣or✳❣✐❢. If a link you are

using does not end in one of these extensions, the image will probably not display properly on your web pages.

6.7.1 Hotlinking vs Hosted Images

Note that embedding image using a full web address is known as hot-linking and is generally frowned upon. As a rule of thumb, you should never hot-link to images which are hosted on websites you do not own. If you do this, you are putting yourself at risk, because the author of the website may delete or swap the image with a different one at any time.

To ensure your website is not suddenly full of broken images (or worse - defaced by the owner of the original images you hot-linked) you should save the image you like to the same folder as your page.

Brackets will help you keep track of your graphical assets by displaying them in the sidebar:

When you use saved images, you can employ the simplified form of the tag:

&ltimg src=&quot image. jpg &quot a l t =&quotMy Image&quot&gt

You just must make sure you upload✐♠❛❣❡✳❥♣❣ to the server along with your HTML files when you are

ready to put your page up on the web.

Sometimes the image you want to use is too large, or the wrong shape for your website. To re-size it you have two options.

First, is to crop or re-size it using an image editor such as Micrsoft Paint or OSX Preview.

Second is to use the optional✇✐❞t❤ and ❤❡✐❣❤t attributes to specify the desired width and height of

the image in pixels like this:

&ltimg src=&quot image. jpg &quot a l t =&quotMy Image&quot width=&quot100&quot height=&quot100&quot&gt

Please keep in mind that if you specify both width and height you will override the images original aspect ratio, and your picture may look stretched vertically or horizontally.

As you can see in the example above, you can use the❜♦r❞❡r attribute to specify that a table should

have borders. By default, tables will be borderless.

6.9 Containers

HTML5 uses special structural tags that are supposed to act as containers that help to compartmentalize your content. They don’t provide any formatting, but can be used to group the content on the page into sections.

❁❛rt✐❝❧❡❃ Encloses a single &quotarticle&quot or blog post.
❁s❡❝t✐♦♥❃ Encloses an arbitrary portion of text: eg. a single topic.

For example in a personal web page you may want to create separate sections for different topics:

&lth2&gt▼ ② ❍ ♦ ❜ ❜ ✐ ❡ s&lt/ h2&gt
&ltp&gt▲ ✐ s t ♦ ❢ ② ♦ ✉ ❤ ♦ ❜ ❜ ✐ ❡ s.&lt/ p&gt
&lth2&gt▼ ② ❲ ♦ r ❦&lt/ h2&gt
&ltp&gt❙ t ✉ ❢ ❢ ❛ ❜ ♦ ✉ t ✇ ❤ ❡ r ❡ ② ♦ ✉ ✇ ♦ r ❦.&lt/ p&gt

There are also two general purpose container tags that can be applied to enclose arbitrary amounts of text:

❁s♣❛♥❃ Used to enclose one or more words.
❁❞✐✈❃ Used to create a &quotdivision&quot which is an arbitrary block of text that is not necessarily
The❁s♣❛♥❃ and❁❞✐✈❃ containers have no specific meaning and do not change formatting of the text

and other elements they contain. We will learn how to utilize them to apply selective formatting to blocks of text. To create semantic blocks that both have specific meaning (such as an address or a quote) you should you should use the appropriate semantic tags instead.

7 Lab Exercise

Your assignment is to create a simple HTML page. The topic matter is up to you. Your page must include:

1. Valid HTML5 including the correct❉❖❈❚❨P❊tag
2. Correctly formatted❁❤❡❛❞❃ tag including a❁t✐t❧❡❃
3. At least 3❁s❡❝t✐♦♥❃tags inside of the❁❜♦❞②❃
4. Each section should contain a heading (eg❁❤✷❃) and one or more paragraphs (❁♣❃).
5. At least one image. All❁✐♠❣❃tags must contain the ❛❧tattribute.
7. At least one quote of your choosing enclosed in❁❜❧♦❝❦q✉♦t❡❃or❁q❃tag.
Name your folder❧❛❜✽and your web page✐♥❞❡①✳❤t♠❧.

8 Submission Instructions

To submit this assignment make sure you have a folder named❧❛❜✽on your Desktop. It should include
If you are submitting from your lab computer, make sure you have a drive named❲✿under My Computer.
Copy the entire❧❛❜✽to the❲✿drive.

Once you do this, open a web browser and visit the following URL:

Instead of the word♥❡t✐❞ please use your actual MSU NetID. Make sure the web page at that address

is accessible. Also, make sure all images are being displayed correctly. If you are missing any images,

Make sure to copy appropriate files into the❧❛❜✽on the❲✿ drive.

If everything looks correctly, copy the URL and submit it via MSU Canvas.

Watch the video: Eπισκέψεις σχολείων στην. του Υπουργείου Παιδείας 2012-2013