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The Valentine IX was the designation given to Mk Vs that were upgunned to carry a 6-pounder anti-tank gun. The original Mk V had been given a larger three-man turret, but retained the 2-pounder gun. The new turret had enough space to carry the more powerful 6-pounder gun, but only the coaxial machine gun and the third crewman had to be removed. There was also only space for 53 6-pounder shells, compared to 60-62 2-pounder shells in earlier marks.
The Mk VIII used the shorter 6-pounder Mk III (L/43), which had been introduced in order to simplify production. The Mk IX used the full length Mk V (L/50), which was a more effective weapon.
The Mk V was powered by a 138hp G.M.C. 6-71 diesel engine. The Mk IX was given a 165hp G.M.C. 6-71 diesel, for an extra 27hp.
The Mk IX was one of three versions armed with the 6-pounder gun. The Mk VIII was an up-gunned version of the Mk III, while the Mk X was built from new with the 6-pounder.
The Mk IX was used by the 6th Armoured Division during Operation Torch, the invasion of French North Africa.
A small number of Mk IXs were in use with the 50th RTR during the fighting on the Mareth Line.
Hull Length: 6m 32.5cm/ 20ft 9in
Hull Width: 2m 63cm/ 8ft 7.5in
Height: 2m 27cm/ 7ft 5.5in
Weight: 17,200kg/ 16.9 tons
Engine: GMC 6-71
Max Speed on road: 24km/h/ 15mph
Max Speed off road: 18km/h / 11mph
Max Range: 225km/ 140 miles
Armament: QF 6-pounder Mk V
Turret front: 65mm
Turret sides: 60mm
Nose: 60mm at 21 degrees
Glacis plate: 30mm at 68 degrees
Hull sides: 60mm vertical
Title IX enacted
On June 23, 1972, Title IX of the education amendments of 1972 is enacted into law. Title IX prohibits federally funded educational institutions from discriminating against students or employees based on sex. It begins: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” As a result of Title IX, any school that receives any federal money from the elementary to university level—in short, nearly all schools—must provide fair and equal treatment of the sexes in all areas, including athletics.
Before Title IX, few opportunities existed for female athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), which was created in 1906 to format and enforce rules in men’s football but had become the ruling body of college athletics, offered no athletic scholarships for women and held no championships for women’s teams. Furthermore, facilities, supplies and funding were lacking. As a result, in 1972 there were just 30,000 women participating in NCAA sports, as opposed to 170,000 men.
Title IX was designed to correct those imbalances. Although it did not require that women’s athletics receive the same amount of money as men’s athletics, it was designed to enforce equal access and quality. Women’s and men’s programs were required to devote the same resources to locker rooms, medical treatment, training, coaching, practice times, travel and per diem allowances, equipment, practice facilities, tutoring and recruitment. Scholarship money was to be budgeted on a commensurate basis, so that if 40 percent of a school’s athletic scholarships were awarded to men, 40 percent of the scholarship budget was also earmarked for women.
Multiple Martyred Saint Valentines
Valentine was a popular name in ancient Rome, and there are at least 50 stories of different saints by that name. But Forbes said the earliest surviving accounts of the two February 14 Valentines, written starting in the 500s, have a whole lot in common. Both were said to have healed a child while imprisoned, leading to a household-wide religious conversion, and they were executed on the same day of the year and buried along the same highway.
The historical evidence is so sketchy that it’s not clear whether the story started with one saint who then became two or if biographers of one man borrowed details from the other—or if either ever existed at all.
Perhaps more disappointing for the romantics among us, the early accounts of the two Valentines are typical martyrdom stories, stressing the saints’ miracles and gruesome deaths but containing not a word about romance.
“They’re both mythical to begin with, and the connection with love is even more mythical,” says Henry Kelly, a scholar of medieval and renaissance literature and history at UCLA.
Valentine's Bubbly: 9 Romantic Facts About Champagne
Nothing says it's Valentine's Day like the pop of a freshly opened bottle of champagne — well, nothing says it quite so eloquently. The bubbly will do more than tickle your tongue and perhaps your heart, as there's loads of science sealed in as well.
From the physics of the 10 million or so bubbles in each glass and how they burst, to the glass shape's effect on the beverage's taste, here's what science can teach you about champagne.
1. For the best bubbles in your bubbly, try holding the glass at an angle while you fill it, rather than pouring the champagne straight down. A standard bottle contains about six times its volume in dissolved carbon dioxide gas, which is responsible for the liquid's fizz. Even so, for every carbon dioxide molecule that turns into a bubble, four others escape into the air.
2. Science also suggests caution when popping a bottle of bubbly. Corks from champagne or sparkling wine can erupt at speeds up to 60 mph (97 kilometers per hour). At that speed, a cork in the eye can put a serious damper on Valentine's Day romance.
"That is a lot of force to the eye," Mark Melson, assistant professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at the Vanderbilt Eye Institute, said in 2009. "The damage can range from corneal abrasions to retinal detachment."
3. If you've navigated the cork-popping successfully, you'll soon find yourself in bubbly bliss. In fact, champagne owes its flavor to these bubbles, which carry aromas directly to the nose.
In research published in 2009, scientists found that each champagne bubble carries tens of aromatic compounds — compounds that appear in heavier concentrations in bubbles than in the liquid champagne itself.
"I love the idea that such a wonderful and subtle mechanism acts right under our nose during champagne tasting," said Gérard Liger-Belaira of the Laboratory of Enology and Applied Chemistry at Reims University in France. "In a single champagne glass, there is as much food for the mind as pleasure for your senses."
4. Perhaps that's why champagne is traditionally considered a celebratory drink. Sparkling wine has been a part of celebrations in Europe since at least the French Revolution, when the drink became part of secular rituals that emerged to replace earlier religious rituals, according to Kolleen Guy, a professor of history at the University of Texas at San Antonio and author of "When Champagne Became French" (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003).
"In a secular society, we want to mark both the joy and sanctity of the occasion," Guy told LiveScience's sister site Life's Little Mysteries. "Champagne does this symbolically, but also visually, since it overflows in abundance and joy."
5. While the basic mechanics of the carbon dioxide gas that creates this abundance has long been understood, scientists only recently figured out why bubbles rise in mesmerizing "trains." In 2006, scientists at the University of Reims in France discovered that fibers and gas pockets stuck on the inside of a champagne glass influence the timing of bubble trains, capturing them and allowing them to build up before they release in sparkling chains. So if you (or your date) like your sparkling wine extra-bubbly, towel-dry the glass to leave tiny fibers inside.
6. The word champagne is now reserved for sparkling wines coming from the Champagne region of France, but bubbly was first produced in England in the 1500s, when technology capable of preserving all those bubbles appeared, according to the book "Wine Science, Principles and Applications" (Academic Press, 2008).
7. Today in the United States, the biggest consumers of sparkling wine and champagne are, you guessed it, Californians. In 2009, the state consumed 2,938,370 9-liter cases of bubbly. Illinois came in second, quaffing 1,494,450 cases. [Champagne Facts (Infographic)]
8. Watch out, California: That extra-intoxicated feeling you get after a few glasses of sparkling wine is real. Blood-alcohol levels rise faster in people drinking fizzy champagne compared with people sipping flat stuff, according to research conducted in 2001 at the University of Surrey in the United Kingdom. Forty minutes of drinking bubbly sent people's blood alcohol to 0.7 milligrams per milliliter, compared with 0.58 milligrams per milliliter for people drinking the beverage flat. No one knows why bubbly has this effect, but it may be that the bubbles somehow influence how fast the alcohol gets taken into the digestive system.
9. But champagne just isn't champagne without its bubbles, and science is here to help you make the most of that effervescent experience. A new study, published Feb. 8 in the open-access journal PLoS ONE highlights the effects that glass shape and temperature can have on your champagne-drinking experience.
The researchers, led by Gerard Liger-Belair (GSMA), Guillaume Polidori (GRESPI) and Clara Cilindre (URVVC) of the University of Reims in France, studied the gaseous carbon dioxide and ethanol in the space above the champagne surface after it was poured into either a tall, narrow flute or a wide, shallow coupe. They found a much higher concentration of the gas above the flute than the coupe, which partly accounts for the very different drinking experiences from the two glasses.
These results were also visualized by infrared thermography, which provided images of the gas escaping from the champagne surface. The authors also determined that, surprisingly, decreasing the champagne temperature did not affect the level of carbon dioxide gas above the flute.
These results "might be a precious resource to depict champagne consumer's sensation according to various tasting conditions, Cilindre said.
Follow LiveScience for the latest in science news and discoveries on Twitter @livescience and on Facebook.
Valentine IX - History
With the ALL-NEW
Valentine One Gen2 Radar Detector,
the Arrows Will Show You Exactly!
Radar detector plus radar locator, all in one.
We invented Radar Location back in the 90’s.
Now we’re taking it to the next generation…
Red arrows instantly point to every threat
Tells how many threats, reads instantly
LED identifies laser or radar band
Front and rear antennas scan all around your car
Easy smartphone connection.
Connect to any compatible device you already have.
Our Free App for iPhone
Our Free App For Android
"At the beginning of Gen2 development, I told my engineers, ‘We want the best radar-seeking engine this side of the military.’ In fact, we adapted a component from military CHIRP radars—used to find fainter targets farther away with higher precision.”
Frequently asked questions
Here’s the fallacy with GPS detectors—they can’t block a signal at its source because they don’t know where that is. They know only where your car is, so they block a zone all around your car. This may be okay in a weak detector, but a long-range detector may find that signal a mile away. Now GPS works against you because the block covers a huge zone. Worse yet, the block doesn’t pinpoint a single frequency, it blocks a wider band of frequencies that includes the offending signal. Now if traffic radar sets up within that blocked territory around your car, on a frequency within the blocked band, you’ll get no warning.
We think blocking signals we can’t pinpoint is too risky. Instead, V1 Gen2 characterizes every signal we find using our patented high-speed signal processor, then weeds out the ones that don’t fit the pattern of speed radar. V1 Gen2 combines long range with lowered risk.
last revised 4/20/2020
Also known as Blind Spot Warning (BSW), lane-change warning, side-assist and similar sounding names, these are usually radar-based systems using K band. They warn the driver of a vehicle in the way of a lane change. V1 Gen2 resists interference from almost all of them. However, there is a specific radar sensor used in some 2013-2016 GM vehicles that we’re still working on. The same sensor is also used in some 2007-2012 Mercedes Benz vehicles and 2011-2013 Chrysler and Jeep vehicles. To minimize the problem, owners of those vehicles can enter V1 Gen2’s programming mode and switch on feature G. For more info, please click here.
Also known as Rear Cross Traffic Warning (RCTW) or similar sounding names, these systems are usually tied in with Blind Spot Warning systems on K band. When reverse has been engaged, the system will warn of a vehicle or object approaching from behind on either side of the vehicle or directly from behind, yet out of rear camera range. Some systems will even apply the brakes to avoid impact. V1 Gen2 resists interference from RCTW radar.
last revised 4/20/2020
Also known as Forward Collision Warning (FCW), crash-mitigation warning, adaptive cruise control, automatic-emergency braking or similar sounding names. These systems warn a driver of an impending collision with a car or object directly in its forward path. Some systems apply the brakes, sometimes firmly enough the bring the vehicle to a full stop. While most of these radars operate on 77 GHz, which does not trigger an alert in V1 Gen2, some systems in GM, Mercedes-Benz and commercial vehicles use K-band radar. V1 Gen2 resists interference from those systems in Mercedes-Benz and commercial vehicles. However, the following list of GM vehicles will trigger a forward K-band alert in V1 Gen2: 2013-2016 Cadillac SRX, ATS, CTS, XTS and Escalade. Vehicle manufacturers are generally moving toward the higher-frequency 77 GHz system.
last revised 4/20/2020
Mazda’s Smart City Brake, Volvo’s City Safety, and Toyota’s Safety Sense C (TSS-C) are forward crash-mitigation systems that use laser to “see” the road ahead. Since they use the same laser wave length as speed-enforcement laser, they trigger a similar laser warning in V1 Gen2. Mazda and Volvo models from 2012-2018 will continue to be troublesome until we release a firmware update sometime later in 2020. The good news is that all Mazda and Volvo vehicles redesigned since 2015–some didn’t get redesigned until 2018–no longer use the laser-based system. Toyota, on the other hand, continues to equip the Corolla hatchback, Prius, and Yaris with the problematic laser.
The ADAS (advanced driver-assistance system) in some 2019 and newer Cadillac and Audi models uses a forward laser scanner for crash-mitigation, which can present a problem for V1 Gen2.
Some 2000–2004 Lexus vehicles, 2004–2013 Toyotas, and 2003–2013 Infiniti models are equipped with an optional laser-based crash-mitigation system that can interfere with V1 Gen2. Since the laser-based system was an option available only on the highest-trim level, this concern will continue fading away as age takes these cars off the road.
last revised 4/20/2020
Valentine’s Day is the second-priciest holiday on the US calendar: they spend $27.4 billion each year, $2.4 billion just on candy. On average, celebrants spend almost $200 on the day, $100 on a couple’s dinner out. Men spend three times as much as women. Money is spent on flowers, jewelry, and candy… but especially chocolate. 58 million pounds of chocolate are purchased in the seven days leading up to Feb. 14
If you’re asked if you have a date for St. Valentine’s Day, you can say
Bill Petro, your friendly neighborhood historian
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Air Jordan 9 (IX)
In 1992-1993 when Tinker Hatfield and Nike started working on the Air Jordan 9, Michael Jordan was in Asia to promote for Nike.
Tinker was really influenced by Japanese design. There is a lot of features on the shoe that you may not know which came from the Japanese culture.
Here is a comment from Tinker on the Air Jordan IX:
“The Air Jordan IX represented the globalization of the Air Jordan brand name. Everybody around the world wanted to be like Mike. Take a close look at the soles of the shoes, we designed the different languages around the world that describes the sporting spirit of Michael Jordan and what he has done for the world of sports.”
On the back of the Air Jordan 9 you will see a “Rising Sun” with the Jumpman logo. On the shoe it self there are words in different languages that best represents Michael Jordan, and those words are:
Uhuru (Swahili) – “Independence”
Cвобода (Russian) – “Freedom”
Cпорт (Russian) – “Sport”
Athletisch (German) – “Athletic”
Muundaji (Swahili) – “Hope”
Intenso (Italian) – “Intense”
Liberté (French) – “Freedom”
Anmutig (German) – “Graceful”
Fuerza (Spanish) – “Force”
Dédié (French) – “Dedicated”
When asked what shoe should be on the statue of Michael Jordan in front of the United Center in Chicago, Tinker said the Air Jordan IX, because the shoe represented MJ being a “global superstar”. The Jordan 9 came equipped with dynamic-Fit inner bootie, encapsulated Air-Sole unit (forefoot), large volume Air-Sole unit (heel), polyurethane midsole and “one-pull” lacing system.
The first model of the Air Jordan 9 released in 1993, and a total of four models came out that year. In 2002 four more Air Jordan IX were released, and the set price was $125.00. Two models released of the Air Jordan IX lows selling for $115.00. In 2002-2003 an Air Jordan IX Cleat was made (they came in Metal cleats and MCS 3/4).
Page:History of Valentine and Orson (5).pdf/9
got ready his fleet, and sailed towards the castle of Clerimond, where, when he arrived, he concealed his malice from his sister, and also the two Knights, telling them, that he came to fetch them into Portugal the better to solemnize their marriage, and he would turn Christian on their arrival at his castle, all which they believed, and soon after embarked with him.
When he had got them on board, he ordered them to be put in irons, which so much grieved his sister Clerimond, that she would have thrown herself into the sea, had she not been stopped.
Pacolet comforts the Ladies, and delivers Valentine and Orson out of Prison.
W HEN they were come to Portugal he put Valentine and Orson into a dungeon, and fed them with bread and water, but allowed his sister Clerimond the liberty of the castle, where she met the Empress Bellisant, who had been confined twenty years in the castle of Feragus.
She seeing her so full of grief, comforted her, enquiring the reason, which she told her.
The Empress was mightily grieved, but Pacolet comforted them, telling them he would release them all that evening, which he accordingly did in the following manner:
In the dead of the night he goes to the dungeon where lay Valentine and Orson bound in chains, and touching the doors with his magical wind, they flew open and coming to the Knights he released them, and conducted them to the apartment where Bellisant and Clerimond were, who were exceedingly
The Valentine IX: Valentine with a Long Gun
In the new Warspot article, Yuri Pasholok discusses the Soviet utilization of the Valentine IX armed with the QF 6-pounder (57mm) Anti Tank gun. From acceptance trials in March 1943, through to late war service in with the 151st Independent Tank Regiment and 9th Guards Tank Division in Czechia and Slovakia, this interesting Valentine variant served with distinction.
Vilnius, Lithuania 1944 with the 3rd Belorussian Front
Bucharest, Romania 1944 with the 6th Tank Army
Bucharest, Romania 1944 with the 6th Tank Army
I personally find the very frank anecdotes about what was good and what was bad about a lot of the lend-lease tanks from Soviet tankmen and General Armored Directorate review to be some of my favorite personal accounts of the war. Interestingly enough, the Valentine IX seemed to have been liked by the crews, despite it's lack of a cupola and questionable ergonomic choices. Feel free to discuss your thoughts
The Story of Vindicatrix
Author's note, June 11, 2020: The recently toppled Jefferson Davis statue from the pedestal of the 1907 monument to the Confederate president is the most robust interpretation of Lost Cause symbolism and rhetoric. It was designed by Richmond architect William Churchill Noland to promote both the Lost Cause ethos and connect with the 1607 establishment of the Jamestown colony, featuring figures created by Richmond artist Edward Virginius Valentine. Davis was depicted with eight-foot high "heroic" stature. A duplicate Davis figure made by Valentine for installation in New Orleans was removed by that city in 2017 despite the presence of masked pro-Davis protestors.
The Jefferson Davis memorial on Monument Avenue (Photo by Megan Irwin)
Mary Patteson modeled for the sculptor and later married Henry Watkins Ellerson. (Photo courtesy The Valentine)
The allegorical female figure atop the Davis monument (Photo courtesy The Valentine)
You can see a love story on Monument Avenue, or half of one, perched 50 feet above the street atop the column of the 1907 Jefferson Davis monument.
Overlooking the great boulevard’s commuters, sightseers, protesters and sunbathers, “Vindicatrix,” also known as “Miss Confederacy,” is the work of Edward Virginius Valentine, who also created the Davis figure.
Valentine, like other sculptors working here at the outset of the 20th century, used neighbors and friends to pose for his work. Richmonder Mary Williamson Patteson (1887-1949) became the embodiment of the allegorical female. The artist depicted her with a finger held high, as though caught in mid-scold against the rebuke of the Confederate ideal, or testing to see if the winds of history may carry the vindication of the “Lost Cause.”
But that breeze isn’t wafting in her direction.
While his family prospered through manufacturing the curative Valentine’s Meat Juice, Edward Valentine (1838-1930) turned to sculpture and history. He became connected to bronze and stone Confederate hagiographies in part due to necessity. He returned from Europe, where he’d been studying since before the Civil War erupted while there, he made commemorative figures to help raise overseas money. The lure of home and family returned him to a prostrate and traumatized city where art was just about the last thing on anybody’s mind. Funerary adornments for the dead, however, abounded.
His older sibling, Mann S. Valentine Jr., who founded the Valentine museum, advised his artistic brother, when he complained of money issues, to sculpt any dead Confederate officer for income.
Among his works is the 1875 “recumbent” Robert E. Lee memorial in Washington & Lee University’s chapel. It depicts Lee asleep in full uniform, like a medieval knight. Valentine worked from precise measurements he made from Lee prior to the Confederate general’s 1870 death. (Lee is in a crypt beneath the chapel, not under the sculpture). He also received the commission for the Jefferson Davis figure (“of heroic size,” as the 1907 commemoration booklet describes it) that stands on Monument Avenue before a colonnade designed by Richmond architect William C. Noland.
Davis is portrayed as a U.S. senator from Mississippi, giving his farewell address to his colleagues in Washington on Jan. 21, 1861, after his state declared its secession from the Union. The carved inscription running around the pediment of the colonnade quotes from that speech, in which he insists that the breakaway came not to commit “hostility to others … but from the high and solemn motive of defending and protecting the rights we inherited, and which it is our duty to transmit unshorn to our children.”
Those rights included owning slaves.
Valentine worked on his commission for several years prior to the 1907 installation. According to a 1954 Richmond Times-Dispatch article by Lois H. Keane, he first hired a professional New York model to pose. “Apparently she didn’t meet the requirements,” Keane wrote. “A young Richmond girl superseded her and assumed the illustrious role with marked success.”
The article refers to a note by Valentine about the change of model on April 24, 1906: “Miss Mary Patteson of ‘Forest Hill,’ stood for me for the face of the full-size female figure.” Patteson’s ancestors built the Patteson-Schutte House, Richmond’s oldest frame residence, in the 1750s the Historic Richmond Foundation saved it from demolition in 2006.
While posing as Vindicatrix, Patteson, then 20 years old, met another Valentine model, Henry Watkins Ellerson (1875-1941). At the time of their meeting, Ellerson held a middle-management position for the expanding Indianapolis-based meatpacker Kingan & Co. While he may have had metaphorical big shoes, his actual feet were petite — and that was why he also posed for Valentine. In addition to the Davis figure, the artist had received a commission for a Lee statue to stand in the Virginia portion of the U.S. Capitol’s National Statuary Hall.
“General Lee had unusually small feet,” wrote Keane. (And the Valentine today has in its collection an 1852 pair of Lee’s boots to prove it.)
The Patteson-Ellerson romance seems to have been a slow simmer — they were actually cousins. The couple married on April 16, 1912, and eventually lived in a Westover plantation-influenced, Duncan Lee-designed house on River Road they called Glen Roy. Ellerson assisted in organizing the Crippled Children’s Hospital, now part of the Children’s Hospital of Richmond at VCU, and served as its president. He also helped lead the Richmond Community Fund.
A grandson of the Ellerson-Patteson union is H. Watkins Ellerson III, a Richmond-area music producer and promoter for such blues and R&B performers as Terry Garland and Li’l Ronnie, Marion James and The Night Hawks. He attended law school at Washington & Lee and is aware of the statue’s connection to his family.
“Given the recent and significant criticism of the Davis monument on Monument Ave., I must admit that I have mixed feelings about that,” he responded by email, when asked about Mary Patteson’s role in light of the current debate surrounding Confederate monuments. He understands why some people are offended by what the statues represent.
“I furtively hope the spire with our ‘grandmother’ on top will be preserved,” he wrote, “but they can discard the statue of Jeff Davis as they may wish.”