Julia Strachey : Biography

Julia Strachey : Biography


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Julia Strachey, the daughter of Oliver Strachey, was born in Allahabad, India, in August 1901. At weekends she stayed with the parents of Frances Marshall. In her autobiography she recalled those days with Julia: "I greatly looked forward to my days with Julia. If the weather was too bad for climbing trees we could always spend the whole day in the hayloft over the stables immersed in the strong effluvium of horses and harness."

Julia's uncle was Lytton Strachey and she was a regular visitor to his home Ham Spray House in Ham, Wiltshire. She became a close friend of Dora Carrington, who lived with Lytton. Julia later recalled: "From a distance she (Carrington) looked a young creature, innocent and a little awkward, dressed in very odd frocks such as one would see in some quaint picture-book; but if one came closer and talked to her, one soon saw age scored around her eyes - and something, surely, a bit worse than that - a sort of illness, bodily or mental. She had darkly bruised, hallowed, almost battered sockets."

Lytton Strachey's house became a meeting place for a group of intellectuals described as the Bloomsbury Group. Members included Virginia Woolf, Vanessa Bell, Clive Bell, John Maynard Keynes, David Garnett, E. M. Forster, Duncan Grant, Gerald Brenan, Ralph Partridge, Vita Sackville-West, Bertram Russell, Leonard Woolf, Desmond MacCarthy and Arthur Waley. She became especially close to Russell's wife Alys Pearsall Smith.

Dora Carrington loved Julia's company at Ham Spray House. She told Gerald Brenan in December 1926 : "I love having Julia here. She is a gay sympathetic character." Another regular visitor was the artist Stephen Tomlin. The biographer, Michael Holroyd, the author of Lytton Strachey (1994), has argued: "Tomlin, being bisexual, for a brief spell occupied a virtuoso position in the Ham Spray régime... The mercurial Stephen Tomlin who, greatly attracting Lytton and repelling Ralph, spiralled round the Ham Spray molecule causing shock waves everywhere." Tomlin began an affair with Henrietta Bingham, Carrington's lover. In July 1924 he took Bingham to Scotland. Carrington wrote to Gerald Brenan complaining that "Henrietta repays my affections almost as negatively as you find I do yours."

Tomlin also had sexual relationships with Julia Strachey and Dora Carrington. Carrington's husband, Ralph Partridge, strongly objected to the relationship, "fearing he (Tomlin) was someone more likely to destroy than to create happiness." Frances Marshall agreed: "One side of his character was creatively gifted, charming and sensitive; the other was dominated by a destructive impulse (fuelled probably by deep neurotic despair) whose effect was that he couldn't see two people happy together without being impelled to intervene and take one away, leaving the other bereft. Or it would take the form of a direct bid for power over others - whether male or female, for he was bi-sexual - which he was well-equipped to exert. The sequel would be a fit of suicidal depression and guilt-feelings."

Julia Strachey married Stephen Tomlin in July 1927. The married couple rented a stone cottage at Swallowcliffe in Wiltshire. Carrington was a regular visitor: "Really its equal to Ham Spray in elegance and comfort, only cleaner and tidier." Carrington was in love with both Stephen and Julia. She told Gerald Brenan that she was strongly attracted to Julia and that she was "sleeping night after night in my house, and there's nothing to be done, but to admire her from a distance, and steal distracted kisses under cover of saying goodnight." In October 1929 she sent a letter to her complaining: "Julia, I wish I was a young man and not a hybrid monster, so that I could please you a little in some way, with my affection. You know you move me strangely. I remember for some reasons every thing you say and do, you charm me so much."

Lytton Strachey died of undiagnosed stomach cancer on 21st January 1932. His death made Dora Carrington suicidal. She wrote a passage from David Hume in her diary: "A man who retires from life does no harm to society. He only ceases to do good. I am not obliged to do a small good to society at the expense of a great harm to myself. Why then should I prolong a miserable existence... I believe that no man ever threw away life, while it was worth keeping."

According to Michael Holroyd, the author of Lytton Strachey (1994): "Of all the friends he (Ralph Patridge) invited to Ham Spray it was Stephen Tomlin who appeared most successful in halting her from making another attempt at suicide." Dora Carrington wrote in her journal: "He (Tomlin) persuaded me that after a serious operation or fever, a man's mind would not be in a good state to decide on such an important step. I agreed - so I will defer my decision for a month or two until the result of the operation is less acute." After he returned home, Carrington wrote to him: "You made this last week bearable which nobody else could have done. Those endless conversations were not quite pointless."

Frances Marshall was with Ralph Partridge when he received a phone-call on 11th March 1932. "The telephone rang, waking us. It was Tom Francis, the gardener who came daily from Ham; he was suffering terribly from shock, but had the presence of mind to tell us exactly what had happened: Carrington had shot herself but was still alive. Ralph rang up the Hungerford doctor asking him to go out to Ham Spray immediately; then, stopping only to collect a trained nurse, and taking Bunny with us for support, we drove at breakneck speed down the Great West Road.... We found her propped on rugs on her bedroom floor; the doctor had not dared to move her, but she had touched him greatly by asking him to fortify himself with a glass of sherry. Very characteristically, she first told Ralph she longed to die, and then (seeing his agony of mind) that she would do her best to get well. She died that same afternoon."

Virginia Woolf and Leonard Woolf established the Hogarth Press. Over the next few years they published the work of Virginia, Flora Mayor, Katherine Mansfield, E. Forster, John Maynard Keynes, Robert Graves, T. S. Eliot and Edith Sitwell. In 1932 they published Julia Strachey's Cheerful Weather for the Wedding. Virginia Woolf's biographer, Hermione Lee, has argued that the novel was "an eccentric and witty story of a single difficult day at a wedding in Dorset, shows us what Virginia Woolf's tastes were in contemporary women's fiction."

Julia Strachey separated from Stephen Tomlin in 1934. During this period, Julia made a living by writing short stories for magazines. In 1939 Julia Strachey began a relationship with the artist, Lawrence Gowing, who was seventeen years her junior. Gowing, who was a conscientious objector during the Second World War, married Julia in 1954.

Julia Strachey died in 1979.

I greatly looked forward to my days with Julia. If the weather was too bad for climbing trees we could always spend the whole day in the hayloft over the stables immersed in the strong effluvium of horses and harness. Here at last was someone with whom I could thrash out all sorts of problems, such as what happened after death, the existence of God, suicide and even Free Will, but first and foremost about the arch-mystery of sex. We were almost as interested in the psychological as in the physical aspect, and one thing I remember puzzling about was in what framework of words a proposal of marriage really took place. As for the physical facts, we ploughed with unflagging eagerness through dictionaries and medical books, and the pages of trashy novels such as were read in the kitchen and kept in a drawer with the dishcloths and wooden spoons. All in vain. There was on my mother's bookshelf, very likely left there on purpose, a small green book called How we are Born, and this we read from cover to cover, discussion and textual criticism following. It was as good as its word, and the function of child-bearing did begin to take grisly shape in our understandings - but strange to say, this unhelpful little manual gave no clue at all to the masculine part in the business.

As we clambered among the logs in the woodshed Julia and I used to speculate as to what it could possibly be that married people did together in order to produce a child. We had no glimmering that there could be any other purpose or pleasure involved, nor yet that it was ever performed by people who were not married.

It had been decided, in the event of a crisis occurring, to send for another of Carrington's lovers, Stephen Tomlin. This was Ralph's idea; he wanted to mobilize anyone who might help to ensure her safety. They had got in touch with him and he was standing by. While Tommy was in the house, it was felt, Carrington would not attempt to take her own life. It was a cruel but clever expedient, for its success depended upon Tommy being so unbalanced and neurotic, so prone himself to suicide, shattered by his brother Garrow having been killed flying only the previous month, by the failure of his marriage to Julia Strachey and by all the supports in his life tottering, that Carrington's sense of responsibility would be aroused, and she would pull herself together to attend to him. Tommy's principal relations with other people contained a strong element of dependence. Lytton was not merely one of his closest friends; he relied, in some almost filial way, upon his existence. In the event of Lytton's death, Carrington would have to control herself and Tommy.

Returning we saw Lytton and Carrington on the lawn. Tea was ready. ... Now it was over and Tommy (Stephen Tomlin) was standing with his back to the fireplace talking to Julia and me. He couldn't fail to be aware that Lytton was putting on his outdoor shoes, in obvious hope of a walk with him. This he does in a way all his own. He puts each shoe down with great care just in front of the foot to which it belongs, and then slips it gently in, obviously enjoying the process. Tommy was manifesting his inveterate passion for being in demand by more than one person at once, and I remembered that Ralph told me how Lytton had confessed to having put a love letter under what he believed to be Tommy's door. But not till Julia had left the room did Lytton say in a peculiarly mild voice, "Do you feel like a little walk?" They set off, and as Ralph and Carrington were driving Alix home, Julia and I were left alone together, discussing whether she would look for a job or not. She was nowhere nearer a decision.

"Swallowcliffe is definitely impossible unless Tommy and I are married - but I shouldn't be surprised if we do get married." "No. Nor should I," I said somewhat untruthfully. I don't believe she is really in love with Tommy, but it might rescue her from what she fears may be an unhappy future, and so make her happier. If only Tommy weren't so neurotic and alarmingly destructive, but of course he's extremely intelligent, and this weekend he has been sane and charming.


Cheerful Weather for the Wedding

This was absolute rubbish. Wicked too. The story was that although her wedding was but a few hours off, the bride couldn&apost make up her mind whether she should get married or run off with a previous lover, a dithering sort of person whose job took him on great adventures abroad. He had just turned up again that day and hoped it wasn&apost too late.

Whether to run off abroad with this man or get married to her steady fiance that was the question. The answer was to get drunk on rum straight from the bo This was absolute rubbish. Wicked too. The story was that although her wedding was but a few hours off, the bride couldn't make up her mind whether she should get married or run off with a previous lover, a dithering sort of person whose job took him on great adventures abroad. He had just turned up again that day and hoped it wasn't too late.

Whether to run off abroad with this man or get married to her steady fiance that was the question. The answer was to get drunk on rum straight from the bottle and eventually the lateness of the day and the clarity that alcohol sometimes brings made up her mind. "Time and tide wait for no man" she told the lover and went to church and got hitched.

The spurned lover admitted it was his fault that his heart was broken because his inactivity, lack of commuication and commitment to his beloved had led to her finding another man to love and marry. But not being a decent type, but an absolute bastard, then launched into a major attack on her character.

He said she was promiscuous, pregnant by who knew who and had been so before and probably had abortions if not actually had the babies and left them in foreign locales. He said that even the servants were gossiping about it.

She made the right choice, life with an asshole like that couldn't be worsened.

This was one of those Bloomsbury set type books just made for a Julian Fellowes tv series starring Dame Maggie Smith (as in Downton Abbey) or similar acerbic old-lady actress plus great costuming. I got so little from the story, really a novella or long short-story, that I downloaded the movie and watched that. It was a little better, but two stars, meh, why bother, is all I can rate it. . more

I read this very short novella by a member of the Bloomsbury Group, first published in 1932, at a sitting - the perfect antidote to some of the longer and heavier tomes I&aposve been struggling through lately. The main thing that struck me about it was how visually vivid it is - full of colours, textures and wickedly accurate descriptions, which make me want to track down the film that was made a few years back, and see how well it translates to screen.

The book focuses in on a single day in a wildl I read this very short novella by a member of the Bloomsbury Group, first published in 1932, at a sitting - the perfect antidote to some of the longer and heavier tomes I've been struggling through lately. The main thing that struck me about it was how visually vivid it is - full of colours, textures and wickedly accurate descriptions, which make me want to track down the film that was made a few years back, and see how well it translates to screen.

The book focuses in on a single day in a wildly disorganised, Bohemian household. The daughter of the house is getting married, but, as she swigs a bottle of rum while putting on her finery, it seems increasingly clear that she has chosen the wrong man. The dialogue and descriptions are full of wit and humour, and at times I was reminded of P. G. Wodehouse, especially during the description of the ghastly homemade lampshade sent to the lucky couple by the wonderfully-named 'Miss Dido Potts-Griffiths'. However, the tone is rather more bitter than Wodehouse overall.

The book is beautifully produced, as always with Persephone, and an added bonus is the fascinating introduction by another Bloomsbury Group writer, Frances Partridge, who must have been 101 when she wrote this piece reminiscing about the author. . more

This must be one of my favorite movies, I&aposve watched it many times I would love to get my hands on a copy of this book! I love British movies in general, but this one isn&apost conventional. It doesn&apost have the kind of happy ending people would expect, it&aposs definitely a story about first love, family, heartbreaks, jealousy, mistakes, new beginnings, summer, weddings, and the weather.


This must be one of my favorite movies, I've watched it many times I would love to get my hands on a copy of this book! I love British movies in general, but this one isn't conventional. It doesn't have the kind of happy ending people would expect, it's definitely a story about first love, family, heartbreaks, jealousy, mistakes, new beginnings, summer, weddings, and the weather.

This novella recounts the events of one day: Dolly Thatchum&aposs wedding day. She is nervous, her mother is flitting about oblivious, and another man is just dying to have a word with her.

Strachey has an amazing ability to describe her characters so that they are perfectly visible to the reader. The small details and the clever descriptions of actions and looks are simply perfection.
The plot itself is secondary to the character studies, but it is acerbically witty and profoundly real. Her metaphors This novella recounts the events of one day: Dolly Thatchum's wedding day. She is nervous, her mother is flitting about oblivious, and another man is just dying to have a word with her.

Strachey has an amazing ability to describe her characters so that they are perfectly visible to the reader. The small details and the clever descriptions of actions and looks are simply perfection.
The plot itself is secondary to the character studies, but it is acerbically witty and profoundly real. Her metaphors, similes, and use of symbolism (oh, that tortoise!) were also astounding.

After I finished, I started it again immediately. Now that I knew everyone, I wanted to read it over with that knowledge. That being said, I'm not for certain that I "liked" it. I certainly didn't always enjoy Strachey's observations of these characters, as it seemed so personal, as if I knew them and hated to have their weaknesses exposed.

As a side note, I will say that I thought Joseph's explosion weakened the force of the story. (And was his announcement even true? How can one trust him at this point?) It didn't lessen the brilliance of the novella, though, or of Strachey's talent. I'm sad that she wrote so little. . more

This is the first actual grey-covered Persephone book I&aposve got hold of. I&aposve read others from the Persephone catalog in different editions (The Shuttle and Miss Buncle&aposs Book were both very good), but I&aposve never actually held one until yesterday, when I signed for my lovely blue inter-library loan envelope. And it was paperback! Somehow I expected it to be hardcover. This book was the first paperback with a dust jacket I&aposve ever seen. Well, that has nothing to do with the actual book.

In any case This is the first actual grey-covered Persephone book I've got hold of. I've read others from the Persephone catalog in different editions (The Shuttle and Miss Buncle's Book were both very good), but I've never actually held one until yesterday, when I signed for my lovely blue inter-library loan envelope. And it was paperback! Somehow I expected it to be hardcover. This book was the first paperback with a dust jacket I've ever seen. Well, that has nothing to do with the actual book.

In any case, this is a unique book. It reminded me of a cross between a play and a short story. The action took place all in one house, and the characters with their fixations (especially the brothers fighting over the socks) reminded me of a humorous play. But it being so short and psychological and the lack of action reminded me of a short story.

The whole thing takes place in a few hours, on the day of Dolly's wedding. Nothing much really happens—there's not really any action—but there are plenty of weather descriptions and really odd characters and people nearly going crazy under extreme stress. Despite having plenty of humor, this book is not happy and I can't say I really enjoyed it. (Yes, I'm the annoying type who almost always likes her books to be happy, or at least end that way.) It was, however, very well written, and short enough that I got through it before it pulled me down. It was definitely worth the read. . more

It has been six years since I read this sharply observed little novella from Julia Strachey, and my excuse to re-read it was provided by my second book group.

Julia Strachey, niece of Lytton Strachey wrote this beautiful little piece in 1932, it was subsequently published by the Hogarth Press, and was regarded highly by Virginia Wolf. With this novella written around the time Julia Strachey’s own marriage was failing, we can perhaps see her own feelings to marriage and the possibility for happine

It has been six years since I read this sharply observed little novella from Julia Strachey, and my excuse to re-read it was provided by my second book group.

Julia Strachey, niece of Lytton Strachey wrote this beautiful little piece in 1932, it was subsequently published by the Hogarth Press, and was regarded highly by Virginia Wolf. With this novella written around the time Julia Strachey’s own marriage was failing, we can perhaps see her own feelings to marriage and the possibility for happiness.

Cheerful Weather for the Wedding takes place over the course of just one day. The day, the wedding day of Dolly Thatcham, and the events, such as they are, concern the minutiae and chaos of the day. Strachey presents her characters in all their absurdity there are fascinating currents of human behaviour running beneath the story. These characters of course are of a certain class – and their behaviours perhaps go hand in hand with that, Mrs Thatcham, a wonderfully terrible creation, manages the day with steely brightness she is frequently distracted and vague – telling anyone who will listen what a good day it is for Dolly’s wedding. It is however, a cold, blustery March day, and chaos reigns, much of it caused unconsciously by Mrs Thatcham who has allocated more than one guest to the lilac room, and seems to have little idea of what is going on.

The book was exactly as I&aposd imagined it, which can be a dangerous thing, I suppose. It was delightful, sunny, and often chuckle-out-loud reading. Strachey seems to have a penchant for, and succeeds brilliantly at, describing in precision, soft pastel light floating through a room in the afternoons, the texture of a day, and the heightened emotion of an event. What I was most impressed by, was how she didn&apost make an effort to include everything from the readers&apos perspective. The amusing pair of The book was exactly as I'd imagined it, which can be a dangerous thing, I suppose. It was delightful, sunny, and often chuckle-out-loud reading. Strachey seems to have a penchant for, and succeeds brilliantly at, describing in precision, soft pastel light floating through a room in the afternoons, the texture of a day, and the heightened emotion of an event. What I was most impressed by, was how she didn't make an effort to include everything from the readers' perspective. The amusing pair of brothers that the protagonist, Dolly (who in a nutshell, is to marry Owen) has, have a brilliant background to them, I'm sure, but the point is, that Strachey doesn't feel the need to evoke it. What we see, is a family in the midst of wedding chaos. Relatives who are quirky, strong, grey and rounded. The genius lies in Strachey's deftness to weave a story that doesn't make you feel it's the ONLY story of this family, as if they'd be frozen in a time loop forever, replaying the same day over and over for viewers, never anything new to their characters.

Her genius, is in portraying an episode from various others that the Thatcham family (sans father) is sure to experience, long after the reader has left peeking into their window. The overwhelming sensation you have from the small novel, is a sense of vulnerability, of temporality. Fictionally, the Thatcham's have moved on to more adventures, and you as a reader are sure of it. Highly recommended . more

I do love the Persephone Books series and who could resist this pretty Persephone Classic with the lady reading on the front? Contained with its pages is a charmingly witty little novella that you can read on a lazy afternoon.

The novella takes place over the course of just one afternoon that happens to be the day of Dolly’s wedding. She is having some last minute doubts in her bedroom as chaos reigns below. As she sits looking outside having a quiet drink, the family and friends are having quit I do love the Persephone Books series and who could resist this pretty Persephone Classic with the lady reading on the front? Contained with its pages is a charmingly witty little novella that you can read on a lazy afternoon.

The novella takes place over the course of just one afternoon that happens to be the day of Dolly’s wedding. She is having some last minute doubts in her bedroom as chaos reigns below. As she sits looking outside having a quiet drink, the family and friends are having quite a complex interplay of emotions downstairs. There’s Joseph, who loves Dolly – but does she really know? He hasn’t yet told her. Dolly’s mother, Mrs Thatcham, is overseeing the arrangement and rearrangement of the house to the weary servants. (Mrs Thatcham, hopefully unknowingly, has put all the guests in the same bedroom – oh if only the novel continued what confusion there would be!) Kitty, the loud sister, has opinions on everything, but is light-hearted and fun. The two younger boys, Robert and Tom, run in and out of the narrative wildly, arguing about whether is it suitable to wear green socks at a wedding.

It is the interaction between the characters that make this book fun. We move from Dolly and Joseph’s reflective musings to the humourous chaos that always happens before a big event. But behind the comedy, there are some sombre thoughts. Where is Mr Thatcham? What does Owen (Dolly’s new husband) make of this loud, busy family? Has Dolly made the right decision? Should Joseph reveal himself? Is Kitty being so loud to cover up that she’s the bridesmaid, not the bride? Why is Mrs Thatcham so contradictory – is she simply ruffled in the middle of the kerfuffle, or is there something more going on?

While you’re pondering all this, nothing really happens. The only real event is Mrs Thatcham insisting it’s such ‘cheerful weather’ when all the descriptions suggests it’s blowing an absolute gale. It’s really the theme of the story – everyone is pretending to be jovial and rambunctious, but there’s a lot of regret hidden underneath.

The prose is gorgeous in describing the characters to the point where I wanted to tell everyone downstairs to just be quiet! I really felt I was in the middle of the harem scarum. There are probably a lot of hidden meanings and themes in the way the characters acted, but I read for pleasure these days and I felt the novel worked just fine.

Hmm, I picked this up by chance, without knowing much about it. It is the story of a wedding party who receive a guest - a young man who still harbors feelings for the bride.
So. amidst the stress of getting the family ready for the wedding - including a couple of boisterous schoolboys - the story tries to focus on the will-they-won&apost-they tension between the guest and the bride. and it this question that just manages to k Review first posted on BookLikes: http://brokentune.booklikes.com/post/.

Hmm, I picked this up by chance, without knowing much about it. It is the story of a wedding party who receive a guest - a young man who still harbors feelings for the bride.
So. amidst the stress of getting the family ready for the wedding - including a couple of boisterous schoolboys - the story tries to focus on the will-they-won't-they tension between the guest and the bride. and it this question that just manages to keep the story going.

It's an easy read for a lazy afternoon but neither that cheerful or gripping. . more


Julia Strachey : Biography - History

Judy Bonds led the fight in West Virginia to stop the mountaintop mining that was destroying her Appalachian homeland. A concerned grandmother inexperienced with environmental activism, she became an effective organizer who brought attention to mountaintop mining and sought to hold coal companies accountable for the damage they caused.

Julia “Judy” Belle Thompson Bonds was born on August 27, 1952 in what is now called Marfork, West Virginia, to parents Oliver and Sarah Thompson. Bonds was the daughter and granddaughter of coalminers and her family had lived in West Virginia for several generations. Her father died of pneumoconiosis (black lung disease) several months after he retired from the coal mines at the age of 65.

As an adult, Bonds worked in restaurants and convenience stores, still living in Marfork and scraping by as a single mother. Until the 1990s, she was conflicted about the environmental risks posed by coalmining. But then Massey Energy Co. arrived in her corner of Appalachia.

Massey brought a practice called mountaintop mining to the area. Mountaintop mining involves blasting off the peaks of mountains with explosives so that large machinery can mine the seams of coal below. It was developed in the 1970s but became much more prevalent in the 1990s. Studies show this type of mining leads to a host of harmful consequences: it pollutes nearby waterways with toxic metals causes extensive flooding poisons the air with rock dust silica that leads to high rates of asthma and black lung disease displaces wildlife that in turn threaten humans and its explosions can both damage homes and cause residents to suffer from post-traumatic stress. Debris from the explosions also harms the local environment: more than 1,000 miles of Appalachian streams have been buried and hundreds of thousands of acres of the region’s forests have been decimated.

When Massey began mountaintop mining near Marfork, the noise and dust-filled air caused many families to flee the area. Bonds felt deeply rooted to her home and refused to leave, but conditions continued to worsen. In 1996, her six-year-old grandson (who suffered from asthma, like many other children in the area) was playing in a creek when he asked Bonds, “What’s wrong with these fish?” He was surrounded by dead fish floating belly-up near his ankles. Bonds credits it as her eye-opening moment. She began volunteering with Coal River Mountain Watch (CRMW), an organization devoted to protecting the region from mountaintop mining.

Bonds held out leaving her home until 2001, when she learned that Massey planned to build a dam farther up Marfork Hollow that would hold back millions of gallons of coal sludge. If the dam failed, her family and her home would be in great danger, and dams like this one had failed before. Being forced from her home only made Bonds more determined to fight on behalf of the communities and natural resources of Appalachia that were threatened by practices like mountaintop mining.

That same year, Bonds left her job as a manager at Pizza Hut to become the outreach director of Coal River Mountain Watch. She became an outspoken advocate and a statewide symbol of opposition to mountaintop mining. Bonds lobbied at the West Virginia statehouse and in Washington, D.C. to rein in coal companies’ mining efforts. She traveled the country speaking to young people about what she had witnessed, telling them that the profits of coal companies were coming at the expense of the health and safety of low-income Appalachians.

Bonds organized protest rallies and pickets to confront coal companies’ executives and stockholders, testified at regulatory hearings about the effects of mountaintop mining, and filed lawsuits to try to stop these mining practices. Bonds and CRMW began tracking every permit issued for mountaintop mining, and forced public hearings on them. Previously, residents were not aware when a permit was granted, let alone if they had the ability to challenge it. This strategy was especially important after a 2003 federal court ruling relaxed restrictions on mountaintop mining and West Virginia was flooded with requests for new permits.

One of Bonds’s most important victories was the partnership she forged with the United Mine Workers Union concerning oversized coal trucks. These trucks often carried more than double the legal weight limit down steep and narrow roads, which endangered other drivers, wore down the roads, and even damaged local homes. She worked with fellow activists to launch a nationwide letter-writing campaign to the governor of West Virginia. Together with the union, Bonds and her team sued and forced the companies to transport smaller, safer loads. Bonds also helped win valuable concessions from the West Virginia State Mining Board when it enacted stricter protections on mine blasting for local communities.

Bonds faced threats to her personal safety as a result of her activism. She received anonymous, threatening phone calls any time she planned a protest. Neighbors and coal workers, who viewed Bonds’s work as a threat to their livelihoods, insulted and harassed her. She even experienced a physical attack at a 2010 protest when a woman in a miner’s shirt struck Bonds.

In 2003, Bonds received the Goldman Environmental Prize, an honor given annually to one unrecognized grassroots environmental activist on each continent. Earning $12,000 a year at the time with Coal River Mountain Watch, she received $125,000 as the Goldman prizewinner. After covering family expenses, Bonds donated nearly $50,000 to CRMW, an amount close to the organization’s yearly budget.

Bonds used her platform to call attention to the connections between coalmining and climate change. She held that, “coal is an enemy to all of us in terms of global warming.” Forests absorb carbon and thus can aid against global warming, but coal mining has led to the destruction of massive sections of forest in Appalachia, precisely when they are needed the most.

Bonds had long dreamt of a “thousand hillbilly march” on Washington, D.C. to protest the exploitation of Appalachian lands by coal companies. That came to pass in September 2010 when approximately 2,000 people joined the “Appalachia Rising” march. Unfortunately, Bonds was too ill with cancer to join the march herself. Bonds passed away on January 3, 2011. Coal River Mountain Watch created The Judy Bonds Center for Appalachian Preservation in her honor located in Naoma, West Virginia, it serves as the organization’s community center, office, volunteer housing, and sustainable economic demonstration site.

Photo Credit:
"File:Julia Bonds, 2003 (cropped).jpg" by Natalie Silverstein on behalf of the Goldman Environmental Prize is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Cohen, Janet. “Award-winning Environmentalist Speaks Her Mind.” The Union (Nevada County, CA). Janauary 3, 2008. Accessed March 28, 2021. https://www.theunion.com/news/award-winning-environmentalist-judy-bonds-speaks-her-mind/

Hevesi, Dennis. “Judy Bonds, an Enemy of Mountaintop Coal Mining Dies at 58.” The New York Times. January 15, 2011. Accessed March 28, 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/us/16bonds.html

“Judy Bonds Center for Appalachian Preservation.” Coal River Mountain Watch. Accessed March 28, 2021. https://www.crmw.net/projects/judy-bonds-center-for-appalachian-preservation.php

“Julia Bonds.” The Goldman Environmental Prize. Accessed March 28, 2021. https://www.goldmanprize.org/recipient/julia-bonds/

Shnayerson, Michael. “The Rape of Appalachia.” Vanity Fair. November 20, 2006. Accessed March 28, 2021. https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2006/05/appalachia200605?currentPage=all

MLA – Brandman, Mariana. “Julia ‘Judy’ Bonds.” National Women’s History Museum, 2021. Date accessed.


Julia Morgan

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Julia Morgan, (born January 20, 1872, San Francisco, California, U.S.—died February 2, 1957, San Francisco), one of the most prolific and important woman architects ever to work in the United States.

Morgan was born into a prosperous family (see Researcher’s Note: Julia Morgan’s date of birth). She graduated from the University of California at Berkeley with a degree in engineering in 1894 and then studied architecture privately under the local architect Bernard Maybeck, who encouraged her aspirations. Morgan went to Paris in 1896 and in 1898 became the first woman to be enrolled in the architecture section of the École des Beaux-Arts, from which she graduated in 1902. Returning to California, she became the first woman in the state to be granted an architect’s license.

Morgan then commenced 40 years of architectural work that resulted in some 800 buildings, most of them in California, particularly in San Francisco. She opened her own architectural office in 1904, and the devastation of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 provided her with the opportunity to design hundreds of homes and many churches, office buildings, and educational buildings in the Bay area. After World War I she began work in earnest for the publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst, who in 1919 commissioned her to build a country house that came to be known as Hearst Castle at his family ranch at San Simeon, California. Hearst commissioned several other residences from her as well. Morgan was involved with the building project at San Simeon for 28 years. She made it into one of the most lavish and ostentatious private residences in the world, and one that successfully incorporated much of Hearst’s collection of antiques, works of art, and architectural elements.

Morgan was an eclectic architect who worked in a variety of styles. She was notable for her meticulous craftsmanship, her creation of fine interior spaces, and her ability to deliver outstanding buildings within a tight budget.


Julia Strachey : Biography - History

Famous chef, author, and television personality, Julia Child made French cuisine accessible to American audiences. She was one of the first women to host her own cooking show on television, providing tips and lessons on how to prepare French food simply and easily.

Born on August 15, 1912 in Pasadena California, Julia Carolyn McWilliams, grew up in a life of wealth and privilege. Her father was a banker and landowner, while her mother had came from the Weston family, owners of the Weston Paper Company in Massachusetts. Her father was civic minded and sought to instill such values in his children.

The Weston family typically sent their children to boarding school. For her high school education, Child was sent to the Katharine Branson School for Girls, a preparatory school in Northern California. Here, she attended classes in Latin, French, history, and mathematics to prepare her for college. Child also engaged in a wide range of sporting activities including: tennis, swimming, and basketball. Although not very scholastic, she was quite popular at school and was active in a number of school groups. Growing to a height of six feet, two inches, Child was the natural choice to be captain of the school’s basketball team. She was also president of the Vagabonds, a hiking club.

Child’s parents always intended for her to go on to college after high school. Her mother and aunt had attended Smith College in Massachusetts, so Child also attended the school. She majored in history and was quite active in college clubs, including the Grass Cops, an organization that’s mission was to keep students off the campus’ lawns.

After graduating from Smith College in 1934, Child moved back to California. However, in 1935, she returned to Massachusetts in order to take a secretarial course at the Packard Commercial School. After a month of training, Child quit the course because she had found a secretarial job with W. J. Sloane, a home furnishings company, in New York City. She worked for this company until 1939, when she was fired for insubordination over a mix up with a document.

In September 1941, Child began to volunteer with the Pasadena chapter of the American Red Cross to help get the country ready for war. There she headed the Department of Stenographic Services and worked in the Aircraft Warning Service. She also wanted to join the military, and applied to join the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) and the Women’s Army Corps (WACs). However, Child was rejected from both organizations because of her height. She was too tall. Wanting to become more involved in the war effort, she moved to Washington, DC in 1942. In August of that year, she become a senior typist with the Research Unit of the Office of War Information. At the close of 1942, Child took up the position of junior research assistant with the Secret Intelligence Branch of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), a forerunner to the CIA. She undertook a variety of positions at the OSS, including clerk at the director’s office and administrative assistant in the Registry of OSS. She also eagerly volunteered to work for OSS overseas. From 1944-1945, she kept intelligence files for the OSS in India. The following year, she worked for the organization in China.

Following the war, she married Paul Child, whom she had met while working for the OSS in India. Paul Child worked for the US Foreign Service. In 1948, the couple was posted to Paris for Paul’s work. It was in Paris, that Child began to take cooking seriously. She enrolled in the famous Le Cordon Bleu cooking school.

During this time, she also met Simone Beck and Louisette Bertholle. Together the three women published Mastering the Art of French Cooking in 1961. This book brought French cooking and cookery techniques to the American public. It also launched Child on her cooking career, which lasted for over forty years.

The Childs returned to the United States in the 1960s and settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts. At this time, Child was approached by television executives to host a cooking show, The French Chef, based on her book. The first program was shown on what came to be known as PBS in 1963 and remained on the air for a decade. It brought Child national and international recognition. She also won a Peabody and Emmy Award for the program. She went on to publish several more cookbooks, including a second volume of Mastering the Art of French Cooking. She also hosted several other television series, including Cooking with Master Chefs and Julia Child & Jacques Pépin Cooking at Home, for which she won a Daytime Emmy Award.

She established organizations to inspire others to share her love of food and to expand people’s awareness of cooking. She co-founded the American Institute of Wine and Food in 1981, and created the Julia Child Foundation for Gastronomy and Culinary Arts in 1995. For her work, she was awarded honorary doctorate degrees from numerous schools, including Harvard University and Brown University.

Child died on August 13, 2004, having left a legacy of culinary art and education. Her kitchen, made famous by her cooking programs, was donated to the Smithsonian National Museum of American History. By visiting the Smithsonian museum, thousands of people now peek into Child’s kitchen each year. The US Postal Service marked Child’s achievements, when they included her in the 2014 “Celebrity Chefs Forever” stamp series.


Contingut

Julia Strachey va néixer a Allahabad (Índia), on el seu pare, Oliver Strachey, germà gran de Lytton Strachey, era funcionari. La seva mare, Ruby, era d'origen suïssoalemany. Va passar els primers sis anys de la seva vida a l'Índia abans de viatjar a Londres. Després del divorci dels seus pares, se'n va anar a viure amb la seva tia Elinor Rendel a Melbury Road, a prop de Kensington High Street. Quatre anys més tard, Strachey va ser enviada a un internat a Brackenhurst i va ser durant aquest temps que Oliver Strachey va començar un nou amor amb una amiga propera de Ray Strachey, la neboda d'Alys Pearsall Smith, llavors l'esposa del filòsof britànic Bertrand Russell. Julia, al seu torn, va desenvolupar una amistat íntima amb Alys, a qui afectuosament anomenava "Aunty Loo". L'inusual, i sovint entremaliat, sentit de l'humor de Smith va tenir un efecte durador en l'estil literari de Julia Strachey. [2]

El 1932 Hogarth Press va publicar el seu llibre Cheerful Weather for the Wedding. Virginia Woolf hi va escriure: "Crec que és sorprenentment bo: complet, nítid i individual". Tant les connexions del seu oncle Lytton, i el nom que ella va fer per a si mateixa per les seves obres, Julia Strachey aviat es va integrar en el Grup de Bloomsbury i va freqüentar molts dels seus actes socials. Aquestes experiències van tenir una forta influència en la seva ficció. Fins a 1964, també va ser una fervent membre del Memoir Club de Bloomsbury, on ella i els altres membres discutien i escrivien sobre les seves memòries compartides. [3]

El 1927 Julia Strachey es va casar amb l'escultor Stephen Tomlin, autor dels busts de Lytton Strachey i Virginia Woolf. Es van separar el 1934. Durant aquest període, Strachey es guanyava la vida escrivint contes per a revistes. També va ser el començament de la seva carrera novel·lística. El 1939, es va trobar amb l'artista, i més tard crític d'art, Lawrence Gowing, que en aquell moment tenia només 21 anys. Van passar trenta anys junts, quinze dels quals casats, a Newcastle i a Chelsea, abans que Gowing s'enamorés d'una altra dona. [2]

Hi ha molt poca informació sobre la mort de Julia Strachey, excepte que va ser el 1979. Més endavant va començar a escriure les seves memòries, a partir de les quals la seva amiga Frances Partridge escrigué Julia: A Portrait of Julia Strachey (1983), un esbós biogràfic de la seva amiga. [4] [2]


Response to Critics

Not everyone was a fan of the renowned TV chef: Child was frequently criticized by letter-writing viewers for her failure to wash her hands, as well as what they believed was her poor kitchen demeanor. "You are quite a revolting chef, the way you snap bones and play with raw meats," one letter read. 

"I can&apost stand those over-sanitary people," Child said in response. Others were concerned about the high levels of fat in French cooking. Child&aposs advice was to eat in moderation. "I would rather eat one tablespoon of chocolate russe cake than three bowls of Jell-O," she said.


Julia Child

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Julia Child, née Julia Carolyn McWilliams, (born August 15, 1912, Pasadena, California, U.S.—died August 13, 2004, Santa Barbara), American cooking expert, author, and television personality noted for her promotion of traditional French cuisine, especially through her programs on public TV.

The daughter of a prosperous financier and consultant, McWilliams graduated from Smith College (B.A., 1934) and worked occasionally in advertising. During World War II, from 1941 to 1945, she performed clerical work in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and China for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS, the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency), where she met Paul Cushing Child, whom she married in 1945. During the Childs’ six-year postwar stay in Paris, she attended the Cordon Bleu cooking school for six months and studied privately with master chef Max Bugnard. She and two French friends, Simone Beck and Louisette Bertholle, in 1951 founded L’École des Trois Gourmandes (“The School of the Three Gourmands”) and later wrote the best-selling cookbook Mastering the Art of French Cooking, 2 vol. (1961, 1970), which was praised for its clarity and comprehensiveness. Her culinary crusade was stated plainly in her introduction:

This is a book for the servantless American cook who can be unconcerned on occasion with budgets, waistlines, time schedules, children’s meals, the parent-chauffeur-den mother syndrome or anything else which might interfere with the enjoyment of producing something wonderful to eat.

The Childs settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1961, though they continued to visit Europe regularly and maintained a house in the south of France. A promotional appearance on television led to an offer to host a cooking series on Boston’s public television station, and The French Chef premiered in 1962. The immensely popular show went on to air for 206 episodes. It is credited with convincing the American public to try cooking French food at home. With her humour, exuberance, and unpretentiousness, Child became an unlikely star. Although she often made mistakes while cooking, she remained unflappable, encouraging viewers to accept mishaps and continue cooking. Child, who had a towering 6-foot 2-inch (1.9-metre) frame and a distinct warbling voice, ended each show with “Bon appétit!”

Numerous television series followed, including Julia Child and Company, Dinner at Julia’s, Baking with Julia, and In Julia’s Kitchen with Master Chefs. She produced a book under the name of each of her shows and also wrote The Way to Cook (1989) and Cooking with Master Chefs (1993). Julia and Jacques Cooking at Home (1999) was cowritten with chef Jacques Pépin, a friend with whom she also collaborated on television shows. Her autobiography, My Life in France (cowritten with a grandnephew, Alex Prud’homme), was published in 2006. In 2009 Nora Ephron used that volume as half of the story she told in the film Julie & Julia, featuring Meryl Streep as the popular chef.

Child was the recipient of numerous honours during her career, including a Peabody Award (1964) and an Emmy Award (1966) for her television work and a National Book Award (1980). She was appointed to the French Legion of Honour (2000) and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom (2003). A portion of her kitchen and some of her kitchen implements were put on display at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


Jack Strachey

Composer Jack Strachey is most associated with the pop standard "These Foolish Things (Remind Me of You)," though he's also remembered in England as an author of light orchestra instrumentals. Strachey…
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Artist Biography by Steve Huey

Composer Jack Strachey is most associated with the pop standard "These Foolish Things (Remind Me of You)," though he's also remembered in England as an author of light orchestra instrumentals. Strachey was born Jack Strachey Parsons in Brighton, England, in 1894, and first started writing songs for theater productions (including 1927's Lady Luck) and musical revues. He struck up a partnership with Eric Maschwitz (who sometimes wrote under the name Holt Marvell) in the early '30s, and their collaboration on "These Foolish Things" (along with American-born Harry Link) for the 1936 London revue Spread It Abroad gave them an enormous hit on both sides of the Atlantic. In America alone, five Top Ten versions were recorded that year (the biggest by Benny Goodman), and French actor Jean Sablon -- who was originally supposed to premiere the song but backed out, to be replaced by Dorothy Dickson -- recorded it for a hit in his native country under the title "Ces Petites Choses." During the '40s, Strachey moved into solo composition, crafting light, easy listening pieces for British orchestras. Among the best-known were "Theatreland" (1940), "Shaftesbury Avenue," "Pink Champagne," "Ascot Parade," "Mayfair Parade," and "Starlight Cruise." Additionally, 1944's "In Party Mood" became the theme song for a BBC radio show called Housewives' Choice, which ran from 1946 through 1967. He continued to work with Maschwitz as well, co-writing the 1949 stage musical Belinda Fair he also teamed up with Alan Stranks to write the Ink Spots' British hit "No Orchids for My Lady." Strachey passed away in 1972.


Cooking Collaboration

But not Julia. She wrote a big new cookbook, “The Way to Cook”, accompanied by a home video series. In her late 70s and 80s, she collaborated with a young talented director and producer, Geof Drummond, to make four new series — “Cooking with Master Chefs,” “In Julia’s Kitchen with Master Chefs,” “Baking with Julia,” and with her good friend Jacques Pépin, “Jacques and Julia at Home.” Each series was accompanied by a companion book.

In 1992, Julia’s contribution to food and cooking in America was celebrated on the occasion of her 80th birthday. Three huge parties were held in her honor in Boston, Los Angeles and New York. Honors continued the following year, when Harvard University granted Julia an honorary doctorate. Her citation read “A Harvard friend and neighbor who has filled the air with common sense and uncommon scents. Long may her soufflés rise.” The audience responded with thunderous applause.

Yet one person was not there to celebrate her success. Since 1989, Paul Child had been confined to a nursing home. His once robust body had grown frail and withered. On the evening of May 12, 1994, he passed away.

For six more years, Julia continued to live alone in the house that she and Paul had shared. But she grew weary of New England winters and yearned for the warmth of the California sun. In November 2001, Julia moved to Santa Barbara. Her kitchen was moved to Washington, D.C. The place where she had chopped, stirred and sautéed for forty years is now on display at the Smithsonian Institution. Her pots and pans, her knives and kitchen tools proudly proclaim a culinary revolution that transformed the way that Americans cook, eat and think about food.

Julia Child died just two days before her 92nd birthday, on August 13, 2004, surrounded by her family and friends. The nation mourned her passing, still remembering her with affection and fondness – not simply for her contribution to American cooking, but for who she was: a deeply generous person, open to experience, eager to learn and to teach. The young and restless woman who once mourned her lack of talent became an American icon, and in countless kitchens across the country and around the world, her spirit still lives on. Bon Appetit!

To order a DVD of Julia Child! America’s Favorite Chef, please visit the American Masters Shop.

Major funding for Julia! America’s Favorite Chef is provided by Feast it Forward.

Major support for American Masters is provided by AARP. Additional funding is provided by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Rosalind P. Walter, The Philip and Janice Levin Foundation, Judith and Burton Resnick, Ellen and James S. Marcus, Vital Projects Fund, Lillian Goldman Programming Endowment, The Blanche & Irving Laurie Foundation, Cheryl and Philip Milstein Family, The André and Elizabeth Kertész Foundation, Michael & Helen Schaffer Foundation and public television viewers.


Watch the video: Julias Generation