Port Royal, 7 November 1861

Port Royal, 7 November 1861

Port Royal. 7 November 1861

The naval attack at Hilton Head, part of the capture of Port Royal. 7 November 1861



“Missionary Teachers to the Freedmen”

The Port Royal Experiment was a bold Federal government – private initiative to ready the former enslaved abandoned by their owners after the Battle of Port Royal Sound in November 1861 for life as freed individuals. In early 1862, Edward L. Pierce and Rev. Mansfield French arrived to survey local conditions and circumstances and determine what should be done. Soon representatives of the American Missionary Association, Educational Commission of Boston, the National Freedman’s Relief Association, and the Port Royal Relief Committee began schools to educate the freedmen, dispensed medical services, and other relief as needed. Many of these so-called “Gideonites” later worked with the Freedman’s Bureau from 1865 – 1872. A few stayed many years, among them Laura M. Towne whose Penn School became one of the first institutions to educate the former enslaved.

Compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager, Beaufort County Library (SC). Latest revision: 30 November 2020. All links active on 5 May 2020. Created: 21 February 2011.

“Teachers” (Reed Collection, Beaufort District Collection)

Online Resources:

The Lifestyle of Freedmen at Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island: Evidence of a Changing Pattern of Afro-American Archaeological Visibility by Michael Trinkley, Chicora Foundation, 2001.

Of Freedom Unto All: An Archaeological Examination of the Port Royal Experiment by Michael Trinkley, Chicora Foundation, 2001.

“The Port Royal Experiment” by Ben Parton in the Essential Civil War Curriculum web series at the Virginia Center for Civil War Studies at Virginia Polytechnic and State University, 2010 – present.

New South newspaper (March 15, 1861 – September 29, 1866) is also available on microfilm in our Research Room.

Beaufort Republican newspaper (October 12, 1871 – October 16, 1873) is also available on microfilm in our Research Room.

For a visual treat in case you are unaware of some of the treasures about Smith’s Plantation in the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs catalog. Insert the keywords “Smith’s Plantation Beaufort” in the search box for 14 highly relevant results (as of this revision).

The Beaufort District Collection has two mid-19th century stereoscopic photograph collections posted online through our long partnership with the Lowcountry Digital Library that contain images of the Port Royal area:

Check out these materials from a SCLENDS Library:

After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina during Reconstruction, 1861 – 1877 by Joel Williamson, University Press of New England, 1990.

Bury Me Not in a Land of Slaves: African-Americans in the Time of Reconstruction by Joyce Hansen, F. Watts, 2000.

Department of the South: Hilton Head Island in the Civil War by Robert Carse, State Print Co., 1961. Photographic image on p. 58 of Department of the South by Carse has this caption: “The tents and arbors put up by General Stevens’ men by the Smith plantation house were still in use when this picture was taken, in 1864.” The “Illustrations Credits” on p. x, state that “Photographs in this book are from the United States War Department General Staff and from the private collection of Charles E. Fraser.”

Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne: Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina, 1862 – 1884, edited by Rupert Sargent Holland, Reprint ed., Higginson Book Co., 1996.

The Northern Teacher in the South, 1862-1870 by Henry Lee Swint, Octagon Books, 1967.

Rebellion, Reconstruction, and Redemption, 1861 – 1893, volume 2: The History of Beaufort County South Carolina by Stephen R. Wise and Lawrence S. Rowland, University of South Carolina Press, 2015.

Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863 – 1877 by Eric Foner, HarperPerennial, 2014.

Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment by Willie Lee Rose, Oxford University Press, 1976. This remains the most important book about the era as it played out on the Sea Islands in Beaufort District.

A Sea Island Diary: A History of St. Helena Island by Edith Dabbs, Reprint Co., 1983.

Schooling the Freed People: Teaching, Learning, and the Struggle for Black Freedom, 1861 – 1876 by Ronald E. Cutchart, University of North Carolina, 2010.

The Story of Sea Island Cotton by Richard Porcher and Sarah Fick, Gibbs Smith, 2010.

Yankee Missionaries in the South: The Penn School Experiment by Elizabeth Jacoway, Louisiana State University Press, 1980.

A Yankee Scholar in Coastal South Carolina: William Francis Allen’s Civil War Journals edited by James Robert Hester, University of South Carolina Press, 2015.

Come to the Beaufort District Collection Research Room to view these materials:

SC 306.3621 PEA Three Years Among the Freedmen: William C. Gannett and the Port Royal Experiment by William H. Pease, Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1957.

SC 973 HAN 2000 Bury me not in a land of slaves: African-Americans in the Time of Reconstruction by Joyce Hansen, F. Watts, 2000.

SC 973.715 BOT First Days Amongst the Contrabands by Elizabeth Hyde Botume, Lee and Shepard, 1893.

SC 973.77579 ALL 2015 A Yankee Scholar in Coastal South Carolina: William Francis Allen’s Civil War Journals edited by James Robert Hester, University of South Carolina Press, 2015.

SC 973.8 TEL Cultivating a New South: Abbie Holmes Christensen and the Politics of Race and Gender, 1852-1938 by Monica Maria Tetzlaff, University of South Carolina Press, 2002.

SC 975.799 PEN The Nomination of the “Emancipation Proclamation Site” to the National Register, 1993-1995 by the Michigan Support Group of Penn Center of the Sea Islands, no date given. 20 pages. Annotation: On January 1, 1863, Brigadier General Rufus Saxton told the contraband slaves who had assembled at the John Joiner Smith Plantation that they were formally free. One hundred thirty years later, a re-enactment of that momentous event was staged on the site involving local and state government officials, the 1st South Carolina Volunteers Reenactment group, the Penn Center organization, and interested citizens. This brief but meaty booklet details the nomination of the site for the National Register of Historic Places, supplying copies of the original submission for inclusion and supporting documentation. (gmc)

SC 975.799 ROW V. 2 Rebellion, Reconstruction, and Redemption, 1861 – 1893, volume 2: The History of Beaufort County South Carolina by Stephen R. Wise and Lawrence S. Rowland, University of South Carolina Press, 2015.

SC 975.799 TOW Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne: Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina, 1862 – 1884, edited by Rupert Sargent Holland, Reprint ed., Higginson Book Co., 1996.

SC 975.799 TRIThe Archaeological Manifestations of the “Port Royal Experiment” at Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina by Michael Trinkley, Chicora Foundation, 2001.

Beaufort County Historical Society Papers

BCHS Paper, #45. “The Great Port Royal Experiment Following the War Between the States,” by W. Brantley Harvey, Jr., unpublished paper presented before the Beaufort County Historical Society, no date.

BCHS Paper, #53. “Occupation of the Beaufort Area by Northern Forces During the War,” by Roger Pinckney, 10 th . , unpublished paper presented before the Beaufort County Historical Society, 1975.

BCHS Paper, #62. “William Henry Brisbane: South Carolina Slaveholder and Abolitionist,” by Blake McNulty, unpublished paper presented before the Beaufort County Historical Society, 1984.

SC MM 5 “Connecticut Yankee in a Praise House School” by Dr. Josephine W. Martin, 40th Annual Meeting Address South Caroliniana Society, 21 April 1976.

  • Port Royal Experiment
  • Reconstruction Heritage Partnership
  • History—Reconstruction, 1865-1898
  • Emancipation Oak
    1. See Oaks (tree)
    2. See also Emancipation Proclamation – Commemoration
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Emancipation Proclamation – Commemoration
  • Gannett, William Channing (1840-1923)
  • Towne, Laura Matilda (1825-1901)
  • Grimke, Charlotte Lottie Forten (1837-1914)
  • Schools – Mather School

Map #283 Smiths Plantation, 26 May 1864

Maps #102 -117, 274, 629 and 804 relate to the Tax Sale of properties 1863 – 1876

Penn Center, Inc. Penn School Papers, 1862-1976 [33 Microfilm reels, BDC only]

The Penn School, 1862-1948 [Microfilm] : A Look at Negro Education in South Carolina : Master’s Thesis, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1968.

New South newspaper (March 15, 1861 – September 29, 1866)

Free South newspaper (January 17, 1863 – November 19, 1864)

Palmetto Herald newspaper (March 17, 1864 – December 29, 1864)

Beaufort Republican newspaper (October 12, 1871 – October 16, 1873) – also online at

Palmetto Post newspaper (January 5, 1882 – December 27, 1906)

Note: The Beaufort District Collection (BDC) exists to acquire, preserve, maintain and make accessible a research collection of permanent value which records the history, culture, and environment of the South Carolina lowcountry wedged between the Combahee (pronounced “kum-bee”) and Savannah Rivers.

Contact the Beaufort District Collection at 843-255-6468 or e-mail [email protected] for additional information about local history and archives relating to the people, places, and themes of the history, culture, and natural environment of Beaufort County, Jasper County and Hampton County, South Carolina.

Please check the Beaufort County Library (SC) system’s homepage for current hours of operation and locations.

Share this:

Like this:

Related


Battle of Port Royal Sound, 1861: An Annotated Selective Guide to Links & Materials

The Battle of Port Royal Sound was one of the earliest naval operations of the Civil War. On November 7, 1861, a massive U. S. Naval fleet and U. S. Army expeditionary force sailed into Port Royal Sound and captured Fort Walker on Hilton Head and Fort Beauregard on Bay Point/St. Helena Island, SC. Beaufort was among the first southern towns to fall into Union hands. The Federal occupation changed the course of Beaufort District history thenceforth. Below are some suggested links and library materials about this significant Civil War naval and military engagement.

Compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager, Beaufort County Library. The Beaufort District Collection is the special local history collection and archives unit of the Beaufort County Library (SC). Latest update: 7 January 2020 Creation date: 11 September 2008

Online Resources:

“Rehearsal for Reconstruction,” by Michael Shapiro, New York Times Opinionator blog, Nov. 6, 2011.

The Heritage Library Foundation on Hilton Head Island has posted articles about Fort Walker and Fort Welles.

“The Capture of Port Royal, November 1861,” by Kraig McNutt, Civil War Gazette blog, 1 November 2007.

“Port Royal, Battle of,” by Stephen R. Wise, South Carolina Encyclopedia, 2016, latest update 2017.

Civil War, Port Royal 37 images from the Library of Congress. Please note: The majority are from Port Royal, SC but some are from Port Royal, VA.

Text and image of the historical marker at Fort Walker, Historical Marker database.

Text and image of the historical marker for the Battle of Port Royal, Historical Marker database.

Text and images of the historical panels about the Battle of Port Royal on the USMC Recruit Depot erected by the Marine Corps on Parris Island.

“The Battle of Port Royal Sound” in Hydro International Magazine : Surveying in All Waters, 31 May 2010.

Bay Point, South Carolina. Fort Beauregard, 1861 by Timothy O’Sullivan is an image posted by the Library of Congress.

Fortwiki.com includes an article about “Fort Welles” (formerly called Fort Walker), and the Battle of Port Royal Sound that includes links to images and maps.

Today’s Office of Coast Survey traces its charting efforts back to 1807, when President Thomas Jefferson founded the Survey of the Coast. To celebrate and preserve this long history, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration started assembling the collection in 1995 as a data rescue effort. NOAA continues to preserve charts and maps produced by NOAA’s Coast Survey and its predecessors, especially the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and the U.S. Lake Survey (previously under the Department of War) through the Office of Coast Survey, Historical Map and Chart Collection website. Maps in this series available online from Plans and Views of Rebel Defences coast of South Carolina. Drawn by E. Willenbucher. Views include Fort Walker, Hilton Head Island Fort on Botany Bay Island Fort on Sams Point, Coosaw River Fort on Bay Point, South Edison River Fort Beauregard – Bay Point Fort on Otter Island Point – St. Helena Sound and Fort on Fenwick’s Island.

Check out these materials from a SCLENDS Library:

The Battle of Port Royal by Michael D. Coker. (Civil War Sesquicentennial Series), 2009. Also available on Hoopla, the Library’s e-book and streaming service.

The Civil War Begins, Opening Clashes, 1861 by Jennifer M. Murray, 2015. Available only through Hoopla.

The Civil War in South Carolina: Selections from the South Carolina Historical Magazine edited by Lawrence S. Rowland and Stephen G. Hoffius, 2011.

Civil War Tours of the Low Country: Beaufort, Hilton Head and Bluffton, South Carolina by David D’Arcy, 2008.

The Complete Civil War Journal and Selected Letters of Thomas Wentworth Higginson edited by Christopher Looby, 2000.

Department of the South: Hilton Head Island in the Civil War by Robert Carse, 1961.

Eve of Emancipation: The Union Occupation of Beaufort and the Sea Islands by Ginnie Kozak, 1996.

The Forgotten History: A photographic essay on Civil War Hilton Head Island edited by Charles C. McCracken and Faith M. McCracken, 1993.

Hilton Head Island [DVD]: a television history: 10,000 years ago to present day by Palmetto Pictures in association with the Southeastern Ecological Institute. [2006?], c1996.

The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina, volume 1: 1514 – 1861 by Lawrence S. Rowland, Alexander Moore, and George R. Rogers, Jr., 1996.

The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina, volume 2: Rebellion, Reconstruction and Redemption, 1861 – 1893 by Stephen R. Wise and Lawrence S. Rowland, with Gerhard Spieler, 2015.

A History of the 15th South Carolina Infantry, 1861 – 1865 by James B. Clary, 2007.

Lee in the Lowcountry: Defending Charleston & Savannah, 1861-1862 by Daniel J. Crooks, Jr. (Civil War Sesquicentennial Series), 2008.

No Prouder Fate: The Story of the 11th South Carolina Volunteer Infantry by Neil Baxley, 2005, 2009.

Port Royal Under Six Flags: The story of the Sea Islands by Katharine M. Jones, 1960.

A Scratch with the Rebels: a Pennsylvania Roundhead and a South Carolina Cavalier by Carolyn Poling Schriber, [2007].

Touring the Carolinas’ Civil War Sites by Clint Johnson, 1996.

Come to the Beaufort District Collection to See These Items:

SC 973.7 HIG The Complete Civil War Journal and Selected Letters of Thomas Wentworth Higginson edited by Christopher Looby, 2000. Note: See the index for “Port Royal, South Carolina,” “Port Royal Expedition,” and perhaps “Port Royal Experiment.” The Port Royal Experiment refers to the presence of missionary teachers in the area who were trying to improve the lot of the local newly freed slaves.

SC 973.7 JOH Touring the Carolinas’ Civil War Sites by Clint Johnson, 1996. Note: ”The Sea Islands Tour,” a driving tour of approximately 105 miles, is found on pp. [276]-295.

SC 973.7 LAM Lamson of the Gettysburg: The Civil War Letters of Lieutenant Roswell H. Lamson, U.S. Navy edited by James M. McPherson and Patricia R. McPherson, 1997. Note: Lamson discusses the Union capture of Port Royal Sound in his letters on pages 36 and 40 -52.

SC 973.7 WAR War Letters, 1862-1865 of John Chipman Gray and John Codman Ropes, 1927. Note: Letter of June 27, 1863, p. 138, has the author agreeing with Emil Schalk that holding Port Royal was “perfect folly.” Schalk wrote Campaigns of 1862 and 1863, Illustrating the Principles of Strategy in 1863.

SC 973.73 BOL Soldiers, Sailors, Slaves and Ships: The Civil War Photographs of Henry P. Moore edited by W. Jeffrey Bolster and Hilary Anderson,1999. Note: The photographs show daily life of the soldiers stationed on the Sea Islands and includes some photographs taken aboard ships docked in the Port Royal Sound.

SC 973.73 CAR Department of the South: Hilton Head Island in the Civil War by Robert Carse, 1961. Note: During the Civil War era, “Port Royal” referred to Hilton Head, as well as all the Union occupied area around the Port Royal Sound. This title is the place one should start to understand the scope of the Union undertaking and Union installation in lowcountry South Carolina.

SC 973.731 KOZ Eve of Emancipation: The Union Occupation of Beaufort and the Sea Islands by Ginnie Kozak, 1996.

SC 973.731 VIE The Port Royal Expedition, 1861: The First Union Victory of the Civil War by Egbert L. Viele, 1885. Note: This item is fragile. Photocopying is strictly prohibited.

SC 973.75 AMM The Atlantic Coast (The Navy in the Civil War) by Daniel Ammen, 1883. Note: See Vol. 2, Chapter 2, “The Port Royal Expedition,” pp. 13-45.

SC 973.75 ORV In South Carolina Waters, 1861-1865 by Maxwell Clayton Orvin, 1961. Note: See particularly pp. 27-29 for a listing of ships involved in the “Battle of Port Royal Sound.”

SC 973.75 UNI Civil War Naval Chronology, 1861-1865 (3 volumes) by the United States Navy, 1961. Note: See pp. 28-41 of part 1-3 for the events of October, November, and December 1861.

SC 973.75 WIS Lifeline of the Confederacy: Blockade Running During the Civil War by Stephen R. Wise, 1988. Note: The value of Port Royal harbor is mentioned on pp. 17 and 219.

SC 973.7757 CIV The Civil War in South Carolina: Selections from the South Carolina Historical Magazine edited by Lawrence S. Rowland and Stephen G. Hoffius, 2011. Note: If you read only one book about the Civil War as it transpired in South Carolina , I recommend that this is the book you read. The editors did yeoman’s work scouring the 112 volumes for representative articles. Beaufort District’s unique history during the Civil War and Reconstruction eras is featured in the Sea Islands section.

SC 973.7757 CLA A History of the 15th South Carolina Infantry, 1861 – 1865 by James B. Clary, 2007. Note: This volume is a very fine unit history of the 15 th SC Infantry, CSA. The biographical data compiled about the individual members of the unit is impressive.

SC 973.7757 CRO Lee in the Lowcountry: Defending Charleston & Savannah, 1861-1862 by Daniel J. Crooks, Jr. (Civil War Sesquicentennial Series), 2008. Note: General Lee bought Traveler, his war horse, in Pocotaligo while stationed in Beaufort District.

SC 973.7757 SCH A Scratch with the Rebels: a Pennsylvania Roundhead and a South Carolina Cavalier by Carolyn Poling Schriber. [2007].

SC 973.7757 SEI VOL.1 South Carolina’s Military Organizations During the War Between the States by Robert S. Seigler. Volume 1: The Lowcountry and Pee Dee, 2008.

SC 973.77579 COK The Battle of Port Royal by Michael D. Coker. (Civil War Sesquicentennial Series), 2009. Note: Start with this short book with illustrations for an overview of the battle’s timeline, significant personnel, and summary.

SC 973.77579 DAR Civil War Tours of the Low Country: Beaufort, Hilton Head and Bluffton, South Carolina by David D’Arcy, 2008.

SC 973.782 LU War Letters of William Thompson Lusk, 1911. Note: Letters written from Port Royal and “The Port Royal Expedition under the command of General Thos. W. Sherman, started from Hampton Roads, Oct. 29, 1861” begins on p. 89. Other sections are entitled: “Naval Engagement at Port Royal under the command of Commodore Saml. F. Dupont, Nov. 7, 1861,” “The Occupation of Beaufort, Dec. 9, 1861,” and “Action at Port Royal Ferry, Jan. 1, 1862.” Note: This item is fragile. Photocopying is strictly prohibited.

SC 975.704 BEA 2003 Beaufort during the Reconstruction Era [VHS] USCB Forum: [February 23, 2003] by the Sea Islands Reconstruction Heritage Partnership, 2003.

SC 975.799 BAR Beaufort and the Civil War, 1861-1865: including the first settlement of the Port Royal area 1562 by John H. Bartlett, 1993. Note: The first fourteen pages of this booklet cover the Battle of Port Royal Sound.

SC REF 975.799 FOR The Forgotten History: A photographic essay on Civil War Hilton Head Island edited by Charles C. McCracken and Faith M. McCracken, 1993. Note: Photographs tell the story of the large federal installation on Hilton Head Island during the Civil War years.

SC 975.799 HIL Hilton Head Island [DVD]: a television history: 10,000 years ago to present day by Palmetto Pictures in association with the Southeastern Ecological Institute, [2006?], c1996. Note: Episode 3: The Gullahs in Slavery and Freedom follows the trade of slaves from Africa to coastal South Carolina. It looks at the effects of the Battle of Port Royal on slaves and examines the formation and development of Gullah culture in the Sea Islands.

SC 975.799 JON Port Royal Under Six Flags: The story of the Sea Islands by Katharine M. Jones, 1960. Note: See “Part X: The Port Royal Expedition,” pp. 209-234.

SC 975.799 NOR Two Weeks at Port Royal by Charles Nordhoff, 1863.

SC 975.799 ROW v. 1 The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina, volume 1: 1514 – 1861 by Lawrence S. Rowland, Alexander Moore, and George R. Rogers, Jr., 1996. Note: This three volume series is the definitive history.

SC 975.799 ROW v. 2 The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina, volume 2: Rebellion, Reconstruction and Redemption, 1861 – 1893 by Stephen R. Wise and Lawrence S. Rowland, with Gerhard Spieler, 2015. Note: Wise’s expertise is on Civil War operations. His treatment of the Battle of Port Royal is masterful.

SC 975.6 MOR The Civil War in the Carolinas by Dan L. Morrill, 2002.

Illustrations and Maps

SC PRINT #6 Expedition to Port Royal.–government buildings erected on Hilton Head, S. C., by the Federal Forces under General Sherman, 1861-2. / from a sketch by our special artist with General Sherman’s command. [1862?] “Our illustration of the Government buildings erected on Hilton Head, S.C., embrace the following points of interest: Commissary’s Quarters, built by the Confederates Post Sutler’s, built by the Confederates Camp of the Eighth Maine regiment butcher’s yard Camp of the Third New Hampshire regiment Camp of the Forty-eighth New York regiment Provost Marshal Major Beard’s quarters and Provost Marshal’s guard General Viele’s headquarters General Sherman’s headquarters Captain Pothouse’s (Assistant Adjutant-general) headquarters lodging house, built by the Confederates bakery unfinished building Captain Saxton’s office, and other Government offices, formerly Generals Drayton and Wright’s headquarters.”

SC PRINT #9A SC PRINT #9B Exterior view of fortifications erected by the Federal troops at Hilton Head, Port Royal Harbor, S. C.: The Soldier in our Civil War : [1862] from a sketch by W. T. Crane. “Exterior view” scene depicts Union encampment with soldiers drilling, making trenches, canons and supply carts. “Interior view” shows Union troops carrying, stacking, and loading cannon balls.

BDC Print #21

SC PRINT #21 Port Royal Expedition: The morning detail of the Fourth New Hampshire Volunteers going to work on the Hilton Head Fortification: Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper : Jan. 25, 1862.

SC PRINT #32 The Southern Expedition : view from the interior of Fort Welles, late Fort Walker, Hilton Head Island, looking inland, showing the defenses from the land side : Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper : Dec. 21, 1861from a sketch by our special artist.

SC PRINT #33 The Great Naval Expedition: view of the interior of Fort Walker, Port Royal Harbor, S. C. during the bombardment by the vessels of the National fleet, November 7: Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper : Nov. 30, 1861 from a sketch by our special artist taken on the spot.

SC PRINT #46 Expedition to Port Royal.–government buildings erected on Hilton Head, S. C., by the Federal Forces under General Sherman, 1861-2 from a sketch by our special artist with General Sherman’s command. This item is a 1/2 page, with just this illustration cut out from what appears to be a Civil War newspaper.

SC PRINT #62 The Great Naval Expedition–The landing of the U. S. troops at Fort Walker, Port Royal Harbor, S. C., after its evacuation by the Rebel forces on the afternoon of November 7: Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper : Nov. 30, 1861 from a sketch by our special artist taken on the spot.

SC PRINT #67A SC PRINT #67AB Scene in the parlor of Mr. Barnwell’s house at Beaufort, South Carolina: Harper’s Weekly: A Journal of Civilization : January 18, 1862 sketched by our special artist. The top half of the page is the line engraving “Port Royal Ferry, scene of the Battle of First January, 1862” (with an accompanying article on the reverse side) and the lower half comprised of the title image, showing freed blacks whooping it up inside the abandoned house of their [probable] former owner/master.

SC PRINT #88 General Stevens’ Brigade taking possession of Beaufort, S. C., on the evening of December 5, 1861: The Civil War in the United States, 1861? “The beautiful rural town of Beaufort, S. C., came into possession of the Union authorities as a result of the battle of Port Royal. It had been occupied as the headquarters of General Thomas F. Drayton, commander of the army of defence [sic] on Port Royal Sound. The place had been abandoned by all the white inhabitants save one man, who sat in the post-office when the Union troops appeared on the scene. To him was delivered the message of Commodore Du Pont announcing that the life and property of the people would be respected. General Stevens’ brigade assumed the duties of police to maintain order. It comprised the following regiments: Eighth Michigan, Seventy-ninth New York Highlanders, Fiftieth and One Hundredth Pennsylvania. The last named was known as the ‘Roundhead’ regiment.”

SC PRINT #92 Die Expedition nach Port Royal. — Seabrook Lantung am Scull Creek auf Hilton Head Inlet, S. C.: Frank Leslie’s Illuftrirte Zeitung = [The Port Royal Expedition: Seabrook Landing at Skull Creek on Hilton Head Island, SC: Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper ], [1862?]

SC PRINT #94 Retreat of the Confederate garrison, commanded by General Drayton, from Fort Walker to Bluffton, during the bombardment by the Federal fleet, on the afternoon of November 7th, 1861. Text below caption title at bottom of page: “After gallantly enduring the fire of our invincible navy, under Commander Dupont, for about four hours, in the course of which the destroying circle of our ships was getting nearer and nearer to the devoted forts, General Drayton gave orders for the retirement of his men. The retreat soon ripened into a flight, and a flight which eclipsed even that of Bull Run. The chivalry of South Carolina, which, according to Governor Pickens’s account, is born insensible to fear, in flying from Fort Walker to Scull Creek–which separates Hilton Head from the Mainland, on which Bluffton stands–threw everything away. The exact path of their flight was encumbered with accoutrements, arms of every description, knapsacks–in a word, everything that could facilitate a flying soldier’s speed had been thrown away as worthless.” Reverse pages with caption titles: p. 103: “Effect of the gunboat shells on the Confederates in the woods, Port Royal, S. C., January 1st, 1862.” “Death of the Confederate General Zollicoffer, in the battle of Mill Spring, KY., January 19th, 1862.” and Page 106: “Battle of Pittsburg Landing–burning the dead horses near the peach orchard.” “Gathering Confederate oats–an incident in the March of General Prentiss’s Division from Ironton to Cape Girardeau.”

BDC Print #135

SC Print #135 The bombardment of Fort Walker, Port Royal Harbor, SC: –view of the interior during the bombardment by the vessels of the Federal fleet, November 7th, 1861.

SC Print #153 Order of battle in the capture of Port Royal : Frank Leslie [Nov. 3 – 7, 1861].

SC MAP #345 Plan of the naval battle, Port Royal Harbor, 1861 by G. Woolworth Colton. Includes Ft. Walker (Hilton Head Island), U.S. gun boats, Broad River, “line of attack”, ship channel to Beaufort, transports, Joiner’s Bank, Station Creek, Ft. Beauregard (St. Philips Island), Cole’s Cape, and Rebel gun boats.

Beaufort County Historical Society Papers

The Beaufort County Historical Society has placed some of the papers presented during its meetings for the public to use in the Beaufort District Collection, Beaufort County Library. The papers are present in one or more formats. Copies of some of the papers are held in typescript folders, on 16mm microfilm, and/or as hardbound copies.

SC 975.799 BAR The Battles of Beaufort by Nathaniel Berners Barnwell. Presented to the Beaufort County Historical Society, January 23, 1945. Note: See pp. 9-17 concerning the “second” Battle of Beaufort, aka The Battle of Port Royal Sound.

BCHS #4 Beaufort in the Civil War by Howard E. Danner. Presented to the Beaufort County Historical Society, June 30, 1960. Note: Contents of this paper include plates of the battle and some photographs of the town made around the time of the occupation. Unfortunately, hard copies of this paper no longer exist and the microfilm is rather difficult to read. Photocopies made from the microfilm tend to be blurred.

BCHS #68 Port Royal Military History by Stephen R. Wise. Presented to the Beaufort County Historical Society, January 27, 1987. Note: The paper details all military activity on Port Royal starting with the settlement of the Spanish in 1526, including brief information regarding the Battle of Port Royal during the Civil War.

BDC Research Room Vertical Files

  • Beaufort Volunteer Artillery
  • Port Royal, Battle of, 1861
  • Port Royal—History

Note: The Beaufort District Collection (BDC) exists to acquire, preserve, maintain and make accessible a research collection of permanent value which records the history, culture, and environment of the South Carolina lowcountry wedged between the Combahee (pronounced “kum-bee”) and Savannah Rivers.

Contact the Beaufort District Collection at 843-255-6468 or e-mail [email protected] for additional information about local history and archives relating to the people, places, and themes of the history, culture, and natural environment of Beaufort County, Jasper County and Hampton County, South Carolina.

Please check the Beaufort County Library (SC) system’s homepage for current hours of operation and locations.


South Caroliniana Library

Union postmaster Joseph H. Sears published the New South newspaper out of the post office building on Union Square in Port Royal, S.C., on a weekly basis beginning in March 1862. The paper was moved to the town of Beaufort sometime in 1865 and remained there until it ceased in 1867.

The New South offers a glimpse into an era of unprecedented social upheaval in the South Carolina Lowcountry. In the Battle of Port Royal Sound of Nov. 7, 1861, Union Navy forces seized control of Port Royal Harbor, and Beaufort District’s white residents fled in their wake. Union forces occupied the district through the end of the war. Officials confiscated the abandoned properties and resold them to former slaves and Northern cotton speculators. Abolitionists resettled in the area to provide aid to the newly emancipated slaves, who comprised the overwhelming majority of district residents, and to open schools such as the Penn School on St. Helena Island. In 1865, U.S. Army General William T. Sherman issued Special Field Order No. 15, which reserved for former slaves the islands from Port Royal to Charleston (President Andrew Johnson later revoked the order). The years immediately following the war saw Beaufort’s economy diversify, the district reorganize as Beaufort County, and African Americans and the Republican Party rise to political prominence, led by Hastings Gantt, Thomas E. Miller, and Robert Smalls.

Sources:
Helsley, Alexia Jones. Beaufort, South Carolina: A History. Charleston, S.C.: History Press, 2005.
Moore, John Hammond. South Carolina Newspapers. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1988.
Rowland, Lawrence S. “Beaufort County.” In The South Carolina Encyclopedia. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 2006. P. 60–61.
“Sherman’s Special Field Orders, No. 15.” http://www.wikipedia.org/

Acknowledgments
A number of people put a lot of work into making the 67 issues of The New South electronically accessible. Allen Stokes of the South Caroliniana Library suggested the collection for scanning and allowed us access to the papers for some time. Craig Keeney of the South Caroliniana Library helped with the metadata and wrote the “About the Collection.” Lisa Ressener (MLIS, 2006) and Deborah Green (MLIS, 2007) scanned the papers, creating TIFFs and JPEGs. Jennifer Quier (MLIS, 2007) OCR’d the JPEGs, making the collection full-text searchable. Deborah created the PDFs to load into the database. Stewart Baker (MLIS, 2008) and Deborah worked on OCR as well. Laura Coleman (MLIS, 2006) created the home page and Kate Boyd of Digital Activities loaded the collection into CONTENTdm and oversaw the project. The work could also not have been done without the help of Tony Branch, of the systems department, who is the systems administrator for the CONTENTdm database and helps to manage the computers and scanners in the Digital Activities Department.

Creating the Digital Collection
The newspaper issues were scanned on a flatbed Epson Expression 10000 XL photo scanner using SilverFast scanning software. Lisa and Deborah scanned the images as color TIFFs at 24-bit and 300 ppi. From the TIFFs they created high quality JPEGs and added preservation metadata to the TIFF and JPEG images. Jennifer Quier converted the JPEGs to text files using Omni Pro OCR software to provide full-text searchability. Deborah created PDFs using Adobe Acrobat. The PDFs and text files were then uploaded to CONTENTdm. The TIFFs will be maintained as the archival masters on a SAN server, backed up to DVD and tape.

Laura created a home page for the collection, and Debbie created the metadata in an Excel spreadsheet. The metadata records follow the Western States Best Practices Dublin Core format and were uploaded as a tab-delimited file at the same time as the images. Kate reviewed the collection and uploaded the images to the CONTENTdm database.


Order of Battle and Plan of Attack: Nov 7th 1861 [The Battle of Port Royal)

Sales tax of 6% required for books shipped to addresses in Virginia. Standard domestic shipping is free, however additional fees may be required for heavy, oversized, or unusually-shaped items.

Returns accepted for any reason for a full refund (less shipping) if we receive the return within 14 days of shipment and items are received in the same condition as sent. Advance notice of any return would be appreciated.


The Lessons of the Great Beaufort Skedaddle

The American Civil War can be viewed through many lenses, but a perspective rarely employed is that of the South’s refusal to make what was essentially an energy transition–from slave labor to nascent fossil fuels. A small, moneyed elite, who made most of the economic and political decisions for the region, feared loss of wealth. If an orderly transition away from slavery, say over twenty years, had been negotiated between the North and the South, with a gradual introduction of Constitutional rights for former slaves, the great wealth of the antebellum South would undoubtedly have diminished, but much would have remained. Instead, half a million Americans died in war, and the entire South, black and white alike, experienced violence, hunger, and massive destruction of property and infrastructure, to be followed by a hundred years of grinding poverty, during which many of the worst abuses of slavery–racism, segregation, confinement of blacks to the lowest economic strata, black disqualification from voting, and white control of the black population through violence–remained intact. (The decade of Reconstruction was only a partial respite.) Even today, seven of the ten poorest states in the nation are former Confederate states.

Sometimes history plods along slowly. Sometimes it turns on a dime. On the 157th anniversary of the Great Beaufort Skedaddle, it’s worth remembering that sometimes doubling down on one’s way of life brings about catastrophe from which there is no recovery.

They were at church when the word came. In the pews of Saint Helena’s in Beaufort, South Carolina, master and
slave alike heard that an enormous Yankee fleet was massing off Point Royal Sound a mere ten miles away. If Confederate defenses didn’t hold, the town would have to evacuate in a matter of hours. It was time to pack and to pray.

Beaufort antebellum charm

In 1861, Beaufort was one of the wealthiest, most cultured cities in America. The town boasted not only a library of three thousand volumes but also some of the most erudite, educated men in the South. Having built their elegant Greek Revival mansions with ballrooms, chandeliers and two-story piazzas, planter families gathered here each summer to escape the heat and ague of their Sea Island plantations, as well as socialize and talk politics. Secession politics. For more than a dozen years cries for secession had risen from Beaufort, much of them led by its native son, rabble-rousing, fire-eater Robert Barnwell Rhett, remembered as the “Father of Secession.”

The Confederacy knew full well that Port Royal might be a target for a Northern base, but they couldn’t be sure other sites weren’t also in the running and so were somewhat lackadaisical in establishing defenses for Port Royal Sound. During the summer of 1861, local plantations reluctantly provided slaves to begin construction of two forts to guard the Sound’s entrance: Fort Walker on Hilton Head Island and Fort Beauregard on Phillips Island. But not only were the forts still incomplete by November, the artillery installed fell far short of what was originally proposed and even farther short of what was needed when the Yankees came calling.

Plans had been underway in the North to take a Southern port since early summer, with Lincoln himself involved in the selection. After all, to implement the “Anaconda Plan”—a tight blockade of the Southern coastline intended to cripple the Confederate economy—U.S. Navy warships needed a place to refuel with the coal that gave them power. Port Royal was one of the choicest deepwater ports on the Southern coast. That a massive Northern fleet was poised to sail was common knowledge to anyone who could read a newspaper once The New York Times published the details in the article, “The Great Naval Expedition,” on October 26 th . The only unknown was the destination, a secret that, remarkably, was successfully kept. It wasn’t until they were at sea that the captain of each vessel opened a sealed envelope telling him where his ship was headed.

The Great Naval Expedition en route

The fleet that set out on Oct 29 th would prove to be the largest U.S. naval and amphibious expedition in the entire nineteenth century. It included 17 warships, 25 colliers, 33 transports, 12,000 infantry, 600 marines, and 157 big guns. Port Royal, with its two cobbled-together forts supplied with only 2500 men, 4 gunboats, and 39 guns between them, didn’t stand a chance.

Bombardment of Port Royal

Nature came to the South’s aid in the form of a storm that sank some of the Northern fleet along the way, and then rough water delayed the day of the final attack. But when November 7 th dawned clear and calm, the water so still it was glassy, enough of the North’s warships were available to commence battle. Union ships concentrated their enfilade on Fort Walker. To the soldiers inside, the sound of artillery was deafening. By noon, only three of Fort Walker’s water battery guns were still operational by 2:30 p.m., all powder was gone. The time had come to abandon the fort. The command at Fort Beauregard, concerned about being trapped on Phillips Island with no line of retreat, quickly followed suit. Thankfully, casualties on both sides were light. Accounts vary, but the Confederates finished the day with between 11 and 59 killed and an equivalent number wounded or missing, while the Union fleet saw 8 dead and 23 wounded.

Even with the enormous attacking naval force, Sea Island planters had been so confident in the defending forts
manned with recruits from their very own Beaufort Volunteer Artillery that many watched the battle from shore on nearby Saint Helena Island. But when Confederate cannons grew silent and cheers reverberated from the Northern ships, they knew something had gone dreadfully wrong. They hurried home to evacuate, no doubt pained to leave bolls of valuable Sea Island cotton still unpicked in the fields.

When news of the battle’s outcome reached Beaufort, a kind of panic ensued. Facing an invading army of Yankees was too dreadful to contemplate flight was of the essence. But what to take, what to leave behind? The daguerreotypes? The silver? Of course the family bible must be packed. Some loaded up carriages, hoping to stay ahead of the Yankees on the long overland route to safety. But Beaufort was lucky that day—there was a steamer anchored in the river that could take hundreds swiftly to Charleston. However, it had only so much room. Furniture, clothing, horses, and the vast majority of their most valuable property—slaves—would have to be left behind. In the tumult, even food and dinner dishes were abandoned on dining room tables, testament to the haste involved. That evening the steamer departed overflowing with Beaufort’s white citizenry along with every jewel and sentimental item they could squeeze on board. Legend has it that when Yankee forces arrived two days later to occupy the town, they found just one white man remaining in Beaufort, and he was dead drunk.

What must the deserted slaves, who spoke Gullah, their own Sea Island patois, have thought as the laden steamer chugged away from Beaufort’s dock? Did they realize that history had unexpectedly turned a corner right in front of them, and that now, after centuries of captivity as a people, they were suddenly free? Perhaps the political ramifications didn’t sink in that night, but before the first Yankees arrived, clothing and other finery had been looted (liberated?) from the grand homes, and food and liquor thoroughly consumed in an understandable celebration of events.

Five generations now free (1862)

It is estimated 8-10,000 slaves were left behind in the Sea Islands when the white population fled. They were soon joined by thousands of others who escaped to the region once they realized that Northern occupation meant freedom. They all needed food and shelter, and since the Emancipation Proclamation had yet to happen, their legal status, beyond being “contraband,” was unclear. The Army asked for help and received it in the form of the Port Royal Experiment. Financed and organized by Northern abolitionist charities, the Experiment worked as a test case to create self-sufficiency among the former slaves. Its success points to what Reconstruction might have been if less corruption and more competence had been at its helm. Northern missionaries and teachers flocked to the Sea Islands to create schools and aid societies. Former slaves were allowed to farm the confiscated plantations and were paid $1 per 400 lbs of cotton they were able to harvest. The Penn School on St. Helena Island was one of the earliest schools established for freed slaves and can be visited as part of the Penn Center today.

Yankees at home on a Beaufort piazza (1862)

The Union Army found Beaufort a pleasant setting for officer’s quarters, administrative offices and hospitals. Because the Army occupied Beaufort until the end of the war, the fine mansions, while suffering damage, were not burned to the ground like so many other Southern towns and surrounding Sea Island plantations. To this day Beaufort’s centuries-old live oaks and antebellum charm remain. Port Royal turned out to be as advantageous a harbor as the Union had hoped and did much to strengthen the potency of the blockade. After the war, most planter families—their sons dead, their plantations burnt, their Beaufort homes sold in government auctions for back taxes (often without their knowledge)—never returned. The civilization that was antebellum Beaufort vanished into the night with that last steamer.

It is rare that the wheel of fortune spins as violently as it did on November 7, 1861. The town that had advocated so fiercely for secession was the first to feel the brunt of an occupying army. A people remarkable for their wealth lost almost everything in a matter of hours. A region that so defiantly insisted that its way of life—slavery—was non-negotiable ended up being the first to have a colony of former slaves experiment with what it meant to be free. The Great Skedaddle indeed.

Beaufort 1849 is a novel by Karen Lynn Allen set in Beaufort, South Carolina, at a point when the Civil War might still have been avoided.


Port Royal, 7 November 1861 - History

Flag Officer Josiah Tattnall and his mosquito fleet saw their share of action during the Battle for Port Royal. Tattnall had a reputation for aggressiveness, and he certainly displayed it at this engagement. On 4 November 1861 Flag Officer DuPont of the Union fleet sent the survey vessel Vixen in to chart the configuration of the bars and channel into Port Royal, accompanied by the gunboats Ottawa, Seneca, Pembina and Penguin. Tattnall, on his flagship, the steamer CSS Savannah, and with three armed tugs (Lady Davis, Resolute, and Sampson), bravely headed in towards the USN vessels. Gunfire from Ottawa, Seneca, and Pembina drove him back to his anchorage in Skull Creek. The next day, USN gunboats led by Ottawa went in to probe the defensive capabilities of the Confederate shore batteries and the CSN fleet attacked again. This time the Confederate flotilla was under the command of John Newland Maffitt, who, as Robert Browning notes, “went at them” when he saw the enemy vessels steaming into the harbor. A shot from the Seneca’s forward 11 inch pivot gun struck the Savannah and again the Union gunfire forced the Confederate ships to withdraw. Tattnall was furious with Maffitt, claiming that he did not authorize an attack, and of course Maffitt believed otherwise. Tattnall relieved Maffitt of command, but the two officers later settled their dispute. The day the Union offensive began (7 November), the mosquito fleet, back under Tattnall’s command, again stood out to take on the USN attacking fleet. A flanking column of Union gunboats (Bienville, Seneca, Penguin, Augusta, and Curlew) was assigned to keep watch on the mosquito fleet and fend off any attacks, which they did. Tattnall, as he reluctantly withdrew, dipped his blue ensign three times as a salute to his old friend DuPont. Later that day, Seneca went after the Confederate vessels and drove them back to Skull Creek. After the capitulation of the forts, the CSN vessels helped evacuate the Confederate garrison.

Image of the "90-day" or Unadilla class gunboats. Ottawa, Pembina, and Seneca are all shown. Source: Naval History and Heritage Command

Fort Walker

Hastily built in 1861 to protect the S.C. coast against Union attack, Fort Walker, commanded by Col. William C. Heyward, bore the brunt of the Union attack on November 7, 1861, when after 4½ hours, with only 3 guns left serviceable and ammunition almost gone, the troops under Gen. Thomas F. Drayton were forced to withdraw from the island. Rebuilt by Union forces, it was renamed Fort Welles.

Erected 1961 by Hilton Head Island Historical Society. (Marker Number 7-9.)

Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Forts and Castles &bull War, US Civil. A significant historical month for this entry is November 1886.

Location. 32° 13.965′ N, 80° 40.629′ W. Marker is in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, in Beaufort County. Marker is on Fort Walker Drive, on the right when traveling north. Between N. Port Royal Drive & Steam Gun Place, at Port Royal Plantation- a Secure Gated Community, Restricted access. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Hilton Head Island SC 29928, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. "Robbers Row" (a few steps from this marker) Hilton Head (approx. 0.2 miles away) Two Gallant Gentlemen from South Carolina (approx. 0.2 miles away) Battle of Port Royal (approx. 0.2 miles away) Steam Gun

More about this marker. Fort Walker - In 1861, soon after South Carolina seceded from the Union, Fort Walker was established by the Confederate Army near the end of what is now Fort Walker Drive.


Port Royal, 7 November 1861 - History

Battle of Port Royal, SC

Battle of Port Royal
On the morning of November 7, 1861, Du Pont's flagship, the Wabash led the fleet into action. As the Union vessels near the sound Confederate batteries at Forts Walker and Beauregard opened fire. Du Pont, having sent ships to test the enemy's capabilities the day before, concentrated most of his fire on the more heavily armed Fort Walker.

For several hours Union warships dueled the Confederate forts. Shells ripped through Fort Walker, dismounting guns, and killing or wounding some of the garrison. Though valiantly served, the Confederate guns did little harm to the constantly moving ships.

Cutting the Lifeline
At the outset of the Civil War, Federal strategists knew that a naval blockade of southern ports was crucial to stop the influx of supplies from abroad which the South depended upon to conduct war. It would also slow the exportation of goods funding the South.

Situated between the seaports of Savannah and Charleston, Port Royal Sound was an excellent base from which to carry out a naval blockade.

Confederate planners knew the importance of Port Royal Sound. To defend it they constructed two large, earthen forts at its entrance Fort Walker on Hilton Head Island and Fort Beauregard on Bay Point. Combined they mounted nearly 50 guns.

A Difficult Passage
On October 29, 1861 the largest fleet yet assembled by the United States, under the command of Flag Officer Samuel F. Du Pont, set sail from Hampton Roads, Virginia. Nearly 13,000 soldiers and Marines accompanied the17 warships, 25 coaling schooners and 33 transports, but their destination had been kept secret.

Three days out to sea, a tremendous gale off Cape Hatteras scattered the fleet and four ships were lost. Opening sealed orders provided in the event the convoy was dispersed, each vessel plotted its own course to a rendezvous point off Port Royal Sound. By November 3, the majority of the squadron had arrived.

Preparing the Attack
As the Union fleet assembled, it was first challenged by four Confederate vessels commanded by Josiah Tattnall. Vastly out-armed, the Southern gunboats continued to contest the advance Union warships for two days while Du Pont positioned the fleet against General Thomas Drayton's coastal fortifications.

Du Pont's innovative plan divided his warships into two parallel squadrons. The vessels would sail into Port Royal Sound between two enemy forts. Once past the defenses, one column would guard against Confederate gunboats while the other circled back in an elliptical maneuver, bombarding the forts into submission.

Brother Against Brother
In a war of divided loyalties, sometimes brother did face brother in battle. Thomas Drayton's younger brother, Percival Drayton, commanded the Pocahontas, which fired more than 70 rounds in one hour at his brother's troops on shore. Confederate Colonel John A. Wagener described the battle from his vantage point at Fort Walker: "The enemy had chosen a day which was entirely propitious to him. The water was smooth as glass. The air was just sufficient to blow the smoke of his guns into our faces, where it would meet the column of our own smoke and prevent our sight excepting by glimpses. No sooner did we obtain his range when it would be changed, and time after time rechanged, while the deep water permitted him to choose his own position and fire shot after shot and shell after shell with the precision of target practice."

Southern resistance continued until mid afternoon when their ammunition ran low, and little damage had been inflicted on the attacking fleet. With many of their guns dismounted, and in danger of being trapped. the decision was made to abandon Forts Walker and Beauregard and retreat inland. Port Royal Sound had been secured by the Union.

For the remainder of the war the area served as Union headquarters for the army's Department of the South and navy's South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, which patrolled the South Carolina, Georgia and east Florida coast.


Port Royal, 7 November 1861 - History

Union Regimental Histories

Connecticut

1st Regiment Infantry

Organized at Hartford April 22, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., May 18. Attached to Mansfield's command, Dept. of Washington, to June, 1861. Key's 1st Brigade, Tyler's Division, McDowell's Army of Northwestern Virginia, to August, 1861.

SERVICE.--Duty at Camp Corcoran. Defenses of Washington, D.C., till June 1, 1861. Advance on Vienna and Falls Church, Va., June 1-8, and picket duty there till July 16. Advance on Manassas, Va., July 16-21. Occupation of Fairfax C. H. July 17. Battle of Bull Run July 21. Mustered out July 31, 1861.

2nd Regiment Infantry

Organized at New Haven May 7, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., May 19. Attached to Mansfield's command, Dept. of Washington, to June, 1861. Key's 1st Brigade, Tyler's Division, McDowell's Army of Northeastern Virginia to August, 1861.

SERVICE.--At Camp Corcoran, defenses of Washington, D.C., till June 1. Advance to Vienna and Falls Church, Va., June 1-3, and picket duty there till July 16. Advance on Manassas, Va., July 16-21. Occupation of Fairfax C. H. July 17. Battle of Bull Run July 21. Mustered out August 7, 1861.

3rd Regiment Infantry

Organized at New Haven and mustered in May 14, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., May 19. Attached to Mansfield's command, Dept. of Washington, to June, 1861. Key's 1st Brigade, Tyler's 1st Division, McDowell's Army of Northeastern Virginia to August, 1861.

SERVICE.--Duty at Camp Corcoran, defenses of Washington, D.C., till June 1, 1861. Advance to Vienna and Falls Church, Va., June 1-3, and picket duty there till July 16. Advance to Manassas, Va., July 16-21. Occupation of Fairfax C. H. July 17. Battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21. Mustered out August 12, 1861.

4th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Hartford May 21, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., June 10. Attached to Abercrombie's 6th Brigade, 2nd Division, Dept. of Pennsylvania, to August, 1861. 2nd Brigade, Banks' Division, Army Potomac, to December, 1861. Defenses of Washington to January, 1862.

SERVICE.--Duty at Chambersburg, Pa., and at Hagerstown, Md., till July 4, 1861, and at Williamsport till August 16. At Frederick, Md., till September 5. Moved to Darnestown September 5, thence to Fort Richardson. Defenses of Washington, D.C., and duty there till January, 1862. Designation of regiment changed to 1st Conn. Heavy Artillery January 2, 1862. (See 1st Heavy Artillery.)

5th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Hartford July 26, 1861. Left State for Baltimore, Md., July 29, thence moved to Harper's Ferry, W. Va., July 30, and duty there till August 16. Attached to George H. Thomas' Brigade, Banks' Division, to October, 1861. Gordon's Brigade, Banks' Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Banks' 5th Army Corps, and Dept. of the Shenandoah to June, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of Virginia, to September, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 12th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac and Army of the Cumberland to April, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 20th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, April, 1864. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 20th Army Corps to June, 1865. 2nd Brigade, Bartlett's Division, 22nd Army Corps, Dept. of Washington to July, 1865.

SERVICE.--Guard and outpost duty on the Upper Potomac till February, 1862. Operations near Edward's Ferry October 20-24, 1861. Operations about Dams Nos. 4 and 5 December 17-20. Advance on Winchester March 1-12, 1862. Near Winchester March 5. Occupation of Winchester March 12. Ordered to Manassas, Va., March 18, returning to Winchester March 19. Pursuit of Jackson March 24-April 27. Columbia Furnace April 17. At Strasburg till May 20. Retreat to Winchester May 20-25. Action at Front Royal May 23. Middletown May 24. Battle of Winchester May 24-25. Retreat to Martinsburg and Williamsport May 25-June 6. At Williamsport till June 10. Moved to Front Royal June 10-18. Reconnaissance to Luray June 29-30. Moved to Warrenton, Gordonsville and Culpeper, July, Reconnaissance to Raccoon Ford July 28 (Co. "I"). Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 6-September 2. Battle of Cedar Mountain August 9. Battle of Bull Run August 29-30. Moved to Washington, D.C., thence to Frederick, Md., September 2-12. Duty at Frederick till December 10. March to Fairfax Station December 10-14, and duty there till January 19, 1863. Moved to Stafford C. H. January 19-23, and duty there till April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3. Funkstown, Md., July 12. Snicker's Gap, Va., July 21. Near Raccoon Ford, Va., till September 24. March to Brandy Station, thence to Bealeton and movement to Stevenson, Ala., September 24-October 3. Guard duty along Nashville and Chattanooga R. R. at Cowan and Cumberland Tunnel till April, 1864. Atlanta Campaign May to September. Demonstration on Rocky Faced Ridge May 8-11. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Cassville May 19. New Hope Church May 25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 26-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kennesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Mountain June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Gilgal or Golgotha Church June 15. Muddy Creek June 17. Noyes Creek June 19. Kolb's Farm June 22. Assault on Kennesaw June 27. Ruff's Station, Smyrna Camp Ground July 4. Chattahoochee River July 5-17. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Allatoona August 16. Operations at Chattahoochee River Bridge August 26-September 2. Occupation of Atlanta September 2-November 15. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Montieth Swamp December 9. Siege of Savannah December 10-21. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Thompson's Creek, near Chesterfield, S.C., March 2. Near Cheraw March 3. Averysboro, N. C., March 16. Battle of Bentonville March 19-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 9-13. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D.C., via Richmond, Va., April 29-May 20. Grand review May 24. Mustered out (old members July 22, 1864) July 19, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 6 Officers and 104 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 82 Enlisted men by disease. Total 193.

6th Regiment Infantry

Organized at New Haven September 12, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., September 17, thence moved to Annapolis, Md., October 5. Attached to Wright's 3rd Brigade, Sherman's Expeditionary Corps, to April, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of the South, to July, 1862. District of Beaufort, S.C., Dept. of the South, to September, 1862. District of Beaufort, S. C., 10th Army Corps, Dept. of the South, to March, 1863. Jacksonville, Fla., to April, 1863. District Hilton Head, S.C., 10th Corps, April, 1863. Folly Island, S.C., 10th Army Corps to June 1863. 2nd Brigade, United States forces, Folly Island, S.C., 10th Army Corps to July, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Morris Island, S.C., 10th Army Corps, July, 1863. 1st Brigade, Morris Island, S. C., 10th Army Corps, July, 1863. District of Hilton Head, S.C., 10th Corps to April, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 10th Army Corps, Dept. of Va. and N. C. to May, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 10th Army Corps, Dept. Virginia and North Carolina, to December, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 24th Army Corps, to January, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Terry's Provisional Corps, Dept. of North Carolina, to March, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 10th Army Corps, Dept. North Carolina, to April, 1865. Abbott's Detached Brigade, Dept. North Carolina, to July, 1865.

SERVICE.--Sherman's Expedition to Port Royal, S.C., October 21-November 7, 1861. Capture of Forts Walker and Beauregard, Port Royal Harbor, November 7. Reconnaissance on Hilton Head Island November 8. Expedition to Braddock's Point November 10-11. Duty at Hilton Head, S.C., till January 20. Expedition to Warsaw Sound January 20-February 27. Duty at Hilton Head till March 20. Moved to Dafuskie Island and siege operations against Fort Pulaski, Ga., March 20-April 11. Bombardment and capture of Fort Pulaski April 10-11. Operations on James Island June 1-28. Grimball's Plantation June 10. Battle of Secessionville June 16. Evacuation of James Island and movement to Hilton Head June 28-July 7. Duty there till October. Expedition to Pocotaligo, S.C., October 21-23. Action at Frampton's Plantation, Pocotaligo, October 22. Duty at Beaufort, S.C., till March, 1863, and at Jacksonville, Fla., till April. Moved to Hilton Head, S.C., and duty there till June. Occupation of Folly Island, S.C., June 3-July 10. Attack on Morris Island, S.C., July 10. Assault on Fort Wagner, Morris Island, July 18. Moved to Hilton Head, S.C., July 25, and duty there till April, 1864. Moved to Gloucester Point April 27-May 1. Butler's operations on south side of James River and against Petersburg and Richmond May 4-28. Swift Creek or Arrowfield Church May 9-10. Chester Station May 10. Operations against Fort Darling May 12-16. Proctor's Creek May 13. Battle of Drewry's Bluff May 14-16. At Bermuda Hundred till August 13. Ware Bottom Church May 20. Petersburg June 9. Port Walthal June 16-17. Siege operations against Petersburg and Richmond June 16, 1864, to January 3, 1865. Ware Bottom Church June 20, 1864. Demonstration on north side of the James August 13-20. Battle of Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, August 14-18. Deep Run August 16. In trenches before Petersburg August 25-September 27. Moved to north side of the James September 27-28. Battle of Chaffin's Farm, New Market Heights, September 28-30. Darbytown and New Market Roads October 7. Darbytown Road October 13. Battle of Fair Oaks October 27-28. In front of Richmond October 31-November 2. Detached for duty at New York City during Presidential election of 1864, November 2-17. Duty in trenches before Richmond till January 3, 1865. Second expedition to Fort Fisher, N. C., January 3-15. Assault and capture of Fort Fisher January 15. Half Moon Battery January 19. Sugar Loaf Battery February 11. Fort Anderson February 18. Capture of Wilmington February 22. North East Ferry February 22. Duty at Wilmington, N. C., till June and at Goldsboro till July. Mustered out August 21, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 8 Officers and 99 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 124 Enlisted men by disease. Total 235.

7th Regiment Infantry

Organized at New Haven September 13, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., September 18, thence moved to Annapolis, Md., October 5. Attached to Wright's 3rd Brigade, Sherman's Expeditionary Corps, to April, 1862. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Dept. of the South to July, 1862. District of Hilton Head, S.C., Dept. of the South to September, 1862. District of Beaufort, S.C., 10th Army Corps, Dept. of the South, to January, 1863. Fernandina, Fla., to April, 1863. District of Hilton Head, S.C., 10th Corps to June, 1863 (Cos. "A," "B," "I," "K"). St. Helena Island, S.C., 10th Army Corps, June, 1863 (Cos. "A," "B," "I," "K"). 2nd Brigade, Folly Island, S.C., 10th Corps (Cos. "A," "B," "I," "K") to July, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Morris Island, S.C., 10th Corps (Cos. "A," "B," "I," "K'), July, 1863. 1st Brigade, Morris Island, S.C., 10th Corps (Cos. "A," "B," "I," "K") to August, 1863. Regiment at St. Augustine, Fla., till August. 3rd Brigade, Morris Island, S. C., 10th Corps to October, 1863. St. Helena Island, S.C., 10th Corps to November, 1863. 1st Brigade, Morris Island, S.C., 10th Corps to December, 1863. St. Helena Island, S.C., 10th Corps to February, 1864. Hawley's Brigade, District of Florida, February, 1864. 2nd Brigade, Ames' Division, District of Florida, to April, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 10th Army Corps, Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to May, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 10th Army Corps to December, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 24th Army Corps to January, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Terry's Provisional Corps, Dept. of North Carolina to March, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 10th Army Corps, Dept. of North Carolina, to April, 1865. Abbott's Detached Brigade, Dept. of North Carolina, to July, 1865.

SERVICE.--Sherman's expedition to Port Royal, S.C., October 21-November 7, 1861. Capture of Forts Beauregard and Walker, Port Royal Harbor, November 7. Duty at Hilton Head, S.C., till December 18. Reconnaissance on Hilton Head Island November 8. Expedition to Braddock's Point November 10-11. Moved to Tybee Island, S.C., December 18 and engaged in fatigue duty building batteries for the reduction of Fort Pulaski till April 10, 1862 (Cos. "B," "G" and "I" on Dafuskie Island March 20 to April 11). Manned Batteries Totten, Halleck, Sherman, Lincoln and Stanton. Bombardment and capture of Fort Pulaski April 10-11. Garrison duty at Fort Pulaski till May 27. Operations on James Island, S.C., June 1-28. Battle of Secessionville June 16. Evacuation of James Island and movement to Hilton Head, S.C., June 28-July 7. Duty at Hilton Head till September 30. Expedition to St. John's Bluff, Fla., September 30-October 13. Expedition to Pocotaligo, S.C., October 21-23. Action at Frampton's Plantation, Pocotaligo, October 22. Duty at Hilton Head and Beaufort, S.C., till January 8, 1863. Moved to Fernandina, Fla., January 13, and duty there till April 12, and at St. Augustine, Fla., till August 2, then moved to Morris Island, S.C. Cos. "A," "B," "I" and "K" detached April, 1863, and moved to Hilton Head, S.C. Expedition against Charleston, S. C., April. Occupation of Folly Island, S.C., June 3. Attack on water batteries, Morris Island, S.C., July 10. Assault on Fort Wagner July 11. Siege of Fort Wagner July 11-September 7. Regiment joins from St. Augustine, Fla., August 5. Capture of Forts Wagner and Gregg, Morris Island, S.C., September 7. Operations against Fort Sumter and against Charleston till October 16. Man Batteries Stevens, Strong, Weed and Kearney. Moved to St. Helena Island, S.C., October 16. Boat duty at Folly Island October 29-November 17. At St. Helena Island, S.C., till February, 1864. Veterans on furlough January 15 to February 27. Moved to Jacksonville, Fla., February 5-7. Expedition into Central Florida February 8-28. Battle of Olustee February 20. Duty at Jacksonville, Fla., till April 13. Moved to Gloucester Point, Va., April 13-20. Butler's operations on south side of the James and against Petersburg and Richmond, May 4-28. Swift Creek or Arrowfield Church May 9-10. Chester Station May 10. Operations against Fort Darling May 12-16. Proctor's Creek May 13. Battle of Drewry's Bluff May 14-16. On the Bermuda Hundred lines May 16-August 13. Attack on picket line June 2. Petersburg June 9. Bermuda Hundred June 14. Port Walthal June 16-17. Siege operations against Petersburg and Richmond June 16, 1864, to January 3, 1865. Demonstration on north side of the James August 13-20. Battle of Strawberry Plains Deep Bottom August 14-18. In trenches before Petersburg August 25 to September 28. Moved to north side of the James September 28. Battle of Chaffin's Farm, New Market Heights, September 28-30. Darbytown and New Market Roads October 7. Darbytown Road October 13. Battle of Fair Oaks October 27-28. Detached for duty at New York City during Presidential election of 1864, November 2-17. Duty in trenches before Richmond till January 3, 1865. Second expedition to Fort Fisher, N. C., January 3-15. Assault and capture of Fort Fisher January 15. Half Moon Battery January 19. Sugar Loaf Battery February 11. Fort Anderson February 18. Capture of Wilmington February 22. North East Ferry February 22. Duty at Wilmington, N. C., till June, and at Goldsboro till July. Mustered out July 20, 1865, and discharged at New Haven August 11, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 11 Officers and 157 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 192 Enlisted men by disease. Total 364.

Source - "A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion" by Frederick H. Dyer (Part 3)


Bombardment of Fort Walker, Port Royal Harbor, by the Vessels of the Federal Fleet, November 7, 1861 Civil War Engraving - stock illustration

Your Easy-access (EZA) account allows those in your organization to download content for the following uses:

  • Tests
  • Samples
  • Composites
  • Layouts
  • Rough cuts
  • Preliminary edits

It overrides the standard online composite license for still images and video on the Getty Images website. The EZA account is not a license. In order to finalize your project with the material you downloaded from your EZA account, you need to secure a license. Without a license, no further use can be made, such as:

  • focus group presentations
  • external presentations
  • final materials distributed inside your organization
  • any materials distributed outside your organization
  • any materials distributed to the public (such as advertising, marketing)

Because collections are continually updated, Getty Images cannot guarantee that any particular item will be available until time of licensing. Please carefully review any restrictions accompanying the Licensed Material on the Getty Images website, and contact your Getty Images representative if you have a question about them. Your EZA account will remain in place for a year. Your Getty Images representative will discuss a renewal with you.

By clicking the Download button, you accept the responsibility for using unreleased content (including obtaining any clearances required for your use) and agree to abide by any restrictions.


Watch the video: PORT ROYAL JAMAICA GIDDY HOUSE Raeslay