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Sui Dynasty Map - History
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Sui dynasty, Wade-Giles romanization Sui, (581–618 ce ), short-lived Chinese dynasty that unified the country after four centuries of fragmentation in which North and South China had gone quite different ways. The Sui also set the stage for and began to set in motion an artistic and cultural renaissance that reached its zenith in the succeeding Tang dynasty (618–907). Its capital was at Daxing, which, during Tang times, changed its name to Chang’an (now Xi’an).
The first Sui emperor, Yang Jian, known by his posthumous name Wendi, was a high official of the Bei (Northern) Zhou dynasty (557–581), and, when that reign dissolved in a storm of plots and murders, he managed to seize the throne and take firm control of North China by the end of the 580s he had won the West and South and ruled over a unified China. The Wendi emperor established uniform institutions of government throughout the country and raised a corps of skilled and pragmatic administrators. He reestablished Confucian rituals last used in government by the Han dynasty. He sought and won the support of men of letters, and he fostered Buddhism. He promulgated a penal code and administrative laws that were simpler, fairer, and more lenient than those of the predecessor Bei Zhou. He conducted a careful census, a practice long lost in chaos, and simplified the taxation. He made his army into a system of militias that was self-supporting when the country was not at war.
The second emperor, Yangdi, completed the integration of southern China into the empire, emphasized the Confucian Classics in an examination system for public employment, and built a second capital at Luoyang in the east. He engaged in great construction projects, including a vast canal system.
The relations of the Sui with the Turks in the west deteriorated and, when wars in Korea to exact tribute failed, the short regime collapsed in a welter of rebellions. Yangdi was murdered by a member of his entourage in 618, and his successor, Gongdi, reigned less than a year.
The architecture of the Sui was dominated by the great Yuwen Kai, who in nine months designed a vast capital city at Daxing that was six times the size of present-day Xi’an at the same site. Its palace had a rotating pavilion accommodating 200 guests. Painters came from throughout the country seeking patronage at the Sui court. The dynasty established a pattern of patronizing the arts that was later embraced by the Tang rulers. Because of the brevity of the Sui reign and the consonance of its arts with those of the Tang, the arts of the two dynasties are often treated together.
This article was most recently revised and updated by Virginia Gorlinski, Associate Editor.
Main keywords of the article below: southern, sui, northern, split, dynasty, managed, emperors, brief, ce, reigning, period, unify, dynasties, unification, china, following, 581-618.
The Sui Dynasty (581-618 CE) was a brief one with only two reigning emperors but it managed to unify China following the split of the Northern and Southern Dynasties period.  The Sui Dynasty consisted, then, of only two emperors: Wendi (aka Wen or Wen-ti), who reigned 581-601 CE, and his son Yangdi (aka Yang Guang or Yang-ti) who reigned from 604 to 618 CE. Aided by such figures as the great military commander Yang Su, the emperors consolidated their control over a unified China and expanded their territory.  In 581 he unifiesmost of China and establishes the Sui dynasty as Emperor Wendi.  Buddhism was popular during the Sixteen Kingdoms and Northern and Southern dynasties period that preceded the Sui dynasty, spreading from India through Kushan Afghanistan into China during the Late Han period.  Just as the Qin Dynasty had prepared China for the more durable and successful Han Dynasty, the Sui were paving the way for another golden age of Chinese history in the form of the Tang Dynasty.  The first Sui emperor, Yang Jian, known by his posthumous name Wendi, was a high official of the Bei (Northern) Zhou dynasty (557-581), and, when that reign dissolved in a storm of plots and murders, he managed to seize the throne and take firm control of North China by the end of the 580s he had won the West and South and ruled over a unified China.  The Sui dynasty (581-618), which reunified China after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation during which the north and south had developed in different ways, played a part far more important than its short span would suggest.  Sui Dynasty Timeline Timeline Description: After roughly 350 years of disorder, the Sui dynasty (581 - 618 CE) finally succeeded in reuniting China.  The founding of the Sui dynasty reunited China after more than 300 years of fragmentation.  The Sui Dynasty is most famous for unifying China under one rule after the Period of Disunion.  Ancient China: Sui Dynasty Parents and Teachers : Support Ducksters by following us on or.  In many ways, Buddhism was responsible for the rebirth of culture in China under the Sui dynasty.  …opening of relations with the Sui dynasty (581-618) of China. 
Sui dynasty, Wade-Giles romanization Sui, (581-618 ce ), short-lived Chinese dynasty that unified the country after four centuries of fragmentation in which North and South China had gone quite different ways.  By this time, the later founder of the Sui dynasty, Yang Jian, an ethnic Han Chinese, became the regent to the Northern Zhou court.  Although poetry continued to be written, and certain poets rose in prominence while others disappeared from the landscape, the brief Sui dynasty, in terms of the development of Chinese poetry, lacks distinction, though it nonetheless represents a continuity between the Six Dynasties and the poetry of Tang.  While early Buddhist teachings were acquired from Sanskrit sutras from India, it was during the late Six dynasties and Sui dynasty that local Chinese schools of Buddhist thoughts started to flourish. 
Eight years later, in 589, he conquered southern China and brought all of China under the rule of the Sui Dynasty.  The 7th-century Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta wrote a generally accurate depiction of the reunification of China by Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty, with the conquest of the rival Chen Dynasty in southern China. 
The difference in the two Sui emperors' lasting reputation is rather indicative of the period itself which is praised for its contribution towards unifying and modernising China but at the same time pilloried for its excessive waste and neglect of the welfare of the Chinese people.  The various cultural elements introduced during these four centuries were further unified and Sinicized when the Sui achieved a new unification of China. 
Though the Sui dynasty ruled only for approximately thirty years, much was accomplished by the first emperor Wendi (reigned 581-604), formerly a general for the Northern Zhou dynasty.  Started from 581 and ended in 618, the Sui Dynasty lasted for only 38 years and had only three emperors.  Sui dynasty poets include Yang Guang (580-618), who was the last Sui emperor (and a sort of poetry critic ) and also, the Lady Hou, one of his consorts.  The founder of the Sui dynasty was Yang Jian, also known as Wendi or Emperor Wen.  Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Chang'an (which was renamed Daxing, 581-605) and later Luoyang (605-618).  There were Dukedoms for the offspring of the royal families of the Zhou dynasty, Sui dynasty, and Tang dynasty in the Later Jin (Five Dynasties).  The rebellions rumbled on until 617 CE. When Yangdi was assassinated by the son of one of his own generals, the Sui dynasty fell and the government was taken over by one Li Yuan, later to be known as Gaozu and founder of the Tang Dynasty.  The Sui Dynasty only ruled for a short time from 581 to 618 AD. It was replaced by the Tang Dynasty.  He established the Sui Dynasty and became known as Emperor Wen.  Buddhism created a unifying cultural force that uplifted the people out of war and into the Sui dynasty. 
Reigning for a period of only thirty-eight years from 581 to 619, Sui dynasty was one of the shortest lived dynasties in the history of China but it made several important contributions, most prominently their reunification of China after a lengthy period of fragmentation and internal warfare.  His supporters proclaimed his grandson the new emperor of the Sui Dynasty, but at this point, China had fallen apart.  When the Sui Dynasty fell due to becoming weak from repeated failed wars against the Goguryeo Kingdom, China dissolved into a dozen small kingdoms, controlled by local warlords who were competing for power.  Here are the 10 major achievements of the Sui dynasty of China.  Constructed during the Sui Dynasty Constructed to connect Northern and Southern China.  After ruling the Sui dynasty for 8 years, Wendi amassed over 500,000 troops along the Yangzi River in 589 CE. His plans were to take over southern China and the Chen dynasty government.  Emperor wen started unifying China and creating the Sui dynasty by using military force to make himself the emperor of Northern China.  One of the most important legal codes in the history of traditional Chinese law, the Kaihuang Code, was formulated during the rule of Emperor Wen of Sui dynasty.  Sui Wen-ti (541-604) is the formal posthumous name of the Chinese emperor Yang Chien, founder of the Sui dynasty.  Yuwen Kai, one of the most influential architects in Chinese history, was active during the reign of the Sui dynasty. 
He one of the few dynasty founders that came from the peasant class, which meant that he was born to a peasant family. + 2 Six Dynasties (222 AD - 581 AD) During this period of time, China was not united under a single leader. + 9 Sui (589 AD - 618 AD) The first time in over a century, China's north and south division was united as one during this dynasty.  The Sui dynasty and the first half of the Tan dynasty were to become the high watermark of Buddhisn in China --or, as certain scholars have it, its golden age Growing religious fervour facilitated the spread of £ wholly Chinese form of Buddhism, with new inter pretations and doctrines. 
Sui a dynasty which ruled in China ad 581 and reunified the country, preparing the ground for the cultural flowering of the succeeding Tang dynasty.  Ch'in (Qin) Dynasty (c. 221-206 BC): Unification of China under harsh rule of Shih Tuang-ti. 
Yang Jian became the first emperor of the Sui dynasty in 581 CE.  Upon his death in 604 CE, his son, Yangdi, succeeded him as the second emperor of the Sui dynasty.  The Sui had to take refuge with one of the warlords, and in 619, the young emperor officially gave up his power, formally ending the Sui Dynasty.  Sui Dynasty was preceded by the Northern and Southern dynasties period (420 to 589) which was marked by civil war and political chaos.  One of the warlords who built their own army as the Sui Dynasty collapsed was Li Yuan, governor of the state of Tang.  Yang Jian overthrew the Northern Zhou dynasty establishing the Sui dynasty in 581 and taking the title of Emperor Wen.  In 605-606, during the reign of Emperor Yang, Yuwen Kai led the project to build the city of Luoyang, which became the eastern capital of Sui dynasty.  There were many developments which were initiated by the Sui dynasty but were consolidated and became more prominent during the succeeding Tang dynasty, which had a much longer reign.  Though there were imperial exams as early as the Han dynasty, an open modern examination system was first established in 605, during the reign of the Sui dynasty.  The Sui dynasty sets up their capital at Chang’an ( Xi’an ), which has been preferred capital for last 16 centuries by almost a dozen dynasties up to this point.  The Sui Dynasty fell out of power, and then the empire dissolved into smaller kingdoms controlled by warlords fighting for power.  F inally, after three and a half centuries of great turmoil, the empire finally reconvenes--first during the short-lived SUI dynasty, then the more famous and enduring TANG dynasty.  Nobody expected the empire to fall apart, let alone the emperor of the Sui Dynasty, Emperor Yang.  Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD): Re-unification, central government reestablished.  The Sui dynasty is often compared to the Qin, since they were both short-lived with iron-fisted rulers who forced huge chunks of the population into massive projects. 
The Sui dynasty just helped in the completion of the Great Wall which was very important to the people of China because the great wall provided them with protection from invaders.  Short-lived though it was, the Sui dynasty left a powerful mark on Buddhist art in China.  The Sui Dynasty was short-lived by very important because it reconnected southern China together into an empire which would quickly grow in the dominant force in Asia again during the Tang and Song Dynasties.  During the Han dynasty, new walls were again built far to the north until they too were abandoned in favor of a stronger defensive line closer to Chinese territory by approximately 40AD. Subsequent Chinese dynasties either ignored the walls or added their own sections, such as the efforts by Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty to build a wall in Mongolia.  Although itself purely Chinese, the Sui dynasty encour aged Buddhism, which became the religion of the empir and an integral part of Chinese civilization, society an< politics. 
SUI WEN-TI SUI WEN-TI 541 - 604 Chinese Emperor Sui Wen Ti was the founder of the Sui dynasty, which brought about the second unification of China after more than 300 years of division.  The period came to an end with the unification of all of China proper by Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty, during this period, the process of sinicization accelerated among the non-Chinese arrivals in the north and among the indigenous people in the south.  Each period laid the foundation for the next, with The Sui Dynasty: The Unification of China, A. D. 581-617. by - jstor late Arthur F. Wright, in The Sui Dynasty, argues that this unity was not intrinsic. thesis -that credit for the Sui unification should go primarily to the Sui rulers and. 
In 589, Chen dynasty was conquered by Sui, and China was, again, in the unification. 
Only after the unification of the Sui did China once more achieve true national status again. 
It was marked by the reunification of Southern and Northern China and the construction of the Grand Canal, though it was a relatively short Chinese dynasty.  The unification of China gave the new Qin dynasty an unprecedented amount of resources and manpower. 
The Sui dynasty finally fell into the hands of Emperor Gaozu of Tang, and that led to the rule of the Tang dynasty.  The Sui Dynasty began when Emperor Wen's daughter became the Empress of Northern Zhou, which made her new step- son the emperor.  The founder of the Sui dynasty, Yang Jian (reigned 581-604) was born into a powerful military family and spent the first twelve years of his life under the care of a nun in a monastery.  The Sui Dynasty, founded by Emperor Wen, or Yang Jian, held its capital at Luoyang. 
The Sui Dynasty 589-618 The task of reuniting the empire proved far easier than anyone could have predicted given the preceding two hundred fifty years of disunity. 
Date Submitted: 16-10-2011 Ancient China Xia Dynasty (2100-1600 BC) Imperial China Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD an analysis of four categories of arts and their effect on individuals thinking capacity 220) Three Kingdoms (220-280) Jin Dynasty (265-420) Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589) Modern China Republic of China (1912-1949) China History Shang Dynasty (1556-1046 BC) Sui Dynasty (581-618) Tang Dynasty ….  唐 朝) was an imperial dynasty of the map on tang dynasty and song essay sui China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period Northern Song, 960-1126. 
Even though the Sui Dynasty was short-lived, Emperor Wen contributed much to the culture of China and with the introduction of Buddhism as their unifying force, this religion became China's stronghold of faith among its people.  Degree of 581 - 681 THE SUI DYNASTY (unified China). 618 - 907 Study on the Buddhist Temples in Chang'an - Capital City of the Sui 28 Apr 2005 of Buddhist temples in the capital city Daxing of the Sui and Chang'an of the Tang, the dissertation discusses the reason for the differences.  The Tang dynasty reunited China after the collapse of the short-lived Sui dynasty, was ruled by the Li family, and had its capital at Chang'an (modern day Xi'an ).  The Sui Dynasty (581-617) and then the Tang Dynasty were able to reunify China and strengthen its governmental structure.  After this conquest, the whole of China entered a new golden age of reunification under the centralization of the short-lived Sui dynasty and succeeding Tang dynasty (618-907).  While military pressure on surrounding Nations dwindles, in the interval, that same year the Sui Dynasty (581 AD - 618 AD) is founded in China.  The following is a simplified family tree for the Sui dynasty (隋朝), which ruled China between AD 581 and 618.  The Sui dynasty accomplished great feats, including another restoration of the Great Wall of China and the construction of the Great Canal linking the eastern plains to the northern rivers.  Sui Dynasty unified China after a long period of disorder (since Western Jin, or even since Eastern Han).  唐 朝) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten. 1368 to 1644.  The Tang dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.  During the Liang Period and in the following Northern Wei Dynasty (386 AD - 535 AD), Sui Dynasty (581 AD - 618 AD), Tang Dynasty (618 - 907 AD), the Tangut Empire (Xixia Dynasty Chinese: ) (1038 AD - 1227 AD) and following Yuan Dynasty (1271 - 1368 AD), some 7 groups of Buddhist caves will appear in a valley (area) of some 30 kilometers in length.  WHKMLA : History of the Sui Dynasty - ZUM.de 18 Oct 2009 Chinese History - Sui Dynasty 581-618 - Event History, from China English language abstracts of Chinese language theses, published since The Tang Dynasty -- 618 - 907 AD -- Bibliography - Hua Umf Maine The founding of the Tang dynasty : The fall of Sui and rise of Tang, a preliminary Thesis (Ph.  Sui dynasty Sui dynasty, (581-618 ce), short-lived Chinese dynasty that unified the country after four centuries of fragmentation in which North and South China had gone quite different.  Sui Dynasty (Chinese: 隋朝 pinyin: Su' cháo) The short-lived dynasty, founded by Emperor Wen (Yang Jian), unified Southern and Northern China after four centuries of fragmentation in which North and South had gone quite different ways.  KEY TOPICS By this time, the later founder of Sui dynasty, Yang Jian, of ethnic Han Chinese, became the regent to the court of Northern Zhou, as his daughter was the Empress Dowager following her stepson being installed the emperor as a child.  The first Chinese Emperor who thought of his universal dominion in these Buddhist terms was Yang Chien, founder of the Sui Dynasty. 
The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: 隋朝 pinyin: Su' cháo) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.  "eyes positioned Sui dynasty - Wikipedia The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.  Buddhism was used to unify the culture of China and uplift the cultural condition of the people during and after war and into the Sui Dynasty.  Sui dynasty is often compared to Qin dynasty since both unified China after centuries of instability and division and both got too much exhausted by wars and resetting order what led to their decline.  It took a dynasty reminiscent of the power and vision of the Qin Dynasty to reunite China: the Sui Dynasty set the foundation for the more stable medieval age in China.  The enormous Grand Canal of China (still the longest canal in the world) built during the previous Sui Dynasty facilitated the rise of new urban settlements along its route, as well as increased accessibility in mainland China to its own indigenous commercial market.  The feuding clans of China were finally united once again in 589 C.E. by Wen-ti and the Sui dynasty (581-617 C.E.), a ruthless leadership often compared to the Legalist Ch'in regime.  Many historians claimed that Sui dynasty was the richest dynasty in ancient China, and it set a good root for the following dynasty to be great.  As commander of the victorious army to conquer the Capital Anyang, Liu Bang, eventually crowned himself Emperor of new China, creating the Han Dynasty in 206 BC. The 7th-century Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta wrote a generally accurate depiction of the reunification of China by Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty, with the conquest of the rival Chen Dynasty in southern China.  Although gazetteers had existed since 52 CE during the Han Dynasty and gazetteers accompanied by illustrative maps (Chinese: tujing ) since the Sui Dynasty, the illustrated gazetteer became much more common in the Song Dynasty, when the foremost concern was for illustrative gazetteers to serve political, administrative, and military purposes.  宋朝 pinyin: The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire (Chinese: Site Map Student Brands. 589 by the short-lived Sui dynasty The Tang dynasty The the map on tang dynasty and song essay sui Song dynasty is notable for the development of cities not only for.  The Tang Empire The Early Tang Empire: The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire (Chinese: xavier angel renegade analysis essay Sui Dynasty (589 Express your owns thoughts and ideas on this the similarities between the lives of hendel and bach essay by writing a grade and/or critique.  Tang dynasty Tang dynasty, (618-907 ce), Chinese dynasty that succeeded the short-lived Sui dynasty (581-618), developed a successful form of government and administration on the Sui.  The Sui dynasty (581-618 AD) was a short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty.  Xiao Xian - Xiao Xian was a descendant of the imperial house of the Chinese dynasty Liang Dynasty, who rose against the rule of Sui Dynasty toward the end of the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui. 
Chinese history then entered the Northern and Southern Dynasties period as parallel series of dynasties in the North and South co-existed until the Sui Dynasty united the country in 589.  The short-lived Sui dynasty was a pivotal period in Chinese history. 
The Wu Hu was replaced by the Sui Dynasty (589-618 CE), which began well and made many advances but, like so many dynasties in China's history, ended badly with a tyrant on the throne who cared more about himself and his luxury than the good of the people.  Wendi (reigned 581-604), the founder of the Sui dynasty, was a high-ranking official at the Bei (Northern) Zhou court, a member of one of the powerful northwestern aristocratic families that had taken service under the successive non-Chinese royal houses in northern China and had intermarried with the families of their foreign masters.  China was reunified in A. Dissertation order of chapters 16-10-2011 One of these remains or landmarks is the Ming Dynasty Tomb, which was made during the Ming Dynasty from A.D. Start studying china in the sui, tang, and song dynasties.  His reunification of China marked the creation of what some historians call the 'Second Chinese Empire', spanning the Sui, T'ang and Northern Song dynasties " alt"Tang and Song Dynasties Reunification and Renaissance in Chinese Civilization The Northern Song census recorded a population of roughly 50 million, much like the Han and Tang dynasties. 
KEY TOPICS POSSIBLY USEFUL In north the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534 AD) of the Xianbei tribe dominated the northern part of China, south of Yangtze River the Chinese dynasty Liu Song (劉宋) ruled the land.  While Mongols have been at war with various empires of China since the time of Genghis Khan himself and had already conquered much of China (including all of Western Xia and Jin Empires), they did not establish a Chinese style dynasty until 1271 when Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, declared himself the Chinese emperor as well as the great khan of the Mongols.  For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.  A.D. 220 Introduction of Buddhism in China: first century A.D. 15 or 15a is the whole of the Sòng dynasty, but 15b is the earlier Sòng, specified in Chinese as the Northern Sòng (Běisòng 北宋 ), and 15c is the later, Southern Sòng (Nánsòng 南宋 ), which controlled much less territory.  Tomb tile pictures of ancient China an archaeological study of pottery tiles from tombs of western Honan, dating about the third century B.C. Royal Ontario Museum of archaeology. 15 or 15a is the whole of the Sòng dynasty, but 15b is the earlier Sòng, specified in Chinese as the Northern Sòng (Běisòng 北宋 ), and 15c is the later, Southern Sòng (Nánsòng 南宋 ), which controlled much less territory.  Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China. 15 or 15a is the whole of the Sòng dynasty, but 15b is the earlier Sòng, specified in Chinese as the Northern Sòng (Běisòng 北宋 ), and 15c is the later, Southern Sòng (Nánsòng 南宋 ), which controlled much less territory. 
KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS A.D. 220 Introduction of Buddhism in China: first century A.D. This gradually came into common use in the Western Han armed forces as primary equipment, during the period 206 BCE to 220 CE. In what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, there emerged a Western Xia Dynasty from 1032 to 1227, established by Tangut tribes.  The Tang Dynasty saw the Reign of the First and Only Female Emperor of China and the introduction of the Imperial Examination System which lasted through all succesive Dynasties until 1905 AD. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy.  The Tang Dynasty saw the Reign of the First and Only Female Emperor of China and the introduction of the Imperial Examination System which lasted through all succesive Dynasties until 1905 AD. In what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, there emerged a Western Xia Dynasty from 1032 up to 1227, established by Tangut tribes. 
This work is a vast general history of China which covers a period of over 2,000 years, from the mythical times of the Yellow Emperor (the founder of the first Chinese dynasty, the Xia) to his own time during the reign of Emperor Wu (also known as Wu Di) who reigned between 141 and 87 BCE. The opening of the Silk Road was probably the major economic achievement of the Han Dynasty.  There was also a sea route by which an emissary of the Roman Emperor reached China in AD 166 AD, and it was during the Han Dynasty that the Chinese first made contact with India. 
Therefore, Yuan was the first dynasty in China to use Da ( Chinese : 大, "Great") in its official title, as well as being the first dynasty to use a title that did not correspond to an ancient region in China. 
The Sui were able to conquer all of China, but their dynasty only lasted about thirty years.  By the time China was united again under the Sui (581-618), the country had already experienced decades of relative political stability and social mobility, and its continuous receptiveness to outside influences prepared the way for the advent of the most glorious and prosperous epoch in its history--the Tang dynasty (618-906). 
Under the later waning leadership of the Chen dynasty, the southern Chinese were unable to resist the military power amassed in the north by Yang Jian, who declared himself Emperor Wen of Sui and invaded the south.  The Sui succeeded in reunifying China because of the wise policies of its founder but also because despite partition, the Chinese shared a common written language, common ideology and moral values in Confucianism, and by now a religion that was deeply embedded throughout the land: Buddhism.  Since Han Dynasty China once had a commandery in ancient northern Korea, the Tang Chinese desired to incorporate the region into their own empire.  Although wrapping paper had been used in China since the 2nd century B.C.E., during the Tang Dynasty the Chinese were using wrapping paper as folded and sewn square bags to hold and preserve the flavor of tea leaves.  China's 'New Policies.' In 1901 Dowager Empress Cixi announced a series of social-political reforms, hoping to bring China forward so as to be better able to answer the challenges posed by the Westernized world (including Japan). and the threat to the Qing dynasty posed by disillusioned Chinese.  Scholar-officials, also known as Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry (Chinese: 士大夫 pinyin: sh" dàfū) were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.  During the Qing Dynasty, China's last imperial dynasty dramatic changes occurred in the Chinese fashion world.  Ming officials were left in place by the Manchus and Beijing would remain the Chinese capital in an effort to establish among the Han Chinese the legitimacy of the new Qing dynasty as China's new rulers. 
After comparing the role of the Sui in reuniting China to the earlier Qin dynasty as discussed in Traditions & Encounters, by Bentley and Ziegler,.  Tang Dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝 pinyin: Táng cháo) founded by the Li (李) family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire.  The Tang Dynasty, following the Sui and preceding the Song Dynasty, was a golden age that lasted from CE 618-907 and is considered the high point in Chinese civilization.  Sng cho 960-1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 the map on tang dynasty and song essay sui and continued until 1279. 
Economy of the Song Dynasty -- The Song Dynasty (960 ndash1279) of China was a period of Chinese history marked by commercial expansion, economic prosperity, and revolutionary new economic concepts.  In the 21st century China became the richest country in the world in terms of GDP. The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝 pinyin: Sòng cháo 960-1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. 
The period of the five dynasties lasted for only 53 years, from 907 AD to 960 AD. The Five Dynasties comprised a string of dynasties in northern China that succeeded one another from 907 AD to 960 AD. It was he who gained control over the border states, and established one of the most successful periods in Chinese history, the Han dynasty, in 202 B.C.E. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered an age in Chinese history.  From the late Han Dynasty to the early Jin dynasty (265-420), large numbers of non- Han Chinese peoples living along China's northern periphery settled in northern China.  Although the Song Dynasty had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River, the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern Song Empire contained 60 percent of China's population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land. 
There were also two Dynasties that overlapped with this period and the Song Dynasty as follows: Liao 916-1125 A.D. Western Xia 1038 -1227 A.D. Although Chang'an was the site for the capital of the earlier Han and Jin dynasties, after subsequent destruction in warfare, it was the Sui Dynasty model that comprised the Tang era capital.  Part 6: The Sui and Tang Dynasties Finally, after three and a half centuries of great turmoil, the empire finally reconvenes--first during the short-lived SUI dynasty, then the more famous and Filial Piety - CEFIR (Center for International Relations Studies) According to this thesis, the law in the period from the Han to the Tang Hou XINYI, Xiao (Be Filial) and the Legal System in the Han Dynasty, Cass Journal.  The period of the Three Kingdoms followed immediately after the loss of the de facto power of the Han Dynasty emperors and the foundation of the Sui Dynasty.  Like the emperors of the Sui dynasty before him, Taizong established a military campaign in 644 against the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo in the Goguryeo-Tang War however, this led to its withdrawal in the first campaign because they failed to overcome the successful defense led by General Yeon Gaesomun.  Sui Dynasty (581A.D. - 618A.D): A story was told that in 616 AD, during the Sui Dynasty, a flare signal, summoning reserve troops to military service was found to entertain the morose wife of the emperor Yang-Ti.  According to the New Book of Tang the Sui dynasty Emperors were patrilineally descended from the Zhou dynasty Kings via Ji Boqiao 姬 伯僑, who was the son of Duke Wu of Jin.  Both sons later became officials under the Sui Dynasty, the year Princess Ningyuan was born, Northern Qi, at whose expense Emperor Xuan had expanded Chen, fell to Northern Zhou.  The Sui dynasty began when Emperor Wen's daughter became the Empress Dowager of Northern Zhou, with her stepson as the new emperor.  After Northern Qi fell to Northern Zhou in 577, however, Chen was cornered, Emperor Xuan died in 582, leaving the state in the hands of his incompetent son Chen Shubao, and by 589, Chen would be destroyed by Northern Zhous successor state Sui Dynasty. 
The first emperor of the Tang dynasty, Kao-tsu (618-626 C.E.), continued many of the practices begun during the Sui dynasty.  The Tang Dynasty was founded by Li Yuan, the Emperor Gaozu of Tang at 618 A.D. he was Duke of Tang and governor of Taiyuan in Sui Dynasty.  Li Yuan installed a puppet child emperor of the Sui dynasty in 617 but he eventually removed the child emperor and established the Tang dynasty in 618. 
Before the Tang Dynasty, there was the Six Dynasties period, followed by the short-lived Sui Dynasty (all together 7 Dynasties in 140 years).  The period of more than one hundred years from the decline of the Eastern Jin (317-420) to the foundation of the Sui Dynasty (581-618) was in the confrontation between tow powers, one in the north nad the other in the south.  By the year 609 AD, the Sui Dynasty has conquered large swaths south of the Yangtze River from Vietnam.  At the end of the Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD), beginning of the Tang (618-907 AD), the famous alchemist and medicine man Sun Si Miao refined ore in a cave near the eastern side of Liu Yang, Hunan.  The Qin Dynasty was replaced by the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), and the Sui Dynasty paved the way for the golden age of the Tang Dynasty (618).  It took shape after the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC - 24 AD), was officially established during the Sui Dynasty, and was further improved during the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907).  In the Sui Dynasty (581 - 618 AD) and the early Tang Dynasty (618 - 907 AD), the Turks were the biggest threat. 
The Sui Dynasty lasted for only 38 years and only had three emperors.  SUI DYNASTY (581 618) - after the chaotic years of the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the Sui Dynasty emerged.  As military commander of the Northern Chou dynasty (557 - 581) he seized power in in 581 and proclaimed the new Sui dynasty.  Compared with the previous conventional political system, the Three Departments and Six Ministries system of the Sui Dynasty divided the administrative power formerly held by Cheng Xiang (the prime minister in ancient times) and limited the power of regional military generals.  The Li family belonged to the northwest military aristocracy prevalent during the Sui dynasty and claimed to be paternally descended from the Daoist founder, Laozi (whose personal name was Li Dan or Li Er), the Han dynasty General Li Guang, and Western Liang ruler Li Gao.  Yang Jian adopted the title Emperor Wen, and took over the Northern Zhou kingdom, renaming it the Sui Dynasty.  The respite was short though as after Yang Jian defeated his rival General Yuchi Jiong, he usurped the throne from Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou and established the Sui dynasty, crowning himself Emperor Wen of Sui.  Sui dynasty was founded by Yang Jian who was prime minister in Northern Zhou. 
Yang Jians’s Sui dynasty survived less than thirty years, but the tradition of centralized rule outlived his house.  In the first year (581) of his Kaihuang () reign, Emperor Wen () of the Sui Dynasty ( 581-618) ordered the casting of wu zhu coins.  The Sui Dynasty (581-618) was a short lived Imperial Dynasty established by Emperor Wen of Sui where Luoyang had become the dynasty’s capital.  Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Changan and they also spread and encouraged Buddhism throughout the empire.  Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Chang'an (which was renamed Daxing, 581-605) and the later at Luoyang (605-614).  Two years later he was murdered in his bath and the Sui dynasty ended.  During the early Tang period, painting styles were mainly inherited from the previous Sui Dynasty.  Although the institution of the civil service examinations had existed since the Sui Dynasty, it became much more prominent in the Song period.  The Ming the map on tang dynasty and song essay sui Dynasty ….  Along with the Qin Dynasty, the Sui Dynasty was one of the two dynasties that had the shortest duration.  Members of the ruling family of Northern Wei and Northern Zhou constructed many caves here, and it flourished in the short-lived Sui Dynasty (581 AD - 618 AD).  The civil service examination system for selecting officials was established by Emperor Yang (569-618 AD) of the Sui dynasty (581-618).  After Emperor Wen's death by murder among his people, the Sui Dynasty (581-618) was continued by his son Emperor Yang of Sui.  Emperor Yang of the Sui dynasty: his life, times, and legacy.  Officially recognised as the first authorative history of the Sui dynasty this book also includes a mass of names, dates and information regarding the history and development of the Silk Road in Central Asia in this era. 
Reign of Yang (aka Yangdi), second and last Sui emperor in China.  In 589, the Sui defeat the last of the southern dynasties, Chen, and unify all of China for the first time since the Han.  Prince Shotoku of Japan sends the first of many official embassies to Sui China.  In 588, the Sui had amassed 518,000 troops along the northern bank of the Yangtze River, stretching from Sichuan to the East China Sea.  Sui China was not without its threats from neighbouring states, and the Great Wall was a notable point of defence against the Eastern Turks (Tujue) and so was extended and reinforced.  One of the major work projects undertaken by the Sui was construction activities along the Great Wall of China but this, along with other large projects, strained the economy and angered the resentful workforce employed.  According to legend, of the 300,000-strong Sui army, only 2,700 ever returned to China. 
The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities (the Five Barbarians ) within its territory.  Both Emperors Yang and Wen sent military expeditions into Vietnam as Annam in northern Vietnam had been incorporated into the Chinese empire over 600 years earlier during the Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD).  After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing the Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong (later also known as Emperor Gong during the brief reign of Wang Shichong over the region as the emperor of a brief Zheng (鄭) state) emperor.  This synthesis would reach its culmination in the distinctive culture of the Tang dynasty, which came to power after the downfall of the second Sui emperor.  Failed military campaigns led to the downfall of the Sui, who collapsed during an uprising that led to the conquest of the Tang dynasty. 
Emperor Gaozu (also Kao-tsu, formerly Li Yuan, r. 618-626 CE) was a Sui military commander who led a rebellion against.  An example of the important Sui land reforms was the extension of the Equal Field System ( Jun tian ) which had been first introduced in the late 5th century CE by Emperor Xiaowen of the Wei.  The Yang of Hongnong 弘農楊氏 were asserted as ancestors by the Sui Emperors, much as the Longxi Li's were asserted as ancestors of the Tang Emperors.  Later, after the fall of Sui, in the year 642, Emperor Taizong of Tang made an effort to eradicate this practice by issuing a decree of a stiffer punishment for those who were found to deliberately injure and heal themselves. 
The second Sui emperor engaged in unsuccessful wars and vast public works, such as the Grand Canal linking the north and south, that exhausted the people and caused them to revolt.  The city was razed to the ground, while Sui troops escorted Chen nobles back north, where the northern aristocrats became fascinated with everything the south had to provide culturally and intellectually. 
A few years later the Sui army pushed farther south and was attacked by troops on war elephants from Champa in southern Vietnam.  Things went well in the south with Sui armies conquering territory from the Annam and the Champa in southern Vietnam. 
As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor of Sui, while Yang Tong's legitimacy is more recognized by historians but still disputed.  In 581, Yang Jian replaced Northern Zhou with Sui and proclaimed himself Emperor Wen.  After crushing an army in the eastern provinces, Yang Jian usurped the throne to become Emperor Wen of Sui. 
Because of the brevity of the Sui reign and the consonance of its arts with those of the Tang, the arts of the two dynasties are often treated together.  This includes not only the major public works initiated, such as the Great Wall and the Great Canal, but also the political system developed by Sui, which was adopted by Tang with little initial change other than at the top of the political hierarchy. 
RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(32 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)
History of China
China boasts for more than 5,000 years of history which begins with the Shang Dynasty (ca. 1550BCE - ca. 1046 BCE). History of China has progressed through five major stages - Primitive Society, Slave Society, Feudal Society, Semi-feudal and Semi-colonial Society, and Socialist Society. During the ancient era society, there were more than 5 dynasties in history of China, including Xia dynasty, Shang dynasty, Zhou dynasty, Spring and Autumn Period, Warring States Period. After tha, China went into the Imperial Era including Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty, Wei and Jin Period, Wu Hu Period, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Song Dynasty and Liao, Jin, Western Xia, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. In modern era, there are two period, including People's Republic of China and 1949 to Present. Chinese civilization originated in and along the Yellow River (China's mother River) in the Neolithic era.
Prehistory Era of China History (1.7 million years - the 21st century BC)
One million years ago, China was inhabited by Homo erectus. It was said that the earliest human being in China was known as Yuanmou Man who lived lived 1,700,000 years ago. Yuanmou Man's Heritage sites were found in Yunnan Province in Southern and Western China. Besides Yuanmou Man, There were two kinds of Human being living in China. They were Lantian Man and Peking Man. The earliest man used the simple tools in their life in the whole Paleolithic Age. China is a great cradle of Human being civilization. In recent years, many new ancient human being sites were found in mainland China. Read More
After Paleolithic Age , China come into the Neolithic Age, which can be dated back to 10,000 BCE. People in this age learned how to use advanced tools to keep living and getting more food and resources. They learned how to carve and spin. Life became easy with the growing knowldege. People in Neolithic age could built their simple house and making simple clothes. The Yellow River, China's mother river become the civilization cradle for the 5000 years of history. The famous Banpo Culture which was discovered in Banpo, Xian became the earliest culture. Read More
Ancient Era of History of China (21st BC - 221 BC)
Xia Dynasty (21st - 16th century BC)
It was said that Xia Dynasty was the first dynasty of China. Xia Dynasty was lasted from from ca. 2,100 BCE to 1,600 BCE. Xia Dynasty played an important role in history of China. It's establishment put an end to the Chinese primitive society and began to come into the Class society. Until now, there are many people douted about the existence of Xia Dynasty. But more and more evidence foud in recent years proved that Xia Dynasty existenced in history of China. Xia Dynasty's people mainly live around Henan Province, China. Read More
Shang Dynasty (16th - 11th century BC)
After the Xia Dynasty, China came into the second dynasty, Shang Dynasty which was also called Yin Period. Because the capital of Shang Dynaty was located in Yin, a village in Xiaotun, in Anyang City of Henan Province. It was said that Xia Dynasty's last emperor, whose name is Jie, was a tyrannical. Jie was a rude emperor who served his people badly and finally overthrowed by a a tribe living in the lower regions of the Yellow River . The leader of the tribe was Kng Tang, who established Shang Dynasty. Read More
Zhou Dynasty (11th century BC - 771 BC)
The last emper of Shang Dynasty was King Zhou, who was very cruel to his people. King Zhou was also a cosher to his imperial concubine, whose name in Chinese was Daji. At the same age, there was a strong tribe in the Yellow River Valley, whose learder is Zhou Wenwang. He was too old to overthrowed the Shang Dynasty. He asked his son Ji Fa to attact Shang Dynasty and became the King of Zhou Dynasty. Zhou Dynasty lasted from from 1045 to approximately 221 B.C.E. It may be one of the longest dynasty in history of China. Read More
Spring and Autumn Periods (770 BC - 476 BC)
Spring and Autumn Periods was belong to Western Zhou Dynasty. Zhou Dynasty was divided into two parts, Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou Dynasty. The capital city of Western Zhou Dynaty was located in Fengyi which was near to today's Xian City, Shaanxi Province. The most famous activity in Spring and Autumn Periods maybe the Hundred Schools of Thoughts, including Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism and Mohism. They are the most read and know ancient Chinese philosophy in the 5000 years of History of China. Read More
Warring States Period (476 BC - 221 BC)
In Eastern Zhou, there were many states in and around the Yellow River. At this time, Zhou was always invaded by the north people like Qin to force Zhou moving their capital from Xian to Luoyang, Henan Province. After several years of battling, there were seven strong states remained by the end of 5th century BCE. These few states continued to fight each other. These period was call the Warring States Period. These states including Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei, Qin states. Among them, Qin was the most strong states. Its leader, Ying Zheng made great effort to unify the other six states, which enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor. So the Qin Dynasty was found at this stage. Read More
Imperial Era of History of China (221 BC - 1911 AD )
Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC)
After Ying Zheng, the first emperor in Chinese history, established his States, Qin Dynasty, He unified the whole China's use of money and Character. His political action made China become the first power centralized state. It was also the first Chinese imperial dynasty. Qin Dynaty lasted from 221 BC to 206 BC. There were only two emperors in this dynasty including Ying Zheng and his son Hu Hai. Although not a long dynasty, it played a very important role in history of China. It also leaved the most valuable historical sites for people to day, including the famous Great Wall of China and Terra Cotta Warriors. Read More
Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
Qin Dynasty's brutal political system made its people unbearing for living. Two people's uprising buring the Qin's palace Epang Palace. The army leaders Liu Bang and Xiang Yu conquered most troops of Qin Dynaty. Finally, Liu Bang sized Xian Yang, capital city of Qin Dynasty and overthrewed the first imperial dynasty. After several years of war with Xiang Yu, another strong and famous genral, Liu Bang finally won the whole war and established his own state, Han Dynasty, making Changan (Today's Xian, Shaanxi Province) its capital city. It was also the first dynasty embraced the philosophy of Confucianism. Read More
Three Kingdoms Period (220 - 280)
In the end of Eastern Han, there were three states in China. They were Wei States, leaded by Cao Cao, Shu States, leaded by Liu Bei, and Wu States, leaded by Sun Quan. Cacao's reign was in Noth of China and Shu state located in Western China and Wu states seized the eastern of China. There many big wars between these three states which leaded to its name Three Kingdoms. Each state made great effort to develop the economy and improve its army power. Among them, Cao Cao was the most strong states leader who want to unify the whole country. Read More
Wei and Jin Period (265 - 316)
Each state of the three kingdoms anounced its emperor and their own dynasty. After Cao Cao died, his son Cao Pi proclaimed himself the emperor of Wei States, making Luoyang as its capital city. At the end of Wei dynasty, a chancellor whose name is Sima Yan forced last emperor of Wei to turn over his throne and become the emperor of Jin Dynasty which can be seprated into two parts the Western Jin Dynasty (265 -316) and the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317 - 420). Being based on the strong economy and army power, Sima Yan lead its troops to attract the other two States and unify the whole Country. Read More
Wu Hu Period (317 - 420)
During the Jin Dynasty, there were also many wars between each states. At the same time, the normandic ethnic grops in western and northern China took the chance to invade the south China, including Chengdu, and most western Yangtze River area and the central plains of China. They set up many states which was call sixteen Kingdoms. At this period, China came into a process of assimilation for Han-Chinese with other ethnic groups people. Because the continued warring made people's living misery, Buddism developed quickly in this period. It was also the most popular religion in the following dynasties. Read More
Southern and Northern Dynasties (386 - 589)
In the end of Eastern Jin Dynaty, China went into the Southern and Northern Dynasties. In the north of China, most territories were controled by the normandic ethnic groups, including Xianbei ethnic group. Xianbei ethnic groups leader Tuoba conqured the other states and unified the north of China. These ethnic grops's civilization continue to develop and grew faster in economic. In the south of China, there were four states, including Song, Qi, Liang and Chen. Among them, Song was the largest states and lasted for the longest period. Read More
Sui Dynasty (581 - 618)
Sui Dynasty was set up in 581 and finally collapsed in 618 by Tang Emperor. Althou it only lasted for 38 years, it played a very important role in history of China. Many institutions established in Sui Dynasty were adopted by the following dynasties and emperors. Sui Dynasty brought the fragment Chinese people together and reunited the whole country. The economy and political system developed quickly at this time. Hower, Emperors of Sui Dynasty were not wise enough to keep this long. Three of its emperors, especially Emperor Yang, were another tyrannical like the Qin Shi Huang in Qin dynasty. Overuse of the political power lead to the collapse of Sui Dynasty. Read More
Tang Dynasty (618-907)
Tang Dynasty was established in 618 by Tang Gaozu, who took the throne on June 18. Tang Dynasty was the most important dynasty in history of China. It may be the most prosperous and innovative age of China ancient history. Tang Dynasty made a great achievement in economic, political, culture, military strenth and technology. Many of Tang's emperors were known by modern Chinese people such as Tang Taizong, whose name is Li Shimin. Many operors today showed this great dynasty. It's capital city Changan, today's Xian City was the largest and also the most prosperous international city at that time. But Tang Dynasty was finally declined in 907. Read More
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-979)
After the decline of Tang Dynasty, China came into a disunity period which lasted for more than 50 years from 907 to 960. During this time, another military learder Zhu Quanzhong estalished his own dynasty which was called later Liang, following by Later Tang, Later Jin, Later Han and Later Zhou. These dynasties were so called Five Dynasty. In the same time, China's west and south were controled by the military departments of Tang dynasty. They called themself the kingdoms. There were ten kingdoms at that time, which was called Ten Kingdoms in history of China. They were Southern Wu, Southern Tang, Wuyue, Souther Chu and Southern Han, Former Su, Later Su, SoutherN Ping and Min. Read More
Song Dynasty (960-1234)
Song Dynasty was established in 960 and collapsed in 1234. There were two dynasty in Song including Northern Song Dynasty and Southern Song Dynasty. Song Dynasty made a great success in economy and political development. So Song Dynasty was also called a porperous age after Tang Dynasty. The first emperor of Song Dynasty was Zhao Kuangyin, who was a military general of Later Zhou in Five Dynasties. Song Dynasty set up its capital city in Kaifeng, Henan Porvince. Hower in late Nother Song Dynasty, the political class was fell into the corruption seriously which lead to the decline of Song Dynasty. At this time, Jin dynasty was tried its best to overthrewed the Norther Song. So the Nothern Song collapsed. Read More
Liao Dynasty (1271-1368)
During the Nothern Song Dynasty, another kingdom in Notheast of China was ruled by an ethnic minoriy fo China Qidan(Khitan) whose emperor was Yelu Abaoji. Abaoji made the Qidan kingdom into Liao Dynasty, setting its capital in Balin Left Banner, today's Inner Mongolia. Qidan people belong to Nomandic nation and has the habit of animal husbandry and hunting and fisery. Influenced by the Han people, Qidan learned the technoloy and methods of production including construction, ceramics, mining, texttile and other Han's production modes. Trade between Qidan people and other nationality was oftenly. Read More
Jin Dynasty (1271-1368)
During the era of Liao Dynasty, there were a ethnic minority in North China rised and became a unity. This ethnic minority was called Nuzhen by Chinese people and its leader whose name was Wanyan Aguda established the Jin Dynasty in Heilongjiang Province, setting the capital in Yanjing (ancient name for Beijing) and finally moved to Bianjing, today's Kaifeng in Henan province. After the establishment of Jin Dynasty, Nuzhen group attacted Liao dynasty for many times and captured many important cities of Liao Dynasty. Jin Dynasty finally ended the rule of Nothern Song after they seized its capital, Kaifeng. After the Nothern Song Dynasty, the royal family moved to the south China to establish Southern Song. Read More
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
In late Southern Song Dynasty, there were three minorities in the north China, Nuzhen, Mongolian, and Xixia. Among them, Mogolian is the strongest tribe. Its leader Tiemuzhen had great ambition to unify the whole country and control the whole world. He ended the internal conflicts between the tribes of nothern Mongolian tribes and established a strong and rich Mongolian empire. After several wars to the Xixia and Jin Dynasty, he captured both of the areas and attempt to captured the Southern Song Dynasty. In 1260, son of Tiemuzhen, Kublai Khan took the throne and became the emperor of Yuan Dynasty, making its capital in Beijing. Several years later, Kublai Khan lead its army to conquered Southern Song dynasty and unified the whole country. More
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Ming Dynasty was established by a peasant's uprising leader, Zhu Yuanzhang, a farmer's son. He joined the peasants army in 1352 when the peasants army captured Haozhou, today's Fengyang in Anhui Province. After he joined the army, Zhu Yuanzhang did a great job in leading his army and became a leader of the army. Several years later, he established his army base in Yingtian, today's Nanjing in Jiangsu Province. Zhu and his army developed quicly in economy and military strenth. They captured Yuan Dynasty's capital City Dadu, today's Beijing and Zhu proclaimed himself emperor. Thus the Ming Dynasty was began in 1368. During the reign of Zhu Yuanzhang, Ming dynasty became a prosperous country and achieved development in culture. Read More
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
In the late of Ming Dynasty, peasants rebles occured in many places of China. An army leader of them, Li Zicheng, firstly captured Beijing and overthrown the Ming Dynasty. In the same time, The Manchus, a minority ethnic in Notheast China allied with Wu Sangui who was a general of Ming Dynasty to fight with Li Zicheng's army and controled Beijing, which became the capital city of Qing Dynasty. After Qing Dynasty set capital in Beijing, the court government carried out several policies to revive the economy and social development. The rulers of the dynasty continued to strenthen the centralized system in government. After several years of development, Qing Dynasty became very prosperous and strong in economy and army, appearing emperors like Kangxi, Qianlong. More
Modern Era of History of China (1911 - 1949 )
People's Republic of China (1911-1949)
In the late Qing Dynasty, great change happend in the world. Many foreign western countries became industrial country and have more goods to sell to the eatern country and China. In order to protect the domestic development, Qing dynasty closed its connection with the foreign country. But the western tried every efforts to open the market of China. The Britan continued to push its opium in to China and many Chinese people became drug addictive. In order to prhibit the drug come into China, the Opium War erupted in 1840. Because Qing governments weekness, Britain seized Hong Kong as its colony. In order to overthrow the outdated imperial Dynasty, many young Chinese who influenced by revolutionary leader, Sun Yat-sen began to join. Read More
1949 to Present (1949-present)
After three years of domestic wars with KTM (Kuomingtang, Nationalist Party of KTM), Communist Party of China established the New China, prolcaimed as People's Republic of China. Kuomingtang's leader Chiang Kai-shek who was a protégés of Sun Yat-sen moved to Taiwan and make Taiwan as their base. Since the founding of People's Republic of China, great development in economc and political was achieved by the great efforts of Chinese people. Especially the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China come into a modern and developing country. People's life have been improved greatly and now China has become the most important country in the world economy and political development. Great development in education, public transport, high-end technology achieved every day. Read More about Modern China.
#4 The influential Kaihuang legal code was formulated
One of the most important legal codes in the history of traditional Chinese law, the Kaihuang Code , was formulated during the rule of Emperor Wen of Sui dynasty. It consisted of 12 chapters with 500 provisions and served as a basis for the legal codes of succeeding dynasties. It was far simpler than earlier laws and considerable effort was put in making sure that local officials studied and enforced the new laws . The Kaihuang code was succeeded by the more famous Tang code , which is considered as the most influential body of law in the history of East Asia .
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived but significant dynasty in Chinese history which reunited China in 589 after over 360 years of division, and which set the foundations for the Tang Dynasty which would follow. Its brief reign was characterized chiefly by efforts of centralization and consolidation.
The Sui was established in 581 when Yang Jian, a general of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, usurped the throne, declaring an end to the Northern Zhou and taking the throne himself as Emperor Wen of Sui. Within eight years, he conquered the remainder of China, putting an end to the period of Northern and Southern Dynasties (a sub-section of the Six Dynasties Period) and reuniting China under a single Imperial state for the first time since the fall of the Han in 220.
Building on a legacy of Sino-Nomadic governments of the north, Emperor Wen attempted to reconcile this political heritage with that of the more dominantly Han Chinese political traditions of the south, incorporating Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism alongside one another in the formulation of a new legal code. A layer of local authority was removed, making local governments more strongly responsible to the Imperial capital, and the "rule of avoidance" was employed, preventing officials from serving in their home province, or from serving more than one term of service (usually three years) in a given locale this prevented them from gaining too much power locally, and helped assure they would serve as agents of the empire, not bending to local interests.
The Sui was also active militarily on the borders, beginning many engagements which would be carried forward by the Tang. Expeditions were sent as far south as central Vietnam, and bases were established along caravan routes to the west. Central Asian states such as Turfan were subordinated as tributary states, and nomadic peoples were pushed back out of parts of Gansu and East Turkestan. The first regular official envoys to China from Japan, the kenzuishi, were received, marking the beginning of more regular and formal court-to-court interactions between China and Japan.
Emperor Wen was succeeded by his son, Emperor Yang of Sui, in 604. Under Emperor Yang, the Sui completed the Grand Canal, linking Beijing, Luoyang, Chang'an and Kaifeng in the relatively dry north with Yangzhou and Hangzhou in the comparatively lush and agriculturally more productive south. Repeatedly unsuccessful military expeditions against the Korean kingdom of Koguryo stretched the empire's armies and budget, however, and is generally cited among the chief factors contributing to the fall of the Sui. In a word, the Sui is typically said to have overextended itself. Like the Qin Dynasty many centuries earlier, the Sui fell after only one change of emperors, and was succeeded by the Tang, headed by top-ranking Sui general Li Yuan, who forced the abdication of Emperor Yang in 617, and took the throne as Emperor Gaozu of Tang the following year.
The 48 buffer towns in 820
The Sui dynasty inherited the Twenty-four Armies from the Northern Zhou. The system of recruitment that created these armies would come to be known as fubing, or "territorial soldiery". Fubing soldiers were originally recruits drawn from the old military households of previous dynasties. Unlike the mass conscription of the Han dynasty, these soldiers were promised tangible rewards such as exemption from taxes and labor for their families. Later on, these soldiers were formed into units presiding over a plot of land on which they would farm while off duty to support themselves. At its height under the Tang dynasty, some 600 units of fubing were maintained, each with 800 to 1,200 soldiers. During the Sui dynasty, the fubing answered only to local administration, but the Tang implemented a centralized Ministry of the Army to which fubing units were answerable to. Each unit was further subdivided into battalions of 200, platoons of 50, and squads of 10. They rotated in and out of the capital for guard duty and training depending on their distance to it. Those nearest to it served one month in five, those furthest from it, two months out of every eighteen. Some men were assigned to three year tours in frontier garrisons. Deployment of the fubing units was monopolized by the court through the use of bronze tallies with the names of each unit on them. Half of the tally was kept at the Credentials Office while the other half was kept at unit headquarters. Only when the two halves were joined together could a unit be mobilized. Ώ] ΐ]
Due to the fact that they combined military service with farming, the fubing have sometimes been characterized as a “militia” by Western authors. With its connotations of low quality and ineffectiveness (especially on account of the implied contrast with a “professional” soldiery), this term is rather misleading when used in connection with the fubing. Given their life-long military service and the training they received over that period, it would be more accurate to view them as a special type of professional soldier. Α]
— David Graff
While the fubing was well suited to local conflicts and short term campaigns, its shortcomings became apparent in the late 7th century as protracted wars and the needs of permanent static defense took their toll. The initial benefits of entering the system wore off as more men died in wars in far off lands, never to return. The military structure was not suited to properly reward soldiers who performed meritorious service in battle. Many who were supposed to be rewarded and compensated were not. Families of dead soldiers were also not compensated properly, resulting in reduced morale, and widespread desertion as well as dereliction of duty. Β] The geographical distribution of fubing units was highly unevenly distributed, with the northwestern part of the empire shouldering most of the burden, while two thirds of the empire contained not even one unit of fubing. Ώ] With so many units concentrated in one region, the government found it difficult to find enough farm land for their soldiers, who also competed with regular farmers under the equal-field system. Γ]
The fubing system was gradually replaced with a standing army. First, frontier garrisons were taken over by permanent troops known as jian'er in 677. In 710, frontier forces were bolstered to withstand invasions without the help of levied troops. Nine frontier commands were established, each with their own defense army and military governor, the jiedushi. In 737, the court decided to replace irregular troops entirely with permanent soldiers, recruited from volunteers in the general population. The fubing system was abolished in 749. Δ] The shift to a permanent army resulted in a sevenfold increase in the defense budget, from two million strings of copper cash in 712 to twelve million in 742, and then fifteen million by 755. Ε]
The king of India has many troops, but they are not paid as regular soldiers instead, he summons them to fight for king and country, and they go to war at their own expense and at no cost at all to the king. In contrast, the Chinese give their troops regular pay, as the Arabs do. Ζ]
— Abu Zayd al-Hasan al-Sirafi
By 742 the frontier had been organized into ten regional military commands. Nine were headed by jiedushi. The post of jiedushi was an imperial commissionership with authority over the military, public revenue, and state lands. In essence, it was a provincial governorship. One jiedushi eventually rebelled in 755, causing the An Lushan Rebellion. Despite its defeat in 763, the number of jiedushi proliferated in response to the rebellion and had increased to approximately 40 by the end of the rebellion. The Tang court failed to reign in the northeastern jiedushi, who were functionally independent warlords, in particular and the balance of power seesawed between the two forces until the Huang Chao rebellion from 874 to 884. The Tang dynasty then collapsed. Η]
Army operation [ edit | edit source ]
According to the Tongdian (Comprehensive Canons), an expeditionary army consisted of 20,000 men in seven divisions of 2,600 or 4,000 men. Only 14,000 were actual combat troops while the rest guarded the baggage train. Of those 14,000, there were 2,000 archers, 2,000 crossbowmen, 4,000 cavalry, and the rest regular foot soldiers. Twelve thousand men were to be provided with armour. ⎖]
The basic operational tactical unit was a platoon of 50 men, fixed five ranks deep. It had five officers: commander, deputy, standard-bearer, and two color guards. For every six platoons, one guarded the baggage train. When the entire army was deployed, the troops were formed into two lines with cavalry at their flanks. Movements were communicated with drums and gongs. Drum beats to advance and gongs to halt. Directions came from five flags, each with a different color to indicate the five directions. When two flags were crossed, it signaled for the platoons to combine into a larger formation. ⎗]
The Tang army also made use of scouts on campaign. A pair of scouts were sent out for each of the four directions at different distances. Two at five li, another two at ten li, and so on until they reached 30 li. ⎗]
Military examination [ edit | edit source ]
In 702, Wu Zetian introduced military examinations for the recruitment of military officers. Examinees were tested on their skill with the bow and arrow, cavalry lance, as well as physical strength and command "presence". The imperial military exams had very little effect on the composition of the officer corps. While local military exams were administered, the final decision came down to the military governors, whose personnel appointments were routinely approved by the court. For example, at the beginning of 755, An Lushan replaced 32 Han Chinese commanders with his own barbarian favorites without any repercussions. Η]
The Grand Canal
The Grand Canal is a vast waterway system in the north-eastern and central-eastern plains of China, running from Beijing in the north to Zhejiang province in the south. Constructed in sections from the 5th century BC onwards, it was conceived as a unified means of communication for the Empire for the first time in the 7th century AD (Sui dynasty). This led to a series of gigantic construction sites, creating the world’s largest and most extensive civil engineering project prior to the Industrial Revolution. It formed the backbone of the Empire’s inland communication system, transporting grain and strategic raw materials, and supplying rice to feed the population. By the 13th century it consisted of more than 2,000 km of artificial waterways, linking five of China’s main river basins. It has played an important role in ensuring the country’s economic prosperity and stability and is still in use today as a major means of communication.
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Le Grand Canal
Ce vaste système de navigation intérieure au sein des plaines de la Chine du Nord-Est et du Centre-Est s’étend de la capitale Beijing, au nord, à la province du Zhejiang, au sud. Entrepris par secteurs dès le V e siècle av. J.-C., il fut conçu en tant que moyen de communication unifié de l’Empire à partir du VII e siècle (dynastie Sui). Cela se traduisit par une série de chantiers gigantesques, formant l’ensemble de génie civil le plus important et le plus étendu de tous les temps préindustriels. Axe vital des voies de communication intérieures de l’Empire, il assura notamment l’approvisionnement en riz des populations et les transports de matières premières stratégiques. Au XIII e siècle, il offrait un réseau unifié de navigation intérieure de plus de 2 000 km de voies d’eau artificielles reliant cinq des plus importants bassins fluviaux de l’espace chinois. Il a joué un rôle notable pour la prospérité économique et la stabilité de la Chine et reste encore aujourd’hui une importante voie d’échange intérieure.
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El Gran Canal
Se trata de un vasto sistema de conducción de aguas que recorre las planicies septentrionales y centrales del este de China siguiendo una trayectoria norte-sur, desde Beijing hasta la provincia meridional de Zhejiang. Se construyó por segmentos sucesivos a partir del siglo V a.C. y bajo el reinado de la dinastía Sui, en el siglo VII de nuestra era, se proyectó transformarlo en un medio de comunicación y transporte unificado para el conjunto del Imperio. Esto dio lugar a la realización de obras gigantescas que hicieron del Gran Canal la mayor y más vasta obra de ingeniería del mundo, antes del advenimiento de la Revolución Industrial. Auténtica espina dorsal del sistema interior de comunicación y transporte del Imperio, el canal facilitó no sólo la circulación de cereales y materias primas de gran importancia, sino también el abastecimiento de las poblaciones en arroz. En el siglo XIII comprendía ya una red de vías de agua artificiales de más de 2.000 kilómetros de longitud que enlazaban las cinco cuencas fluviales más importantes de China. El Gran Canal desempeñó en el pasado un importante papel en el fomento de la prosperidad económica y la estabilidad del país y sigue siendo, hoy en día, uno de los más importantes medios de comunicación y transporte del interior de China.
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Het Grote Kanaal
Het Grote Kanaal is een uitgestrekt waterwegsysteem in de noordoostelijke en centraal-oostelijke vlakten van China. Het loopt van Beijing in het noorden tot de provincie Zhejiang in het zuiden. Het kanaal werd vanaf de 5e eeuw voor Christus in gedeelten aangelegd en kreeg in de 7e eeuw A.D (Sui dynastie) voor het eerst de functie van gezamenlijk transport en verbindingssysteem voor het rijk. Dit leidde tot een serie gigantische bouwwerkplaatsen die samen ’s werelds grootste, meest uitgebreide burgerlijk bouwproject vormden voorafgaand aan de industriële revolutie. Het Grote Kanaal was de ruggengraat van het binnenlandse logistieke systeem waarmee graan, strategische grondstoffen en rijst voor de bevolking werden vervoerd. Rond de 13e eeuw bestond het uit meer dan 2000 kilometer kunstmatige waterwegen en verbond het vijf van China’s belangrijkste rivierbekkens. Het kanaal speelde een belangrijke rol in de zekerstelling van de economische voorspoed en stabiliteit van China en speelt ook nu nog een belangrijke rol in de interne verbindingen van het land.
Outstanding Universal Value
The Grand Canal forms a vast inland waterway system in the north-eastern and central eastern plains of China, passing through eight of the country’s present-day provinces. It runs from the capital Beijing in the north to Zhejiang Province in the south. Constructed in sections from the 5th century BC onwards, it was conceived as a unified means of communication for the Empire for the first time in the 7th century AD (Sui Dynasty). This led to a series of gigantic worksites, creating the world’s largest and most extensive civil engineering project ensemble prior to the Industrial Revolution. Completed and maintained by successive dynasties, it formed the backbone of the Empire’s inland communications system. Its management was made possible over a long period by means of the Caoyun system, the imperial monopoly for the transport of grain and strategic raw materials, and for the taxation and control of traffic. The system enabled the supply of rice to feed the population, the unified administration of the territory, and the transport of troops. The Grand Canal reached a new peak in the 13th century (Yuan Dynasty), providing a unified inland navigation network consisting of more than 2,000 km of artificial waterways, linking five of the most important river basins in China, including the Yellow River and the Yangtze. Still a major means of internal communication today, it has played an important role in ensuring the economic prosperity and stability of China over the ages.
Criterion (i): The Grand Canal represents the greatest masterpiece of hydraulic engineering in the history of mankind, because of its very ancient origins and its vast scale, along with its continuous development and its adaptation to circumstances down the ages. It provides tangible proof of human wisdom, determination and courage. It is an outstanding example of human creativity, demonstrating technical capabilities and a mastery of hydrology in a vast agricultural empire that stems directly from Ancient China.
Criterion (iii): The Grand Canal bears witness to the unique cultural tradition of canal management via the Caoyun system, its genesis, its flourishing, and its adaptations to the various dynasties and their successive capitals, and then its disappearance in the 20th century. It consisted of an imperial monopoly of the transport and storage of grain, salt and iron, and a taxation system. It contributed to the fundamental link between the peasant economy, the imperial court and the supply of food to the population and troops. It was a factor of stability for the Chinese Empire down the ages. The economic and urban development along the course of the Grand Canal bears witness to the functioning core of a great agricultural civilisation, and to the decisive role played in this respect by the development of waterway networks.
Criterion (iv): The Grand Canal is the longest and oldest canal in the world. It bears witness to a remarkable and early development of hydraulic engineering. It is an essential technological achievement dating from before the Industrial Revolution. It is a benchmark in terms of dealing with difficult natural conditions, as is reflected in the many constructions that are fully adapted to the diversity and complexity of circumstances. It fully demonstrates the technical capabilities of Eastern civilisations. The Grand Canal includes important, innovative and particularly early examples of hydraulic techniques. It also bears witness to specific know-how in the construction of dykes, weirs and bridges, and to the original and sophisticated use of materials, such as stone and rammed-earth, and the use of mixed materials (such as clay and straw).
Criterion (vi): Ever since the 7th century and through successive Chinese dynasties up to modern-day China, the Grand Canal has been a powerful factor of economic and political unification, and a place of major cultural interchanges. It has created and maintained ways of life and a culture that is specific to the people who live along the canal, whose effects have been felt by a large proportion of China’s territory and population over a long historical period. The Grand Canal is a demonstration of the ancient Chinese philosophical concept of the Great Unity, and was an essential element in the unity, complementarity and consolidation of the great agricultural empire of China down the ages.
The canal sections, the remains of hydraulic facilities, and the associated complementary and urban facilities satisfactorily and comprehensibly embody the route of the Grand Canal, its hydraulic functioning in conjunction with the natural rivers and lakes, the operation of its management system and the context of its historic uses. The geographic distribution of these attributes is sufficient to indicate the dimensions, geographic distribution of the routes, and the major historic role played by the Grand Canal in the domestic history of China. Of the 85 individual elements forming the serial property, 71 are considered to be appropriately preserved and in a state of complete integrity, with 14 in a state of lesser integrity. However, the inclusion of recently excavated archaeological elements means that it is not always possible to properly judge their contribution to the overall understanding of the Grand Canal, particularly in terms of technical operation. Furthermore, a paradoxical situation arises for the property: on the one hand, the repetitive succession of long sections of canal does not seem to make a decisive contribution to the Outstanding Universal Value on the other hand, the continuity of the course of the canal across China, and the continuity of its hydraulic systems, is not well highlighted by a discontinuous series. In conclusion, the power, complementarity and scale of testimony provided mean that the conditions of integrity of the individual sites forming the series are considered to have been met.
All the elements of the Grand Canal presented in the serial property are of satisfactory authenticity in terms of their forms and conceptions, construction materials and location. They appropriately support and express the values of the property. The functions of use in particular are present and easily recognisable in most of the elements. As an overall organisational structure, the Grand Canal sites also express great authenticity in terms of appearance and the feelings they generate in the visitor. There are however two difficulties in the presentation of the property. The first relates to the very history of certain sections of the Grand Canal and the successive dredging, deepening and widening operations they have undergone, along with the technological alterations made to associated facilities. Some of the sections presented have clearly been recently rebuilt, either in the same bed, or alongside the earlier course. The second concerns the landscapes of certain urban or suburban sections of the canal, once again from the viewpoint of a historic canal whose elements are supposed to represent the long history of China. Despite a certain number of reservations, particularly for perceived historical authenticity and the landscape authenticity of certain sections of a heritage which is moreover living and still in use, the conditions of authenticity of the series as a whole and of the individual sites have been met.
Protection and management requirements
In 2008, the List of the six key examples of the cultural heritage of China was promulgated, and includes 18 sections and 49 elements of the Grand Canal. This recognition by the Council of State gives these sites priority in protection terms. However, the legal protection in place requires various improvements and extensions. It is necessary to systematically widen the protection of the banks to include immediately adjacent elements, by extending the buffer zones along the canal.
The state of conservation is generally good, and a determined and diversified conservation policy has been carried out, to its benefit. However, greater attention should be given to: setting archaeological findings into a more critical perspective, clarifying which historical periods are actually represented by sections of the canal, and increasing the efforts made in environmental and landscape conservation.
The management system is based on several levels of responsibility. At national level, under the auspices of the State Council, the coordination of the property’s management is in the hands of the Inter-Provincial and Ministerial Consultation Group for the conservation of the Grand Canal. The group is made up of the governments of the six provinces and of the two cities with provincial status, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH), the Water Distribution Office, the Ministry of Water Resources and the other ministerial departments concerned.
The Master Plan is divided into 35 sector conservation plans, all of which have been promulgated and are being applied, up to 2030. The 2013-2015 Management Plan has led to the fine tuning of protection levels, the improvement and reinforcement of conservation, the enrichment and standardisation of management measures, the precise definition and harmonisation of buffer zone protection, and the development of short-term action plans to improve knowledge of the property.
Sui Dynasty Inventions and Accomplishment
The Sui Dynasty was a very important period in engineering and political history of China. This was a very short lived period but it left behind profound effects on the culture, political climate and how things were built. The Sui Dynasty ruled only from 581-618AD but had a huge impact on China and the world.
The Sui Dynasty united China and invented the Grand Canal in China that connected the north and south provinces. This improved trade and communication.
The Sui Dynasty also invented Block Printing which was used into the early 19th century as a means of typesetting. Block printing as a type set reduced the number of workers that it took to produce printed works.
The block printing invention was created to print poetry because this dynasty is well known for appreciating the arts like literature, poetry and music.
During the Sui Dynasty the first evidence of porcelain appeared. While some scholars argue that porcelain was a material that was developed over time there are others that point to Tao-Yue an industrious young man that sold the porcelain figures as “artificial jade” as the inventor of porcelain. Porcelain is made by combining different clays and is sometimes referred to as “fine China.”
In any case porcelain has long been associated with the Sui Dynasty era as an invention of that period.
The Grand Canal
The Sui Dynasty by far can hang their hat on creating a canal system to unite China for trade purposes thanks to the invention of the Grand Canal. For many centuries after the Sui Dynasty fell the canal was under construction, constantly being added to, widened and repaired.
The Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China was constructed long before the Sui Dynasty to keep the Mongolians out but was crumbling in disrepair. The Sui Dynasty set about to refurbish and strengthen the great wall. Over 15,000 towers were constructed and years of labor began.
The Great Wall of China is the largest man made structure still today and the only structure that can be seen from space. Thousands of people lost their lives do the grueling work many of whom are still buried in the wall.
The Sui Dynasty is also credited with building granaries around the capital city to provide the people with a cheap, nutritional source of food. They also stabilized the economy and invented coin denominations that were universal throughout China.